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Sample records for sugarcane growth pythium

  1. Exploitation of Trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli.

    Muthukumar, A; Eswaran, A; Sanjeevkumas, K

    2011-10-01

    Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic effects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3) performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli. PMID:24031794

  2. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime;

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reduci...

  3. Sugarcane Response to Water-Deficit Stress during Early Growth on Organic and Sand Soils

    Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on sand soils in south Florida, USA. Sugarcane yields in the region linearly increased in last 33 years on organic (muck) soils, but not on sand soils. Water deficit during the formative growth phase on sand soils probably limits sugarcane yie...

  4. Isolation of growth inhibitors of the snow rot pathogen Pythium iwayamai from an arctic strain of Trichoderma polysporum.

    Kamo, Miyu; Tojo, Motoaki; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Itabashi, Takeshi; Takeda, Hisashi; Wakana, Daigo; Hosoe, Tomoo

    2016-06-01

    Growth inhibitors were isolated from an arctic strain of Trichoderma polysporum, and the structures were elucidated and the in vitro inhibitory effects of these compounds against Pythium iwayamai were investigated. Eleven compounds were isolated; four showed a concentration-dependent growth-inhibitory effect against P. iwayamai. None of these compounds have been reported previously as substances with antimicrobial activity against P. iwayamai. One of these four compounds inhibited the growth of the pathogen at 33 μg ml(-1) concentration during a 15-day incubation at 20 °C. This effect was comparable to that of chloroneb (1: 1,4-dichloro-2,5-dimethoxybenzene), a fungicide with activity against P. iwayamai. Thus, the results of the present study show that the arctic strain of T. polysporum can be an effective source of antibiotics with activity against the snow rot pathogen, P. iwayamai. PMID:26732257

  5. Endophytic bacteria affect sugarcane physiology without changing plant growth

    Fernanda Castro Correia Marcos; Raquel de Paula Freitas Iório; Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Eduardo Caruso Machado; Ana Maria Magalhães Andrade Lagôa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate if endophytic bacteria inoculants would be beneficial to the sugarcane varieties IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000, promoting changes in photosynthesis and plant growth. The plants, obtained from mini stalks with one bud, were treated with two bacteria mixtures (inoculum I or II) or did not receive any inoculum (control plants). The inocula did not affect shoot and root dry matter accumulation as compared to the control condition (plants with native ...

  6. Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce

    Liliane De Diana Teixeira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3, cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5 e quatro ao grupo T (T1 a T4 de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia.Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3, whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5 and four to group T (T1-T4 of Pythium. The identification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40

  7. Sugarcane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    In order to increase crop water use efficiency, a field study in northern Ivory Coast on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou. The can crop tested was Co 449, an early-maturing genotype of Indian origin. This experiment was conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop (from November, 1991 to December, 1992) first ratoon crop (from December, 1992 to January, 1994) and as second ratoon crop (from January, 1994 to January, 1995). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of plots 54 m2. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratton crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugarcane growth and yield decline owing to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to that during tillering. As a result, the sugarcane crop tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering (assuming that the crop is successfully established) for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency. (author). 15 refs

  8. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a sugarcane endophyte, produces antifungal compounds and induces root growth.

    Léia Cecilia de Lima Fávaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this

  9. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BENOMYL E PCNB SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO RADIAL DE Fusarium solani E Pythium sp., IN VITRO EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BENOMYL AND PCNB ON THE RADIAL GROWTH OF Fusarium solani AND Pythium sp. IN VITRO

    Luciana Peliz Machado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os experimentos foram realizado nas dependências do Laboratório de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no ano de 1997. Os fungos Fusarium e Pythium sp. foram cultivados em meio de cultura artificial contendo benomyl e PCNB nas concentrações de 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. Os crescimentos radiais dos fungos demonstraram que o benomyl foi eficiente contra o Fusarium, mas não surtiu efeito contra o Pythium, fato este também observado em relação ao PCNB. Este produto, embora menos eficiente, reduziu em mais de 50% o crescimento radial de Fusarium, obtendo uma redução progressiva com o aumento da concentração.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; quintozene.

    The experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Escola de Agronomia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás, in the year of 1997. The fungi Fusarium moniliforme and Pythium sp. were treated in cultural medium with benomyl and PCNB in the concentrations of 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. The radial growth of the fungi demonstrated that benomyl was efficient against Fusarium, but not against Pythium sp. The same was also observed with PCNB. Although less efficient than benomyl, this product reduced radial growth of Fusarium in more than 50%. The increase of PCNB concentration reduced Fusarium growth progressively.

    KEY-WORDS: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; PCNB.

  10. Soil physical properties and sugarcane root growth in a red oxiso

    José Euripides Baquero

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, which involves the use of agricultural machinery in all crop stages, from soil preparation to harvest, is currently one of the most relevant crops for agribusiness in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to investigate soil physical properties and root growth in a eutroferric red Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico after different periods under sugarcane. The study was carried out in a cane plantation in Rolândia, Paraná State, where treatments consisted of a number of cuts (1, 3, 8, 10 and 16, harvested as green and burned sugarcane, at which soil bulk density, macro and microporosity, penetration resistance, as well as root length, density and area were determined. Results showed that sugarcane management practices lead to alterations in soil penetration resistance, bulk density and porosity, compared to native forest soil. These alterations in soil physical characteristics impede the full growth of the sugarcane root system beneath 10 cm, in all growing seasons analyzed.

  11. Nutrient composition of spent wash and its impact on sugarcane growth and biochemical attributes

    Jain, Radha; Srivastava, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient composition of crude and digested spent wash and effect of their application on sugarcane growth and biochemical attributes were studied. Higher concentrations of essential nutrients (P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) were present in crude spent wash (CSW) as compared to the digested spent wash (DSW); sulphur content was the highest (765 μg ml−1 in DSW and 1,609 μg ml−1 in CSW) among all nutrients analyzed. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid cultivar CoLk 8102)...

  12. Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1

    Quecine, M. C.; Araújo, W. L.; Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J.L.; PIZZIRANI-KLEINER A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and ae...

  13. Sugarcane Initial Growth with Vinasse Application in Latosol under Gradual Aluminum Stress

    Marques Viglio, Larissa; Leal Varanda, Leticia; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Casagrande, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    One of the strategies for overcoming the high acidity of soils and the consequent toxicity of aluminum (Al) is based on the use of varieties adapted to these conditions. In Brazil, the application of vinasse is routine practice in the cultivation of sugarcane due to its fertilizing effect, mainly because of high potassium content. However, the vinasse may also attenuate the toxic effects of Al in the soil by forming complexes with low molecular weight organic acids providing greater depth of the root of sugarcane. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of vinasse on the initial growth of three cultivars of sugarcane (RB855453, RB966928 and RB867515), as well as its influence on root depth in a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Typic Hapludox) with gradient of saturation by Al. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in totally randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications. Seedlings of sugarcane were transplanted to PVC columns 0.8 m high, built by stacking four rings (0.2 m high), filled with soil samples, which offered an increasing gradient of saturation by Al (m%) at depth (0-0.2 m (m% = 0,7); 0.2-0.4 m (m% = 7,9); 0.4-0.6 m (m %= 40.8); 0.6-0.8 m (m%= 62.6)). The collection of the experiment was conducted 120 days after planting, with the determination of the stalk diameter (DC), plant height (ALT), leaf nutrient content, dry matter of the aerial part (MSPA) and dry matter of the root system (MSSR). Cultivars of sugarcane and the application of vinasse had effect on DC and the MSSR. Cultivar RB867515 showed higher DC than in other cultivars, with 20.8 mm. The increase of MSSR by sugarcane cultivars varied due to depth. There were no effects of sugarcane cultivars and vinasse application in MSPA. The vinasse application resulted in plants with higher ALT. With the exception of the foliar content of Fe, the N, Ca, Mg, S and Mn content were below those considered appropriate for sugarcane. Unlike other cultivars, the application

  14. Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva; John Lonfover Jifon; Claudiana Moura dos Santos; Cleber Junior Jadoski; Jorge Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-776 (drought susceptible) and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant). Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit). At 0,30 and 60 days after t...

  15. Chemical response of Picea glehnii seed-epiphytic Penicillium species to Pythium vexans under in vitro competitive conditions for mycelial growth.

    Yamaji, Keiko; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Tahara, Satoshi

    2005-04-01

    The potential protection of Picea glehnii seedlings from damping-off by seed-epiphytic Penicillium species was investigated. We studied the chemical response of seed-epiphytic Penicillium species (Pen. cyaneum, Pen. damascenum, and Pen. implicatum) to Pythium vexans, a damping-off fungus, in vitro. Penicillium species were cultured singly or cocultured with Pyt. vexans for 14 or 18 d, and mycelial growth, pH of culture filtrate, antifungal activity of the culture filtrate against Pyt. vexans, and the amount of antifungal compound produced by each Penicillium species, were examined. The filtrate of both the single culture of Penicillium and the coculture of Penicillium and Pyt. vexans showed antifungal activity against Pyt. vexans. In a coculture with Pyt. vexans, Pen. cyaneum produced an antifungal compound (patulin) as in the single culture. Pen. damascenum cocultured with Pyt. vexans produced an antifungal compound (citrinin), as it did in the single culture and in larger amounts on day 10. Pen. implicatum produced two antifungal compounds, frequentin and palitantin, and the ratio of frequentin (with higher antifungal activity than palitantin) to palitantin was higher in the coculture with Pyt. vexans than in the single culture. Our results indicate that these Penicillium species have the ability to produce antifungal compounds and to keep anti-fungal activity under competitive condition with Pyt. vexans. The chemical response of these Penicillium species to Pyt. vexans may contribute to protect P. glehnii seedlings from damage by Pyt. vexans. PMID:16124252

  16. Feasibility of growth and nutrition of Dieffenbachia amoena \\\\\\'Tropic Snow\\\\\\' in pot growth-medium amended with sugarcane bagasse vermicompost

    A. Mahboub Khomami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, introduction of conversion technologies to solve environmental problems in accumulation of sugarcane bagasse, as an alternative to peat, in the ornamental plants industry seems necessary. For this purpose, in an experiment, the effects of substitution of sugarcane bagasse + cow manure vermicompost with peat in 60% peat + 30% vermiculite + 10% perlite medium were examined on growth and nutrition of Dieffenbachia amoena ornamental plant. After production of the vermicompost, rooted cuttings of the plants were cultivated in the control medium (containing 60% peat + 30% vermiculite + 10% perlite and the media in which 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% of vermicompost was replaced with peat in control medium. Factors such as plant height, diameter, fresh and dry weights of shoots and leaves, fresh and dry weights of roots, leaf area, and nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in plants and substrates were measured. Physical properties of the substrates including aerial porosity, water holding capacity, total porosity and bulk density were measured too. Results showed that increasing the level of vermicompost + sugarcane bagasse had a significant effect on nitrogen and potassium content of leaves, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of the substrates. The highest amounts of these elements were measured at 60% vermicompost + bagasse treatment. The substrate containing 60% vermicompost + sugarcane bagasse had maximum plant height (15.91 cm, diameter (9.53 mm, fresh weight of stem and leaf (158.91 g, dry weight of stem and leaf (33.99 g, dry weight of root (25.87 g and leaf area (2680.5 cm². Based on the results, vermicomposting of sugarcane bagasse is in accordance with the environment, and can be used in the growing media for production of flowers and plants.

  17. Expected growth of sugarcane industry and impact on the Brazilian economy: 2015 and 2020

    Costa, Cinthia Cabral da; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane sector in Brazil has been achieving large increases in production since the beginning of the 2000s, owing to the deregulation of its two main products: sugar and ethanol. This growth has been driven more by the ethanol production, which grew at a rate of 13% per annum (between 2000 and 2009), than by sugar, which grew at an annual rate of 8% over the same period. Nevertheless, instability in the supply of ethanol is still a problem in the industry. Structural changes, such as th...

  18. Unsteady-state transfer of impurities during crystal growth of sucrose in sugarcane solutions

    Martins, P. M.; Ferreira, A.; Polanco, S.; Rocha, F.; Damas, A. M.; Rein, P.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we present growth rate data of sucrose crystals in the presence of impurities that can be used by both sugar technologists and crystal growth scientists. Growth rate curves measured in a pilot-scale evaporative crystallizer suggest a period of slow growth that follows the seeding of crystals into supersaturated technical solutions. The observed trend was enhanced by adding typical sugarcane impurities such as starch, fructose or dextran to the industrial syrups. Maximum growth rates of sucrose resulted at intermediate rather than high supersaturation levels in the presence of the additives. The effects of the additives on the sucrose solubility and sucrose mass transfer in solution were taken into account to explain the observed crystal growth kinetics. A novel mechanism was identified of unsteady-state adsorption of impurities at the crystal surface and their gradual replacement by the crystallizing solute towards the equilibrium occupation of the active sites for growth. Specifically designed crystallization experiments at controlled supersaturation confirmed this mechanism by showing increasing crystal growth rates with time until reaching a steady-state value for a given supersaturation level and impurity content.

  19. Software tools that facilitate kinetic modelling with large data sets: an example using growth modelling in sugarcane.

    Uys, L; Hofmeyr, J H S; Snoep, J L; Rohwer, J M

    2006-09-01

    A solution to manage cumbersome data sets associated with large modelling projects is described. A kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugarcane is used to predict changes in sucrose metabolism with sugarcane internode maturity. This results in large amounts of output data to be analysed. Growth is simulated by reassigning maximal activity values, specific to each internode of the sugarcane plant, to parameter attributes of a model object. From a programming perspective, only one model definition file is required for the simulation software used; however, the amount of input data increases with each extra interrnode that is modelled, and likewise the amount of output data that is generated also increases. To store, manipulate and analyse these data, the modelling was performed from within a spreadsheet. This was made possible by the scripting language Python and the modelling software PySCeS through an embedded Python interpreter available in the Gnumeric spreadsheet program. PMID:16986323

  20. Effects of Mechanical Harvesting on Sugarcane Stubble Quality and Growth of Ratoon

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted with the traditional manual harvesting and mechanical harvesting of sugarcane,to compare the effects of different harvesting method on the sugarcane stubble quality and the growth of ratoon.The experimental results are as follows.(i) The stubble height and breaking stubble rate of mechanical harvesting was significantly higher than manual harvesting,the stubble height of lodging species and difficult defoliation species increased in mechanical harvesting condition.Varieties with higher levels of fiber had lower rate of broken stubble.(ii) The effects of mechanical harvesting on germination of next year ratoon were quite different due to different varieties,indicating that the better perennial species have less impact than the poor perennial species.(iii) Compared with manual harvesting,mechanical harvesting had slightly higher plant height and single-stem weight and less effective stems number,the difference of cane yield was not significant,but sucrose content increased 0.53%.(iv) Mechanical harvesting combining with leaves crushing could reduce the impact on the germination of ratoon,improve the single-stem weight and increase the effective number of stems.

  1. Sugarcane growth and physiological responses to water deficit stress on organic and sand soils

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotype selection has been more successful for organic (muck) than sand soils in Florida, perhaps due to differences in water availability. A greenhouse study was conducted at Canal Point, Florida to compare sugarcane physiological responses to water deficit stress during...

  2. Weed-crop competition effects on growth and yield of sugarcane planted using two methods

    Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check (full season weed-crop competition) were randomized in sub-plots. Sugarcane sown by trench method exhibited more leaf area index (LAI), average crop growth rate (ACGR) and yield contributing attributes. Trench sowing by yielding 72.22 and 75.08 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields, significantly showed superiority over the flat sowing, which gave 64.13 and 66.04 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields in 2005-06 and 2006- 07, respectively. Generally, there was an increase in weed population and biomass but decrease in leaf area index, crop growth rate and yield components with an increase in weed-crop competition period. A decrease of 10.06, 17.90, 22.42, 28.65, 37.64 and 56.89% in stripped cane yield was observed for weed-crop competition periods of 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 DAS and weedy check as compared with zero competition in 2005-06, respectively. In 2006-07, the respective decrease in stripped cane yield was 9.84, 18.76, 22.92, 27.98, 38.75, and 54.98%. Trench sowing at 1.2 m row spacing proved better sowing technique and 45 DAS was the critical period of weed-crop competition. (author)

  3. The Potential Growth of Sugarcane in Constructed Wetlands Designed for Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater

    Dina M. R. Mateus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the bioenergy crop Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane as vegetation and mineral wastes for filling in constructed wetlands (CWs designed for the removal of nutrients from wastewater. Four horizontal subsurface flow pilot-scale CWs were monitored during one year: two filled with fragmented limestone and two with clay brick fragments, two planted and two unplanted controls. Sugarcane stalk height, diameter and foliar area were evaluated during the plant-cane cycle along with total phosphorus (TP and total nitrogen (TN removal efficiencies from the wastewater. Sugarcane biomass production was 107 ton/ha for the brick fragments filled CW and 67 ton/ha for the fragmented limestone filled CW. Planted CWs show better nutrient removal efficiencies than the unplanted. Planted CW filled with brick fragments show average efficiencies of 77% ± 4% for TP and 60% ± 12% for TN, and planted CW filled with fragmented limestone 68% ± 3% for TP and 58% ± 7% for TN. Results showed that the use of sugarcane as CW vegetation is a viable alternative to produce a bioethanol raw-material without the use of arable land and irrigation water, while it maintains the wastewater treatment capabilities of CWs.

  4. 寡雄腐霉发酵液对烤烟的促生及防黑胫病效应分析%Effect of Pythium oligandrum broth on growth promotion and black shank control of flue-cured tobacco

    贾瑞莲; 耿明明; 李艳; 段玉琪; 杜如万; 吴叶宽; 黄建国

    2016-01-01

    为了研制高效、无毒、成本低廉的生物农药,安全有效地防治烟草黑胫病,利用自主分离的寡雄腐霉生防菌株(Pythium oligandrum CQ2010)制备发酵液(Pythium oligandrum broth,POB),通过拮抗、盆栽和田间试验研究了POB对烤烟生长和黑胫病的防治效果,以及对小鼠的急性毒性.拮抗试验表明,POB能显著抑制离体烟草黑胫病菌的菌丝生长和孢子萌发.在盆栽试验中,POB能显著提高烟草叶片叶绿素含量(质量分数),增强烟株根系活力,增加烤烟对氮、磷、钾的吸收,促进烟苗生长,生物量比对照提高58.91%,效果优于寡雄腐霉卵孢子制剂.POB还能激活烟草叶片中与抗病性相关酶如过氧化物酶和过氧化氢酶的活性,诱导烟株产生抗病性反应,有利于消除活性氧和过氧化氢,使病害减轻.烤烟幼苗接种黑胫病菌后,施用POB使烟株发病率下降42.95%~65.77%,相对防治效果达到46.99%~57.32%,并显著降低烟草叶片中丙二醛含量,减轻病原菌对细胞膜的伤害.在田间试验中,POB对烟草黑胫病的防治效果达47.91%,烟叶产量提高44.47%,产值增加36.33%.小鼠急性毒性试验表明,用POB大剂量灌胃给药对小鼠体质量无显著影响,供试小鼠外观和行为均无异常,心、肝、肾、肺等器官未见病理改变.因此,POB能有效防治烟草黑胫病,促进烟株生长,提高烟叶产量和产值,且对动物安全无毒.%In order to develop efficient, nontoxic and cost-effective bio-control agents against tobacco black shank, antagonism, pot and field experiments were carried out to study the effects of fermentation broth produced from a self-isolated Pythium oligandrum (strain CQ2010) on the growth and control of black shank for flue-cured tobacco, and its acute toxicity to mice. The results of antagonism experiment indicated that Pythium oligandrum broth (POB) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination of in vitro Phytophora nicotiana

  5. Pythium kandovanense sp. nov., a fungus-like eukaryotic micro-organism (Stramenopila, Pythiales) isolated from snow-covered ryegrass leaves.

    Chenari Bouket, Ali; Arzanlou, Mahdi; Tojo, Motoaki; Babai-Ahari, Asadollah

    2015-08-01

    Pythiumkandovanense sp. nov. (ex-type culture CCTU 1813T = OPU 1626T = CBS 139567T) is a novel oomycete species isolated from Lolium perenne with snow rot symptoms in a natural grassland in East-Azarbaijan province, Iran. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-rDNA, coxI and coxII mitochondrial genes clustered our isolates in Pythium group E as a unique, well supported clade. Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. is phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the other closely related species in this clade, namely Pythium rostratifingens and Pythium rostratum. Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. can be distinguished from these two species by its cylindrical sporangia and lower temperatures for optimum and maximum growth rate. The development of zoospores released through a shorter discharge tube is an additional morphological feature which can be used to differentiate Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. from Pythium rostratifingens. Laboratory inoculation tests demonstrated the pathogenicity of Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. to L. perenne under wet cold (0-3 °C) conditions. PMID:25933619

  6. Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-776 (drought susceptible and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant. Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit. At 0,30 and 60 days after the treatment, gas exchange variables were evaluated for their relationship with water use, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. The SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential and relative water content in the leaves were also analyzed. The genotype HoCP93-776 was more sensitive to drought treatment as indicated by the significantly lower values of SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential (Ψw and relative water content (RWC variables. The genotype TCP02-4587 had higher water potential, stomatal control efficiency, water use efficiency (WUE, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEintr, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. The highest air vapor pressure deficit during the drought conditions could be due to the stomatal closing in the HoCP93-776, which contributed to its lower photosynthetic capacity.

  7. Growth of sugarcane under high input conditions in tropical Australia. 1. Radiation use, biomass accumulation and partitioning

    There is little detailed information on yield accumulation in sugarcane under high-input conditions, which can be used to quantify the key physiological parameters contributing to yield variation. Sugarcane is grown under plant and ratoon crop conditions. This study analysed canopy development, radiation interception and biomass accumulation of two contrasting cultivars of sugarcane under irrigation during the same season under plant and ratoon crop conditions. Over the 15 month season, 11 crop samplings were conducted. Biomass partitioning to stalk was also measured to determine to what extent differences in partitioning between cultivars under ratoon and plant crop conditions contribute to differential productivity. The key findings were: (1) The ratoon crop accumulated biomass more quickly than the plant crop during the first 100 days of growth due to higher stalk number, faster canopy development and greater radiation interception. For similar reasons, cultivar Q138 had higher early biomass production than cultivar Q117 in the plant crop, (2) Early differences in biomass accumulation due to crop class became negligible at about 220 days because maximum RUE of the plant crop (1.72 +/- 0.01 g MJ-1) was 8% higher than in the first ratoon crop (1.59 +/- 0.08 g MJ-1). The higher maximum RUE in the plant crop was consistent with a higher crop growth rate (35.1 +/- 2.3 versus 31.0 +/- 3.4 g m-2 d-1) during the Linear phase of biomass accumulation. (3) Biomass accumulation, which ceased about 300 days after planting/ratooning and 140 days before final harvest, attained similar levels of 53-58 t ha-1 in all four crops. (4) The plateau in biomass was associated with loss of live millable stalks, and not a cessation in the growth rate of individual stalks. The crops continued to intercept radiation while on the biomass plateau, so that average RUEs at final harvest were much lower than the maximum values. (5) There was no effect of crop class or cultivar on the fraction

  8. Effects of piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from the venom of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, on Pythium ultimum Trow growth in vitro and the application of piperideine alkaloids to control cucumber..

    Pythium ultimum Trow is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical seed treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, the venom alkaloids from red imported fire ant were tested against P. ultimum in vitro and to ...

  9. Materials for Pythium Flora of Japan (III) Pythium aristosporum from rhizosphere soil of zoysia green

    ICHITANI, Takio; KINOSHITA, Tomio

    1990-01-01

    Several isolates of Pythium aristosporum Vanterpool were obtained from rhizosphere soil of a golf green. One of the isolates is described and illustrated, and its morphological pecuriarities are discussed from a morphological point of view.

  10. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann Carvalho; Hélia Harumi Sato

    2011-01-01

    Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and co...

  11. Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane: isolation of the causal bacterium.

    Davis, M J; Gillaspie, A G; Harris, R W; Lawson, R H

    1980-12-19

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by both strains. PMID:17817853

  12. For assessing yields under extreme climatic events using crop simulation models: aerosol layer effects on growth and yield of wheat, rice, and sugarcane

    Kalra, Naveen; Chakraborty, D.; Sahoo, R. N.; Sehgal, V. K.; Singh, Manish

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol presence reduces sunshine hours and the amount of radiation received. The extent of reduction in radiation during this extreme event (January-March 1999) was relatively lower, as the extent of the diffused radiation increases. During this time, the reduction ranged from 5-12%. The differential response of the crops (wheat, rice and sugarcane) under changed proportion of direct and diffused radiation due to haze was seen through using crop simulation models (WTGROWS for wheat, DSSAT for rice and sugarcane). The growing conditions were optimal. Regions chosen for simulation were north-west India for wheat, coastal and southern regions for rice and north-eastern, western and southern regions for sugarcane. Simulation results were obtained in terms of phenology, biomass and economic yield at harvest. There was slight reduction in the yield of these three crops due to reduction in the radiation, but coupled weather changes (lowering of temperature, etc.) due to cloudy condition could benefit the crops through phenology modifications and other crop process activities, which can some times give higher yields of crops under the aerosol layer when compared to no haze layer situation. Diffused radiation is more photo-synthetically active, and this feature has still to be included in most of the existing crop growth models, as the existing crop models do not differentiate between direct and diffused radiation. The scope of using remote sensing for assessing the haze layer (spatial and temporal extent) could be employed in the crop simulation models for regional impact analysis.

  13. Soil change induced by the application of biodigested vinasse concentrate, and its effects on growth of sugarcane

    Juliana Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse (or stillage is a byproduct from ethanol production, which contains organic matter, K, N, and other plant nutrients that is regularly used as soil fertilizer. However, high transportation costs limits its application in areas far from distilleries. The possibility of biogas production from vinasse, and the direct or indirect advantages of its use, is a way to reduce costs due to its concentration. Biodigested vinasse concentrate (BVC is an alkaline product that is very different from common vinasse. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of BVC with common vinasse (CV or KCl, with or without N fertilization, on soil fertility and growth and nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. plants. Plants were grown in pots containing Oxisol under different treatments and maintained for 60 d under greenhouse conditions; variables related to soil fertility, plant growth, and mineral nutrition were evaluated. It was observed that adding BVC induces higher soil pH (5.9 to 6.3 and lower potential acidity (13 to 10 mmol c dm-3 compared with KCl, and similar soil chemical changes to CV addition. Plants fertilized with BVC and N showed lower root dry matter (DM (4.02 g compared with those fertilized with KCl and CV (6.3 and 5.44 g, respectively. Plants fertilized with BVC have similar total DM (18.25 and 20.31 g accumulation and nutritional conditions compared with those fertilized with CV and KCl. Plants fertilized with BVC had the highest Na accumulation (0.36 and 0.48 g plant-1.

  14. The Effect of Hot Water Treatment and Dose Trichoderma sp. to Plant Tissue of Seedling Growth from Bud Chips of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum

    Haryuni -

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum is a high-value economical crops, only grows in tropical climates of Java and parts of Sumatra. Ratoon stunting disease (RSD is a vascular disease in sugarcane which its visual symptoms is difficult to detect. The disease has spread across the sugarcane plantations in Indonesia with the percentage of attacks 10-100%.  The use of buds chips treatment of seedling plant is an act of reducing pathogen development. The research effect of hot water treatment / HWT (0, 30, 60, and 90 min and dose application of Trichoderma sp. (0, 25, and 50 g using 864 varieties, is designed with a completely randomized factorial design. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. able to infect the roots and stems of seedling age 3 months, part of plant tissue increase of protein  and proline content,  decrease of glucose content  so that increase resistance and health in the growth of sugarcane seedling before planting in the land.Tanaman tebu (Saccharum officinarum adalah tanaman yang bernilai ekonomi tinggi, hanya tumbuh di daerah beriklim tropis terutama di Jawa dan sebagian Sumatra. Penyakit ratoon stunting disease (RSD merupakan penyakit pembuluh pada tebu yang sulit dideteksi gejala visualnya. Penyakit tersebut telah tersebar di seluruh pertanaman tebu di Indonesia dengan presentase serangan mencapai 10-100%. Penggunaan bahan tanam benih asal mata tunas (bud chip dapat mengurangi perkembangan patogen. Penelitian pengaruh waktu perendaman air panas (0, 30, 60, dan 90 menit dan aplikasi dosis jamur Trichoderma sp (0, 25, dan 50 g terhadap pertumbuhan benih tebu klon 864, dirancang dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jamur Trichoderma sp mampu menginfeksi bagian akar dan batang benih umur 3 bulan, pada bagian jaringan tanaman terjadi peningkatan kadar protein dan prolin serta penurunan kadar glukosa sehingga meningkatkan ketahanan dan kesehatan pada pertumbuhan awal benih tebu

  15. Proline Accumulation, Photosynthetic Abilities and Growth Characters of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Plantlets in Response to Iso-Osmotic Salt and Water-Deficit Stress

    Suriyan Cha-um; Chalennpol Kirdmanee

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of sugarcane to iso-osmotic salt and water-deficit stress. Disease-free sugarcane plantlets derived from meristem cuttings were photo-autotrophically grown in MS media and subsequently exposed to-0.23 (control), -0.67 or -1.20 Mpa iso-osmotic NaCI (salt stress) or mannitol (water-deficit stress). Chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), total carotenoids (Cx+c), maximum quantum yield of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm), photon yield of PSⅡ(φPSⅡ), stomatal conductance(Gs)and transpiration rate(E)in the stressed plantlets were significantly reduced when compared to those of plantlets of the control group (without mannitol or NaCI), leading to net-photosynthetic rate (Pn) and growth reduction with positive correlation. In addition, physiological changes and growth parameters of plantlets in the salt stress conditions were more sharply reduced than those in water-deficit stress conditions. On the other hand, the proline content and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the leaves of stressed plantlets increased significantly, especially in response to iso-osmotic salt stress. The chlorophyll pigments in iso-osmotic stressed leaves were significantly degraded (r2=0.93), related to low water oxidation (r2=0.87), low net-photosynthetic rate (r2=0.81), and growth reduction (r2=0.97). The multivariate biochemical, physiological and growth parameters in the present study should be further used to develop salt, or drought, tolerance indices in sugarcane breeding programs.

  16. Pesticidal activity of metal oxide nanoparticles on plant pathogenic isolates of Pythium.

    Zabrieski, Zac; Morrell, Elliot; Hortin, Joshua; Dimkpa, Christian; McLean, Joan; Britt, David; Anderson, Anne

    2015-08-01

    CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have antimicrobial effects that could lead to formulations as pesticides for agriculture or medicine. The responses of two soil-borne plant pathogenic Pythium isolates to the NPs were studied to determine the potential of these metal oxide NPs as pesticides. Growth of the P. ultimum isolate was more sensitive to CuO NPs than the P. aphanidermatum isolate. Growth in liquid medium with CuO NPs eliminated culturability whereas exposure to ZnO NPs resulted in stasis with growth resuming on transfer to medium lacking NPs. The citrate in the medium used for the growth assays was involved in enhanced release of the toxic metals from the NPs. Both CuO and ZnO NPs affected processes involved in Fe uptake. The NPs reduced levels of Fe-chelating siderophore-like metabolites produced by Pythium hyphae. CuO NPs inhibited, but ZnO NPs increased, ferric reductase activity detected at the mycelial surface. These findings illustrate that the toxicity of the metal oxide NPs towards Pythium was influenced by the medium, especially by the presence of a metal chelator. Environmental factors are likely to alter the pesticide potential of the metal oxide NPs when formulated for agricultural use in soils. PMID:26076749

  17. Seasonal Variation of the Canopy Structure Parameters and Its Correlation with Yield-Related Traits in Sugarcane

    Jun Luo; Youxiong Que; Hua Zhang; Liping Xu

    2013-01-01

    Population structure determines sugarcane yield, of which canopy structure is a key component. To fully understand the relations between sugarcane yield and parameters of the canopy structure, 17 sugarcane varieties were investigated at five growth stages. The results indicated that there were significant differences between characterized parameters among sugarcane populations at different growth stages. During sugarcane growth after planting, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf distribution (LD) ...

  18. Growth at elevated CO2 delays the adverse effects of drought stress on leaf photosynthesis of the C4 sugarcane

    Sugarcane was grown in sunlit greenhouses at 360 and 720 ppm CO2, and drought was imposed for 13 days on 4-month old plants. Leaf CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activity of Rubisco were marginally affected by high CO2 but were reduced by drought, whereas activity of PEP carboxylase was reduced by high ...

  19. Biological nitrogen fixation is not a major contributor to the nitrogen demand of a commercially growth South African sugarcane cultivar

    Hoefsloot, G.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Watt, D.A.; Cramer, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    It has previously been reported that endophytic diazotrophic bacteria contribute significantly to the nitrogen budgets of some graminaceous species. In this study the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to the N-budget of a South African sugarcane cultivar was evaluated using 15N natural ab

  20. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  1. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive) and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  2. Phenazines and biosurfactants interact in the biological control of soil-borne diseases caused by Pythium spp.

    Perneel, Maaike; D'hondt, Liesbet; De Maeyer, Katrien; Adiobo, Amayana; Rabaey, Korneel; Höfte, Monica

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the putative role of phenazines and rhamnolipid-biosurfactants, antagonistic metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PNA1, was tested in the biological control of Pythium splendens on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) and Pythium myriotylum on cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium L Schott). A rhamnolipid-deficient and a phenazine-deficient mutant of PNA1 were used either separately or jointly in plant experiments. When the mutants were applied separately, no disease-suppressive effect was observed, although both mutants still produced one of the antagonistic compounds (phenazines or rhamnolipids). When the mutants were concurrently introduced in the soil, the biocontrol activity was restored to wild-type levels. Bean seeds developed significantly less pre-emergence damping-off caused by P. splendens when treated with a mixture of purified phenazine-1-carboxamide and rhamnolipids than with any of the chemicals alone. When phenazines and rhamnolipids were combined at concentrations that had no observable effects when the metabolites were applied separately, mycelial growth of P. myriotylum was significantly reduced. In addition, microscopic analysis revealed substantial vacuolization and disintegration of Pythium hyphae after incubation in liquid medium amended with both metabolites. Results of this study indicate that phenazines and biosurfactants are acting synergistically in the control of Pythium spp. PMID:18237310

  3. Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma

    Katya da Silva Patekoski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during

  4. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans in sugarcane plantations

    Paulo H.D. Cançado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology and ecology of the stable fly, including larval habitats and their reproduction sites is extremely important for further development of control programs. This paper aims to report the occurrence and development of S. calcitrans larvae inside sugarcane stems in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane stems give protection against bad weather conditions and insecticide application. In this way, for sustainable sugarcane growth specific research concerning this situation should be conducted.

  5. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  6. Reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar Growth regulators in the development and productivity of sugarcane

    Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar, resultantes da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no iníco da safra. Ostratamentos consistiram na aplicação de três reguladores vegetais inibidores de crescimento - sulfometuron metil, glifosato e compostos de radicais carboxílicos orgânicos + glifosato - e na maturação natural como testemunha, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Os maturadores retardam o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas, sem afetar o número e o diâmetro de colmos na colheita, e influenciam de forma e intensidade distintas a ocorrência do florescimento e chochamento. O glifosato proporciona elevados índices de brotação lateral e prejudica a rebrota da soqueira. Os maturadores induzem o aumento do teor de açúcares redutores totais, o que contribui para a melhoria da qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar.The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane, due to plant regulators application at the cropping season beginning. The treatments consisted of three plant growth inhibitors - sulfometuron methyl, glyphosate, and compounds of organic carboxilic radicals + glyphosate - and natural ripening as control, in a randomized block design with five replicates. The ripeners hold up the growth process of plant height, without affecting the number and diameter of stems at harvest, however they influence, in different intensities and ways, the flowering and pith process. Glyphosate provide the largest index of bud sprouting and damage of regrowth of the ratoon cane. The ripeners induce increase in sugar reducer total contents, contributing for the improvement in technological quality of sugarcane.

  7. Sugarcane Pernicious Organisms Hunan

    2001-01-01

    @@ There are more than 2000 species of sugarcane pernicious organisms in the world, and over 400species axe in China. In order to make sure the sugarcane pernicious organisms in Hunan, we had a detailed investiga tion in several main sugarcane - producing regions during 1996- 1998.

  8. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    Arushdeep Sidana; Umar Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fus...

  9. The Effect of Hot Water Treatment and Dose Trichoderma sp. to Plant Tissue of Seedling Growth from Bud Chips of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)

    Haryuni -

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is a high-value economical crops, only grows in tropical climates of Java and parts of Sumatra. Ratoon stunting disease (RSD) is a vascular disease in sugarcane which its visual symptoms is difficult to detect. The disease has spread across the sugarcane plantations in Indonesia with the percentage of attacks 10-100%.  The use of buds chips treatment of seedling plant is an act of reducing pathogen development. The research effect of hot water treatment / HWT...

  10. Crescimento e produtividade da cana planta cultivada em diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita = Sugarcane growth and productivity under different tillage and crop systems

    Orlando Carlos Huertas Tavares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita sobre o crescimento e produtividade da cana planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Linhares, Estado do Espírito Santo. Trata-se de um dos ensaios mais antigos no país que investiga os efeitos da Cana crua e queimada. Instalados num Argissolo Amarelo textura arenosa/média, os tratamentos consistiram de parcelas (preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo e subparcelas (Cana crua e Cana queimada. Foi avaliado o crescimento da cultura, o aporte de matéria orgânica e a quantificação do rendimento da cana-de-açúcar. O diâmetro foi maior para o cultivo mínimo, e o perfilhamento foi maior para o preparo convencional. A altura e o perfilhamento foram superiores no corte sem queima. Para produtividade de colmos, os tratamentos nãoapresentaram diferenças significativas. As folhas foram maiores em cultivo mínimo e pontas em Cana crua. O cultivo mínimo propicia, inicialmente, aumento do diâmetro e maior produtividade de folhas na colheita. O perfilhamento é favorecido pelo preparo convencional. A Cana crua não apresentou influência negativa da palhada na rebrota. Após 16 anos de cultivo da cana-de-açúcar com e sem queima do palhiço, observou-se maior produtividade de ponteiros, incrementando o rendimento dos colmos em Cana crua. This study had as its objective to evaluate the effects of different tillage and crop systems on the growth and productivity of sugarcane plants. The experiment was conducted in Linhares, ES. It is one of the oldest assays in the country investigating the effects ofunburned and burned sugarcane. Installed in a Yellow Latosol with sandy/medium texture, the treatments consisted of plots (conventional and minimum tillage and subplots (raw and burned sugarcane. Plant growth, contribution of organic matter and quantification ofsugarcane yield were evaluated. The diameter was larger for minimum tillage, and

  11. Comparison of Crop Rotation for Verticillium Wilt Management and Effect on Pythium Species in Conventional and Organic Strawberry Production

    Krishna V Subbarao

    2009-01-01

    The effects of broccoli and lettuce rotations on population densities of Verticillium dahliae and Pythium spp. in soil and on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) growth, yield, and Verticillium wilt were evaluated in conventional and organic production systems in California for 2 years. Under both management systems, strawberry was planted after two successive crops of broccoli or lettuce. The control treatment in the conventional field was strawberry planted in soils fumigated with methyl bromi...

  12. Sugarcane postharvest residue management in a temperate climate

    Full retention of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) post-harvest residue often reduces subsequent ratoon crop yields in Louisiana. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different removal methods and removal timings on sugarcane growth and yield and to determine if...

  13. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  14. Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Maurício dos Santos Simões; Jansle Vieira Rocha; Rubens Augusto de Camargo Lamparelli

    2009-01-01

    Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT), yield (TSS), leaf area index (LAI), and number of plants per linear meter (NPM) correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety i...

  15. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80

  16. Cotton Seedling Preemergence Damping-Off Incited by Rhizopus oryzae and Pythium spp. and Its Biological Control with Trichoderma spp.

    Howell, C R

    2002-02-01

    ABSTRACT Planting the cotton cv. Sure-Grow 747 in cotton seedling disease plots during the 2001 growing season resulted in high levels of preemergence damping-off among the seedlings. Four cotton pathogens, Pythium aphanidermatum, P. ultimum, an unidentified Pythium sp., and Rhizopus oryzae, were isolated from diseased seed embryos and seedlings. Disease incited by the Pythium spp. could be controlled by seed treatment with Metalaxyl, but disease incited by R. oryzae could not. Seed treatment with Metalaxyl in naturally infested field soil was only partially effective; therefore, symptoms in 47% of the diseased seedlings could be attributed to R. oryzae. Susceptibility to disease appeared to be related to release in the spermosphere, by the germinating seeds, of compounds that stimulate pathogen propagule germination, because exudates from seed of the suscept Sure-Grow 747 and extracts from wheat bran induced pathogen germination and growth, whereas exudates from resistant cv. Stoneville 213 did not. However, even Stoneville 213 became susceptible when infested soil was amended with wheat bran. Seed treatment with preparations of Trichoderma virens parent, mutant, and hybrid strains gave effective biological control of preemergence damping-off. Disease control was attributable to metabolism by the biocontrol agent of pathogen germination stimulants released by the seed, because amendment of pathogen-infested soil with the propagule germination stimulants in wheat bran negated the protective effect of the seed treatment. PMID:18943091

  17. Sugarcane and Energycane

    “Energycane” is a term that is used to describe sugarcane grown solely for the production of renewable energy. A Type I energycane has somewhat lower sugar content (10-14%) and higher fiber content (14-20%) than a commercial sugarcane cultivar bred for sugar production. In contrast, a Type II energy...

  18. Mechanism of herbicidal action of the component I from Pythium aphanldermatum

    Jiao XU; Wenchao XU; Lihui ZHANG; Chuan LI; Jinlin ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    The herbicidal mechanism of the components extracted from Pythium aphanidermatum was examined in this study. Component I was isolated using the HPD500 macroporous adsorption resin and HPLC. Its impact on seed germination and plant growth of weeds was determined and the contents of MDA, superoxide anion radical, and the activities of hills and roots were examined. The root length of weed plants was inhibited under illumination while the stem height was inhibited evidently under darkness. The relative electric conductivity of Digitaria sanguinalis and Amaranthus retroflexus under illumination was 94.55 μS-cm-1 and 58.75 μS-cm-1, respectively, whereas that under darkness was 85.25 μS·cm-1 and 36.25 μS·cm-1, respectively. The MDA contents of Digitaria sanguinalis and Chlorella pyrenoidosa were 0.08385 μmol · L-1 and 0.1742 μmol · L-1 under illumination, respectively, while those were 0.0129 μmol·L-1 and 0.01935 μmol ·L-1 under darkness, respectively. Simultaneously, superoxide anion radical content was higher under illumination than under darkness. These results showed the photosynthesis was affected by component I extracted from Pythium aphanidermatum.

  19. Praktijkproef Pseudomonas tegen Pythium. Toepassing van Pseudomonas fluorescens tegen Pythium in hyacint en krokus in praktijkpercelen in 2004-2005

    Boer, de M.; Breeuwsma, S.J.; Hiddink, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Bij PPO bloembollen in Lisse is een aantal jaar onderzoek gedaan naar de biologische bestrijding van Pythium met de bacterie Pseudomonas fluorescens. Op basis van onderzoeksresultaten die behaald zijn in eerdere proeven, is in opdracht van het Productschap Tuinbouw (projectnrs 320728 en 321091) in e

  20. Efficacy of Antifungal Metabolites of Bacillus spp. for Controlling Tomato Damping-off Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    Warin INTANA; Prakong YENJIT; Taksin SUWANNO; Supalak SATTASAKULCHAI; Manoon SUWANNO; Chiradej CHAMSWARNG

    2008-01-01

    A total of 4 strains of bacteria were isolated from the leaf surface of the rambutan using a tissue transplanting technique. They were characterized, by a dual culture test, for their efficacy to inhibit mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of the damping-off on tomato. All 4 strains significantly inhibited mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at room temperature (27 °C). B-NST-02 and B-NST-03 gave values of inhibition of 62.0 % and   57.5 %,...

  1. Trehalose induces antagonism towards Pythium debaryanum in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400.

    Gaballa, A.; Abeysinghe, P D; Urich, G; Matthijs, S.; De Greve, H; Cornelis, P; N. Koedam

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 shows in vitro activity against Pythium debaryanum under conditions of iron limitation. A lacZ reporter gene introduced by transposon mutagenesis into the P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 trehalase gene (treA) was induced by a factor released by the phytopathogen Pythium debaryanum. The induction of the lacZ gene was lost upon treatment of the Pythium supernatant with commercial trehalase. A trehalose concentration as low as 1 microM could induce the expression of ...

  2. Pythium insidiosum colitis in a dog: treatment and clinical outcome

    Mahyumi Fujimori; Erika Rondon Lopes; Samara Rosolem Lima; Daphine Ariadne Jesus de Paula; Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida; Edson Moleta Colodel; Caroline Argenta Pescador; Pedro Eduardo Brandini Néspoli; Luciano Nakazato; Valéria Dutra; Roberto Lopes de Souza; Valéria Régia Franco Sousa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to describe the clinical, pathological and imaging findings and treatment of colitis caused by Pythium insidiosum in a canine presenting haematochezia and progressive weight loss. Through imaging, a thickening of the transverse and descending colon was observed. Histopathological analysis of the large intestine fragment revealed the presence of hyphae, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR as P. insidiosum. Antifungal treatment with itraconazole impleme...

  3. Pythium insidiosum colitis in a dog: treatment and clinical outcome

    Mahyumi Fujimori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to describe the clinical, pathological and imaging findings and treatment of colitis caused by Pythium insidiosum in a canine presenting haematochezia and progressive weight loss. Through imaging, a thickening of the transverse and descending colon was observed. Histopathological analysis of the large intestine fragment revealed the presence of hyphae, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR as P. insidiosum. Antifungal treatment with itraconazole implemented after partial surgical resection, resulted in control of the disease.

  4. Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. a pathogen of greenhouse cucumbers

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    The infection of mature cucumber plants by Pythium aphanidermatum was stated in two greenhouses. Young cucumber plants from the stage of young seedling until the beginning of cropping were easily infected by the fungus when artificially inoculated. The mature plants were effectively infected only when high temperature (above 30°C) and high moisture conditions were provided. All 17 cucumber varieties tested were susceptible to infection. Morphology of the fungus is described for the first time...

  5. Stem juice production of the C4 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)is enhanced by growth at double-ambient CO2 and high temperature

    Four sugarcane cultivars were grown for three months in sunlit greenhouses under [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720(doubled) ppm and at temperatures (T) of 1.5 (near ambient) and 6.0C higher than outside ambient T. Leaf area, stem juice, plant biomass, leaf CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activities of PEP ...

  6. Identification of Physiological Traits for Early Detecting Water Deficit Stress in Sugarcane

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotype selection has been more successful for organic (muck) than sand soils in Florida. Water deficit stress during its formative growth phase may limit sugarcane growth and yields on Florida sand soils. Therefore, identifying proper physiological traits will help scien...

  7. Influence of inoculum density of the antagonistic bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas corrugata on sugar beet seedling colonisation and suppression of Pythium damping off

    C.S. Schmidt; Agostini, F.; Leifert, C.; Killham, K; Mullins, C E

    2004-01-01

    The effect of initial inoculum density of the antagonistic bacterial strains Pseudomonas fluorescens 135 and Pseudomonas corrugata 2140 (10(3) to 10(8) CFU per seed pellet) on sugar beet seedling colonisation, in situ bioluminescence and antagonistic activity towards Pythium ultimum was investigated. Populations of the bacteria colonising sugar beet root systems approached an apparent carrying capacity of 10(5) to 10(6) CFU per plant after 12 d growth, irrespective of inoculum density. This m...

  8. Zoosporogênese in vitro entre isolados do oomiceto Pythium insidiosum In vitro zoosporogenesis among oomycetes Pythium insidiosum isolates

    Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto aquático, responsável pela etiologia da pitiose, uma enfermidade crônica, observada freqüentemente em eqüinos. A produção de zoósporos móveis por este microrganismo se constitui no fator determinante da ocorrência da enfermidade. Este estudo avaliou a zoosporogênese e quantificou a produção de zoósporos de 32 amostras de Pythium insidiosum isoladas de eqüinos naturalmente infectados. Pythium insidiosum foi cultivado em meio Corn Meal Agar acrescido de fragmentos de grama, durante 5 dias, a 37°C. Posteriormente, os fragmentos de grama parasitados foram incubados em Meio de Indução a 37°C, por 24 horas. Observou-se que 16 amostras (50% produziram 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, 12 isolados (37,5% produziram acima de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, enquanto quatro amostras (12,5% produziram menos de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1. O período de maior produção de zoósporos foi entre 6 e 8 horas de incubação. O protocolo utilizado na indução da zoosporogênese mostrou-se eficiente e representa uma importante ferramenta, tanto para a identificação do Pythium insidiosum, como para a obtenção de zoósporos em quantidades suficientes para a inoculação em animais experimentais e aplicação no desenvolvimento de testes de suscetibilidade.Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete and the etiology of a chronic disease called pythiosis, commonly found in the skin of horses. The production of mobile zoospores by this microorganism is the determinant factor of this disease. This study evaluated the zoosporogenesis and quantification of zoospores in 32 samples of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses with pythiosis. The assay used culture of the Pythium insidiosum in Corn Meal Agar plus grass blades for 5 days at 37°C. The grass blades were incubated in Induction Medium at 37°C for 24 hours. The findings showed 16 samples (50% yielded 20,000 zoospores mL-1, 12 (37.5% samples yielded over 20,000 zoospores mL-1 and 4

  9. The Role of Nitrogen Fertilizers in Sugarcane Root Biomass under Field Conditions

    Rafael Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Carlos Eduardo Faroni; André Cesar Vitti; Emídio Cantidio Almeida de Oliveira; Renata Alcarde Sermarini; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is used worldwide for sugar, ethanol and energy production. In Brazil, the shift from burned to unburned harvest systems resulted in increases in nitrogen fertilization rates, which can impact root architecture and biomass. The expectation is also an increase in sugarcane biomass. The study hypothesized that high N rates applied to sugarcane fields increases root growth and N stored in roots, promoting higher biomass and N accumulated in shoots. Two experiments ...

  10. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  11. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Nivaldo Schultz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  12. Fatty acid competition as a mechanism by which Enterobacter cloacae suppresses Pythium ultimum sporangium germination and damping-off.

    van Dijk, K; Nelson, E B

    2000-12-01

    Interactions between plant-associated microorganisms play important roles in suppressing plant diseases and enhancing plant growth and development. While competition between plant-associated bacteria and plant pathogens has long been thought to be an important means of suppressing plant diseases microbiologically, unequivocal evidence supporting such a mechanism has been lacking. We present evidence here that competition for plant-derived unsaturated long-chain fatty acids between the biological control bacterium Enterobacter cloacae and the seed-rotting oomycete, Pythium ultimum, results in disease suppression. Since fatty acids from seeds and roots are required to elicit germination responses of P. ultimum, we generated mutants of E. cloacae to evaluate the role of E. cloacae fatty acid metabolism on the suppression of Pythium sporangium germination and subsequent plant infection. Two mutants of E. cloacae EcCT-501R3, Ec31 (fadB) and EcL1 (fadL), were reduced in beta-oxidation and fatty acid uptake, respectively. Both strains failed to metabolize linoleic acid, to inactivate the germination-stimulating activity of cottonseed exudate and linoleic acid, and to suppress Pythium seed rot in cotton seedling bioassays. Subclones containing fadBA or fadL complemented each of these phenotypes in Ec31 and EcL1, respectively. These data provide strong evidence for a competitive exclusion mechanism for the biological control of P. ultimum-incited seed infections by E. cloacae where E. cloacae prevents the germination of P. ultimum sporangia by the efficient metabolism of fatty acid components of seed exudate and thus prevents seed infections. PMID:11097912

  13. Metabolic profiling of Zingiber zerumbet following Pythium myriotylum infection: investigations on the defensive role of the principal secondary metabolite, zerumbone.

    Keerthi, D; Geethu, C; Nair, R Aswati; Pillai, Padmesh

    2014-03-01

    Induced biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites constitutes one of the mechanisms of plant basal innate immunity to fungal infection. Metabolic changes were studied in rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet, a wild congener of ginger, after infection with soft rot-causative necrotrophic phytopathogen, Pythium myriotylum, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Infection triggered a considerable alteration in the relative content of zerumbone and α-caryophyllene (humulene) with enhancement in zerumbone content (81.59%) and that of α-caryophyllene (11.91%) compared to 9.97 and 1.11%, respectively, in uninfected rhizomes. While zerumbone is the principal secondary metabolite in Z. zerumbet, α-caryophyllene is its immediate precursor. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the correlations between metabolite changes in Z. zerumbet rhizomes and P. myriotylum infection. Radial diffusion assay with zerumbone indicated a concentration-dependent P. myriotylum growth inhibition with 93.75% inhibition observed at 700 μg and 50% maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 206 μg. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the mechanistic basis of zerumbone's antagonistic action on P. myriotylum growth involved the induction of aberrant morphology including severe hyphal deformities and membrane disruption. Results are discussed highlighting the critical role played by sesquiterpenoid zerumbone in affording resistance in Z. zerumbet and could expedite the development of appropriate strategies for biocontrol of Pythium spp., thus reducing the usage of broad-spectrum fungicides. PMID:24414941

  14. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Nitrogen on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Technical Abstract: Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) grows on sand soils in Florida. Nitrogen deficiency may limit sugarcane yields on these sand soils. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N fertilizer rate on growth and physiological characteristics of three ...

  15. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  16. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for...

  17. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  18. The role of strigolactones and ethylene in disease caused by Pythium irregulare.

    Blake, Sara N; Barry, Karen M; Gill, Warwick M; Reid, James B; Foo, Eloise

    2016-06-01

    Plant hormones play key roles in defence against pathogen attack. Recent work has begun to extend this role to encompass not just the traditional disease/stress hormones, such as ethylene, but also growth-promoting hormones. Strigolactones (SLs) are the most recently defined group of plant hormones with important roles in plant-microbe interactions, as well as aspects of plant growth and development, although the knowledge of their role in plant-pathogen interactions is extremely limited. The oomycete Pythium irregulare is a poorly controlled pathogen of many crops. Previous work has indicated an important role for ethylene in defence against this oomycete. We examined the role of ethylene and SLs in response to this pathogen in pea (Pisum sativum L.) at the molecular and whole-plant levels using a set of well-characterized hormone mutants, including an ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutant and SL-deficient and insensitive mutants. We identified a key role for ethylene signalling in specific cell types that reduces pathogen invasion, extending the work carried out in other species. However, we found no evidence that SL biosynthesis or response influences the interaction of pea with P. irregulare or that synthetic SL influences the growth or hyphal branching of the oomycete in vitro. Future work should seek to extend our understanding of the role of SLs in other plant interactions, including with other fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens, nematodes and insect pests. PMID:26377026

  19. Characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of Trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.

    A L Rocha, Vanessa; N Maeda, Roberto; Pereira, Nei; F Kern, Marcelo; Elias, Luisa; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing Trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. The component enzymes were identified by LCMS-MS. Glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. Other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (AA9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at levels of 1%. In total, proteases and lipases represented 5 and 1% of the total secretome, respectively, with the rest of the secretome being made up of proteins of unknown or putative function. This enzyme cocktail was efficient in catalysing the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulolignin to fermentable sugars for potential use in ethanol production. Apart from mapping the secretome of T. harzianum, which is a very important tool to understand the catalytic performance of enzyme cocktails, the gene coding for T. harzianum swollenin was expressed in Aspergillus niger. This novel aspect in this work, allowed increasing the swollenin concentration by 95 fold. This is the first report about the heterologous expression of swollenin from T. harzianum, and the findings are of interest in enriching enzyme cocktail with this important accessory protein which takes part in the cellulose amorphogenesis. Despite lacking detectable glycoside activity, the addition of swollenin of T. harzianum increased by two-fold the hydrolysis efficiency of a commercial cellulase cocktail. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:327-336, 2016. PMID:26697775

  20. AN APPROACH TO FINANCIAL RISK IN A PORTFOLIO FOR PLANNING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM SUGARCANE

    Thárcylla R.N. Clemente; Adiel Teixeira de Almeida-Filho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brazil's location and tropical weather conditions are favourable cultivating sugarcane, which has led to Brazil being one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The influence of the sugarcane industry on its economy stands out among the indicators of Brazilian economic growth and because the diversified investment when planning the production of products derived from this sector is encouraged. The decision on which derivative (for example, crystal sugar, anhydrous ethanol, or...

  1. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  2. Mechanism for mercury tolerance in fungi. [Aspergillus niger; Rhizoctonia solani; Pythium ultimum

    Ashworth, L.J. Jr.; Amin, J.V.

    1964-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was protected from mercury (Hg) poisoning by sulfhydryl (SH) compounds (glutathione and cysteine) in culture experiments, whereas Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum were not protected. Two- to 30-day-old mycelium of A. niger was found to be more tolerant to Hg than either younger or older mycelia. Mycelia of the other fungi were sensitive regardless of age. Mercury tolerance of A. niger mycelium was altered when sulfur nutrition was modified; it was greater after growth on a substrate containing reduced sulfur than after growth on one containing sulfate. The Hg tolerance of A. niger mycelium appears to be due to a pool of intracellular SH that is free of protein and that protects enzyme systems by forming complexes with Hg as it is taken up by the thallus. Potato-dextrose broth-grown mats of A. niger contained about 100 ..mu..g of SH/g of dry mycelia after 36 hr and after 5 days. R.. solani had about 9 ..mu..g of SH/g of mycelia after 5 days; a measurable amount was not recovered from P. ultimum. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  3. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  4. Proteins Related to the Biocontrol of Pythium Damping-off in Maize with Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Jie CHEN; Gary E HARMAN; Afio COMIS; Gen-Wu CHENG

    2005-01-01

    Induced resistance has been evidenced as one of mechanisms of Trichoderma to control plantdiseases, however, no study showed the change of host proteomics in Trichoderma-induced resistance ofmaize against damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum Trow. The mechanism of Trichoderma harzianumRifai for controlling maize seedling disease caused by Pythium ultimum Trow was investigated firstly byproteome technique and the result suggested that T. harzianum strain T22 was not only able to promoteseedling growth but also protein accumulation. One-dimensional electrophoresis assay showed that morebands appeared on the gel with T22 or T22 combined with P. ultimum (T22 + P. ultimum) treatment than withother treatments. Enzyme assay showed that two chitinases of the root sample were more activated in thetreatments with T22 than in the other treatments without T22. Proteins in the seedling roots from the varioustreatments were separated through protein extraction and 2-D electrophoresis technique. In the seedlingsproduced from the T22-treated seeds, there were 104 up-regulated proteins and 164 down-regulated pro-teins relative to the control, and 97 and 150, respectively, after treatment with T22 + P. ultimum; however,with P. ultimum alone the values were much lower than with the other two treatments. The correlationcoefficient values were 0.72, 0.51 and 0.49 for the comparison of protein spot distribution on gel amongcontrol with T22, P. ultimum and T22 + P. ultimum, respectively. So it seemed that P. ultimum infection wasmore effective than T22 in interfering with the host proteome profile. Furthermore, analysis with MALDI-TOF-MAS showed that some important proteins associated with defensive reactions were identified in T22or T22 + P. ultimum treatments, including endochitinase, pathogenesis-related protein PRMS (pathogenesis-related maize seed), GTP-binding protein, isoflavone reductase and other proteins related to respiration. Allthose proteins are probably part of the

  5. Life cycle assessment of biofuels from an integrated Brazilian algae-sugarcane biorefinery

    Sugarcane ethanol biorefineries in Brazil produce carbon dioxide, electricity and heat as byproducts. These are essential inputs for algae biodiesel production. In this paper, we assessed ethanol's life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use produced in an integrated sugarcane and algae biorefinery where biodiesel replaces petroleum diesel for all agricultural operations. Carbon dioxide from cane juice fermentation is used as the carbon source for algae cultivation, and sugarcane bagasse is the sole source of energy for the entire facility. Glycerin produced from the biodiesel plant is consumed by algae during the mixotrophic growth phase. We assessed the uncertainties through a detailed Monte-Carlo analysis. We found that this integrated system can improve both the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and the fossil energy use of sugarcane ethanol by around 10% and 50%, respectively, compared to a traditional Brazilian sugarcane ethanol distillery. - Highlights: • A high diesel consumption is associated to the ethanol sugarcane life-cycle. • Sugarcane industry can provide sources of carbon and energy for the algae growing. • The sugarcane-algae integration can improve the ethanol life-cycle performance. • This integration is a promising pathway for the deployment of algae biodiesel. • There are still significant techno-economic barriers associated with algae biodiesel

  6. In vitro susceptibility of Brazilian Pythium insidiosum isolates to essential oils of some Lamiaceae family species.

    Fonseca, A O S; Pereira, D I B; Jacob, R G; Maia Filho, F S; Oliveira, D H; Maroneze, B P; Valente, J S S; Osório, L G; Botton, S A; Meireles, M C A

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial action of Origanum vulgare, Origanum majorana, Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis on Pythium insidiosum oomycete zoospores. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 documentation adapted to phytopharmaceuticals. Twenty-two P. insidiosum isolates were evaluated, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined at 100% growth inhibition. All P. insidiosum isolates evaluated showed a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.05 to 1.75 mg/mL when O. vulgare oil was used and from 0.11 to 3.5 mg/mL for O. majorana, M. piperita and R. officinalis oils. The results obtained indicate that the essential oils tested showed antimicrobial activity on P. insidiosum, with O. vulgare essential oil showing the best performance. These findings emphasize the potential use of plant essential oils as control agents in P. insidiosum infections; further research, however, is needed so as the in vivo activity of these oils can also be evaluated. PMID:25431090

  7. IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO MEASURE SUGARCANE LEAF AREA

    Sanjay B. Patil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the average sugarcane yield per acres with minimum cost farmers are adapting precision farming technique. This paper includes the area measurement of sugarcane leaf based on image processing method which is useful for plants growth monitoring, to analyze fertilizer deficiency and environmental stress,to measure diseases severity. In image processing method leaf area is calculated through pixel number statistic. Unit pixel in the same digital images represent the same size hence from known reference area and pixel count, unit pixel size can calculate, so that it is easy to calculate leaf area by counting total pixel in leaf area region. The results are compared with the results of graphical area measurement method. The experimentally it is proved that image processing method for measuring sugarcane leaf area is accurate and strong practicabilitywith small relative error.

  8. Molecular phylogenetics and anti-Pythium activity of endophytes from rhizomes of wild ginger congener, Zingiber zerumbet Smith.

    Keerthi, D; Aswati Nair, R; Prasath, D

    2016-03-01

    Zingiber zerumbet, a perennial rhizomatous herb exhibits remarkable disease resistance as well as a wide range of pharmacological activities. Towards characterizing the endophytic population of Z. zerumbet rhizomes, experiments were carried out during two different growing seasons viz., early-June of 2013 and late-July of 2014. A total of 34 endophytes were isolated and categorized into 11 morphologically distinct groups. Fungi were observed to predominate bacterial species with colonization frequency values ranging from 12.5 to 50 %. Among the 11 endophyte groups isolated, molecular analyses based on ITS/16S rRNA gene sequences identified seven isolate groups as Fusarium solani, two as F. oxysporum and one as the bacterium Rhizobium spp. Phylogenetic tree clustered the ITS sequences from Z. zerumbet endophytes into distinct clades consistent with morphological and sequence analysis. Dual culture assays were carried out to determine antagonistic activity of the isolated endophytes against Pythium myriotylum, an economically significant soil-borne phytopathogen of cultivated ginger. Experiments revealed significant P. myriotylum growth inhibition by F. solani and F. oxysporum isolates with percentage of inhibition (PoI) ranging from 45.17 ± 0.29 to 62.2 ± 2.58 with F. oxysporum exhibiting higher PoI values against P. myriotylum. Using ZzEF8 metabolite extract, concentration-dependent P. myriotylum hyphal growth inhibition was observed following radial diffusion assays. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis wherein exposure to ZzEF8 metabolite extract induced hyphal deformities. Results indicate Z. zerumbet endophytes as promising resources for biologically active compounds and as biocontrol agents for soft rot disease management caused by Pythium spp. PMID:26867602

  9. Efficacy of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia brown patch and Pythium blight on turfgrass in Italy.

    Mocioni, M; Titone, P; Garibaldi, A; Gullino, M L

    2003-01-01

    Brown patch, incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Pythium blight, caused by Pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. In such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in Italy. The results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and Pythium blight are reported. On mature turfgrass, maintained under fairway conditions, azoxystrobin, and trifoxystrobin, not yet registered on turf, were very effective against brown patch. Tebuconazole, applied in three different formulations, was very effective against R. solani, while Trichoderma spp. and azadiractine did not control the pathogen. In greenhouse conditions on Agrostis stolonifera, in the presence of severe disease incidence, due to artificial inoculation, benalaxyl-M satisfactorily controlled Pythium blight; Trichoderma spp. as well as a commercial formulation of T. harzianum, applied one week before the inoculation, were not effective. Among the fungicides not yet registered for use on turfgrass in Italy, metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was effective against Pythium blight. PMID:15151284

  10. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  11. Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane

    Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugar cane growth was about 257,000 ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 75% and 70% respectively were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugar cane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn2+, Cu2+) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

  12. Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS

    Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

    From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

  13. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Alcarde André Ricardo; Walder Júlio Marcos Melges; Horii Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and may influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoc...

  14. Sites of infection by pythium species in rice seedlings and effects of plant age and water depth on disease development.

    Chun, S C; Schneider, R W

    1998-12-01

    ABSTRACT Seedling disease, caused primarily by several species of Pythium, is one of the major constraints to water-seeded rice production in Louisiana. The disease, also known as water-mold disease, seed rot, and seedling damping-off, causes stand reductions and growth abnormalities. In severe cases, fields must be replanted, which may result in delayed harvests and reduced yields. To develop more effective disease management tactics including biological control, this study was conducted primarily to determine sites of infection in seeds and seedlings; effect of plant age on susceptibility to P. arrhenomanes, P. myriotylum, and P. dissotocum; and minimum exposure times required for infection and seedling death. In addition, the effect of water depth on seedling disease was investigated. Infection rates of seed embryos were significantly higher than those of endosperms for all three Pythium spp. The development of roots from dry-seeded seedlings was significantly reduced by P. arrhenomanes and P. myriotylum at 5 days after planting compared with that of roots from noninoculated controls. Susceptibility of rice to all three species was sharply reduced within 2 to 6 days after planting, and seedlings were completely resistant at 8 days after planting. There was a steep reduction in emergence through the flood water, relative to the noninoculated control, following 2 to 3 days of exposure to inoculum of P. arrhenomanes and P. myriotylum. In contrast, P. dissotocum was much less virulent and required longer exposure times to cause irreversible seedling damage. Disease incidence was higher when seeds were planted into deeper water, implying that seedlings become resistant after they emerge through the flood water. These results suggest that disease control tactics including flood water management need to be employed for a very short period of time after planting. Also, given that the embryo is the primary site of infection and it is susceptible for only a few days, the

  15. Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Maurício dos Santos Simões

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT, yield (TSS, leaf area index (LAI, and number of plants per linear meter (NPM correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2 window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS. No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3 was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT, produtividade (TSS, índice de área foliar (LAI e número de plantas por metro (NPM por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as

  16. Identification of Resistance to Pythium ultimum in Sunflower Seedlings

    Mohammad R. Asgharipour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate Pythium-mediated damping-off a laboratory experiment was conducted at Biotech Research Center of the University of Zabol, in 2010. The experimental design was a completely randomized with seven genotypes, together with seven replicates. The seeds were inoculated in oospore suspension of fungi (105 mg/mL for 1 min. After 5 days, seedlings were evaluated with an aim to counting non-germinated seeds, abnormal seedlings and healthy seedlings. Then the healthy seedlings were planted in pots after infecting seedlings through a piece of paper towels contaminated with fungal suspension, and normal seedlings were counted after 12 days. The result showed that there were significant differences among the genotypes for all evaluated traits. The greatest non-germinated seeds were observed in Azargol with 38% and followed by Record and Allstar. Azargol also had the highest abnormal seedlings (86% and the minimum abnormal seedlings were observed in Xaria with 72%. Regarding normal seedlings at pot, Golshid and Hysun- 33 were superior with 60 and 49%, respectively. These findings suggest that all genotypes had a high susceptibility to P. ultimum. Also, results obtained from the paper towel experiment were different to the results of the soil.

  17. Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois reguladores vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte.The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulators, applied before the harvest, in the stool

  18. Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Maurício dos Santos Simões

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic parameters such as leaf area index (LAI, number of stalks per meter (NPM, yield (TSS and total biomass (BMT. A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4, Simple Ratio (SR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC. After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3 and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79 with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variáveis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF, número de perfilhos por metro (NPM, produtividade (TCH e biomassa total (BMT. Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talh

  19. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  20. Characterization of major hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Pythium myriotylum, causative agent for soft rot disease.

    Geethu, C; Resna, A K; Nair, R Aswati

    2013-11-01

    Pythium myriotylum, an oomycetous necrotroph is the causal agent of soft rot disease affecting several crops. Successful colonization by necrotrophs depends on their secretion of a diverse array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs). The induction dynamics of CWDEs secreted by P. myriotylum was analysed as little information is available for this pathogen. Activities of CWDEs that included pectinase, cellulase, xylanase and protease were detected using radial diffusion assay and differential staining. In Czapek Dox minimal medium supplemented with respective substrates as carbon source, the increase in CWDE activities was observed till 8 days of incubation after which a gradual decline in enzymatic activities was observed. With sucrose as sole carbon source, all the enzymes studied showed increase in activity with fungal growth while with cell wall material derived from ginger rhizome as sole carbon source, an initial spurt in cellulase, xylanase and pectinase activities was observed 3 days post incubation while protease activity increased from three days of incubation and reached maximum at 13 days of incubation. To further evaluate the role of CWDEs in pathogenicity, UV-induced mutants (pmN14uv1) were generated wherein significant reduction in cellulase, pectinase and protease activities were observed while that of xylanase remained unchanged compared to wild type isolate (RGCBN14). Bioassays indicated changes in infection potential of pmN14uv1 thereby suggesting the crucial role played by P. myriotylum CWDEs in initiating the rotting process. Hence appropriate strategies that target the production/activity of these secretory hydrolytic enzymes will help in reducing disease incidence/pathogen virulence. PMID:23897210

  1. Relationships between methods of variety adaptability and stability in sugarcane.

    Mendes de Paula, T O; Marinho, C D; Souza, V; Barbosa, M H P; Peternelli, L A; Kimbeng, C A; Zhou, M M

    2014-01-01

    The identification and recommendation of superior genotypes is crucial for the growth of industrial crops, and sugarcane breeding performs a vital role by developing more productive cultivars. The study of genotype x environment interaction has been an essential tool in this process. Thereby, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between methods of adaptability and stability in sugarcane. Data were collected from trials using a randomized block design with three repetitions and 15 clones of sugarcane in nine environments in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methodologies based on analysis of variance, linear regression, multivariate analysis, nonparametric statistics, and mixed model were used. The methods of Lin and Binns, Annicchiarico, and harmonic mean of relative performance of genotypic values (MHPRVG) were similar in their classification of genotypes. The additive main effect and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) and Wricke methods tended to select the most stable genotypes; however, genotypes were less productive, coinciding with the stability parameter of Eberhart and Russell. The MHPRVG method is preferred over the methods of Lin and Binns and Annicchiarico because it includes the concepts of productivity, adaptability, and stability, and it provide direct genetic values of individuals. The use of the MHPRVG and Eberhart and Russell methods is recommended because the combination of these methods is complementary and leads to greater accuracy in the identification of genotypes of sugarcane for different environments. PMID:25036165

  2. Molecular and genetic aspects of controlling the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Okubara, Patricia A; Dickman, Martin B; Blechl, Ann E

    2014-11-01

    The soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium infect a wide range of crops in the US and worldwide. These pathogens pose challenges to growers because the diseases they cause are not adequately controlled by fungicides, rotation or, for many hosts, natural genetic resistance. Although a combination of management practices are likely to be required for control of Rhizoctonia and Pythium, genetic resistance remains a key missing component. This review discusses the recent deployment of introduced genes and genome-based information for control of Rhizoctonia, with emphasis on three pathosystems: Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and wheat, R. solani AG1-IA and rice, and R. solani AG3 or AG4 and potato. Molecular mechanisms underlying disease suppression will be addressed, if appropriate. Although less is known about genes and factors suppressive to Pythium, pathogen genomics and biological control studies are providing useful leads to effectors and antifungal factors. Prospects for resistance to Rhizoctonia and Pythium spp. will continue to improve with growing knowledge of pathogenicity strategies, host defense gene action relative to the pathogen infection process, and the role of environmental factors on pathogen-host interactions. PMID:25438786

  3. Pythium and Fusarium species causing seed rot and damping-off of alfalfa

    Seed rot and damping-off is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. This disease may have been overlooked as a cause of poor stand establishment and reduced vigor of adult plants. Globally, 15 Pythium species have been found to cause...

  4. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  5. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of sugarcane proteins involved in thermal stress

    Sugarcane has gained worldwide interest due to its potential to produce ethanol as an alternative energy source. 2 Therefore, it is of general interest to study the physiological and biochemical aspects of sugarcane, especially those involved in stress tolerance, which may be important to understand survival during exposure to high temperatures. In plants, sHsps rank among the most important heat shock proteins expressed during heat stress. They can accumulate up to 1% in leaves and are correlated with the acquisition of thermotolerance. In this context, the study of sHsps proteins may lead to strategies for increasing sugarcane survival and fitness, allowing for its growth in regions where sugarcane has not been produced before. (author)

  6. Mutation Breeding in Sugarcane

    The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)

  7. Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.121 Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas em relação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0 g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas podendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be the best substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 times greater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a

  8. Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production = Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be thebest substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 timesgreater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass andphycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas emrelação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e

  9. Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. as influenced by alcohol by-products

    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454, cultivadas simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1 no solo dos vasos (22 L, contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações, e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar.This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp., cultivated simultaneously under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v of each by-product and the check treatment (water were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1 to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height, and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and

  10. Reguladores vegetais e qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em meio de safra Growth regulators and technological quality of sugarcane in the middle of the cropping season

    Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A maturação da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. refere-se a um dos aspectos fundamentais para o sistema de produção da indústria sucroalcooleira. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos da aplicação de quatro maturadores da classe dos retardantes de crescimento (Ethefon, Etil-trinexapac, KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. A eficiência agronômica dos maturadores foi influenciada pela época de aplicação, pela condição climática e pela característica genética da variedade. A aplicação dos maturadores em 10/05/2004 permitiu explorar de forma significativa o potencial genético da variedade quanto ao acúmulo de sacarose nos colmos, implicando em melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. A adoção dessa prática em 04/08/2005, de modo geral, pouco afetou os parâmetros tecnológicos, exceto a aplicação de Etil-trinexapac, o qual induziu melhoria significativa na qualidade da matéria-prima. A produtividade de açúcar refletiu-se de forma direta na margem de contribuição agrícola, sendo constatado maior retorno econômico para as plantas tratadas com KNO3 na safra 2004.The ripening of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is the most important aspect in the production system for sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the technological quality of sugarcane as a function of plant regulators application in the middle of the cropping season. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators application of the class of growth retainers (Ethephon, Ethyl.trinexapac, Potassium nitrate and Potassium nitrate + Boron and a control (natural

  11. Microbial Properties of Composts That Suppress Damping-Off and Root Rot of Creeping Bentgrass Caused by Pythium graminicola

    Craft, C M; Nelson, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Composts prepared from a variety of feedstocks were tested for their ability to suppress seedling and root diseases of creeping bentgrass caused by Pythium graminicola. Among the most suppressive materials in laboratory experiments were different batches of a brewery sludge compost and a biosolids compost from Endicott, N.Y. Batches of these composts that were initially not suppressive to Pythium damping-off became more suppressive with increasing compost age. Leaf, yard waste, food, and spen...

  12. Biological control of cucumber and sugar beet damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum with bacterial and fungal antagonists

    Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Fiddaman, P.; Leifert, C.; Malathrakis, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Five bacterial strains belonging to Bacillus subtilis , Pseudomonas fluorescens and Ps . corrugata and two fungal strains belonging to Trichoderma viride and Gliocladium virens were evaluated for their efficacy in controlling sugar beet and cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum . Methods and Results: The in vitro antagonistic activity of bacteria against various Pythium spp. was evaluated with dual cultures in various media. Pseudomonas strains inhibited the pathogen better tha...

  13. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Sopa Cansee1,

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  14. Development Strategy of Sugarcane Industry in Guangdong Province

    Chen, Yue-gui; Wu, Jian-tao; Yang, Jun-xian; Li, Qi-Wei; Xie, Jing; Pan, Fang-yin; Wu, Wen-long; Liu, Fu-ye; Deng, Hai-hua; Qi, Yong-wen

    2012-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the main producing areas of sugarcane in China, and one of China's three regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, having good basis and conditions for developing sugarcane industry. In this research, using the SWOT-AHP method, we set 20 assessment indicators (such as the regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, huge demand for domestic sugar, increased production costs and backward system of sugarcane), to analyze the development strategy of sugarcane in...

  15. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  16. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the

  17. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  18. A Survey Report on Sugarcane Production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2013

    Xiang; LI; Yangrui; LI; Yuchi; DENG; Lunwang; WANG; Liu; YANG; Weihua; HUANG; Qiang; LIANG; Ronghua; ZHANG; Guoying; LU; Shijian; HAN; Pingwu; LIU; Changning; LI; Cuifang; YANG

    2014-01-01

    In order to fully understand sugarcane production in Guangxi in 2013,the sample survey combined with data collection and field survey was carried out in sugarcane production areas in Nanning,Hechi,Liuzhou,Chongzuo,Baise and Laibin from May 28 to June 36 in2013. It was found that the sugarcane growing area in Guangxi in 2013 declined compared with that in 2012; the rate of emergence remained the same as previous year,and as for the plant number of plant crop and ratoon crop per hectare,there was a decline of 4000 and 2000 seedlings respectively compared with the figure in 2012; borer damage rate declined on the whole while the incidence of sugarcane smut increased.Due to the growth in the cost of planting,the growers were less enthusiastic for management. According to the findings,the fertilization and sugarcane field management should be accelerated; borer prevention work was also required,so as to reduce borer damage and dieback rate;the planting structure of varieties had to be adjusted and the cultivated area of " Guitang" as a fine sugarcane variety should also be enlarged;meanwhile other active measures needed to be taken to prevent and control the outburst of pest attack in local areas.

  19. Effect of a bacterial inoculum and additive on dry matter in situ degradability of sugarcane silage

    Jos A Reyes-Gutirrez; Oziel D Montaez-Valdez; Ramn Rodrguez-Macias; Mario Ruz-Lpez; Eduardo Salcedo-Prez; Cndido E Guerra-Medina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a bacterial inoculum and a handmade additive to sugarcane silage (SCS) on the in situ digestibility of dry matter (DM). The treatments were:T1) sugarcane silage (SCS) and T2) sugar-cane silage with 1%inoculum and 1%additive (SCS+). The bacterial inoculum consisted of 10.0%molasses, 1.0%yogurt, 5.0%chicken manure, 0.5%urea, and 83.0%water, and the additive was formulated with 1.0%urea, 0.1%ammonium sulfate, and 0.25%phosphorus. In situ dry matter digestibility (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped with ruminal ifstulas. Cows were fed with ensiled sugarcane supplemented with 1 kg of commercial concentrate. 5 g of ground sample for each sugarcane treatment were weighted in nylon bags and incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h in a completely randomized design with six replicates. The DMD (%) was higher (P<0.05) for SCS+for al incubation times when compared with SCS. There were no differences in ruminal pH between the treatments for al the incubation times. The data suggested that the sugarcane silage with bacterial inoculum and additive could be an alternative for providing forage for ruminants during the season of low growth and quality grass.

  20. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  1. Sugarcane cropping and cattle husbandry integration

    Taube-Netto, Miguel; Pinto, Luis Franco de Campos; Castaneda-Ayarza, Juan; Cortez, Luis Augusto B.

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian proposal to replace 5% of gasoline worldwide, mathematical programming and simulation of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, modeling scenario of sugar cane and beef production in Brazil, mathematical modelling of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production, modelling variables and constraints, objective function, optimized results of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, and further potential applications.

  2. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Bacci Jr, M; de Miranda, V. F. O.; V.G. Martins; A.V.O. Figueira; M.V. Lemos; J.O. Pereira; Marino, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA) region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarc...

  3. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  4. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia

    2003-12-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  5. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  6. Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased leaves, percentage severity were measured. Growth and yield parameters such as stalk length, number of leaves, number of tillers and yield parameters such as fresh and dry shoot weights, percentage dry matter at harvest were also measured. Analysis of variance showed that percentage severity of sugarcane mosaic disease, increased in non-weeded plots compared with weeded plots. Twice weeding (52.1% and the weed free plots (53.7% had the significantly lowest severities. Varietal influence significantly influenced severity and variety NCO-270 produced the significantly lowest severity (45.8%.The interaction of weeding regime and variety indicated that variety CB36411 in the weed free plots, produced the lowest severity (33.5%.Yield parameters showed that significantly highest shoot weight was recorded in the weed free plot, while variety NCO-270 gave the highest fresh and dry shoot weights (254.8g and 50.2g respectively. The results indicate that variety NCO-270 was the most tolerant and that weeding at least once in six months is required to mitigate the effect of sugarcane mosaic disease, as witnessed in significantly increased growth and yield attributes of plants in the weeded plots.

  7. Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil

    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqüências de P. insidiosum depositadas no GenBank.Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism, Pythium insidiosum, pathogenic to men and animals. A patient with a phagedenic ulcer on the leg is reported. Histopathological examination was suggestive of zygomycosis, response to antifungal drugs was poor and cure was obtained by means of wide surgical excision. Etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing of colonies isolated in Sabouraud agar. After BLAST analysis, the sequence showed 100% identity with those of P. insidiosum deposited on the GenBank.

  8. Exploring Broad Genetic Resources Available to Sugarcane

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is used for sugar and energy. It has a high photosynthetic efficiency and is one of the most productive crops globally. Breeders of energycane and sugarcane have overlapping goals in creating cultivars that resist biotic and abiotic stresses. The World Collection of Sugarc...

  9. Elimination of five sugarcane viruses from sugarcane using in vitro culture of axillary bud and apical meristem

    Procedures were developed for the in vitro elimination of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) and Fiji disease virus (FDV) from infected sugarcane. In vitro shoot regeneration, elongation and virus el...

  10. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I.; Mattos, Raphael S.; Ferreira, Thaís H.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cu...

  11. MicroRNAs and Drought Responses in Sugarcane

    Marcelo Menossi Menossi; Agustina eGentile; Thaís Helena Ferreira; Raphael de Souza Mattos; Lara Isys Dias

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cu...

  12. Efficacy of Antifungal Metabolites of Bacillus spp. for Controlling Tomato Damping-off Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    Warin INTANA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4 strains of bacteria were isolated from the leaf surface of the rambutan using a tissue transplanting technique. They were characterized, by a dual culture test, for their efficacy to inhibit mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of the damping-off on tomato. All 4 strains significantly inhibited mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA at room temperature (27 °C. B-NST-02 and B-NST-03 gave values of inhibition of 62.0 % and   57.5 %, respectively. All strains were identified as Bacillus spp. Antifungal metabolites extracted from all 4 strains were tested at 1,000 mg/l. Tomato seedlings treated in the laboratory with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 showed germination of 85.5 % and 82.0 %, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, seedling treated with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 provided seed germination rates were 92.5 % and 92.0 %, respectively, while the controls treated with either sterile water or 2 % methanol had only 28.0 % and 26.5 % seed germination rates, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from 4 strains of Bacillus spp. showed no visible growth, while the control with sterile water or 2 % methanol, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered the whole surface of the PDA in the Petri dish within 5 days.

  13. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    José Marcos Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. At all sites, in-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components, internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply and crop demand (potential yield. Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1 were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1 and N:K (0.5:1 ratios.

  14. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    Leite, José M.; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; Mariano, Eduardo; Vieira-Megda, Michele X.; Trivelin, Paulo C. O.

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers) and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. In-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components), internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio) and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K) were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential–linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply) and crop demand (potential yield). Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K) and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1) were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1) and N:K (0.5:1) ratios.

  15. Runoff generation and soil detachment in a small sugarcane watershed of Southeast Brazil

    Gomes, T. F.; Costa Silva, R. W.; Moraes, J. M.; Mazzi, E. A.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil is the world largest sugarcane producer, with a cropped area of approximately 10 million hectares. Soil erosion and its implications are some of the neglected environmental problems in sugarcane fields. In this study a plot of 6 hectares cropped with sugarcane, encompassing a 30 meters of riparian forest bordering a stream was chosen. Two pluviometers were installed in an open area in order to measure the amount and intensity of rain during the rainy season. Surface runoff generation and soil detachment were estimated by plots installed in cultivated and riparian areas. Bathymetry was carried out in the stream channel to estimate the soil mass settled on the stream bed. The sources of organic matter was investigated by carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopic compositions. In the earlier stages of the crop, the rain intensity strongly influenced runoff generation and soil detachment; that were minimized with the plant growth. In riparian areas, runoff and soil detachment occurred only during intense events. The total rainfall was approximately 1300 mm, in one slope of the sugarcane field, approximately 5% of this rainfall drained from the watershed as surface runoff; in the other slope this proportion increased to approximately 11%, and in the riparian forest decreased to less than 2%. The soil detachment was approximately 1,000 g.m-2 in one sugarcane slope, and increased to approximately 4,800 g m-2 in the other slope, decreasing in the riparian forest to only 50 g m-2. The difference in runoff and soil detachment observed between the two sugarcane slopes was due to the sugarcane growth stage and soil properties. Using the bathymetry conducted in the stream channel, we estimated that 3.6 Mg of sediment per hectare were settled on the stream bed during the rainy season (0.6 Mg.ha-1 per month). The averages δ13C and δ15N of soil from forest areas were -27.6 ± 0.2 ‰ and 4.3 ± 0.4 ‰, respectively. In the sugarcane areas, the averages δ13C

  16. Impact of Climate Change on Sugarcane Crop at Regional Scale: A Study with Remote Sensing and GIS

    Shruti, Y.; Gouda, K. C.; P P, N. R.; Bhat, N.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of climate on the growth and yield of sugarcane at the Bagalkot region of Karnataka state in India which generally famous for the sugarcane production in the country. In the present study climate parameters like rainfall, temperature, solar radiation, soil moisture, humidity etc. observed from multi-source observations like remote sensing satellite, NCEP reanalysis, India Meteorological Department (IMD) observations etc. are used to analyze the climate change over the study region in terms of the climatology, inter annual variability and trend analysis of the climate parameters at long term scale. There is a signature of increasing trend in temperature and decreasing trend in the seasonal monsoon rainfall. Impact of drought years on the sugarcane crop has been determined. To quantify the climate change the Land use Land cover (LULC) classification of the region is carried out and the relative changes in different LULC classes are discussed, which shows the agriculture is being decreased in 14 years of the analysis. Then to know the impact of climate parameters and on the sugarcane crop production, the correlation analysis of the climate parameters and sugarcane yield are presented using the real observation and which clearly showed the solar radiation is highly correlated with the sugarcane production compared to other climate parameters (Figure 1). The satellite derived NDVI is used to compute the NDVI Grand Growth Period [∑NDVI(GGP)] and the correlation of it with sugarcane crop yield for the period 2000-2013 and the empirical relation is derived, which can be implemented in future with some weather forecasting models like General Circulation Model (GCM) for the prediction of the sugarcane yield in advance.

  17. Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls

    Patrick Schmidt; Luiz Gustavo Nussio; Oscar Cézar Müller Queiroz; Mateus Castilho Santos; Maity Zopollatto; Sérgio Gil de Toledo Filho; João Luiz Pratti Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes β-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control) or with L. buchneri at a theoretical application rate of 5 × 10(4) cfu/g, 1 × 10(5) cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5) cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo) and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 ...

  18. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    Debora Danielle Virginio da Silva; Elisangela de Jesus Cândido; Priscila Vaz de Arruda; Silvio Silvério da Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with diff...

  19. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio; Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes; Daniele Araújo Teles; José Guedes Sena Filho; Alberto Cargnelutti Filho; Marcelo Araújo Resende; Leandro Vargas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], gly...

  20. First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan

    During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

  1. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  2. Nematode Interactions with Weeds and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus in Louisiana Sugarcane

    Showler, A. T.; Reagan, T. E.; Shao, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    Weeds did not appear to serve as reservoirs for phytophagous Louisiana sugarcane nematode populations except for Criconemella spp., Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchorhynchus annulatus, and total phytophagous nematode densities were lower on weed-stressed cane and were accompanied by reduced accumulations of free cysteine, proline, and 13 other free amino acids in sugarcane. A significant weed-virus interaction for sugarcane free cysteine accumulation was detected; T. annulatus populations were highl...

  3. Effect of Potassium Damping-off (Pythium sp and Rhizoctonia solani) and Cold Tolerance on Tobacco Seedlings

    GÜNGÖR, Özlem

    1998-01-01

    Effect of Potassium on damping off tobacco caused by Pythium sp and Rhizoctonia solani were investigated by giving 10, 20, 30 kg/da (5, 10, 15 ppm) K2SO4 as K2O base and pathogen inoculum at the same time at green house experiments. Potassium application did not present disease development at all three rates, but at the rate of 20 kg/da K2O there were a slight seedling cover of 13,75% and 3,75% for Pythium sp. and R.solani especially. Potassium at the rate of 10 kg/da prevented cold shock of...

  4. Isolation of Pythium oligandrum from Egyptian soil and its mycoparasitic effect on Pythium ultimum var. ultimum the damping-off organism of wheat.

    Abdelzaher, H M; Elnaghy, M A; Fadl-Allah, E M

    1997-01-01

    Pythium oligandrum Drechsler bearing spherical sporangia with complex subglobose elements was isolated for the first time in Egypt from agricultural field soil cultivated with alfalfa (Trifolium alexandrinum) in El-Minia, Egypt. This fungus was found to be an active bio-control agent against P. ultimum var. ultimum, the damping-off organism of wheat. In agar plates, P. oligandrum parasitized P. ultimum var. ultimum hyphae with the aid of thin haustorial branches or infection pegs, eventually leading to host destruction. Incorporation of P. oligandrum into carboxymethylcellulose seed coating successfully eliminated pre-emergence damping-off of wheat caused by P. ultimum var. ultimum, whereas Post-emergence damping-off was prevented by adding inocula of P. oligandrum to the soil. PMID:16284719

  5. Investigations on Sugarcane De-Trashing Mechanisms

    Joby Bastian, B. Shridar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is the second most important industrial crop in India grown in 4.4 million hectares with an average productivity of about 68 tonnes per hectare (Anon.2013. To mitigate the labour scarcity and ensure timely operations mechanization is a must. Mechanisation will also improve the overall energy use efficiency of sugarcane based farming (Duttamajumder et al. 2011. About 45-48% of the total cost of cultivation is accountable to harvesting operation in manual harvesting. Mechanisation of harvesting operations is imperative in increasing the cost effectiveness of sugarcane production system.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  7. Yield and quality of induced mutants in sugarcane

    Twenty-one near-normal and 4 drastic mutants isolated from mutagen-treated (X-rays, gamma rays and chemical mutagens) sugarcane variety 'Co 419' were tested for yield and juice quality. Mutants '368. and '419/1' had higher yield of cane and higher commercial cane sugar than 'Co 419'. Several mutants, especially the drastic mutants, had higher percentage of sucrose than 'Co 419'. The types with higher percentage of sucrose occurred much more frequently than the higher-yielding ones, indicating more frequent occurrence of disturbances in growth, resulting in diversion of more sucrose to storage than to the apical meristem. (auth.)

  8. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Maia Ivan G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  9. Isolation and Structural Speculation of Herbicide-Active Compounds from the Metabolites of Pythium aphanidermatum

    ZHANG Li-hui; ZHANG Jin-lin; LIU Ying-chao; CAO Zhi-yan; HAN Jian-min; YANG Juan; DONG Jin-gao

    2013-01-01

    Natural herbicides, or environment-friendly bioherbicides have been attracted more and more attentions. Isolation and structural identification of natural herbicide-active compounds from plant pathogens has been proved to be an effective approach for novel lead discovery of the pesticide development. In this study, the metabolites of the mutant strain PAM1, which obtained from PA1 of Pythium aphanidermatum (Eds.) Fitzp by ultraviolet radiation were separated and identified by HPLC, NMR, and IR. The results revealed that three active compounds including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid and two indole derivatives, exhibited inhibition activity on the elongation of radical and coleoptile of Digtaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

  10. In Vitro Synergism between Azithromycin or Terbinafine and Topical Antimicrobial Agents against Pythium insidiosum.

    Itaqui, Sabrina R; Verdi, Camila M; Tondolo, Juliana S M; da Luz, Thaisa S; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M; Loreto, Érico S

    2016-08-01

    We describe here in vitro activity for the combination of azithromycin or terbinafine and benzalkonium, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium, mupirocin, triclosan, or potassium permanganate. With the exception of potassium permanganate, the remaining antimicrobial drugs were active and had an MIC90 between 2 and 32 μg∕ml. The greatest synergism was observed for the combination of terbinafine and cetrimide (71.4%). In vivo experimental evaluations will clarify the potential of these drugs for the topical treatment of lesions caused by Pythium insidiosum. PMID:27216049

  11. The effect of dressing controlled release fertilizer on sugarcane yield and benefit in difference growth period%不同生育期追施控释肥料对甘蔗产量及效益的影响

    周柳强; 黄金生; 黄美福; 谢如林; 谭宏伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the contrast of the sugarcane conventional fertilization (base fertilizer, tillering fertilizer, elongation fertilizer) period, reducing fertilization times of 1-2, the equal fertilization amount, the test results of the two different location show: in tillering to elongation period dressing one-time controlled release fertilizer can keep a certain amount of productive tiller, which is also beneficial to elongation and improving diameter, high sugarcane yield, low labor cost, and worthy to be applied and popularized.%以甘蔗常规施肥(基肥、分蘖肥、伸长肥)为对照,减少1-2次施肥次数,施肥总量不变,两个不同地点的试验结果表明,在分蘖至伸长期间追施一次控释肥料,既可保持一定量的有效茎数,又对甘蔗茎的伸长、增粗有利,并可获得较好的产量,人工费用低,值得推广应用。

  12. AN APPROACH TO FINANCIAL RISK IN A PORTFOLIO FOR PLANNING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM SUGARCANE

    Thárcylla R.N. Clemente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil's location and tropical weather conditions are favourable cultivating sugarcane, which has led to Brazil being one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The influence of the sugarcane industry on its economy stands out among the indicators of Brazilian economic growth and because the diversified investment when planning the production of products derived from this sector is encouraged. The decision on which derivative (for example, crystal sugar, anhydrous ethanol, or hydrous ethanol to produce from raw sugarcane can be modelled as an investment decision in a portfolio decision problem whenever a combination of these products is considered. As to the future price of these commodities, raw sugarcane is considered to be capital that should be invested. Thus, this paper puts forward a decision model which uses concepts from Decision Analysis and Bayesian Risk Analysis that may well assist the process of managing assets in the Brazilian sugarcane industry by considering the financial aspect when compiling a portfolio for planning production.

  13. Control of Chinese-kale damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum by antifungal metabolites of Trichoderma virens

    Chiradej Chamswarng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven strains of Trichoderma virens were isolated from Chinese-kale planting soil in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Efficacy of those isolates to inhibit mycelial growth and overgrow on mycelia ofPythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of damping-off on Chinese-kale, were determined by a dual culture test. All strains significantly inhibited growth and overgrew on mycelia of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA as compared with the control. Strains T-NST-01, T-NST-05 and T-NST-07 gave high values of inhibition by 85.5, 82.5 and 78.5%, respectively. For efficacy to overgrow on mycelia of pathogen test, strains T-NST-05, T-NST-07 and T-NST-01 provided 48.3, 47.0 and 46.1% of mycelial overgrowth, respectively. Antifungal metabolites were extracted from three promising strains and tested against mycelial growth and sporangium production of P. aphanidermatum. The results showed that 1,000 mg/L of all metabolites completely inhibited mycelial growth and sporangium production. Under laboratory condition, all metabolites (1,000 mg/L significantly increased the number of Chinese-kale seedling germination, especially the metabolites from T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 provided germination of 92.5 and 87.5%, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, Chinese-kale seedlings treated with 1,000 mg/L of metabolites from strains T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 survived by 90.5 and 87.5%, respectively, while the control 1 (sterile water and control 2 (2% methanol had 19.0 and 18.5% of survived seedlings, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from three strains of T. virens showed no visible growth, while the control with 2% methanol or sterile water, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered whole surface of PDA in of the Petri dish within 4 days.

  14. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  15. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  16. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production

  17. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  18. Cyclic lipopeptide surfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 is not required for suppression of complex Pythium spp. populations

    Previously, zoosporicidal activity and control of Pythium intermedium by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 was attributed, in part, to the production of the cyclic lipopeptide surfactant massetolide A. In the current study, capacity of SS101 and its surfactant-deficient mutant strain 10.24 to sup...

  19. Long-term suppression of Pythium abappressorium induced by Brassica juncea seed meal amendment is biologically mediated

    Evidence indicates that seed meal of Brassica juncea is an effective biofumigant against Pythium spp., an important biological component contributing to apple replant disease. However, the ability of this seed meal to render disease suppression even after termination of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) e...

  20. PCR based identification of Pythium spp. causing cavity spot in carrots and sensitive detection in soil samples

    Cavity spot is caused by several Pythium species and is one of the most economically important diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Diagnosis of the pathogens in soil and in carrot tissue has been complicated. On the bases of ITS sequences PCR primers were designed for the identification of the fi...

  1. RESISTANCE TO PHYTOPHTHORA ERYTHROSEPTICA AND PYTHIUM ULTIMUM IN A POTATO CLONE DERIVED FROM S. BERTHAULTII AND S. ETUBEROSUM

    Tubers of several potato clones and cultivars were screened for susceptibility to infection by zoospores of Phytophthora erythroseptica and mycelia of Pythium ultimum over a three year period, from 2003-2005. Incidence of infected tubers (%) and penetration of rot (mm) were the parameters used to de...

  2. Simple detection of Pythium irregulare using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Feng, Wenzhuo; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Hotta, Keisuke; Watanabe, Hideki; Suga, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Koji

    2015-11-01

    Pythium irregulare is an important soil-borne pathogen that causes seed, stem and root rot, and seedling damping-off in various crops. Here, we have developed a rapid and reliable approach for detecting the pathogen using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in combination with primers designed from the sequences of the P. irregulare ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. The specificity of the primers for P. irregulare was tested using 50 isolates of 40 Pythium species, 11 Phytophthora isolates and 8 isolates of 7 other soil-borne pathogens. The assay showed that the limit of sensitivity of the LAMP method was 100 fg of pure DNA, a similar level to that of a polymerase chain reaction. LAMP detected P. irregulare from the supernatant after mixing culture medium (template DNA source) with distilled water. Similarly, positive results were obtained using a 'Plant-LAMP' method applied to a suspension rotted roots in water. A 'Bait-LAMP' method using the supernatant of autoclaved perilla seeds incubated in a soil/water mixture for 1 week at 25°C successfully detected P. irregulare from the soil. The LAMP assay described in this study is therefore a simple and effective way for practical detection of P. irregulare. PMID:26394643

  3. Effects of traffic control on the soil physical quality and the cultivation of sugarcane

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane with intensive use of machinery, especially for harvest, induces soil compaction, affecting the crop development. The control of agricultural traffic is an alternative of management in the sector, with a view to preserve the soil physical quality, resulting in increased sugarcane root growth, productivity and technological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Oxisol with and without control traffic and the resulting effects on sugarcane root development, productivity and technological quality. The following managements were tested: no traffic control (NTC, traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and sugarcane trailer (TC1 and traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and trailer and use of an autopilot (TC2. Soil samples were collected (layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m in the plant rows, inter-row center and seedbed region, 0.30 m away from the plant row. The productivity was measured with a specific weighing scale. The technological variables of sugarcane were measured in each plot. Soil cores were collected to analyze the root system. In TC2, the soil bulk density and compaction degree were lowest and total porosity and macroporosity highest in the plant row. Soil penetration resistance in the plant row, was less than 2 MPa in TC1 and TC2. Soil aggregation and total organic carbon did not differ between the management systems. The root surface and volume were increased in TC1 and TC2, with higher productivity and sugar yield than under NTC. The sugarcane variables did not differ between the managements. The soil physical quality in the plant row was preserved under management TC1 and TC2, with an improved root development and increases of 18.72 and 20.29 % in productivity and sugar yield, respectively.

  4. ISOLATION OF AND SCREENING FOR BIOCONTROLLING RHIZOBACTERIA AGAINST TOBACCO DAMPING-OFF (PYTHIUM SPP.)%烟草猝倒病生防根际细菌的分离与筛选

    方敦煌; 李梅云; 李天飞

    2001-01-01

    Five tobacco rhizospheric soil samples were collected from healthy to bacco plants in a heavy diseased field. After isolation and purification, 876 st rains of rihizobacteria (RB) were obtained. In pairing culture on PDA, 44 strai n s steadily showed antagonistic effect on Pythium spp. Sixteen strains had a rest raining effect of more than 75.0%, and 6 strains appeared comparable with the ch emical fungicide metalaxyl-Mn-Zn in their Pythium-inhibiting effect through seed germination experiment and seedling inoculation test in a greenhouse. Five of t he 16 strains also showed a growth-promoting effect on the tobacco seedlings.%采集重病烟田的健株根际土样5份,分离根际细菌876株,平皿拮抗筛选拮抗活性较稳定的菌株44个。通过发芽测定、温室盆栽试验,筛选到防效在75.0%以上、防效较稳定的菌株16个,与甲霜灵锰锌药剂对照效果相当的有6株。在温室试验中,也发现防效较好的16个菌株中有5株具促生作用。

  5. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  6. Development Strategy of Sugarcane Industry in Guangdong Province

    CHEN Yue-gui; WU Jian-tao; YANG Jun-xian; LI Qi-wei; XIE Jing; PAN Fang-yin; WU Wen-long; LIU Fu-ye; DENG Hai-hua; QI Yong-wen

    2012-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the main producing areas of sugarcane in China, and one of China’s three regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, having good basis and conditions for developing sugarcane industry. In this research, using the SWOT-AHP method, we set 20 assessment indicators (such as the regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, huge demand for domestic sugar, increased production costs and backward system of sugarcane), to analyze the development strategy of sugarcane industry in Guangdong Province, from strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of sugarcane industrial development in Guangdong Province. The results show that in order to promote the development of sugarcane industry in Guangdong Province, it is necessary to adopt the SO development strategy (relying on its own strengths and using favorable external environment), to achieve the rapid development.

  7. Influence of siderurgical slag about gaseous changes and production of biomass of sugarcane

    Lúcio Bastos Madeiros

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was installed in greenhouse, using one of the most representative soils of the state of Ceará, Brazil, for sugarcane crop, a Red-Yellow Argissoil. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of silicon in the gas exchange and production of biomass of sugarcane cultivars in sandy loam soil. It was used a completely randomized in 5x2 factorial scheme with five silicon doses: 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0 and 15.0 g per pot-1 of siderurgical slag, two cultivars of sugarcane and four repetitions. The siderurgical slag (calcium and magnesium silicato used containing 11% of soluble SiO2. It was evaluated the silicon level in the leaf, the production of dry matter of the aerial part, the relative growth rate of the plant, the water use efficiency, transpiration and conductance of the leaf. The results showed increase in concentration of Si in leaf with the application of the silicon; practically no influence in growth and physiological characteristics of the plants.Key-words: Argissoil, calcium, greenhouse, sugarcane.

  8. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0

  9. Model for Predicting Climatic Yield of Sugarcane in Nanning City

    Lan, Zhanggui; Li, Guanghai; Liand, Yulian; Yand, Yuhong; Li, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    According to spatial distribution of climate disasters in Nanning City and physiological and ecological indicator demands of sugarcane, with the aid of HJ-1 CCD satellite remote sensing images, basic meteorological data and geographic information data, this paper established the model for predicting climatic yield of sugarcane in Nanning City, to predict total yield of sugarcane in Nanning City. Results indicated that the distribution of sugarcane in Nanning City is greatly influenced by drou...

  10. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    Jun Luo; Yong-Bao Pan; Liping Xu; Michael Paul Grisham; Hua Zhang; Youxiong Que

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the contro...

  11. The Large-Scale Sugarcane Stripper with Automatic Feeding

    Jiaxiang Lin; Wenjie Yan; Jiaping Lin

    2012-01-01

    This study mainly introduce the large-scale sugarcane stripper with automatic feeding, which including the automatic feeding module, cleaning leaves module, collecting module and control module. The machine is an important part of the segmental type sugarcane harvester, using to solve the highest labor intensity problem of cleaning leaves. Collecting the hilly areas sugarcane and cleaning their leaves, can greatly improve the labor productivity and changing the current mode of sugarcane harvest.

  12. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine Based on Motion Controller

    Zhang Dehui

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a common raw material for sugar, but in the process of machining, there will be suspended solids in the cane juice, in order to process better, the sugarcane should be peeled. Traditional way of peeling is by man, production efficiency is low. In this study, a kind of sugarcane peeling machine was designed based on motion controller, it can realize the automation of input, peeling and output. It can make certain contribution for sugarcane processing.

  13. Reuteran and levan as carbohydrate sinks in transgenic sugarcane.

    Bauer, Rolene; Basson, Carin E; Bekker, Jan; Eduardo, Iban; Rohwer, Johann M; Uys, Lafras; van Wyk, Johannes H; Kossmann, Jens

    2012-12-01

    The present study reports the effect of high molecular weight bacterial fructan (levan) and glucan (reuteran) on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in transgenic sugarcane plants. These biopolymers are products of bacterial glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glucose or fructose residues from sucrose. Constructs, targeted to different subcellular compartments (cell wall and cytosol) and driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S: maize-ubiquitin promoter, were introduced into sugarcane by biolistic transformation. Polysaccharide accumulation severely affected growth of callus suspension cultures. Regeneration of embryonic callus tissue into plants proved problematic for cell wall-targeted lines. When targeted to the cytosol, only plants with relative low levels of biopolymer accumulation survived. In internodal stalk tissue that accumulate reuteran (max 0.03 mg/g FW), sucrose content (ca 60 mg/g FW) was not affected, while starch content (<0.4 mg/g FW) was increased up to four times. Total carbohydrate content was not significantly altered. On the other hand, starch and sucrose levels were significantly reduced in plants accumulating levan (max 0.01 mg/g FW). Heterologous expression resulted in a reduction in total carbohydrate assimilation rather than a simple diversion by competition for substrate. PMID:22903192

  14. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail

    2014-06-09

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70. kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. © 2014 The Authors.

  15. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.

    Mohammad Suhail Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%, catalytic activity (13%, cell growth (10% and transport related proteins (6%. A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane.

  16. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Khraiwesh, Basel; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Gupta, Ram Sagar; Singh, Jyotsnendra; Duttamajumder, Sanjoy Kumar; Kapur, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. PMID:25009768

  17. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004 and succeeding crop years are as...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  19. Soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period: influence on soil chemical and physical properties and on sugarcane productivity

    Roniram Pereira da Silva; Carolina Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The planting of diversified crops during the sugarcane fallow period can improve the chemical and physical properties and increase the production potential of the soil for the next sugarcane cycle. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period on soil chemical and physical properties and productivity after the first sugarcane harvest. The experiment was conducted in two areas located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazi...

  20. Compost-Induced Suppression of Pythium Damping-Off Is Mediated by Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Seed-Colonizing Microbial Communities

    McKellar, Mary E.; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    Leaf composts were studied for their suppressive effects on Pythium ultimum sporangium germination, cottonseed colonization, and the severity of Pythium damping-off of cotton. A focus of the work was to assess the role of fatty-acid-metabolizing microbial communities in disease suppression. Suppressiveness was expressed within the first few hours of seed germination as revealed by reduced P. ultimum sporangium germination, reduced seed colonization, and reduced damping-off in transplant exper...

  1. Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

  2. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  3. Supplementation of sugarcane bagasse with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) spawn production

    Rossi Ivan Henrique; Monteiro Antonio Carlos; Machado José Octavio; Barbosa José Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the myceliation rate, mycelial vigor and "estimated biomass" of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, grown on a sugarcane bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for spawn production. The proportions of rice bran used were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse) and the sugarcane molasses concentrations tested were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran). The mycel...

  4. Efficient and repeated production of succinic acid by turning sugarcane bagasse into sugar and support.

    Chen, Pengcheng; Tao, Shengtao; Zheng, Pu

    2016-07-01

    Here we reported an endeavor in making full use of sugarcane bagasse for biological production of succinic acid. Through NaOH pre-treatment and multi-enzyme hydrolysis, a reducing sugar solution mainly composed of glucose and xylose was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse. By optimizing portions of cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase and pectinase in the multi-enzyme "cocktail", the hydrolysis percentage of the total cellulose in pre-treated sugarcane bagasse can be as high as 88.5%. A. succinogenes CCTCC M2012036 was used for converting reducing sugars into succinic acid in a 3-L bioreactor with a sugar-fed strategy to prevent cell growth limitation. Importantly, cells were found to be adaptive on the sugarcane bagasse residue, offering possibilities of repeated batch fermentation and replacement for MgCO3 with soluble NaHCO3 in pH modulation. Three cycles of fermentation without activity loss were realized with the average succinic acid yield and productivity to be 80.5% and 1.65g·L(-1)·h(-1). PMID:27035471

  5. Development of cassava plants and its mycorrhizal association in soil supplemented with sugarcane agroindustrial residue

    Jorge Messias Leal Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic agroindustrial residues on agriculture can be one way to improve the development and chemical composition of plants, reducing the cost with chemical fertilizers and impacts generated by the excessive use of them. Sugarcane agroindustrial residue has been generated in high quantity in Brazilian semiarid region and can be applied to cassava crop to improve its growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of sugarcane agroindustrial residue on the vegetative development, chemical composition and mycorrhizal association of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta var. Engana ladrão. It was performed an experiment in greenhouse with completely randomized design with four treatments of addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue (0, 5, 10 and 15% with nine replicates. The addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue increased fresh dry root biomass, leaf area, crude protein and mineral matter, without reducing the mycorrhizal colonization and glomerospores number. This type of residue can be one alternative to improve the nutritional value of these fodder.

  6. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  7. Induction and isolation of mutants in sugarcane

    A review of the progress made on the induction of mutations in sugarcane at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, is presented. A description of some of the mutants is given. A few disease-resistant mutants have been obtained. Yield of C.C.S./ha of some of the mutants has surpassed the parent variety. Selection based on individual canes has increased the mutation rate and stability of mutants. Different techniques such as decapitation, closer planting and growing vM1 generation at different N levels have been observed to be promising methods to increase mutation rate. Raising of plants from mutated tissues by in vitro culture seems to be a potential tool in induced mutagenesis in sugarcane. (author)

  8. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    Neves Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

  9. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) in sugarcane plantations

    Paulo H.D. Cançado; Taciany Ferreira; Eliane M. Piranda; Cleber O. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology a...

  10. Microbial Properties of Composts That Suppress Damping-Off and Root Rot of Creeping Bentgrass Caused by Pythium graminicola.

    Craft, C M; Nelson, E B

    1996-05-01

    Composts prepared from a variety of feedstocks were tested for their ability to suppress seedling and root diseases of creeping bentgrass caused by Pythium graminicola. Among the most suppressive materials in laboratory experiments were different batches of a brewery sludge compost and a biosolids compost from Endicott, N.Y. Batches of these composts that were initially not suppressive to Pythium damping-off became more suppressive with increasing compost age. Leaf, yard waste, food, and spent mushroom composts as well as certain biosolids, cow manure, chicken-cow manure, and leaf-chicken manure composts were not suppressive to Pythium damping-off. In some cases, turkey litter, chicken manure, chicken-leaf, and food waste composts were inhibitory to creeping bentgrass seed germination in laboratory experiments. Microbial populations varied among all of the composts tested. Bacterial populations were high in all composts except the turkey litter compost, in which populations were 1,000- to 10,000-fold lower than in the other composts tested. Among the highest populations of heterotrophic fungi and antibiotic-producing actinomycetes were those found in all batches of the brewery sludge compost, whereas the lowest populations were found in turkey litter, chicken manure, and food waste composts. Heat treatment of suppressive composts reduced populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in all composts tested. Disease suppressiveness was also reduced or eliminated in heated composts. Amending heated composts with small amounts of nonheated compost restored suppressive properties and partially restored microbial populations to wild-type levels. A strong negative relationship between compost microbial activity (as measured by the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) and Pythium damping-off severity was observed. When composts were applied to creeping bentgrass in field experiments, a significant level of suppressiveness was evident with some composts when disease

  11. EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum

    LILIANA SERNA-COCK

    2011-12-01

    ças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal.The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

  12. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  13. Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane

    L Potgieter; JH van Vuuren; DE Conlong

    2012-01-01

    A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model...

  14. Biology of Azospirillum-Sugarcane Association: Enhancement of Nitrogenase Activity †

    Berg, R. Howard; Tyler, Max E.; Novick, Norman J.; Vasil, Vimla; Vasil, Indra K.

    1980-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense was reisolated from associations with callus tissue cultures of sugarcane and compared with stock cultures of the inoculated bacterium and related strains. Although the reisolate had a growth rate similar to stock cultures, it exhibited a severalfold increase in maximum specific activity of nitrogenase. The reisolate and the parent culture had similar ultrastructure. The general ultrastructure of Azospirillum is described. The bacterium was capsulated when grown on nit...

  15. Gliotoxin-producing endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale found antagonistic to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum.

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-04-01

    Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M + H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus. PMID:25820297

  16. Model for Predicting Climatic Yield of Sugarcane in Nanning City

    Zhanggui; LAN; Guanghai; LI; Yulian; LIANG; Yuhong; YANG; Xiaoping; LI

    2014-01-01

    According to spatial distribution of climate disasters in Nanning City and physiological and ecological indicator demands of sugarcane,with the aid of HJ- 1 CCD satellite remote sensing images,basic meteorological data and geographic information data,this paper established the model for predicting climatic yield of sugarcane in Nanning City,to predict total yield of sugarcane in Nanning City. Results indicated that the distribution of sugarcane in Nanning City is greatly influenced by drought. In 2010,regions suffered from drought had sugarcane planting area of 346. 20 km2,accounting for 18.88% of the total sugarcane planting area. The influence of frost disaster on distribution of sugarcane in Nanning City is limited. Regions suffered from frost had sugarcane planting area of only 67. 1 km2,taking up 3.75% of the total sugarcane planting area. In 2010,the climatic yield of sugarcane in Nanning City was 8. 8446 million tons. It proved that the prediction accuracy of the model is up to 90%.

  17. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle reduces production expenses and could increase profitability if yields are not adversely affected. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both ...

  18. PROJECTED COSTS AND RETURNS - SUGARCANE, LOUISIANA, 1997

    Champagne, Lonnie P.; Salassi, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents estimates of costs and returns associated with sugarcane production practices in Louisiana for 1997. It is part of a continuing effort to provide farmers, researchers, extension personnel, lending agencies and others working in agriculture and/or agribusiness timely planning information.

  19. Efficient Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements of Sugarcane

    As with many crops, chlorophyll fluorescence emission is a promising tool for measuring responses of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) to biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll fluorescence can be easily measured using portable fluorometers. However, several factors should be considered in order to op...

  20. Sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technlogical information

    Souza, M.I.F.; Oliveira, D.R.M.S.; Marin, F.R.; Santos, A.D.; Hanashiro, M.M. [Embrapa Agriculture Informatics, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Vian, C.E.F; Sollero, G.C.; Andrioli, K.G. [Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture/University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work describes Embrapa's (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) pioneer initiative creating an online service which provides sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technological information. Embrapa has developed software tools for structuring Knowledge Trees, management contents, graphic visualization (hyperbolic tree) and it has also developed its own methodologies for organizing information. The Knowledge Tree is designed in the patterns of the productive chain of sugarcane; the sets of data present the main instructions, recommendations and technologies produced by Brazilian public research institutions. It is intended to offer an ample amount of pertinent and relevant technical information - displayed at Embrapa Information Agency website - to many professionals in the sugarcane sector, especially for producers, students and technical support staff. Moreover, it is expected to contribute to the enhancement of the technology transference process to allow competitive gains in Brazilian agri-business and to socialize knowledge - which is the mission of Embrapa in its business. It is still expected to contribute to the diffusion of technological information and the knowledge of sugarcane for the areas of tropical agriculture around the world.

  1. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group; Esterilizacao quimica da broca da cana-de-acucar Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) atraves de isca com melaco e inseticidas do grupo dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos

    Sazaki, Catia Sumie Shimatai. E-mail csazaki@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to

  2. Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables

    Ricardo A. Ferreira Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT e a estimativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT. A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados.Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint and the estimated accumulative GP. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART, which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach

  3. Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

    Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil, with the sugarcane variety SP81-3250, on soil classified as Acrudox, in a randomized block design with split-split plots and four replications. The main treatments consisted of harvest systems (harvesting green cane or burnt cane, the secondary treatment consisted of the mechanical cultural practices in the interrows and the tertiary treatments were N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg ha-1, using ammonium nitrate (33 % N as N source. The harvest systems did not differ in sugarcane yield (tons of cane per hectare - TCH, but in burnt cane, the pol percent and total sugar recovery (TSR were higher. This could be explained by the higher quantity of plant impurities in the harvested raw material in the system without burning, which reduces the processing quality. Mechanical cultural practices in the interrows after harvest had no effect on cane yield and sugar quality, indicating that this operation can be omitted in areas with mechanical harvesting. The application of N fertilizer at rates of 88 and 144 kg ha-1 N, respectively, increased stalk height and TCH quadratically to the highest values for these variables. For the sugar yield per hectare (in pol %, N fertilization induced a linear increase.

  4. Deciphering the transcriptomic response of Fusarium verticillioides in relation to nitrogen availability and the development of sugarcane pokkah boeng disease.

    Lin, Zhenyue; Wang, Jihua; Bao, Yixue; Guo, Qiang; Powell, Charles A; Xu, Shiqiang; Chen, Baoshan; Zhang, Muqing

    2016-01-01

    Pokkah boeng, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is a serious disease in sugarcane industry. The disease severity is related to the sugarcane genotype as well as environmental considerations, such as nitrogen application. The impact of the nitrogen source (ammonium sulfate, urea, or sodium nitrate) on sugarcane pokkah boeng disease and its pathogen was investigated in planta and fungal growth and sporulation production was measured in vitro. The results showed that ammonium and nitrate were beneficial to fungal mycelium growth, cell densities, and sporulation, which enhanced the disease symptoms of sugarcane pokkah boeng compared to urea fertilization. A total of 1,779 transcripts out of 13,999 annotated genes identified from global transcriptomic analysis were differentially expressed in F. verticillioides CNO-1 grown in the different sources of nitrogen. These were found to be involved in nitrogen metabolism, transport, and assimilation. Many of these genes were also associated with pathogenicity based on the PHI-base database. Several transcription factors were found to be associated with specific biological processes related to nitrogen utilization. Our results further demonstrated that nitrogen availability might play an important role in disease development by increasing fungal cell growth as well as influencing the expression of genes required for successful pathogenesis. PMID:27434999

  5. 甘蔗套种香芋免耕栽培技术应用研究%Sugarcane interplanting taro Cultivation Technology Application Research

    阎德爱

    2014-01-01

    利用甘蔗宿根蔗前期生长缓慢的较大空间,以及前造甘蔗收获后留下的蔗叶,在蔗沟内套种香芋进行免耕栽培。结果表明,香芋产量6010.5kg/hm2,产值达到12021元/hm2,套种香芋地块的甘蔗产量与不套种香芋的甘蔗产量基本持平,既不影响甘蔗产量,又增加了经济收入。%The larger space of slow growth early use of sugarcane ratoon sugarcane, sugarcane leaves before the left and after harvest of sugar-cane, for no til age cultivation in sugarcane interplanting taro trench. The results showed that the yield of 6010.5kg/hm2, taro, output value reached 12021 yuan/hm2, interplanting taro plots of sugarcane yield and not interplanting taro sugar cane production flat, which does not af-fect the sugar cane production, and increase economic income.

  6. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes. PMID:25012031

  7. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23900800

  8. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    Rokhsar Daniel S; Van Sluys Marie-Anne; Bowers John; Wiley Graham; Najar Fares; Chen Cuixia; Tang Haibao; Murray Jan E; Yu Qingyi; Macmil Simone; Roe Bruce; Wang Jianping; Hudson Matthew E; Moose Stephen P; Paterson Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugar...

  9. ANALYSIS OF FARMERS' AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE IN SUGARCANE CULTIVATION

    Karim, Masud; Hossain, M. Delwar

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess farmers' agricultural knowledge in sugarcane cultivation. The specific objectives of the study were to i) describe the selected characteristics of the farmers, ii) determine the extent of farmers agricultural knowledge in sugarcane cultivation, and iii) determine the relationships between the selected characteristics of the farmers and their agricultural knowledge in sugarcane cultivation. Data were collected from a randomly selected 140 farmers th...

  10. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    João Luís Nunes Carvalho; Rafael Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estim...

  11. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    G. M. Souza; M.-A. Van-Sluys; Vincentz, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Menossi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regul...

  12. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Background In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and to...

  13. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Douglas L. Karlen; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e...

  14. Modelling response patterns of physico-chemical indicators during high-rate composting of green waste for suppression of Pythium ultimum.

    St Martin, Chaney C G; Bekele, Isaac; Eudoxie, Gaius D; Bristol, Dexter; Brathwaite, Richard A I; Campo, Kenia-Rosa

    2014-01-01

    High-rate composting studies on green waste, i.e. banana leaves (BL) and lawn clippings (LC), were conducted in 0.25-m3 rotary barrel composters to evaluate and model changes in key physico-chemical parameters during composting. Time to compost maturity and antagonistic effects and relationships of composts against Pythium ultimum were also investigated. Higher temperatures were achieved in LC compost (LCC), which did not translate to higher total organic carbon (TOC) loss but resulted in lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and a more mature compost. With the exception of electrical conductivity (EC), net decreases were observed in pH, TOC and C:N across compost types. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) showed a net increase in LCC and a net decrease in BLC. With the exception of TOC and pH, the results showed that compost type and time had a significant effect on the respective TKN, EC and C:N models. Compost temperature and TOC were best described by the critical exponential and rectangular hyperbola functions, respectively. Whereas TKN, C:N and pH were described using double Fourier functions and EC using Fourier functions. Composts achieved maturity within 19 days and significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum. Bacterial population was positively related to growth inhibition (GI) across compost types, whereas total microbial population had a positive relationship with GI in LCC. Evidence suggests that multiple groups of microorganisms contributed to GI through antibiosis and competition for resources. Composts were determined to be suitable for use as components of plant growth substrates based on compost maturity indices. PMID:24645438

  15. Soybean silage and sugarcane tops silage on lamb performance

    Josiane Aparecida de Lima; Ivana Lícia de Campos Gavioli; Cristina Maria Pacheco Barbosa; Alexandre Berndt; Flávia Maria de Andrade Gimenes; Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz; Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of sheep fed with diets consisting of different proportions of soybean silage and sugarcane tip silage. Twenty four lambs from Morada Nova breed were used, with an average age of 75 days and average weight of 16.98±2.62kg. The following diets were evaluated: T1 = 20% sugarcane tops silage + 80% concentrate, T2 = 20% sugarcane tops silage + 30% soybean silage + 50% concentrate, T3 = 20% sugarcane tops silage + 60% soybean silage + 20%...

  16. Screening for Sugarcane Brown Rust in the First Clonal Stage of the Canal Point Sugarcane Breeding Program

    Duli Zhao; R. Wayne Davidson; Miguel Baltazar; Comstock, Jack C.; Per McCord; Sushma Sood

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd.) was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of the great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Brown rust ratings were scaled from non-infection (0) to severe infection (4) with intervals of 0.5 and routinely recorded for geno...

  17. Sugarcane Phenological Date Estimation Using Broad-Band Digital Cameras

    Mobasheri M. Chahardoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agricultural industry, precision farming is the most important task that attracts lots of attentions. The health of the plant depends mostly on the amount of water in its access that can be estimated through vegetation indices. These indices can be extracted from satellite images through Image processing algorithms. The objective of this research was to provide an equation for assessment of the quality of the phenological dates of the sugarcane in Degree-Day (DD which are usually derived using satellite data. Then these calibration equations can be used in the collection of some ground truth data applicable in remote sensing where ever the need arises. A simple way for implementing this task is to develop an algorithm (an equation with which we can (to a limited extent quantify the interaction of light (in the RGB region of spectrum with the plant foliage to have DDs as their outputs. To do this 63 digital photographs were taken in three field campaigns on Sep29, 2006 through Oct1, 2006 from Amirkabir and Dea`bal-Khazaie sugarcane sites located in the south-west of Iran. These photographs included 9 different stages of the sugarcane growth and bare soil. It was found that on the average, the effect of dust on the leaves is an increase in DN values of about 9, 8 and 13 for bands red, green and blue respectively. To find an algorithm for determination of plant phenological date four different methods were used. These were Rectangular Method (RM, Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM, Thresholding Method (TM and Hybrid Method (HM. To test the ability of different methods in the prediction of plants DDs, three photographs with known DDs and vegetation cover percentage were used. Entering these predicted DDs and true values in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the degree of significance level of the predicted value of each method was evaluated. As a result MLM with R2 of 0.987 and TM method with R2 of 0.989 both with significance level of 0.827 were the

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  19. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.

    Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

  20. Isolation and partial purification of toxin from colletotrichum falcatum: the causal agent of red rot in sugarcane

    The red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum) spores were isolated from infected stalk pieces of sugarcane and grown on Czapek Dox agar medium to obtain pure culture. Spores were obtained from the pure culture and grown in Czapec Dox liquid medium for further studies. It was observed that the fresh and dry weights of fungal mycellial mat significantly increased with time. In addition, fungal growth resulted in a significant change in the pH of the Czapec Dox growth medium over a period of 35 days and gradually increased from 6.5 in the control medium to 8.4. The fungal toxin was extracted from the growth medium and used to treat cell suspension of a red rot resistant sugarcane cultivar HSF-240. The maximum toxin was produced after 28 days of fungal growth in the growth medium which was ascertained by the dry weight of residue obtained from the ethyl actate fractions, as well as percent mortality of sugarcane cells in suspension. The LD50 value (50% cell mortality) of toxin in ethyl acetate (ETA) fraction was 22.03 days while in water it was 30 days. The fungal toxin extracted in ETA fractions was more effective than the one extracted in water. It was mainly due to high solubility and potency of the toxin in ETA than in water. In general, the maximum toxicity was noted at the 4th week (28 days) which decreased at 5th and 6th week of mycelial growth. (author)

  1. Drought tolerance conferred to sugarcane by association with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: a transcriptomic view of hormone pathways.

    Vargas, Lívia; Santa Brígida, Ailton B; Mota Filho, José P; de Carvalho, Thais G; Rojas, Cristian A; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van Bel, Michiel; Farrinelli, Laurent; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Vandepoele, Klaas; Hemerly, Adriana S

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane interacts with particular types of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide fixed-nitrogen and plant growth hormones to host plants, promoting an increase in plant biomass. Other benefits, as enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses have been reported to some diazotrophs. Here we aim to study the effects of the association between the diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 and sugarcane cv. SP70-1143 during water depletion by characterizing differential transcriptome profiles of sugarcane. RNA-seq libraries were generated from roots and shoots of sugarcane plants free of endophytes that were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and subjected to water depletion for 3 days. A sugarcane reference transcriptome was constructed and used for the identification of differentially expressed transcripts. The differential profile of non-inoculated SP70-1143 suggests that it responds to water deficit stress by the activation of drought-responsive markers and hormone pathways, as ABA and Ethylene. qRT-PCR revealed that root samples had higher levels of G. diazotrophicus 3 days after water deficit, compared to roots of inoculated plants watered normally. With prolonged drought only inoculated plants survived, indicating that SP70-1143 plants colonized with G. diazotrophicus become more tolerant to drought stress than non-inoculated plants. Strengthening this hypothesis, several gene expression responses to drought were inactivated or regulated in an opposite manner, especially in roots, when plants were colonized by the bacteria. The data suggests that colonized roots would not be suffering from stress in the same way as non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, shoots specifically activate ABA-dependent signaling genes, which could act as key elements in the drought resistance conferred by G. diazotrophicus to SP70-1143. This work reports for the first time the involvement of G. diazotrophicus in the promotion of drought-tolerance to sugarcane cv. SP70

  2. Drought tolerance conferred to sugarcane by association with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: a transcriptomic view of hormone pathways.

    Lívia Vargas

    Full Text Available Sugarcane interacts with particular types of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide fixed-nitrogen and plant growth hormones to host plants, promoting an increase in plant biomass. Other benefits, as enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses have been reported to some diazotrophs. Here we aim to study the effects of the association between the diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 and sugarcane cv. SP70-1143 during water depletion by characterizing differential transcriptome profiles of sugarcane. RNA-seq libraries were generated from roots and shoots of sugarcane plants free of endophytes that were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and subjected to water depletion for 3 days. A sugarcane reference transcriptome was constructed and used for the identification of differentially expressed transcripts. The differential profile of non-inoculated SP70-1143 suggests that it responds to water deficit stress by the activation of drought-responsive markers and hormone pathways, as ABA and Ethylene. qRT-PCR revealed that root samples had higher levels of G. diazotrophicus 3 days after water deficit, compared to roots of inoculated plants watered normally. With prolonged drought only inoculated plants survived, indicating that SP70-1143 plants colonized with G. diazotrophicus become more tolerant to drought stress than non-inoculated plants. Strengthening this hypothesis, several gene expression responses to drought were inactivated or regulated in an opposite manner, especially in roots, when plants were colonized by the bacteria. The data suggests that colonized roots would not be suffering from stress in the same way as non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, shoots specifically activate ABA-dependent signaling genes, which could act as key elements in the drought resistance conferred by G. diazotrophicus to SP70-1143. This work reports for the first time the involvement of G. diazotrophicus in the promotion of drought-tolerance to

  3. Differentiation Between Two Isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum Isolated from Diseased Plants in Two Different Continents

    Hani M.A. Abdelzaher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the differences between two distinct isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, the diseased organisms of wheat and lettuce in agricultural fields in each of Egypt and Germany, respectively. Morphological study indicated that the Egyptian and German isolates comprised a single taxon, P. ultimum var. ultimum, by the current taxonomical keys. The isolates were morphologically distinguished as having smaller or larger sexual organs by the sizes of their antheridia and oogonia. The German isolate grew faster in the lower temperature range of 4-15°C whereas the Egyptian isolate grew faster in the higher temperature range of 25-37°C. Similarities in the sequence of the r-DNA-ITS including the 5.8S rDNA demonstrated evident genetic similarity at the species level between the two isolates and should be used for confirmation of identification of species of Pythium. The two isolates were not distinguishable by their pathogenicity to cucumber seedlings. The effect of temperature, hydrogen ion concentration and osmotic potential on oospores production and germination were studied. Oospores production and germination showed a similar manner, however, the Egyptian isolate produced more oospores than the German isolate. Identification of the Egyptian and German isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum to the species level can be done using sequencing of r-DNA-ITS including the 5.8S rDNA, however, some morphological and physiological differences might present within the same species. This might be attributed to the effect of environmental factors and cultural conditions.

  4. Registration of ‘CPCL 99-4455’ Sugarcane

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The objectives of this research were t...

  5. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the reaction of young, recently planted, or recently ratooned sugarcane during spring months. The purpose of this study was to test t...

  6. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater contam

  7. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    Amandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn. is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane, leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  8. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  9. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

  10. Nuevas especies de Pythium que causan podredumbre radical de Quercus en España y Portugal

    Vicente, M.; Serrano, M.S.; Sánchez Hernández, Esperanza; Trapero Casas, Antonio; Jiménez, J.J.; Fernández, P.

    2008-01-01

    Pythium spiculum, una nueva especie recientemente descrita, se viene aislando desde 2003 de raíces y rizosfera de Quercus rotundifolia y Q. suber que sufren decaimiento en el sur de España y Portugal. En los suelos donde crecen formaciones de Quercus, esta especie ha sido aislada con frecuencias similares a las encontradas para Phytophthora cinnamomi, especie que, hasta el momento, ha sido el único oomiceto descrito como patógeno radical de Quercus en esta región. Las inoculaciones artificial...

  11. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    M. Bacci Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres

  12. Controlled traffic and soil physical quality of an Oxisol under sugarcane cultivation

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machinery traffic in sugarcane (Saccharumsp. plantations reduces soil physical quality, and hinders both root development and crop yield. We evaluated the physical quality of an Oxisol and the development of sugarcane roots under controlled traffic. The treatments assessed were: without controlled machinery traffic (WCT, controlled traffic by adjusting the tractor and infield wagons to a 3.0 m track width with the operator guiding the machinery (CT1 and the previous treatment using real time kinematic / global positioning system (RTK / GPS precision auto steer (CT2. Soil samples were collected from the planting rows, seedbed and inter-row center to determine the least limiting water range (LLWR and soil porosity from scanned 2-D images. The root dry mass was sampled from monoliths, separated from the soil by washing through a 2-mm sieve and dried in an oven. A higher LLWR was observed in the planting row under CT1 and CT2 than under WCT. The planting row had a predominance of complex pores with a diameter > 500 µm in the 0.15-0.27 m depth layer under CT1 and CT2. In the planting rows under WCT, the root dry mass was only 44 % of that measured under CT2. Benefits regarding soil physical quality and growth roots were observed when the tractor-wagon track width was adjusted based on the sugarcane spacing using either precision auto steering or manual operation of the machinery.

  13. Development of salt tolerant potato and sugarcane through in vitro techniques

    Improvement of sugarcane and potato in Pakistan is hampered by their intricate flowering behavior under natural day-length conditions. The improvement of these crops for their salt tolerance can be carried out by tissue culture mediated techniques. To induce variation in sugarcane, five-week old white yellow nodular embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5, 20, 40 and 60 Gy gamma rays. After one month, the calli were cultured on regeneration media, and plant hardening procedures were optimized. Irradiated and non-irradiated calli were subjected to various levels of salt stress and plant regeneration was investigated. Although growth of sugarcane calli was observed at 200 mM NaCl, regeneration was inhibited even at 50 mM NaCl in the medium. The regenerants from gamma irradiated material are under field evaluation. Variation was detected in both irradiated and salt treated calli by DNA fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In potato, 6-7 weeks old in vitro grown plants with single shoots having 8-10 buds were irradiated with 20 Gy gamma rays. Shoot formation was successful only from 50% of the axillary buds. The cultures were subjected to four levels of salinity (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM Nacl). Shoot-tip necrosis was observed along with significant reduction in shoot height. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism

    Youxiong Que; Yongbao Pan; Yunhai Lu; Cui Yang; Yuting Yang; Ning Huang; Liping Xu

    2014-01-01

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information conten...

  15. Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls

    Patrick Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes β-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control or with L. buchneri at a theoretical application rate of 5 × 10(4 cfu/g, 1 × 10(5 cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5 cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 Charolais × Nellore were housed in 20 collective pens and fed diets comprising (dry matter [DM] basis 458 g/kg sugarcane silage and 542 g/kg concentrates for an 84-d period. Treated silages had higher concentrations of acetic acid and lower concentrations of ethanol. Total mixed rations (TMR containing inoculated silages exhibited significantly lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF concentration and, consequently, higher in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD. Thus, animals fed TMR containing treated silages spent less time chewing per day and per kilogram of DM intake (DMI, even at higher DMI levels. Nonetheless, the intake of NDF was similar across treatments (0.77 to 0.79 kg/100 kg BW but markedly lower than the value reported for traditional forages. Average daily gain was significantly greater for animals fed TMR based on inoculated silages due to the higher DMI (14% on average and the higher energy content of the diets, as indicated by the higher feed efficiency (12% on average. The dose of inoculants used and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes had no significant effects on silage parameters or animal performance. Therefore, inoculation of L. buchneri during sugarcane ensilage can alter the fermentation pattern by increasing acetic acid yield, reducing silage nutrient losses, and improving feed efficiency by bulls.

  16. Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.

    Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

    2012-01-01

    The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods. PMID:22864427

  17. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Souza Glaucia Mendes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.

  18. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research

  19. Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    Naureen Chaudhary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II. The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4, 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comprising of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI. All the four strains grew best at pH 7 and 37°C. Aeration was not required for these bacterial strains. 5% inocula sizes were found optimum for the bacterial isolates except strain No. 23, which yielded best growth with 10% inoculum. After 2nd day of incubation in M-IV medium the bacteria liberated upto 8033 mg/100 mL of total sugar content, which showed reduction in subsequent sampling periods. On the other hand glucose content showed variable response to incubation periods. The strain 11a expressed 1411 mg/100 mL of glucose at 10th day while isolate No. 23 yielded 808 mg/100 mL glucose at 18th day of incubation. Fermentation by ethanologenic yeast of culture fluids saccharification by the isolate 194 and 23 expressed about 0.2 and 1.2% ethanol on 3rd and 7th days, respectively. The bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus cereus based upon their chemical characterization. These isolates appear potential candidates for saccharifying the sugarcane bagasse and production of ethanol employing ethanologenic yeast.

  20. Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Water Use and Yield of Irrigated Sugarcane in South Africa

    Jones, M.R; Singels, A.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable predictions of climate change impacts on water use, irrigation requirements and yields of irrigated sugarcane in South Africa (a water-scarce country) are necessary to plan adaptation strategies. Although previous work has been done in this regard, methodologies and results vary considerably. The objectives were (1) to estimate likely impacts of climate change on sugarcane yields, water use and irrigation demand at three irrigated sugarcane production sites in South Africa (Malelane, Pongola and La Mercy) for current (1980-2010) and future (2070-2100) climate scenarios, using an approach based on the Agricultural Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) protocols; and (2) to assess the suitability of this methodology for investigating climate change impacts on sugarcane production. Future climate datasets were generated using the Delta downscaling method and three Global Circulation Models (GCMs) assuming atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of 734 ppm(A2 emissions scenario). Yield and water use were simulated using the DSSAT-Canegro v4.5 model. Irrigated cane yields are expected to increase at all three sites (between 11 and 14%), primarily due to increased interception of radiation as a result of accelerated canopy development. Evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements increased by 11% due to increased canopy cover and evaporative demand. Sucrose yields are expected to decline because of increased consumption of photo-assimilate for structural growth and maintenance respiration. Crop responses in canopy development and yield formation differed markedly between the crop cycles investigated. Possible agronomic implications of these results include reduced weed control costs due to shortened periods of partial canopy, a need for improved efficiency of irrigation to counter increased demands, and adjustments to ripening and harvest practices to counter decreased cane quality and optimize productivity. Although the Delta climate data

  1. MUTATION OF A DEGS HOMOLOG IN ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE DECREASES SEED AND ROOT COLONIZATION BUT DOES NOT AFFECT BIOCONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF CAUSED BY PYTHIUM ULTIMUM ON CUCUMBER

    Strains of Enterobacter cloacae show promise as biocontrol agents for Pythium ultimum-induced damping-off on cucumber and other crops. E. cloacae strain C10 is a mini-Tn5 Km transposon mutant of strain 501R3. Strain C10 was reduced in colonization of cucumber, sunflower, and pea seeds, but unaffecte...

  2. Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber with a combined application of Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8 and chitosan

    Postma, J.; Stevens, L.H.; Wiegers, G.L.; Davelaar, E.; Nijhuis, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., causing root and crown rot in cucumber, was successfully managed by Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8. Greenhouse experiments were performed with cucumber plants grown in rockwool blocks up to 5 weeks with a recirculated nutrient solution. Application of L. e

  3. Oogonal biometry and phylogenetic analysis of the Pythium vexans species group from woody agricultural hosts in South Africa reveal distinct groups within this taxon

    Pythium vexans fits into the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clade K. In South Africa, as well as in other regions of the world, P. vexans isolates are known to be heterogeneous in their ITS sequences and may consist of more than one species. Therefore, this study examined the diversity of South...

  4. Suppression of Seedling Damping-Off Caused by Pythium ultimum, P. irregulare, and Rhizoctonia solani in Container Media Amended with a Diverse Range of Pacific Northwest Compost Sources.

    Scheuerell, Steven J; Sullivan, Dan M; Mahaffee, Walter F

    2005-03-01

    ABSTRACT Suppression of seedling damping-off disease caused by Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani is a potential benefit of formulating soilless container media with compost. Thirty-six compost samples from Pacific Northwest commercial composting facilities were analyzed for a number of physical, chemical, and biological properties, including suppression of damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum, P. irregulare, and R. solani. The samples were produced from diverse feedstocks and composting technol ogies; this was reflected in a large degree of variability in the measured properties. When mixed with sphagnum peat moss and inorganic aggregates, 67% of the compost samples significantly suppressed P. irregulare damping-off of cucumber, 64% suppressed P. ultimum damping-off of cucumber, and 17% suppressed damping-off of cabbage caused by R. solani. Suppression of Pythium damping-off was related to the potential of compost to support microbial activity and a qualitative index of ammonia volatilization. Suppression of Rhizoctonia damping-off was not related to any one compost factor. Currently available compost products potentially could provide commercially acceptable control of damping-off caused by Pythium spp., but it is necessary to fortify composts with microbial antagonists for the control of R. solani. PMID:18943125

  5. Surface motility in Pseudomonas sp DSS73 is required for efficient biological containment of the root-pathogenic microfungi Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Koch, Birgit; Nielsen, T.H.;

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. DSS73 was isolated from the rhizoplane of sugar beet seedlings. This strain exhibits antagonism towards the root-pathogenic microfungi Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of the cyclic lipopeptide amphisin in combination with expression of flagella enables the growing...

  6. Compost-induced suppression of Pythium damping-off is mediated by fatty-acid-metabolizing seed-colonizing microbial communities.

    McKellar, Mary E; Nelson, Eric B

    2003-01-01

    Leaf composts were studied for their suppressive effects on Pythium ultimum sporangium germination, cottonseed colonization, and the severity of Pythium damping-off of cotton. A focus of the work was to assess the role of fatty-acid-metabolizing microbial communities in disease suppression. Suppressiveness was expressed within the first few hours of seed germination as revealed by reduced P. ultimum sporangium germination, reduced seed colonization, and reduced damping-off in transplant experiments. These reductions were not observed when cottonseeds were sown in a conducive leaf compost. Microbial consortia recovered from the surface of cottonseeds during the first few hours of germination in suppressive compost (suppressive consortia) induced significant levels of damping-off suppression, whereas no suppression was induced by microbial consortia recovered from cottonseeds germinated in conducive compost (conducive consortia). Suppressive consortia rapidly metabolized linoleic acid, whereas conducive consortia did not. Furthermore, populations of fatty-acid-metabolizing bacteria and actinobacteria were higher in suppressive consortia than in conducive consortia. Individual bacterial isolates varied in their ability to metabolize linoleic acid and protect seedlings from damping-off. Results indicate that communities of compost-inhabiting microorganisms colonizing cottonseeds within the first few hours after sowing in a Pythium-suppressive compost play a major role in the suppression of P. ultimum sporangium germination, seed colonization, and damping-off. Results further indicate that fatty acid metabolism by these seed-colonizing bacterial consortia can explain the Pythium suppression observed. PMID:12514027

  7. Evaluation of seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum on cucumber seeds against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum

    Seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated on cucumber seeds to control pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum in greenhouse studies. Results showed that coating formulation H reduced the disease incidence significantly, and had the potential for commer...

  8. Comparative study on agro-physiology of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum l.) genotypes at different irrigation co-efficient values

    Drought is the primary factor limiting sugarcane growth and physiological development under the climatic conditions of Pakistan; especially in those areas where without supplemental irrigation, productivity is not possible. Lack of detailed information regarding the performance of cane varieties under drought during formative stage and poor selection breeding program played key role in limiting cane productivity. The proposed study was conducted to investigate the genetic response of different cultivars viz., CSSG-676, CSSG-668, HoSG-795, HoSG-529, NSG-59 and HSF- 240 (standard) regarding the physiological development of sugarcane and its productivity at different irrigation co-efficient levels (100%, 80% and 60%). This study elucidates that moisture has a pronounced impact on the physiological attributes of sugarcane and proper irrigation scheduling with 20 no. of irrigations were reported best in-term of better germination (69.65%), leaf area index (7.13), crop growth rate (8.44), net assimilation rate (1.06) and chlorophyll contents (5.98). Similarly in case of genomic response, NSG-59 was reported significant best as compared to all other test cultivars in term of better physiological performance, showing significant higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, chlorophyll contents and water use efficiency that maximized the crop growth and resulted in higher net assimilation rate. Higher proline contents (1.59) produced in NSG-59 also made it best under drought conditions. (author)

  9. Novel elongase of Pythium sp. with high specificity on Δ(6)-18C desaturated fatty acids.

    Jeennor, Sukanya; Cheawchanlertfa, Pattsarun; Suttiwattanakul, Sarinya; Panchanawaporn, Sarocha; Chutrakul, Chanikul; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2014-07-18

    We identified a novel elongase gene from a selected strain of the Oomycete, Pythium sp. BCC53698. Using a PCR approach, the cloned gene (PyElo) possessed an open reading frame (ORF) of 834 bp encoding 277 amino acid residues. A similarity search showed that it had homology with the PUFA elongases of several organisms. In addition, the signature characteristics, including four conserved motifs, a histidine-rich catalytic motif and membrane-associated feature were present in the Pythium gene. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that it was specific for fatty acid substrates, having a double bond at Δ(6)-position, which included γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (STA), and preferentially elongated the n3-18C PUFA. This is an elongase in Oomycete fungi, which displays very high specificity on Δ(6)-18C desaturated fatty acids. This will be a powerful tool to engineer PUFA biosynthesis in organisms of interest through the n-6 series pathway for producing value-added fatty acids. PMID:24924634

  10. Seed-colonizing microbes from municipal biosolids compost suppress Pythium ultimum damping-off on different plant species.

    Chen, M-H; Nelson, E B

    2008-09-01

    Composts are known for their suppressive properties toward many different seed- and root-infecting pathogens and diseases. Although disease and pathogen suppression induced by composts is believed to be mediated by microbial activities, the nature of the microbial species and processes responsible for suppressiveness remain unknown. We demonstrated previously that seed-colonizing microbial consortia from leaf compost could explain the observed levels of Pythium ultimum-induced damping-off suppression on cotton. The aim of the present work was to determine whether seed-colonizing microbial consortia could explain Pythium damping-off suppression in municipal biosolids compost on three different plant species. Significant levels of disease suppression were observed on cucumber, wheat, and pea at water potentials of -2 kPa. The suppression of damping-off on cucumber and wheat could be eliminated by autoclaving the compost prior to sowing. High levels of suppressiveness were expressed both on cucumber and on wheat seed surfaces within 8 h of sowing. However, the expression of damping-off suppression on the surface of pea seeds was inconsistent and highly variable. Our results demonstrate that compost-induced suppression of P. ultimum damping-off of cucumber and wheat can be explained by the microbial consortia colonizing seeds within 8 h of sowing. These results further suggest that disease suppression in composts is related to microbial species that interact with the pathogen in its infection court and not in the bulk compost. PMID:18943739

  11. Antifungal Volatile Organic Compounds from the Endophyte Nodulisporium sp. Strain GS4d2II1a: a Qualitative Change in the Intraspecific and Interspecific Interactions with Pythium aphanidermatum.

    Sánchez-Fernández, Rosa Elvira; Diaz, Daniel; Duarte, Georgina; Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Sánchez, Sergio; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrates volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production as one of the defense mechanisms of the antagonistic endophyte Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a, and the volatile changes in two times of the fungal growth; and, as result of its intra and interspecific interactions with the plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. The antifungal activity of the volatile and diffusible metabolites was evaluated by means of three types of antagonism bioassays and by organic extract agar dilution. VOCs were obtained by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry from 3- and 5-day Nodulisporium sp. cultures, as well as from its interspecific in vitro antagonistic interaction with the oomycete P. aphanidermatum, and its intraspecific Nodulisporium sp.-Nodulisporium sp. interaction. The GS4d2II1a strain completely inhibited the growth of two fungi and seven oomycetes by replacing their mycelia in simple antagonism bioassays and by producing in vitro volatile and diffusible metabolites that acted synergistically in multiple antagonism bioassays. Additionally, VOCs inhibited the growth of three oomycetes and one fungus in antagonism bioassays using divided plates. A total of 70 VOCs were detected, mainly including mono and sesquiterpenes, especially eucalyptol and limonene. Multiple correspondence analysis revealed four different volatile profiles, showing that volatiles changed with the fungus age and its intra and interspecific interactions. The metabolites produced by Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a could be useful for biological control of fungal and oomycetes plant pathogens of economically important crops. PMID:26408189

  12. Biochar and Mill Ash Use as Soil Amendments to Grow Sugarcane in Sandy Soils of South Florida

    Alvarez-Campos, O.; Lang, T. A.; Bhadha, J. H.; McCray, M.; Gao, B.; Glaz, B.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of agricultural and urban organic residues as amendments provides an option to improve sugarcane production in sandy soils located northwest of the Everglades Agricultural Area, while reducing waste. This study was conducted to determine the effect of mill ash and three biochars on sugarcane yield and sandy soil properties. Mill ash and biochars produced from hardwood yard waste (HY), barn shavings with horse manure (HM), and rice hulls (RH) were incorporated at 1% and 2% (by weight) to sandy soils in a lysimeter experiment. A control without amendment and an often-used commercial practice of mill ash applied at 6% (AS6) were also included. Results showed that RH2 and AS6 produced greater biomass and sucrose yield compared with the control. According to critical nutrient level analysis, RH and AS amendments also resulted in the highest silicon content, which had a positive correlation with increasing sugarcane yield. In addition, RH2 and AS6 increased total phosphorus, Mehlich-3 phosphorus, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared with the control. While CEC remained constant with AS2 and AS6 applications, CEC significantly increased over time with RH2. Moreover, higher amendment applications increased soil organic matter compared with the control and did not decrease over time, which suggests a positive influence for long term carbon sustainability and nutrient cycling in sandy soils. Overall, RH2 and AS6 have the most potential to be used as amendments in sandy soils of South Florida due to their positive effects on soil properties, which improved sugarcane yield. However, no negative consequences were found with the application of any other amendment in terms of sugarcane growth and soil quality. Future research should focus on the use of RH and AS amendments on long-term field-scale studies, and the economic feasibility of a single year application on plant and ratoon cane yields.

  13. The environmental sustainability of sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change: case studies for Brazil and Ghana

    Black, E.; Vidale, P. L.; Verhoef, A.; Cuadro, S. V.

    2012-04-01

    Over the next decades increasing oil and carbon prices will lead to a proliferation of energy crop cultivation initiatives. Many of these will be based in developing countries, and hence will affect some of the poorest people in the world. The capacity of such initiatives to alleviate poverty in the long term depends on their environmental sustainability. Specifically, the exploitation of water resources in an unsustainable manner may permanently damage vulnerable ecosystems and ultimately deepen poverty. These issues have motivated a collaborative project - Integrated Carbon, Water and Land Management for Poverty Alleviation (ICWALPA), which asks whether the export of bio-fuel technology from Brazil to Ghana will alleviate poverty. This presentation will describe the initial results from ICWALPA - including the development of an integrated environmental modelling framework and its application to sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change. The environmental model used to represent the biophysical interactions is process-based and implemented in the framework of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). Crop growth is predicted dynamically by accumulating the carbon assimilated during photosynthesis and is then allocated according to well-established allometric principles. Two contrasting case studies will be presented: the Sao Paulo region of Brazil (where there is an established sugarcane industry) and the Daka River region of Ghana (where commercial sugarcane cultivation is planned). We show that our model is capable of reproducing both the spatial and temporal variability in sugarcane yield for the Sao Paulo province of Brazil - lending credence to the projections for Ghana. For Ghana, we show that, providing there is sufficient irrigation, it is possible to generate approximately 75% of the yield achieved in the Sao Paulo province. In the final part of the study, the behaviour of sugarcane under an idealized climate change scenario is

  14. Isolation and Characterisation of Endophytic Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Sugarcane

    Muangthong, Ampiga; Youpensuk, Somchit; Rerkasem, Benjavan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of industrial variety (cv. U-Thong 3; UT3), wild and chewing sugarcane plants grown for 6 weeks in nitrogen (N)-free sand. Eighty nine isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained on N-free agar. An acetylene reduction assay (ARA) detected nitrogenase activity in all 89 isolates. Three isolates from the chewing (C2HL2, C7HL1 and C34MR1) sugarcane and one isolate from the industrial sugarcane (UT3R1) varieties ...

  15. Water absorbent polymer in sugarcane crop Polímeros hidroabsorventes em cultura canavieira

    Tadeu A. Marques; Patricia A. A. Marques; Marcos W. Suriani; Arleto T. dos Santos; Fernando C. Mendonça

    2013-01-01

    The water absorbent polymer effect on vegetative growth and production of Theoretical Recovery Sugar (TRS) of sugarcane cv. RB 86 7515 was evaluated on two field tests installed in randomized blocks, with four treatments and five repetitions. The polymer doses were 0; 4; 8 and 12 g m-1 of furrow (test 1) and 0; 1.4; 2.8 and 4.2 g m-1 of furrow (test 2). Test 1 (dec/2007 to may/2009) was implanted in a Distroferric Red Argisol soil in Presidente Prudente - State of São Paulo (SP), Brazil; and ...

  16. Mechanisms of sugarcane response to herbivory

    Falco Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering plant-insect interactions at the molecular level is one of the major topics of interest in contemporary plant biology research. In the last few years, various aspects of the plant response to insect damage have been investigated, including the characterization of direct and indirect responses, the regulation of gene expression resulting from insect attack and the signal transduction pathways. Such research has resulted in the proposal of new methods to enhance host resistance to insect pests, including the use of insecticidal genes that can be transferred by genetic engineering into target crops. By integrating the understanding of how plants react to insect damage with the techniques of molecular biology researchers should be able to increase the wide range of methods available for the control of insect pests. The sugarcane transcriptome project (SUCEST has allowed the identification of several orthologues genes involved in the plant response to insect damage. In this paper we summarize several aspects of the complex interaction between plants and insects and describe the use of in silico analysis to provide information about gene expression in different sugarcane tissues in response to insect attack.

  17. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant β- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good β-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  18. Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community

    Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indol acetic (IAA production was detected by Dot-Immunobinding and Salkowski's method. These results show that 19 strains and isolates had nitrogenase activity, values ranging from 100 to SOOO/zg/mL; 6 of them produced IAA (values ranging from 1,7 to 2,5 //g/mL: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl-5, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 1-05, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 4-02,17,30 and 305. It was demonstrated that culture medium nutrient sources and pH affected the nitrogenase activity of the strains representing the endophytic community. Key words: endophytic community, sugarcane, nitrogenase activity, indolacetic acid.

  19. Proteomics related to the biocontrol of Pythium damping off in maize with Trichoderma harzianum

    CHEN Jie; Gary G Harman; Alfio Comis

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma harzianum strain T22 controls various diseases of maize and other crops, including seedling and root rots caused by Pythium ultimum. Seedlings of inbred line Mo17 were grown from T22-treated or untreated seeds in field soil or in field soil intested with the pathogen. Five days after planting, seedlings of Mo17 (5-days-old) were smaller in the presence of P. ultimum and larger in the presence of T22 relative to the control. The combination of T22 with P. ultimum (T22 + P.ultimum ) resulted in plants as large as T22 alone. Methods for protein extraction and 2-D gel electrophoresis were developed. Proteins in seedlings roots from the various treatments were separated on 2-D gels and analyzed using PDQuestTM 2-D software. With seedlings produced from T22-treated seeds, there were 104 unmatched proteins and 164 matched proteins relative to the control, and 97 and 150 from the treatment with T22 + P. ultimum, respectively, however, with P. ultimum alone the numbers were much lower than above two treatments. Comparatively, there was very lower similarity of proteome patterns of seedling roots with T22 or P. ultimum or both to control seedlings,the correlative coefficient values were 0.72, 0.51 and 0.49 for the comparisons among control with T22, P. ultimum and T22 + P. ultimum, respectively. Moreover, correlative coefficient of proteome patterns between T22 with P. ultimum was only 0.65, and T22 fungal proteome were also not same as any one of seedling roots with various treatments. Taken together, the components in seedling root proteome seemed to be mostly coming from Mo17 plants themselves and affected strongly by either microbes, but the effects appeared to be stronger by P. ultimum than by T22. 41 spots were selected for protein mass fingerprinting identification, and most detected-spots were intensified in abundance by T22 or T22 + P. ultimum treatments such as pathogenesis-related protein and endochitnase etc. SOD (Mn) was found to be involved in

  20. Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.

    Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

    2006-06-01

    This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

  1. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  2. Feasibility of cultivation of sugarcane in agroforestry systems

    Pinto Luís Fernando Guedes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's main sugarcane producer and the production system has changed abiding to legal and technical recommendation. In Piracicaba many smallholders grow sugarcane in steep areas. Under such situation, mechanization at harvest makes cultivation impossible. This work assess the viability of agroforestry systems on joining crop production and conservation of natural resources. Soils at 12-20% slope class were identified, tree species which could be cultivated along with sugarcane were selected, and the design of the systems to be adopted was evaluated. Identified area occupies 11,556 ha and the most representative soil types are Typic Kandiuldult and Lithic Hapludoll. The exotic species coconut, eucalyptus, pejibaye and rubber, and eight native species have potential to be grown in contourhedgerows with sugarcane. Initial planting of exotic, domesticated trees is recommended, and gradual introduction of native, non-domesticated species, can be set according to their ecological requirements.

  3. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of...... study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The...... harvesting and the use of diesel fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial...

  4. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    Duli Zhao; Yang-Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems ...

  5. Sugarcane for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Production under Ambient Environment

    Hossain, Md. Amzad

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane is a food-cum-cash-cum-industrial crop with high varietals resistance, anti-erosive and thus helps preserve biodiversity in tropical and subtropical zones. Sustaining sugar requirement as a source of food for an ever-growing world population in the changing ambient environment due to gradual depletion of natural resources, pollution, rising costs, low productivity and expansion of urban communities are some of the major challenges in the present century. Sugarcane and sugar producti...

  6. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    Amandeep Singh; Uma Ranjan Lal; Hayat Muhammad Mukhtar; Prabh Simran Singh; Gagan Shah; Ravi Kumar Dhawan

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary produ...

  7. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  8. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether), which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorg...

  9. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Baggase without Enzymatic Saccharification

    Raj Boopathy; Letha Dawson

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane processing generates a large volume of bagasse. Disposal of bagasse is critical for both agricultural profitability and environmental protection. Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable resource that can be used to produce ethanol and many other value added products. In this study, we demonstrate that cane processed bagasse could be used to produce fuel grade ethanol without saccharification. A chemical pre-treatment process using alkaline peroxide and acid hydrolysis was applied to re...

  10. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US$1=R$2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. - Research highlights: →The relative cost of ethanol produced in the US and imported from Brazil is shown to depend on currency exchange rate, feedstock costs, and co-product credits. →In 2006-2008, the cost of corn ethanol is estimated to be 15% lower than the cost of imported sugarcane ethanol at US ports. →A carbon pricing policy could affect relative costs in favor of sugarcane ethanol, but only at a high carbon price.

  11. Evaluation of sugarcane laboratory ensiling and analysis techniques

    André de Faria Pedroso; Alexandre Mendonça Pedroso; Waldomiro Barioni Júnior; Gilberto Batista de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of laboratory-silo type and method of silage extract production, respectively, on sugarcane silage fermentation and recovery of fermentation products. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested and ensiled in three different types of laboratory silos (five replicates): 9.7 × 30 cm PVC tubes with tight lids, equipped or unequipped with Bunsen valves, and 20 L plastic buckets with tight lids and Bunsen valves. Three methods were used to produce silage extract...

  12. Food consumption of sugarcane workers' families in the Brazilian Northeast

    Vanessa Messias Muniz; Débora Silva Cavalcanti; Nayalla Morais de Lima; Mônica Maria Osório

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the food intake of sugarcane workers' family members. METHODS: The food intake of 159 family members of sugarcane workers from Gameleira, Pernambuco, Brazilian Northeast, was investigated by directly weighing the foods on three non-consecutive days. The percent risk of inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes was analyzed according to the Reference Dietary Intakes. The macronutrients were analyzed in relation to acceptable distribution intervals. The energy consumed f...

  13. PATTERN OF SUGARCANE CONCENTRATION INPHALTAN TAHSIL SATARA DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA).

    K. S. Surwase

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important commercial crop in India. It is a tropical plant and has been known in India from earliest times and its reference is found in Atharva Veda. India is the fourth major sugar producing country in the world, after Russia, Brazil and Cuba. Indian sugar industry has radically contributed in accelerating industrialization process and also in bringing socio-economic changes in under-developed rural areas. About 4.5 crore farmers are engaged in Sugarcane cultivation in In...

  14. Unlocking the bacterial and fungal communities assemblages of sugarcane microbiome.

    de Souza, Rafael Soares Correa; Okura, Vagner Katsumi; Armanhi, Jaderson Silveira Leite; Jorrín, Beatriz; Lozano, Núria; da Silva, Márcio José; González-Guerrero, Manuel; de Araújo, Laura Migliorini; Verza, Natália Cristina; Bagheri, Homayoun Chaichian; Imperial, Juan; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Plant microbiome and its manipulation herald a new era for plant biotechnology with the potential to benefit sustainable crop production. However, studies evaluating the diversity, structure and impact of the microbiota in economic important crops are still rare. Here we describe a comprehensive inventory of the structure and assemblage of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with sugarcane. Our analysis identified 23,811 bacterial OTUs and an unexpected 11,727 fungal OTUs inhabiting the endophytic and exophytic compartments of roots, shoots, and leaves. These communities originate primarily from native soil around plants and colonize plant organs in distinct patterns. The sample type is the primary driver of fungal community assemblage, and the organ compartment plays a major role in bacterial community assemblage. We identified core bacterial and fungal communities composed of less than 20% of the total microbial richness but accounting for over 90% of the total microbial relative abundance. The roots showed 89 core bacterial families, 19 of which accounted for 44% of the total relative abundance. Stalks are dominated by groups of yeasts that represent over 12% of total relative abundance. The core microbiome described here comprise groups whose biological role underlies important traits in plant growth and fermentative processes. PMID:27358031

  15. Unlocking the bacterial and fungal communities assemblages of sugarcane microbiome

    de Souza, Rafael Soares Correa; Okura, Vagner Katsumi; Armanhi, Jaderson Silveira Leite; Jorrín, Beatriz; Lozano, Núria; da Silva, Márcio José; González-Guerrero, Manuel; de Araújo, Laura Migliorini; Verza, Natália Cristina; Bagheri, Homayoun Chaichian; Imperial, Juan; Arruda, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Plant microbiome and its manipulation herald a new era for plant biotechnology with the potential to benefit sustainable crop production. However, studies evaluating the diversity, structure and impact of the microbiota in economic important crops are still rare. Here we describe a comprehensive inventory of the structure and assemblage of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with sugarcane. Our analysis identified 23,811 bacterial OTUs and an unexpected 11,727 fungal OTUs inhabiting the endophytic and exophytic compartments of roots, shoots, and leaves. These communities originate primarily from native soil around plants and colonize plant organs in distinct patterns. The sample type is the primary driver of fungal community assemblage, and the organ compartment plays a major role in bacterial community assemblage. We identified core bacterial and fungal communities composed of less than 20% of the total microbial richness but accounting for over 90% of the total microbial relative abundance. The roots showed 89 core bacterial families, 19 of which accounted for 44% of the total relative abundance. Stalks are dominated by groups of yeasts that represent over 12% of total relative abundance. The core microbiome described here comprise groups whose biological role underlies important traits in plant growth and fermentative processes. PMID:27358031

  16. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes

  17. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  18. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  19. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  20. Genetic diversity analysis of sugarcane ( Saccharum sp.) clones using simple sequence repeat markers of sugarcane and rice

    G.Banumathi , V.Krishnasamy, M.Maheswaran, R.Samiyappan, P.Govindaraj and N.Kumaravadivel

    2010-01-01

    Molecular markers are powerful tools, which help in differentiating plant varieties at the DNA level and have been widelyused for genetic diversity studies in a number of crop species'. Understanding the genetic diversity of available clones of S.officinarum and S. spontaneum will be helpful in breeding programs. In the present study, a set of 48 sugarcane clones fromNational Hybridization Garden, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore was subjected to genetic diversity analysisinvolving 40...

  1. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  2. Development and yield of sugarcane after application of plant growth regulators in the midle of crop season/ Desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar após aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    Full Text Available The supply of technological quality raw material for providing economical return is the most important necessity of sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane stalks due to plant regulators application at half crop. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators of the class of the growth retainers (Ethephon, Ehyl-trinexapac, Potassium nitrate, Potassium nitrate + Boron application and a control (natural ripening. Ethyl-trinexapac and Ethephon treatments were efficient to hold up growth process regarding height of plants, but had no effect on diameter of stalks. The maintenance of bud top integrity made possible the increase in diameter of stalks, without interrupting the growth process regarding height of plants. According to application time the ripeners provided improvement on technological quality of raw material. The ripeners did not affect the number of plants per meter at harvest and did not cause alterations int the amount mass of stalks per hectare. The ripeners did not affect the regrowth of the ratoon cane. O fornecimento de matéria-prima de qualidade tecnológica que garanta retorno econômico é uma das maiores necessidades da indústria sucroalcooleira. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar decorrente da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no meio da safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram utilizados cinco tratamentos constituídos pela aplicação dos reguladores vegetais da classe dos retardantes de crescimento etefon e etil-trinexapac, e de KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. O etil-trinexapac e o etefon atuaram de forma eficiente em retardar o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas de cana-de-açúcar, sem

  3. INFLUENCE OF SOLID MOISTURE AND BED HEIGHT ON CULTIVATION OF Aspergillus niger FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE WITH VINASSE

    R. G. Bastos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSolid-state cultivation (SSC may be defined as growth of microorganisms on a solid support impregnated or not with a nutrient solution in near absence of free-water conditions. The use of sugarcane bagasse as a support for SSC usually demands that the particles are impregnated and moistened with nutrient solution. Vinasse is the main wastewater of ethanol fermentation-distillation. As there are no reports of the use of wastewater for moistening solid supports in SSC, the proposal is the development of an innovative process, with valuation of these by-products. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate SSC of Aspergillus niger using sugarcane bagasse and vinasse for citric acid production. The results indicate that citric acid production and glucose consumption are dependent on oxygen availability, which can be modulated by selection of bed height and air-flow in packed-bed bioreactors.

  4. Effect of sugarcane//soybean intercropping and reduced nitrogen rates on sugarcane yield,plant and soil nitrogen%甘蔗//大豆间作和减量施氮对甘蔗产量、植株及土壤氮素的影响

    杨文亭; 李志贤; 舒磊; 王建武

    2011-01-01

    通过田间试验探讨了甘蔗//大豆1:1、1:2间作模式和施氮(300 ㎏/㎡,525 ㎏/h㎡)水平对甘蔗鲜重产量、甘蔗单株氮含量、土壤硝态氮、钱态氮以及微生物量氮的影响.结果表明:减量施氮(300 ㎏/h㎡)水平下,间作甘蔗鲜重产量较单作显著下降,但间作的土地当量比均大于1,且大豆产量为1.52和3.25 t/h㎡.不同施氮水平对甘蔗鲜重无显著影响,施氮水平和种植模式对甘蔗单株氮吸收量、甘蔗收获后土壤硝态氮和微生物量氮均无显著影响.土壤氮素随甘蔗大豆的不同生长时期而变化,在甘蔗分孽末期(大豆收获期)达到最低值,此时期减量施氮水平下甘蔗//大豆间作模式(1:1)土壤硝态氮显著高于单作.综合以上结果,从提高土地利用率和保护农业生态环境考虑,甘蔗//大豆间作模式下减量施氮具有一定的可行性.%Sugarcane (Saccharum sinensis Roxb) is an important sugar crop in China which mainly produced in subtropical and tropical region of China. Wide row spacing (120 cm) and initial slow growth rate of sugarcane offers a suitable space and resources (water, nutrition, light) niche for intercropping in sugarcane. Meanwhile, over input of nitrogenous fertilizer was also a big problem which results in soil acidification and environmental pollution. How to reduce nitrogen application and design suitable sugarcane intercropping pattern is the key techniques to make the sugarcane production more sustainable in south China.In order to explore the sugarcane fresh yield and dynamic changes in nitrogen uptake by sugarcane, soil nitrate, ammonium and microbial biomass nitrogen, a field experiments were conducted in 2010 at experimental farm of South China Agricultural University (23°08'N, 113°15'E). The experiments were the randomized block design with two levels of N fertilizer ( 300 kg/hm2 , 500 kg/hm2 ) and four cropping patterns ( sugarcane monoculture, soybean ( Glycine max L

  5. ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    A. PESSOA JR.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL and semi-pilot (25 L reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140ºC for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%; 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9% and 150ºC for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%. These conditions were also used for hydrolysis in a semi-pilot reactor, and the highest xylose recovery yield (83.3% was obtained at 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm

  6. Occurrence of Fungal Species and Mycotoxins from Decayed Sugarcane (Saccharrum officinarum) in Egypt.

    Abd-Elaah, Gamalat A; Soliman A, Samya

    2005-06-01

    Seventy-three fungal species belonging to forty-three genera were isolated from 40 samples of Saccharrum officinarum (collected from Naage-Hamadi canal in Qena Governorate, Egypt). Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Mucor and Pythium were the most common genera on the two isolation media. The dominant species of Aspergillus were A. niger, A. flavus, A. ustus, A. terreus and A. wentii. Some species were dominant on 40 g/l sucrose such as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Emericella nidulans, Trichoderma viride, Torula herbarum and Mamaria echinoeotryoides, while the dominant species on 10 g/l glucose were Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus niger, Torula herbarum and Trichoderma viride. Mycotoxins including aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone and diacetoxyscirpenol were detected in the examined samples of Saccharrum officinarum. The mycelial growth of A. flavus, A. niger, Fusarium moniliforme and Torula herbarum decreased with the increase in Dimethoate concentrations, although 25 ppm was less effective than the higher levels of the insecticide (75~200 ppm). Dimethoate stimulated the activity of Go-T in A. niger, F. moniliforme and T. harbarum, while the Go-T activity was inhibited in A. flavus with the Dimethoate treatments. PMID:24049478

  7. Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil

    Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

    2012-12-01

    The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro

  8. Abiotic Limits for Germination of Sugarcane Seed in Relation to Environmental Spread

    Pierre, J. S.; Rae, A. L.; Bonnett, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a vegetatively propagated crop and hence the production of seed and its fate in the environment has not been studied. The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires a research effort to understand sugarcane reproductive biology. This study contributes to this understanding by defining the abiotic limits for sugarcane seed germination. Using seed from multiple genetic crosses, germination was measured under different light...

  9. ESTIMATED COSTS OF SOLDIER AND COMBINE SUGARCANE HARVESTING SYSTEMS IN LOUISIANA

    Salassi, Michael E.; Champagne, Lonnie P.

    1996-01-01

    Soldier (wholestalk) harvesting of sugarcane has been the predominant method of harvesting sugarcane in Louisiana for many years. With the short harvesting season and frequently wet harvesting conditions found in the state, this type of harvesting system has proven to be a very flexible and suitable system. Combine (billet) harvesters have the ability to recover more of the sugarcane in the field, compared to soldier harvesters, particularly in fields with lodged sugarcane. This report quanti...

  10. Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Sugarcane Responses to Sporisorium scitaminea Infection Using Solexa Sequencing Technology

    Qibin Wu; Liping Xu; Jinlong Guo; Yachun Su; Youxiong Que

    2013-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of sugarcane-smut interaction, it is important to identify sugarcane genes that respond to the pathogen attack. High-throughput tag-sequencing (tag-seq) analysis by Solexa technology was performed on sugarcane infected with Sporisorium scitaminea, which should have massively increased the amount of data available for transcriptome profile analysis. After mapping to sugarcane EST databases in NCBI, we obtained 2015 differentially expressed genes, of which 1125...

  11. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems

    Lucas Carvalho Basilio Azevedo; Sidney Luiz Stürmer; Marcio Rodrigues Lambais

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcan...

  12. CRICISE BEFORE SUGARCANE GROWERS: DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM –SOME REMEDIAL MEASURES

    ANIL BARBOLE AND B.B.JAGTAP

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to study the constraints faced by the Sugarcane growers and to suggest some remedial measures for use of Drip Irrigation System. Drip Irrigation may help to solve the most important problem of irrigation to sugarcane- water scarcityandrising electricity bills. Majority of sugarcane growers faced the constraints i.e. the higher initial costs for installation of drip irrigation unit and clogging and cracking of emitters.Mostly the sugarcane grow...

  13. Effect of sugarcane vinasse and EDTA on cadmium phytoextraction by two saltbush plants.

    Eissa, Mamdouh A

    2016-05-01

    Although the use of saltbush plants in metal phytoremediation is well known, there is little information about the impact of sugarcane vinasse (SCV) and EDTA on metal uptake. Heavily cadmium-polluted soil (38 mg kg(-1) Cd) was used in pot and incubation experiments to investigate the Cd phytoextraction potential of wavy saltbush (Atriplex undulata) and quail saltbush (Atriplex lentiformis). EDTA at rates of 3, 6, and 10 mM kg(-1) soil and SCV at rates of 7, 15, and 30 mL kg(-1) soil were added to the polluted soil. The application of EDTA significantly (P = 0.002) reduced the growth of saltbush plants; on the other hand, SCV improved the growth. Both EDTA and SCV increased the availability and root-to-shoot transfer of Cd. The plants of A. lentiformis grown on the soil amended with the highest rate of SCV were able to remove 20.4 % of the total soil Cd during a period of 9 months. Based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that A. lentiformis and sugarcane vinasse could be more effective in the phytoextraction of Cd from the polluted soils. PMID:26884237

  14. Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane

    L Potgieter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

  15. Field performance of transgenic sugarcane produced using Agrobacterium and biolistics methods.

    Joyce, Priya; Hermann, Scott; O'Connell, Anthony; Dinh, Quang; Shumbe, Leonard; Lakshmanan, Prakash

    2014-05-01

    Future genetic improvement of sugarcane depends, in part, on the ability to produce high-yielding transgenic cultivars with improved traits such as herbicide and insect resistance. Here, transgenic sugarcane plants generated by different transformation methods were assessed for field performance over 3 years. Agrobacterium-mediated (Agro) transgenic events (35) were produced using four different Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, while biolistic (Biol) transgenic events (48) were produced using either minimal linearized DNA (LDNA) transgene cassettes with 5', 3' or blunt ends or whole circular plasmid (PDNA) vectors containing the same transgenes. A combined analysis showed a reduction in growth and cane yield in Biol, Agro as well as untransformed tissue culture (TC) events, compared with the parent clone (PC) Q117 (no transformation or tissue culture) in the plant, first ratoon and second ratoon crops. However, when individual events were analysed separately, yields of some transgenic events from both Agro and Biol were comparable to PC, suggesting that either transformation method can produce commercially suitable clones. Interestingly, a greater percentage of Biol transformants were similar to PC for growth and yield than Agro clones. Crop ratoonability and sugar yield components (Brix%, Pol%, and commercial cane sugar (CCS)) were unaffected by transformation or tissue culture. Transgene expression remained stable over different crop cycles and increased with plant maturity. Transgene copy number did not influence transgene expression, and both transformation methods produced low transgene copy number events. No consistent pattern of genetic changes was detected in the test population using three DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:24330327

  16. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...

  17. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  18. Louisiana sugarcane entomology: A look at the back and a peek at the future

    Controlling insect pests is an important consideration for sugarcane farmers seeking to minimize losses and maximize profits. Research in managing insects has been conducted for almost as long as sugarcane has been grown in Louisiana. This presentation reviews Louisiana sugarcane entomology from the...

  19. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon

    Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

  20. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    João Luís Nunes Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crops provide carbon (C for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves and from root system (rhizomes and roots were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1 of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

  1. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    Thiebaut Flávia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

  2. Embryogenic callus proliferation and regeneration conditions for genetic transformation of diverse sugarcane cultivars.

    Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Moyle, Richard; Birch, Robert G

    2011-03-01

    Amenability to tissue culture stages required for gene transfer, selection and plant regeneration are the main determinants of genetic transformation efficiency via particle bombardment into sugarcane. The technique is moving from the experimental phase, where it is sufficient to work in a few amenable genotypes, to practical application in a diverse and changing set of elite cultivars. Therefore, we investigated the response to callus initiation, proliferation, regeneration and selection steps required for microprojectile-mediated transformation, in a diverse set of Australian sugarcane cultivars. 12 of 16 tested cultivars were sufficiently amenable to existing routine tissue-culture conditions for practical genetic transformation. Three cultivars required adjustments to 2,4-D levels during callus proliferation, geneticin concentration during selection, and/or light intensity during regeneration. One cultivar gave an extreme necrotic response in leaf spindle explants and produced no callus tissue under the tested culture conditions. It was helpful to obtain spindle explants for tissue culture from plants with good water supply for growth, especially for genotypes that were harder to culture. It was generally possible to obtain several independent transgenic plants per bombardment, with time in callus culture limited to 11-15 weeks. A caution with this efficient transformation system is that separate shoots arose from different primary transformed cells in more than half of tested calli after selection for geneticin resistance. The results across this diverse cultivar set are likely to be a useful guide to key variables for rapid optimisation of tissue culture conditions for efficient genetic transformation of other sugarcane cultivars. PMID:20978767

  3. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Maurício R Cherubin

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI. The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators. Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity; however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC, abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity. Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration and proportional weighting to reflect

  4. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  5. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    G. M. Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

  6. Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

  7. [(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].

    da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

    2014-10-01

    In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

  8. Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions

    Koga-Vicente, A.

    2011-12-01

    The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

  9. Expression and variability of molecular chaperones in the sugarcane expressome.

    Borges, Júlio C; Cagliari, Thiago C; Ramos, Carlos H I

    2007-04-01

    Molecular chaperones perform folding assistance in newly synthesized polypeptides preventing aggregation processes, recovering proteins from aggregates, among other important cellular functions. Thus their study presents great biotechnological importance. The present work discusses the mining for chaperone-related sequences within the sugarcane EST genome project database, which resulted in approximately 300 different sequences. Since molecular chaperones are highly conserved in most organisms studied so far, the number of sequences related to these proteins in sugarcane was very similar to the number found in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. The Hsp70 family was the main molecular chaperone system present in the sugarcane expressome. However, many other relevant molecular chaperones systems were also present. A digital RNA blot analysis showed that 5'ESTs from all molecular chaperones were found in every sugarcane library, despite their heterogeneous expression profiles. The results presented here suggest the importance of molecular chaperones to polypeptide metabolism in sugarcane cells, based on their abundance and variability. Finally, these data have being used to guide more in deep analysis, permitting the choice of specific targets to study. PMID:16687190

  10. Sugarcane spirit market share simulation: an application of conjoint analysis

    João de Deus Souza Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of packaging and labeling attributes of sugarcane spirit on consumers' behavior by applying the results of conjoint analysis in sugarcane spirit market share simulation. Firstly, a conjoint analysis was performed aiming to estimate the part-worths of each consumer for some sugarcane spirit packaging and labeling attributes. These part-worths were used in the market share simulation using the maximum utility model. It was observed that some packaging and labeling attributes affected consumer's purchase intention and that most consumers showed a similar preference pattern regarding these attributes. These consumers showed preference for the Seleta brand, which was bottled in 700 mL clear glass bottles with a metal screw cap that bore a label illustration unrelated to sugarcane spirit production process and had the information "aged 36 months in oak barrels". This study also showed that conjoint analysis and the use of its results in the market share simulation proved important tools to better understand consumer behavior towards intention to purchase sugarcane spirit.

  11. TRS value of sugarcane according to bioenergy and sugar levels

    Tadeu Alcides Marques

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the specific case of sugarcane, producers in Brazil are currently paid by the content of total recoverable sugars (TRS in the raw material when it reaches the industry, according to CONSECANA: TRS = 9.6316 *PC +9.15 * RSS, where PC is the Pol in cane (apparent sucrose and RSS are reducing sugars in sugarcane (glucose + fructose. The objective of the project was to propose changes in the procedures used to mathematically determine the TRS, estimating the calorific value of moist cake and weight of moist cake. The final model is then proposed: TRS = 25.9892 + 0.02172*CVmc*WMC+0.536*WMC – 4.14*CVmc + + 4.8158*PC + 4.575*RSS. Thus we obtain the TRS calculated according to the calorific value of moist cake (CVmc, weight of moist cake (WMC, Pol cane (PC and the reducing sugars in sugarcane (RSS. This form is included in the estimation of TRS, the calorific value of moist cake, which reflects the bioenergy of fiber, weight of moist cake that estimates sugarcane fiber, in addition to existing factors Pol cane and reducing sugars in sugarcane. In the proposed model, the estimated values of TSR were 11.08% higher than the estimated values in the CONSECANA model.

  12. Expression of the Grifola frondosa Trehalose Synthase Gene and Improvement of Drought-Tolerance in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

    2006-01-01

    Trehalose is a nonreducing disaccharide of glucose that functions as a protectant in the stabilization of biological structures and enhances stress tolerance to abiotic stresses in organisms. We report here the expression of a Grifola frondosa trehalose synthase (TSase) gene for improving drought tolerance in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). The expression of the transgene was under the control of two tandem copies of the CaMV35S promoter and transferred into sugarcane by Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. The transgenic plants accumulated high levels of trehalose, up to 8.805-12.863 mg/g fresh weight, whereas it was present at undetectable level in nontransgenic plants. It has been reported that transgenic plants transformed with Escherichia coli TPS (trehalose-6-phosphatesynthase) and/or TPP (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase) are severely stunted and have root morphologic alterations. Interestingly, our transgenic sugarcane plants had no obvious morphological changes and no growth inhibition in the field. Trehalose accumulation in 35S-35S: TSase plants resulted in increased drought tolerance, as shown by the drought and the drought physiological indexes, such as the rate of bound water/free water, plasma membrane permeability, malondialdehyde content, chlorophyll a and b contents,and activity of SOD and POD of the excised leaves. These results suggest that transgenic plants transformed with the TSase gene can accumulate high levels of trehalose and have enhanced tolerance to drought.

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of Sugarcane Roots in Response to Low Potassium Stress

    Qiaoying Zeng; Qiuping Ling; Lina Fan; Yu Li; Fei Hu; Jianwen Chen; Zhenrui Huang; Haihua Deng; Qiwei Li; Yongwen Qi

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important crop for supplying sugar. Due to its high biomass, sugarcane needs to absorb a large amount of potassium (K) throughout its lifecycle. In South China, a deficiency of K available in soil restricts the production of sugarcane. Increasing the tolerance of sugarcane to low-K will be an effective approach for improving survival of the crop in this area. However, there is little information regarding the mechanism of tolerance to low-K stress in sugarcane. In this s...

  14. POOR FERTILITY, SHORT LONGEVITY AND LOW ABUNDANCE IN THE SOIL SEED BANK LIMIT VOLUNTEER SUGARCANE FROM SEED

    Pierre, Johann S.; Jai ePerroux; Alex eWhan; Rae, Anne L.; Graham D Bonnett

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a two year period, w...

  15. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed

    Pierre, Johann S.; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L.; Graham D Bonnett

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, w...

  16. Nitrogen fluxes at the root-soil interface show a mismatch of nitrogen fertilizer supply and sugarcane root uptake capacity

    Inselsbacher, Erich; Schmidt, Susanne; Näsholm, Torgny; Robinson, Nicole; Guillou, Stéphane; Vinall, Kerry; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Brackin, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake by agricultural crops is a key constituent of the global N cycle, as N captured by roots has a markedly different fate than N remaining in the soil. Global evidence indicates that only approximately 50% of applied N fertilizer is captured by crops, and the remainder can cause pollution via runoff and gaseous emissions. This inefficiency is of global concern, and requires innovation based on improved understanding of which N forms are available for and ultimately taken up by crops. However, current soil analysis methods based on destructive soil sampling provide little insight into delivery and acquisition of N forms by roots. Here, we present the results of a study in sugarcane fields receiving different fertilizer regimes comparing soil N supply rates with potential root N uptake rates. We applied microdialysis, a novel technique for in situ quantification of soil nutrient fluxes, to measure flux rates of inorganic N and amino acid N, and analyzed N uptake capacities of sugarcane roots using 15N labelled tracers. We found that in fertilized sugarcane soils, fluxes of inorganic N exceed the uptake capacities of sugarcane roots by several orders of magnitude. Contrary, fluxes of organic N closely matched roots' uptake capacity. These results indicate root uptake capacity constrains plant acquisition of inorganic N. This mismatch between soil N supply and root N uptake capacity is a likely key driver for low N efficiency in the studied crop system. Our results also suggest that the relative contribution of inorganic N for plant nutrition may be overestimated when relying on soil extracts as indicators for root-available N, and organic N may contribute more to crop N supply than is currently assumed. Overall, we show a new approach for examining in situ N relations in soil in context of crop N physiology, which provides a new avenue towards tailoring N fertilizer supply to match the specific uptake abilities and N demand of crops over the growth

  17. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    Korndorfer, A.P.; Grisoto, E.; Vendramim, J.D., E-mail: korndorfer@hotmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

  18. 日粮中青贮甘蔗尾叶替代不同比例王草对海南黑山羊生长性能、养分表观消化率及血清生化指标的影响%Effect of Silage Sugarcane Leaf Replacing Different Ratio of King Grass on Growth Performance, Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Serum Biochemical Indices of Hainan Black Goats

    周雄; 周璐丽; 王定发; 周汉林; 冀凤杰; 李茂

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silage sugarcane leaf replacing different ratio of King grass on growth performance,nutrient apparent digestibility and serum biochemical indices of Hainan Black goats.A total of 20 3-month-old Hainan Black goats with an average weight of (6.96±0.49) kg were selected (half male and hale female) and randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 1 goat per replicate.The goats in the control group were fed the basal diet including concentrate and roughage,roughage was King grass.The goats in the groups 1 to 4 were fed with the equal concentrate,roughage (fresh King grass) was replaced with 25%,50%,75% and 100% silage sugarcane leaf,respectively.The pre-test period lasted for 5 days and the trial period lasted for 30 days.The results showed that compared with control group,the average feed intake of crude feed and average feed intake of total dry matter in group 3 were significantly increased (P<0.05),there were no significant differences in the average daily gains,average feed intake of concentrate and F/G among all groups (P>0.05).Compared with control group,the apparent digestibility of Ash and P in group 3 were significantly increased (P< 0.05),the apparent digestibility of Ash,NDF,ADF and Ca in group 4 were significantly increased (P<0.05).No significant difference was showed between groups 3 and 4 (P>0.05).There were no significant differences in serum biochemical indices among all groups (P>0.05).In conclusion,silage sugarcane leaf replaced certain percentage of King grass in roughage could improve the growth performance and nutrient apparent digestibility to some extent,and had no bad effect on the serum biochemical indices of goats,the optimal proportion of silage sugarcane leaf in roughage was 75 %.%本试验旨在研究日粮中青贮甘蔗尾叶替代不同比例王草对海南黑山羊生长性能、养分表观消化率及血清生化指标的影响.选用20

  19. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Daniela Kajihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  20. OPTIMIZED AGRICULTURAL PLANNING OF SUGARCANE USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Maximiliano Salles Scarpari* and Edgar Gomes Ferreira de Beauclair**

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimized agricultural planning is a fundamental activity in business profitability because it can increase the returns from an operation with low additional costs. Nonetheless, the use of operations research adapted to sugarcane plantation management is still limited, resulting in decision-making at management level being primarily empirical. The goal of this work was to develop an optimized planning model for sugarcane farming using a linear programming tool. The program language used was General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS as this system was seen to be an excellent tool to allow profit maximization and harvesting time schedule optimization in the sugar mill studied. The results presented support this optimized planning model as being a very useful tool for sugarcane management.

  1. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  2. SUGARCANE BAGASSE PULPING AND BLEACHING: THERMAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Paulo Henrique Fernandes Pereira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse in three stages. Initially sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a pre-treatment process with hydrolyzed acid to eliminate hemicellulose. Whole cellulosic fibers thus obtained were then subjected to a two-stage delignification process and finally to a bleaching process. The chemical structure of the resulting cellulose fibers was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to analyze the effects of hydrolysis, delignification, and bleaching on the structure of the fibers. Two different thermal analysis techniques were used to study the bleaching cellulose fibers. These techniques confirmed that cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse. A future goal is to use these fibers as reinforcement elements in composites, organic-inorganic hybrid, and membranes for nanofiltration.

  3. Tracking soil transport to sugarcane industry using neutron activation analysis

    Soil as mineral impurity in sugarcane loads impacts the Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry with rising production and maintenance costs as well as decreased productivity. The mechanical harvesting of sugarcane was conceived as a technology with potential to increase the raw material quality thereby has been gradually replacing manual harvesting throughout the country. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for determination of soil tracers in order to compare the performance of both harvesting systems in terms of mineral impurities. There were no significant differences in the amount of soil transported to sugarcane industry despite the technological progress aggregated to mechanical harvesting. However, for both harvesting systems there were significant differences on the amount of such mineral impurity between clay and sandy soils. (author)

  4. Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse.

    Hernández-Salas, J M; Villa-Ramírez, M S; Veloz-Rendón, J S; Rivera-Hernández, K N; González-César, R A; Plascencia-Espinosa, M A; Trejo-Estrada, S R

    2009-02-01

    Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and 9.91%, respectively). An optimized enzyme formulation was used to process sugar cane bagasse, which contained Celluclast, Novozyme and Viscozyme L. From alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse samples, a reduced level of reducing sugar yield was obtained (11-20%) compared to agave bagasse (12-58%). Selected hydrolyzates were fermented with a non-recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum alcohol yield by fermentation (32.6%) was obtained from the hydrolyzate of sugarcane depithed bagasse. Hydrolyzed agave waste residues provide an increased glucose decreased xylose product useful for biotechnological conversion. PMID:19000863

  5. Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters

    Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

  6. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant against Fusarium sacchari--the causal organism of pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane.

    Goswami, Debahuti; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Deka, Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane caused by the fungus Fusarium sacchari results considerable damage to the crop leading to top rot, the most serious and advanced stage of pokkah boeng, where the growing point is killed and the entire top of the plant dies. In the present study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant as an antifungal agent against F. sacchari to control pokkah boeng disease was investigated. On the basis of surface tension reduction, 12 bacterial isolates were selected as potent biosurfactant producers and eight of them showed antagonistic effect against F. sacchari. Among the eight, the isolate DS9 was found as the effective inhibitor of the fungus in vitro which was further evaluated using its biosurfactant present in whole culture, cell-free culture supernatant and crude biosurfactant at various concentrations. Reductions of fungal growths were found more with crude biosurfactant. By sequencing 16S rRNA, DS9 was identified as P. aeruginosa and the produced biosurfactant was characterized as rhamnolipid by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant inhibits phytopathogenic fungi F. sacchari and therefore seems to be a good biocontrol agent to control pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane. PMID:23687052

  7. The genome sequence of the gram-positive sugarcane pathogen Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli.

    Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B; Camargo, Luis E A; Van Sluys, Marie A; Kitajima, João P; Truffi, Daniela; do Amaral, Alexandre M; Harakava, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Julio C F; Wood, Derek; de Oliveira, Mariana C; Miyaki, Cristina; Takita, Marco A; da Silva, Ana C R; Furlan, Luis R; Carraro, Dirce M; Camarotte, Giovana; Almeida, Nalvo F; Carrer, Helaine; Coutinho, Luiz L; El-Dorry, Hamza A; Ferro, Maria I T; Gagliardi, Paulo R; Giglioti, Eder; Goldman, Maria H S; Goldman, Gustavo H; Kimura, Edna T; Ferro, Emer S; Kuramae, Eiko E; Lemos, Eliana G M; Lemos, Manoel V F; Mauro, Sonia M Z; Machado, Marcos A; Marino, Celso L; Menck, Carlos F; Nunes, Luiz R; Oliveira, Regina C; Pereira, Gonsalo G; Siqueira, Walter; de Souza, Alessandra A; Tsai, Siu M; Zanca, A S; Simpson, Andrew J G; Brumbley, Stevens M; Setúbal, João C

    2004-08-01

    The genome sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, which causes ratoon stunting disease and affects sugarcane worldwide, was determined. The single circular chromosome of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli CTCB07 was 2.6 Mb in length with a GC content of 68% and 2,044 predicted open reading frames. The analysis also revealed 307 predicted pseudogenes, which is more than any bacterial plant pathogen sequenced to date. Many of these pseudogenes, if functional, would likely be involved in the degradation of plant heteropolysaccharides, uptake of free sugars, and synthesis of amino acids. Although L. xyli subsp. xyli has only been identified colonizing the xylem vessels of sugarcane, the numbers of predicted regulatory genes and sugar transporters are similar to those in free-living organisms. Some of the predicted pathogenicity genes appear to have been acquired by lateral transfer and include genes for cellulase, pectinase, wilt-inducing protein, lysozyme, and desaturase. The presence of the latter may contribute to stunting, since it is likely involved in the synthesis of abscisic acid, a hormone that arrests growth. Our findings are consistent with the nutritionally fastidious behavior exhibited by L. xyli subsp. xyli and suggest an ongoing adaptation to the restricted ecological niche it inhabits. PMID:15305603

  8. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium−1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  9. The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from sugarcane wastes for solubilizing phosphate

    Atekan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of P in agricultural soils is in unavailable forms for plant growth. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria can increase soil P availability. This study was aimed to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from sugarcane waste compost and to test ability of the isolated bacterial to dissolve phosphate. The bacteria were isolated from three types of sugarcane waste, i.e. filter cake compost, bagasse compost, and a mixture of filter cake + bagasse + trash biomass compost. The potential colony was further purified by the Pikovskaya method on selective media. Eight isolates of phosphate solubilizing bacteria were obtained from all wasted studied. Amongst them, T-K5 and T-K6 isolates were superior in dissolving P from Ca3(PO42 in the media studied. The two isolates were able to solubilize P with solubilizing index of 1.75 and 1.67 for T-K5 and T-K6, respectively. Quantitatively, T-K6 isolate showed the highest P solubilization (0.74 mg / L, followed by T-K5 isolate (0.56 mg / L, while the lowest P solubilization (0.41 mg / L was observed for T-K4 isolate. The increase of soluble P was not always followed by the decrease in pH.

  10. Mutagenesis and selection in vitro for salinity tolerance and molecular characterization in sugarcane

    can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50 Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane stability (electrolyte leakage) was 3-fold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that of retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of an ample water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20 Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

  11. Nitrate paradigm does not hold up for sugarcane.

    Nicole Robinson

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil.

  12. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior

  13. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio, E-mail: rosolen@ffclrp.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g{sup -1}. The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  14. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g-1. The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  15. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Wong, Y C; V. Sanggari

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast) also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples w...

  16. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  17. TRS value of sugarcane according to bioenergy and sugar levels

    Tadeu Alcides Marques; Larissa Carolina Gonçalves Neves; Erick Malheiros Rampazo; Elvis Lima Deltrejo Junior; Fernando Caetano Souza; Patricia Angelica Alves Marques

    2015-01-01

    In the specific case of sugarcane, producers in Brazil are currently paid by the content of total recoverable sugars (TRS) in the raw material when it reaches the industry, according to CONSECANA: TRS = 9.6316 *PC +9.15 * RSS, where PC is the Pol in cane (apparent sucrose) and RSS are reducing sugars in sugarcane (glucose + fructose). The objective of the project was to propose changes in the procedures used to mathematically determine the TRS, estimating the calorific value of moist cake and...

  18. Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major corn borer pest and a target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in South America and the U.S. mid-southern region. With a major role in dietary protein digestion, midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. ...

  19. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation contribution in sugarcane plants originated from seeds and inoculated with nitrogen-fixing endophytes Avaliação da contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar originada de sementes e inoculada com endófitos fixadores de nitrogênio

    Erineudo de Lima Canuto; André Luis Martinez de Oliveira; Verônica Massena Reis; José Ivo Baldani

    2003-01-01

    The inoculation technique with endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in sugarcane has been shown as an alternative practice to plant growth promotion. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) contribution by different strains of Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane plant inoculated from seeds. The seeds were planted in pots filled with non-sterile soil, inoculated with the bacterial strains and grown 10 months outside of th...

  20. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations. PMID:27209011

  1. Vacuolar targeting of r-proteins in sugarcane leads to higher levels of purifiable commercially equivalent recombinant proteins in cane juice.

    Palaniswamy, Harunipriya; Syamaladevi, Divya P; Mohan, Chakravarthi; Philip, Anna; Petchiyappan, Anushya; Narayanan, Subramonian

    2016-02-01

    Sugarcane is an ideal candidate for biofarming applications because of its large biomass, rapid growth rate, efficient carbon fixation pathway and a well-developed storage tissue system. Vacuoles occupy a large proportion of the storage parenchyma cells in the sugarcane stem, and the stored products can be harvested as juice by crushing the cane. Hence, for the production of any high-value protein, it could be targeted to the lytic vacuoles so as to extract and purify the protein of interest from the juice. There is no consensus vacuolar-targeting sequence so far to target any heterologous proteins to sugarcane vacuole. Hence, in this study, we identified an N-terminal 78-bp-long putative vacuolar-targeting sequence from the N-terminal domain of unknown function (DUF) in Triticum aestivum 6-SFT (sucrose: fructan 6-fructosyl transferase). In this study, we have generated sugarcane transgenics with gene coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with the vacuolar-targeting determinants at the N-terminal driven by a strong constitutive promoter (Port ubi882) and demonstrated the targeting of GFP to the vacuoles. In addition, we have also generated transgenics with His-tagged β-glucuronidase (GUS) and aprotinin targeted to the lytic vacuole, and these two proteins were isolated and purified from the transgenic sugarcane and compared with commercially available protein samples. Our studies have demonstrated that the novel vacuolar-targeting determinant could localize recombinant proteins (r-proteins) to the vacuole in high concentrations and such targeted r-proteins can be purified from the juice with a few simple steps. PMID:26183462

  2. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    Esayas Tena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 560 smallholder sugarcane growers in southern Ethiopia using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach. Sugarcane genetic resources were collected through structured sampling. Findings from this study indicated that monocropping was identified as the predominant sugarcane farming system. Respondent farmers prioritized drought tolerance (21%, increased cane yield (20%, early maturity (18%, marketability (17%, and high biomass (14% as the top preferred traits of sugarcane. Ninety diverse sugarcane landraces were collected from homesteads of smallholder farmers. Findings from this study would serve as baseline information towards sugarcane research and development emphasising the constraints and preferences of smallholder sugarcane growers in Ethiopia or similar agro-ecologies. This is the first study to report farmers preferred traits and constraints, and genetic resources of sugarcane under smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia.

  3. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  4. AN ASSESSMENT OF COLD/FREEZE TOLERANCE IN SUGARCANE

    The complexity of tolerance mechanisms of crops to environmental stresses requires a multipronged approach to decipher the genetics of and breed for stress resistance. Field tests and a proteomics analysis were carried out on sugarcane genotypes to assess the time-course deterioration of sucrose in ...

  5. Sugarcane residue decomposition by white and brown rot microorganisms

    Harvesting sugarcane with chopper harvesters results in up to 10 tons of field crop residue per acre. Residue management by soil microorganism decomposition offers numerous ecological and economical benefits to growers; however, this natural process is dependent on the biotic density, diversity and...

  6. Optimizing hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  7. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  8. Improving efficiency of sugarcane genotype selection in Florida

    The Canal Point (CP) sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding program has consistently developed high yielding cultivars for the organic (muck) soils of South Florida, but cultivar development has not been as successful for sand soils in this region. The objective of this study was to improve this progra...

  9. Feed Technology of Fibrous Sugarcane Residues for Ruminants

    Kuswandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundant sugarcane residue during shortage of roughage in dry season gives an opportunity to raise ruminants around sugarcane industries. However, these products are not widely used by farmers due to an assumption that the usage is inefficient and that the feed utilization technology is not widely recognized. Sugarcane fibrous residues (tops, bagasse and pith may be a potential feed component if pre-treated to increase its digestion and consumption by the animal, and/or supplemented by other ingredients to balance nutrients in the rumen as well as those for production purpose. Digestibility can be increased by chemical treatments such as ammoniation and other alkaline treatments, whereas consumption can be increased by physical treatments such as grinding, hammermilling or pelleting. Nutrients that are missing in these fibrous residues can be provided by addition of urea, molasses and minerals for maintenance need, and bypass nutrients (carbohydrates, protein and fats that are digested in the small intestine and available for tissue or milk synthesis. There are three options for development of livestock agribusiness based on fibrous sugarcane residues; however, these require several technologies to optimize the utilization of these residues.

  10. Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse was investigated in pilot-scale with the aim of obtaining the highest possible sugar yield after pretreatment. The temperatures used were 155, 170, 185 and 200 C with or without addition of oxygen (0.6 MPa pressure). Enzymatic hydrolysis of washed...

  11. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids

    Although the microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers have been extensively used in sugarcane breeding research, little is known about its inheritance mechanism. To address this problem, a high throughput molecular genotyping experiment was conducted on 964 single pollen grains and a 288-self progeny S1 map...

  12. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether, which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorghum, etc. The popular raw materials used in ethanol production in Thailand are molasses and cassava. Molasses are a by-product of sugar production process. They are the sugarcane residues that can no longer be extracted for more sugar. In many countries including Thailand, molasses are used as raw material to produce ethanol (1 ton of molasses can produce 260 liters of ethanol used in gasohol production. In this research, the researcher found that the problem of excess supply and low price of sugarcane can be solved if gasohol E20 or higher was used to replace the Octane 91 gasoline and Octane 95 gasoline.

  13. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  14. Review: Sugarcane production: Impact of climate change and its mitigation

    ASHOK K. SRIVASTAVA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a climatic sensitive crop: therefore, its spatial distribution on the globe is restricted as per the suitability of various climatic parameters. The climate change, though, a very slow phenomenon is now accelerated due to natural, as well as enormous human activities disturbing the composition of atmosphere. The predications of various climatic models for probable rise in temperature, rainfall, sea level show an alarming condition in forthcoming decades. As the sugarcane is very sensitive to temperature, rainfall, solar radiations etc. therefore, a significant effect on its production and sugar yield is expected in future. It is also well known that sugarcane is one of the precious crops of the world and its end products i.e. sugar and ethanol have a continuous growing demand on global level. Hence, the studies related to good production of sugarcane in changing conditions of climate has become one among the front line area of research and is a major concern of scientist’s world over. Advance agronomic measures including development of suitable cane varieties susceptible to changed climatic conditions, land preparation, time and pattern of plantation, weed, disease and pest managements, nutrients managements, proper timing and adequate water management seems to be the affective measures for obtaining high production of crop with good quality juice in future.

  15. Impacts of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) on the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Simões, Renata A; Feliciano, Julia R; Solter, Leellen F; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is controlled with massive releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); over 3 million hectares of sugarcane are treated annually with 18 billion parasitoids. In order to meet this demand, parasitoids are produced in D. saccharalis under laboratory conditions where a Nosema sp. is reported to be an important problem in mass rearing of the host. The goals for this work were to study the pathogenicity of the Nosema sp. and the progression of the disease in the host under laboratory conditions. The average median lethal time (LT₅₀) of Nosema sp. in first instar D. saccharalis varied from 9 ± 0.3 to 42 ± 2.3 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10 spores/μl). For third instar, the average of LT50 ranged from 32 ± 0.7 to 37 ± 0.7 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-5 × 10(2) spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10(4) spores/μl in saline). The concentration necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC₅₀) of first instar larvae was 5.6 (0.9-17.6) spores/μl and the estimated LC50 for third instar larvae was 1,200 (200-4700) spores/μl. The impacts of Nosema sp. on D. saccharalis were analyzed for first instar larvae fed 0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet. Duration and viability of the larval and pupal stages, adult longevity, pupal weight and fertility life table were measured for offspring of mating pairs composed of infected females and uninfected males or infected males and uninfected females and compared to offspring of uninfected pairs. Nosema sp. infection resulted in adverse effects on all biological parameters measured except for the duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight of the male pupae, which did not differ statistically between infected and uninfected groups. The intrinsic rates of growth (rm) were greater for uninfected pairs compared to pairs with either male

  16. Differential inactivation of seed exudate stimulation of Pythium ultimum sporangium germination by Enterobacter cloacae influences biological control efficacy on different plant species.

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B

    2003-02-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and pea from damping-off. Seeds from plants such as corn and pea had high rates of exudation, whereas cotton and cucumber seeds had much lower rates of exudation. Patterns of seed exudation and the release of P. ultimum sporangium germination stimulants varied among the plants tested. Seed exudates of plants such as carrot, corn, lettuce, pea, radish, and wheat were generally more stimulatory to P. ultimum than were the exudates of cotton, cucumber, sunflower, and tomato. However, this was not directly related to the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of the exudate and reduce P. ultimum sporangium germination. In the spermosphere, E. cloacae readily reduced the stimulatory activity of seed exudates from all plant species except corn and pea. Our data have shown that the inability of E. cloacae to protect corn and pea seeds from Pythium damping-off is directly related to its ability to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates. On all other plants tested, E. cloacae was effective in suppressing damping-off and inactivating the stimulatory activity of seed exudates. PMID:12571037

  17. Interacciones entre "Pythium ultimum" y bacterias de la rizosfera en la patogénesis de la podredumbre del tallo del brócoli

    Parra Sáez, María Angeles

    2015-01-01

    sintomatología que se asocia comúnmente a la enfermedad denominada podredumbre blanda bacteriana ocasionada por la bacteria Erwinia carotovora. Sin embargo, en este trabajo se ha aislado al hongo Pythium ultimum creciendo, al mismo tiempo, con varias especies de bacterias que habitan corrientemente en los suelos del interior del tallo floral de piezas de brócoli maduras afectadas de podredumbre blanda en cultivos del sureste de España durante el año 2012. P. ultimum causa “damping-off” en num...

  18. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D were tested in their respective commercial doses regarding their impact on the growth of the bacteria in liquid medium DIGs. For this, we determined the duration of lag phase, generation time and maximum cell density of H. seropedicae, calculated from optical density data obtained at regular intervals during the incubation of cultures for 33 h at 32oC. We also evaluated the impact of herbicides on nitrogenase activity of H. seropedicae grown in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium. The effects of herbicides on the growth variables and the ARA were compared with the untreated control by Dunnett test. A completely randomized design was used. The herbicides paraquat, imazapyr, ametryne, glyphosate and oxyfluorfen inhibited the growth of H. seropedicae in vitro. Ametryne, oxyfluorfen and glyphosate caused a small reduction in the duration of the lag phase of diazotrophic bacteria H. seropedicae. Oxyfluorfen, ametryne and imazapyr resulted in increased the generation time by H. seropedicae. Glyphosate promoted drastic reduction in biological nitrogen fixation in vitro by H. seropedicae. The other tested herbicides did not affect the growth or the same BNF by H. seropedicae.

  19. Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants

    Alexandre Trindade Leal

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados com antígeno macerado de micélio (AMM associado a três adjuvantes. Grupo I: hidróxido de alumínio; grupo II: adjuvante de Freund; grupo III: óleo mineral e grupo IV: água destilada -controle. Os tratamentos foram avaliados a diferentes intervalos, quanto à capacidade de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas específicas da classe G, através da técnica de ELISA. Na fase 1, os animais receberam três doses do imunógeno (dias zero, 14 e 28 e foram avaliados sorologicamente nos dias 14, 21, 28 e 35. Nessa fase, os adjuvantes oleosos (GII e III induziram níveis de anticorpos estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos nos grupos I e IV. Durante a fase 2 (dias 42 a 120, cada grupo foi subdividido em dois; sendo um subgrupo mantido em tratamento (imunizações adicionais nos dias 42, 56, 68 e 82 e o outro tendo o tratamento interrompido após a 3ª dose (dia 28. Nos subgrupos mantidos em tratamento, os níveis de anticorpos dos grupos imunizados com adjuvantes foram estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos no grupo GIV (controle. Nos coelhos com tratamento interrompido, os grupos I, II e III apresentaram manutenção nos níveis de IgG e foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo controle, que apresentou declínio nos níveis de anticorpos. Os resultados demonstraram a capacidade dos adjuvantes testados em potencializar e prolongar a resposta humoral aos antígenos do P. insidiosum. O uso de adjuvantes associado aos atuais imun

  20. Interação de imazapic no sistema integrado palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida e vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca Interaction of imazapic in the integrated system using sugarcane mulch residue, herbicide and vinasse on purple nutsedge growth

    M.C.S.S. Novo

    2008-06-01

    ções.The objective of this paper was to evaluate sugarcane mulch residue, imazapic and vinasse application interaction on the initial development of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.. A greenhouse experiment was set up using pots filled with soil, arranged in a randomized complete blocks design, with four replications, with the following treatments: check; straw alone; vinasse alone; imazapic alone; straw + vinasse; straw + herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied before the herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied together; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; and straw + herbicide + vinasse applied together. Imazapic was applied at the rate of 122.5 g ha-1 and in the treatment in which vinasse was applied mixed with the herbicide, this compound was diluted in water until ¼ of the volume needed, the remaining volume being completed with vinasse. Imazapic was efficient for purple nutsedge control when compared to the check. Application of vinasse alone or straw alone stimulated the growth of this weed, though tuber viability was reduced. In the treatments without straw there was no difference in purple nutsedge development when vinasse was applied before or after imazapic, though control of this weed species was attained. However, when mixed with vinasse, the herbicide did not control the weed. The presence of straw in the treatment in which vinasse was applied before imazapic reduced the action of this weed killer when compared with the treatment without straw. The number of sprouts and height of the purple nutsedge plants were enhanced by the treatments with straw when imazapic was applied after or even mixed with vinasse. Only the number of sprouts increased when vinasse was applied after or mixed with the herbicide in soil covered with straw.

  1. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment. PMID:26090363

  2. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels

    Hoang, Nam V.; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Robert J. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many dipl...

  3. Potential for genetic improvement of sugarcane as a source of biomass for biofuels

    Hoang, Nam V.; Agnelo eFurtado; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Robert J. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar+fiber) content and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid...

  4. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties Using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

    Maria Lucília M. da Costa; Lidiane L. Barbosa Amorim; Onofre, Alberto V. C.; Luiz J. O. Tavares de Melo; Oliveira, Maria Betânia M.; Reginaldo de Carvalho; Ana M. Benko-Iseppon

    2011-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop, responsible for two thirds of the world sugar production, gaining actually importance as a source of biofuel. Drought tolerance is a very important feature considering the actual climate change scenario throughout the world. This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity between sugarcane varieties with contrasting features under drought. For this purpose, twelve ISSR primers were used to characterize nine sugarcane varieties under cultivation in ...

  5. Characteristics of forage and feeding behavior of Nellore heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane

    Regis Luis Missio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics of the forage and ingestive behavior of Nellore heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane in different periods of storage. Twenty-four heifers with initial body weight of 119.6±8.1 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized, in which the treatments were diets with fresh sugarcane and hydrolyzed sugarcane (5 g of lime kg-1 of chopped sugarcane stored for 24, 48 or 72 hours as the only roughage. The addition of lime to sugarcane associated with its storage up to 72 hours provided an increase of 20% of the potentially degradable cell wall of carbohydrates, from 382.4 to 458.8 g kg-1 of total carbohydrates. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter was altered by the storage of hydrolyzed sugarcane, increasing 7.08% when the storage time was increased from 24 to 72 hours. Heifers fed fresh sugarcane remained more time consuming compared with heifers fed other diets. The time used for water intake was not influenced by the diet. The rumination time presented a quadratic variation in relation to storage time of the hydrolyzed sugarcane, with higher values for the of hydrolyzed sugarcane diets stored for 48 hours. Heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane spent more time on other activities than those fed fresh sugarcane. The supply of hydrolyzed sugarcane stored up to 72 hours in the proportion of 600 g kg-1 of dry matter in the diet, alters the intake patterns, reducing the feed intake in Nellore heifers.

  6. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    João Andrade de Carvalho; Turibio Gomes Soares Neto; José Carlos Santos; Saulo R. Freitas; Rudorff, Bernardo F. T.; Daniela de Azeredo França; Edson Anselmo; Ely Vieira Cortez; Karla Maria Longo

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due...

  7. Ethanol from Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Residues - Opportunities for Process Improvement and Production Cost Reduction

    Macrelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, and the increasing demand for fuel ethanol has prompted studies on the use of the lignocellulosic residues of sugarcane, namely bagasse and leaves, as new feedstock. This thesis describes various process designs and the economic feasibility of producing second generation (2G) ethanol from bagasse and leaves via the enzymatic route in an integrated sugarcane biorefinery, where first-generation (1G) ethanol is produced from...

  8. Climatic effects on sugarcane ripening under the influence of cultivars and crop age

    Nilceu Piffer Cardozo; Paulo Cesar Sentelhas

    2013-01-01

    The lack of information about the effects of cultivars, crop age and climate on the sugarcane (Saccharum ssp.) crop yield and quality has been the primary factor impacting the sugar-ethanol sector in Brazil. One of the processes about which we do not have a satisfactory understanding is sugarcane ripening and the effects of cultivars, crop age and climate on that. Sugarcane ripening is the process of sucrose accumulation in stalks, which is heavily influenced by several factors, mainly by cli...

  9. Oxidative enzymes activity in sugarcane juice as a function of the planting system

    Tadeu Alcides Marques; Érick Malheiros Rampazo; Patricia Angélica Alves Marques

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the largest producer of sugarcane in the world, the industrial process transforms this crop into ethanol and/or granulated sugar. Some cultivars exhibit enzymatic browning in the extracted sugarcane juice at levels harmful to the manufacturing process of white granulated sugar. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sugarcane straw used as soil coverage, the use of different planting systems, and treatments with hydrogel polymer on enzymatic activity. The cultivar ...

  10. microRNAs Associated with Drought Response in the Bioenergy Crop Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    Ferreira, Thaís Helena; Gentile, Agustina; Vilela, Romel Duarte; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Dias, Lara Isys; Endres, Laurício; Menossi, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the most important crops in the world. Drought stress is a major abiotic stress factor that significantly reduces sugarcane yields. However the gene network that mediates plant responses to water stress remains largely unknown in several crop species. Although several microRNAs that mediate post-transcriptional regulation during water stress have been described in other species, the role of the sugarcane microRNAs during drought stress has not been studied...

  11. Population genetics of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Denise Alves Lopes; Liriana Belizário Cantagalli; Ana Lucia Paz Barateiro Stuchi; Claudete Aparecida Mangolin; Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki

    2014-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis is the principal pest of sugarcane in Brazil and is found throughout the sugarcane crop. Information about its population genetics is scarce, but population genetic analysis is of particular importance as a basis for a successful pest control program. Pest control requires a constant evaluation of genetic variability so that appropriate strategies can be employed. In this study, the structure of D. saccharalis populations in sugarcane crops was analyzed with PCR-RAPD (Pol...

  12. 基于Unity3D的甘蔗种植虚拟教育培训系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of Virtual Education Training System for Sugarcane Cultivation Based on Unity3D

    吴升; 郭新宇; 贺谊; 温维亮; 王虓

    2014-01-01

    我国是最大的甘蔗种植国之一,甘蔗种植教育培训课程在各大农林职业院校广泛开展,针对传统的甘蔗种植教育培训试验开展周期长、成本高、授课方式枯燥、参与实践机会少等不足。为此开展甘蔗生长模型建模,农事仿真实时可视化等虚拟仿真交互关键技术进行研究;以“看动画、学知识、玩游戏、长技能”的虚拟互动培训理念,提出基于时序驱动的甘蔗虚拟种植教育培训系统设计方法;以Unity3D为开发平台,实现甘蔗种植生长周期虚拟展示以及互动体验功能。系统以虚拟化改造传统教学,为现代农业职业技术教育提供新的教学思路,从而为全面提升学员技术技能水平做出贡献。%China is one of the largest sugarcane cultivation countries. Education training courses for sugarcane cultivation is conducted in vocational colleges of agriculture and forestry universities. On account of the shortcomings of the conventional sugarcane education and training, such as long cycles, high costs, boring teaching methods, few practice opportunities, etc., we carried out studies on key technology of sugarcane interactive virtual simulation, sugarcane growth modeling, sugarcane planting real⁃time visualization simulation, etc. Method for designing sugarcane virtual education training system based on timing driven was provided, taking the concept of “watching animation, learning knowledge, playing games, and mastering skill” throughout the whole teaching process. Thus, taking Unity3D as a development platform, we realized the virtual display of sugarcane growth cycle and interactive experience function. This system took virtualization to reform the traditional education, and provided new teaching ideas for modern vocational and technical education in agriculture, thus had comprehensive upgrading of the students’ technical skill level.

  13. Seedling tolerance to Rhizoctonia and Pythium in wheat chromosome group 4 addition lines from Thinopyrum spp

    Chromosome 4 from Thinopyrum spp. confers regrowth after a sexual cycle and senescence in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), and is associated with resistance to the necrotrophic eyespot pathogen, Tapesia yallundae. We sought to determine whether robust root growth or other traits expressed in ch...

  14. Characteristics of forage and feeding behavior of Nellore heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane

    Regis Luis Missio; Mauro Dal Secco de Oliveira; Mariana Paula Rossi Sforcini; Guilherme de Carvalho Abud; Viviane Borba Ferrari; Denise Adelaide Gomes Elejalde; Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics of the forage and ingestive behavior of Nellore heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane in different periods of storage. Twenty-four heifers with initial body weight of 119.6±8.1 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized, in which the treatments were diets with fresh sugarcane and hydrolyzed sugarcane (5 g of lime kg-1 of chopped sugarcane) stored for 24, 48 or 72 hours as the only roughage. The additi...

  15. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems

    Lucas Carvalho Basilio de Azevedo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning. Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

  16. Sugarcane proteomics: An update on current status, challenges, and future prospects.

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ramadass, Ashwin; Amalraj, Ramesh Sundar; Palaniyandi, Malathi; Rasappa, Viswanathan

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated worldwide for the production of crystal sugar, ethanol, and other related by-products. Unlike other comparable monocots like sorghum, maize, and rice, sugarcane genome by virtue of its polyploidy nature remains yet to be fully deciphered. Proteomics-an established complementary tool to genomics is at its infancy in sugarcane as compared to the other monocots. However, with the surge in genomics research accomplished by next-generation sequencing platforms, sugarcane proteomics has gained momentum. This review summarizes the available literature from 1970 to 2014, which ensures a comprehensive coverage on sugarcane proteomics-a topic first of its kind to be reviewed. We herewith compiled substantial contributions in different areas of sugarcane proteomics, which include abiotic and biotic stresses, cell wall, organelle, and structural proteomics. The past decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the pace with which sugarcane proteomics is progressing, as evident by the number of research publications. In addition to extensively reviewing the progress made thus far, we intend to highlight the scope in sugarcane proteomics, with an aspiration to instigate focused research on sugarcane to harness its full potential for the human welfare. PMID:25641866

  17. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  18. Enhanced ethanol production from sugarcane juice by galactose adaptation of a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of Pichia kudriavzevii

    Dhaliwal, S.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Sandhu, S.K.; Nanda, D.; Kumar, D.; Uppal, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermotolerant yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice through enrichment technique was identified as a strain of Pichiakudriavzevii (Issatchenkiaorientalis) through molecular characterization. The P. kudriavzevii cells adapted to galactose medium produced about 30% more ethanol from sugarcan

  19. Field Screening of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Mutant and Commercial Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Suriyan CHA-UM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and physiological attributes and sugar quality parameters are considered key criteria for screening sugarcane cultivars for salt tolerance. Maximum cane growth and yield were found in a positive check (‘K88-92’ as well as in cv. ‘(A3AE1-18’ when subjected to salt affected soil. Percent reduction in Fv/Fm, quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII and water use efficiency (WUE due to salt stress was considerably low in ‘K88-92’, ‘(A3AE1-18’ and ‘KK3’ which was associated with very low salt-induced reduction in net photosynthetic rate and growth characters such as shoot length, number of internodes, and internodal length as well as yield traits. In addition, brix, polarlization, fiber, purity and commercial cane sugar (CCS in ‘(A18AE2-15’ and ‘(A3AE1-18’ were well maintained under saline stress. By subjecting the data for various physiological, growth, yield and sugar quality parameters to the Ward’s cluster analysis ‘K88-92’ (positive check, ‘(A3AE1-18’ and ‘KK3’ were identified as salt tolerant, whereas ‘(A11AE1-114’ and ‘K97-32’ as salt sensitive.

  20. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Van RANST, E.; Debaveye, J.; Mahop, F.

    1999-01-01

    The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as...

  1. Organosolv liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids.

    Chen, Zhengjian; Long, Jinxing

    2016-08-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly process is proposed for sugarcane bagasse liquefaction under mild condition using IL catalyst and environmental friendly solvent of ethanol/H2O. The relationship between IL acidic strength and its catalytic performance is investigated. The effects of reaction condition parameters such as catalyst dosage, temperature, time and solvent are also intensively studied. The results show that ethanol/H2O has a significant promotion effect on the simultaneous liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse carbohydrate and lignin. 97.5% of the bagasse can be liquefied with 66.46% of volatile product yield at 200°C for 30min. Furthermore, the IL catalyst shows good recyclability where no significant loss of the catalytic activity is exhibited even after five runs. PMID:27115746

  2. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  3. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.;

    2015-01-01

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...... economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary....

  4. Evaluation of sugarcane genotypes for theoretical yield of alcohol

    M.Shanthi Priya, K.H.P.Reddy, M.Hemanth Kumar, V.Rajarajeswari, G.Mohan Naidu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy seven genotypes of sugarcane were evaluated in second clonal stage for theoretical yield of alcohol. The genotypes viz., 2010T-72 (14.67 g/100ml, 2010T-16 (14.01 g/100ml and 2010T-88 (13.93 g/100ml showed significantly higher performance over the best check Co 7219 (12.80 g/100ml for theoretical yield of alcohol. Path analysis revealed that the characters viz., total sugars per cent, pol per cent cane and CCS per cent exhibited positive direct effects on theoretical yield of alcohol and the other characters also exhibited their indirect positive effects on theoretical yield of alcohol via total sugars per cent, pol per cent cane and CCS per cent, indicating that these were the major contributing characters to theoretical yield of alcohol in sugarcane

  5. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS; high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with 60% of DDS. Spittlebug attack caused significant losses in cane quality, reducing total soluble solids, sucrose content, total reducing sugars, and pH, and increasing total phenolic compounds, and total and volatile juice acidity. The fermentation process was also significantly affected, resulting in lower ethanol content in wine. There was an increase in acetaldehyde concentration in the distillate. The spittlebug attack caused negative impacts on sugarcane quality and fermentation process, and these impacts are stronger in late season harvests.

  6. Management of sugarcane insect pests through environment-friendly techniques

    The environment ecofriendly techniques like cultural and biological control are effective to manage sugarcane insects like borers and sucking pests on an area-wide basis in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. Among the cultural practices for the management of shoot borer of sugarcane (Chilo infuscatellus Snell), a major pest of this region, planting in the early season of December-January proves to be more efficient, followed by a system of trash mulching on the ridges or raising intercrop pulses like green gram or black gram immediately after planting. The benefit-cost ratio in the trash mulching and intercropping systems was higher than in the sugarcane monocrop. The reduction of shoot borer in the intercropped system ranged from 45.8% to 51.4% while the reduction was 50.5% in the trash mulched system. Early season planted sugarcane was minimally infested by shoot borer and stray incidence was only recorded. Another cultural practice of increasing the sugarcane sett/seed rate, while planting at 20% over and above the normal recommended rate during the late season when the incidence of shoot borer is highest in this region, recorded reduction in infestation to the extent of 26.8% during the two seasons trials conducted from 2002-2004. Another effective cultural practice of removal of older and dried up leaves of sugarcane twice during 5th and 7th months after planting reduced sucking pests likes white fly (Aleurolobus barodensis Mask) nymphs by 42.1% and puparia by 63.9%; and leaf hopper (Pyrilla perpusilla Wlk.) to the extent of 66% respectively. Among the biocontrol techniques the release of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) reared under artificial conditions, at fortnightly intervals at 2.5cc/ha six times commencing from 5th month stage of crop reduced internode borer (Chilo sacchariphagus indicus Kapur) only to the extent of 20%, which is the least among the other practices tested. The natural field parasitisation of

  7. [Surveillance experience in the sugarcane sector: challenges in disrupting the perilous "marathon" of the sugarcane plantations].

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; dos Santos, Simone Alves; da Silva, Alessandro José Nunes; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz

    2014-12-01

    The sugar-alcohol sector is growing year by year, especially in the state of Sao Paulo where approximately 42.9% of the sugar-ethanol plants are concentrated. The production chain is a subject for concern to public agencies and to civil society by exposing migrant workers to risks arising from the work process. In Sao Paulo, from 2006-2009, Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) set up two initiatives to address problems related to the housing and working conditions of sugarcane workers. The objective of this article presented in the form of an essay is to analyze the experiences in their context. The methodology used combines document analysis with the perception of the authors who participated in the actions. The experience led to improvements in these conditions and fostered public debate on the conditions of such physically demanding work. The interventions resulted in a definition of sanitary norms and initiatives at the legislative and judicial level, but even the most successful measures failed to attain the organizational targets, especially a production remuneration structure that challenges the traditional action of surveillance and the impacts were weakened due to the fragility of worker representation for the sector. PMID:25388174

  8. Nitrate Paradigm Does Not Hold Up for Sugarcane

    Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at o...

  9. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli; Débora Branquinho Garcia; Leonardo Lucas Madaleno; Miguel Ângelo Mutton; José Paulo Stupiello; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata) attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS); high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with...

  10. Host Plant Specialization in the Sugarcane Aphid Melanaphis sacchari.

    Samuel Nibouche

    Full Text Available Most aphids are highly specialized on one or two related plant species and generalist species often include sympatric populations adapted to different host plants. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of host specialized lineages of the aphid Melanaphis sacchari in Reunion Island. To this end, we investigated the genetic diversity of the aphid and its association with host plants by analyzing the effect of wild sorghum Sorghum bicolor subsp. verticilliflorum or sugarcane as host plants on the genetic structuring of populations and by performing laboratory host transfer experiments to detect trade-offs in host use. Genotyping of 31 samples with 10 microsatellite loci enabled identification of 13 multilocus genotypes (MLG. Three of these, Ms11, Ms16 and Ms15, were the most frequent ones. The genetic structure of the populations was linked to the host plants. Ms11 and Ms16 were significantly more frequently observed on sugarcane, while Ms15 was almost exclusively collected in colonies on wild sorghum. Laboratory transfer experiments demonstrated the existence of fitness trade-offs. An Ms11 isofemale lineage performed better on sugarcane than on sorghum, whereas an Ms15 lineage developed very poorly on sugarcane, and two Ms16 lineages showed no significant difference in performances between both hosts. Both field and laboratory results support the existence of host plant specialization in M. sacchari in Reunion Island, despite low genetic differentiation. This study illustrates the ability of asexual aphid lineages to rapidly undergo adaptive changes including shifting from one host plant to another.

  11. Precipitation variability and the sugarcane climate demand in Brazil

    Pereira, V. R.; de Avila, A. M. H.; Blain, G.; Zullo, J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the precipitation variability in São Paulo state/Brazil considering the climate demand for high sugarcane productivity. The Brazilian sugarcane and the bioethanol chain are facing an increase demand in response of the biofuel industry expansion. The productivity improvement is the key point to face the challenges about the land expansion in the Brazilian agriculture. The sugarcane phenology is climate dependent even being efficient in the decarboxylation process. The sprouting, growing, yield and the sugar content are determined by the climate. The accumulated rainy days during the pre harvest or more than 180 days of dry period can reduce the sugar content during the maturation process. Daily rainfall time series for the period 1960-2003 from 210 rain gauges at São Paulo state - the major Brazilian producer - are used. We subset the time series in the annual, seasonal, ten-day totals and dry and wet spells analysis. We used the mann- kendall non-parametric test to calculate the trends. The annual, the seasonal totals and the dry and wet spells did not showed a significant change in time. However, the ten-day total analysis in the beginning of the rainy season - i.e. in October - showed an interesting changing pattern - 24% of gauges showed a significant negative trend (p_valueproduction. Also, the October totals showed significant and negative trends (p_value<0.1) for more than 95% of precipitation gauges. These results are strongly indicating a longer dry season in the last twenty years. These changes in the precipitation variability can be related with the instability of the sugarcane market in Brazil in the last years.

  12. Heat exposure and health outcomes in Costa Rican sugarcane harvesters

    Crowe, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background The remarkably efficient mechanisms of the human body to maintain its core temperature of 37°C can be inadequate when harsh climatic conditions and excessive muscle movement lead to heat stress, dehydration and potential heat illness, ranging from minor symptoms such as fatigue to a potentially fatal heat stroke. Agricultural workers in the tropics are at high risk, which is expected to increase with climate change. Sugarcane harvesting in Costa Rica is largely done by cutting the ...

  13. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia: ’Forced’ to remain poor?

    Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Arne Henningsen; Peter Gibbon

    2015-01-01

    Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of ...

  14. Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: Present knowledge and future applications

    In Brazil the long-term continuous cultivation of sugarcane with low N fertiliser inputs, without apparent depletion of soil-N reserves, led to the suggestion that N2-fixing bacteria associated with the plants may be the source of agronomically significant N inputs to this crop. From the 1950s to 1970s, considerable numbers of N2-fixing bacteria were found to be associated with the crop, but it was not until the late 1980s that evidence from N balance and 15N dilution experiments showed that some Brazilian varieties of sugarcane were able to obtain significant contributions from this source. The results of these studies renewed the efforts to search for N2-fixing bacteria, but this time the emphasis was on those diazotrophs that infected the interior of the plants. Within a few years several species of such 'endophytic diazotrophs' were discovered including Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans and Burkholderia sp. Work has continued on these endophytes within sugarcane plants, but to date little success has been attained in elucidating which endophyte is responsible for the observed BNF and in what site, or sites, within the cane plants the N2 fixation mainly occurs. Until such important questions are answered further developments or extension of this novel N2-fixing system to other economically important non-legumes (e.g. cereals) will be seriously hindered. As far as application of present knowledge to maximise BNF with sugarcane is concerned, molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. An abundant water supply favours high BNF inputs, and the best medium term strategy to increase BNF would appear to be based on cultivar selection on irrigated N deficient soils fertilised with Mo. (author)

  15. Genetic variability among the chloroplast genomes of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and its wild progenitor species Saccharum spontaneum L.

    A striking characteristic of modern sugarcane is that all sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp.) share a common cytoplasm from S. officinarum. To explore the potential value of S. spontaneum cytoplasm, new Saccharum hybrids with a S. spontaneum cytoplasm were developed at the USDA-ARS, sugarcane resea...

  16. Lethal and sublethal effects of lufenuron on sugarcane borer Diatraea flavipennella and its parasitoid Cotesia flavipes.

    Fonseca, Ana Paula Pereira; Marques, Edmilson Jacinto; Torres, Jorge Braz; Silva, Liliane Marques; Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro Abreu

    2015-11-01

    The combination of chemical and biological controls is a historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved due to lethal and sublethal impact of insecticides on natural enemies altering their performance. In this context, the susceptibility of the yellow sugarcane borer, Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to the insect growth regulator lufenuron and the consequent effects upon its endoparasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) encountering exposed but surviving larvae were studied. Neonate and 10-day-old larvae were subjected to one of seven concentrations of lufenuron (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100 mg a.i./L). Further, effects of lufenuron to the host larvae and to the parasitoid were assessed using low lethal LC20 and LC50. Lufenuron at concentrations up to 12.5 mg a.i./L allowed partial survival of borer larvae; and concentrations over 12.5 mg a.i./L caused 100 % larval mortality before pupation in both ages. Neonate larvae exhibited lower pupal weights only at concentrations 12.5 mg a.i./L; while 10-day-old larvae treated with the LC50 exhibited delayed development. Egg viability was reduced for adult borers from surviving larvae of both ages treated with low lethal concentrations. The parasitoid C. flavipes successfully parasitized surviving low lethal treated larvae. Among the studied life history characteristics of C. flavipes, only a delayed development was observed. The results showed that lufenuron can be effective against D. flavipennella at concentrations over 25 mg a.i./L, and that surviving larvae can be successfully parasitized by C. flavipes. The insecticide lufenuron and the parasitoid C. flavipes seem to be compatible for sugarcane borer control. PMID:26250937

  17. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  18. Expression Analysis of Sugarcane Aquaporin Genes under Water Deficit

    Manassés Daniel da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a pioneer study specifically addressing the aquaporin transcripts in sugarcane transcriptomes. Representatives of the four aquaporin subfamilies (PIP, TIP, SIP, and NIP, already described for higher plants, were identified. Forty-two distinct aquaporin isoforms were expressed in four HT-SuperSAGE libraries from sugarcane roots of drought-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, respectively. At least 10 different potential aquaporin isoform targets and their respective unitags were considered to be promising for future studies and especially for the development of molecular markers for plant breeding. From those 10 isoforms, four (SoPIP2-4, SoPIP2-6, OsPIP2-4, and SsPIP1-1 showed distinct responses towards drought, with divergent expressions between the bulks from tolerant and sensitive genotypes, when they were compared under normal and stress conditions. Two targets (SsPIP1-1 and SoPIP1-3/PIP1-4 were selected for validation via RT-qPCR and their expression patterns as detected by HT-SuperSAGE were confirmed. The employed validation strategy revealed that different genotypes share the same tolerant or sensitive phenotype, respectively, but may use different routes for stress acclimation, indicating the aquaporin transcription in sugarcane to be potentially genotype-specific.

  19. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    Watson, Helen K., E-mail: watsonh@ukzn.ac.za [School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km{sup 2} resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  20. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km2 resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  1. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  2. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  3. IMPROVING ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BY BIOLOGICAL/PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PRETREATMENT USING TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND BACILLUS SP.

    Chularat Krongtaew Sakdaronnarong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, laccase biosynthesis of two microorganisms, Trametes versicolor TISTR 3224 and Bacillus sp. TISTR 908 isolated in Thailand, was investigated using sugarcane bagasse (SCB as substrate. Two-stage biological/physico-chemical pretreatment of SCB on delignification and saccharification yield was studied. A two-level full factorial design was applied and 3 factors influencing delignification and saccharification processes of SCB were studied including C:N ratio (10:1 to 20:1, temperature (100 to 140°C, and alkali concentration (0 to 5% w/w NaOH. It was found that during biological pretreatment of SCB, a greater amount of laccase was produced from T. versicolor in the early stage of growth compared with Bacillus sp. Nitrogen supplement enhanced laccase biosynthesis of T. versicolor. By contrast, Bacillus sp. required a smaller amount of nitrogen source to produce laccase. Biological treated bagasse was subsequently subjected to a physico-chemical treatment. The results showed that the highest xylose and glucose yield of 51.97% w/w based on carbohydrate content was obtained from T. versicolor cultivation at a C:N ratio of 20:1, and consecutively treated in 5% w/w NaOH solution at 140°C for 1 h. Bacterial/alkali and alkali pretreatment yielded xylose and glucose in smaller degrees compared with fungal/alkali pretreatment. T. versicolor preferentially degraded lignin in sugarcane bagasse relative to cellulose and hemicelluloses constituents, while Bacillus sp. simultaneously attacked both lignin and carbohydrate moieties, as indicated by analysis of relative FT-IR intensities ratios of pretreated and untreated sugarcane bagasse.

  4. Red stripe caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana sugarcane

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae is considered to be of minor importance because, most often when found, only the mild leaf stripe symptom is observed. In 2010, both leaf stripe and the more severe top rot symptom were observed in commercial sugarcane fields in Louis...

  5. World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses: Utilizing a Vast Genetic Resource

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that may exist in the Saccharum germplasm. Two collections of genetic material potentially useful to sugarcane br...

  6. Spatial variability of sugarcane yields in relation to soil salinity in Louisiana

    High soil salinity levels have been documented to negatively impact sugarcane yields. Tests were conducted in commercial sugarcane fields in South Louisiana in 2009-2010 to determine if elevated soil salinity levels resulting from salt water intrusion from several recent hurricanes was having a neg...

  7. Glyphosate Control of Orange and Brown Rusts in Glyphosate-Sensitive Sugarcane Cultivars

    Technical Abstract: Brown and orange rust diseases cause substantial yield reductions on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida and other regions where sugarcane is grown. Brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust caused by Pucci...

  8. Digestion of feed fractions and intake of heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods

    Regis Luis Missio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, in Nellore heifers, intake and digestibility of hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, four diets, four Nellore heifers with ruminal cannulas (initial body weight 285.4±23.08 kg and average initial age 14 months and four periods of 21 days. The diets were composed by fresh sugarcane (time zero or hydrolyzed sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime, stored for 24, 48 or 72 hours, as the unique forage. Intake and digestibility of feed fractions, nitrogen balance, microbial synthesis efficiency, total number of ruminal protozoans and ammoniacal nitrogen did not significantly change by storing sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime. Sugarcane pH varied quadratically for storage time, with maximum pH of 7.02 after 24 hours from lime addition. Ruminal liquid pH values were higher for heifers fed fresh sugarcane, in comparison with those fed hydrolyzed sugarcane. Sugarcane treated with 0.5% of hydrated lime stored for up to 72 hours does not change ruminal digestion to alter the amount of feed consumed by pubescent Nellore heifers. Thus, lime is a viable technology, once it allows long-duration storage and bee control on treated forage, which contributes to animal feeding logistics.

  9. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  10. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  11. Control of rhizome johnsongrass (sorghum halepense) in sugarcane with trifloxysulfuron and asulam

    Johnsongrass, in its perennial form, is a difficult weed problem for sugarcane growers in Louisiana. Studies were conducted to determine the benefit, if any, of the addition of trifloxysulfuron to postemergence (POST) applications of asulam for the selective control of johnsongrass in sugarcane. A...

  12. A structured approach to target starch solubilization and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial a-amylases have been used for many years ...

  13. Sugarcane Cultivar Response to High Summer Water Tables in the Everglades

    Sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) in Florida is frequently subjected to periods of higher than desired (wetter) water levels. This study was conducted to evaluate yields of nine sugarcane cultivars subjected to the wet conditions of two hig...

  14. First report of Sugarcane mosaic virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in the United States

    Mosaic symptoms in sorghum can be caused by several potyviruses [family Potyviridae], including Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). SrMV and SCMV are responsible for global economic losses in sorghum, maize, and sugarcane. Ten plants of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum) exhib...

  15. A mixed model QTL analysis for sugarcane multiple-harvest-location trial data

    Pastina, M.M.; Malosetti, M.; Gazaffi, R.; Mollinari, M.; Margarido, G.R.A.; Oliveira, K.M.; Pinto, L.R.; Souza, A.P.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Garcia, A.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane-breeding programs take at least 12 years to develop new commercial cultivars. Molecular markers offer a possibility to study the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in sugarcane, and they may be used in marker-assisted selection to speed up artificial selection. Although the perfor

  16. Long-term decomposition of sugarcane harvest residues in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Crop residues returned to the soil are important to preserve fertility and sustainability. This research addressed the long-term decomposition of sugarcane post-harvest residues (trash) under reduced tillage, therefore field renewal was performed with herbicide followed by subsoiling and ratoons were deprived of interrow scarification. The trial was conducted in the northern Sao Paulo State, Brazil during four consecutive crops (2005–2008) where litter bags containing 15N-labeled trash were disposed in the field attempting to simulate two distinct situations: the previous crop trash (PCT) or residues incorporated in the field after tillage, and post-harvest trash (PHT) or the remains of plant-cane harvest. Decomposition rates regarding dry matter (DM), carbon (C), root growth, plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S), lignin (LIG) cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) contents were assessed for PCT (2005 ndash;2008) and for PHT (2006–2008). There were significant reductions on DM and C:N ratio due to C losses and root growth within the litter bags over time. The DM from PCT and PHT decreased 96% and 73% after four and three crops, respectively, and the higher nutrients release were found for K, Ca and N. The LIG, CEL and HCEL concentrations in PCT decreased 60%, 29%, 70% after four crops and 47%, 35%, 70% from PHT after three crops, respectively. Trash decomposition was driven mainly by residues biochemical composition, root growth within the trash blanket and the climatic conditions during the crop cycles. -- Highlights: ► Degradation of sugarcane previous or post-harvest trash (PCT or PHT) was evaluated. ► Dry matter and C decreased due to microbial and root growth within trash blankets. ► C:N ratio of PCT linearly decreased 23% per year during four consecutive crops. ► Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose concentration averagely declined 54, 41 and 70%. ► PCT and PHT are long-term sources of C, K, Ca and N to the soil-plant system.

  17. The impact of some physiomorphic characters of sugarcane genotypes on their resistance against sugarcane pyrilla, pyrilla perpusilla wlk. (lophopidae: homoptera)

    Field trials were conducted in the Research Area, Directorate of Sugarcane, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to study he physio-morphic characters of sugarcane resistance to the sucking pest Pyrilla perpusilla. Twenty genotypes of sugarcane were tested for their resistance susceptibility against P. perpusilla, as a preliminary screening experiment, during 2006. Based on the population-density count, 3 genotypes, viz., HSF- 240, CPF-243 and S-2002-US-114 showing resistance responses, 3 genotypes viz. CPHS-35, S-2003-US-394 and S-2003-US-623 showing susceptible trends and 3 genotypes viz. S-2003-US-809, S-2002-US-140 and S- 2002-US-104 exerting intermediate trends against the pest under test were selected for the final screening trials during 2007.The genotype S-2003-US-623, was found to be comparatively susceptible; whereas, HSF-240, showed resistance responses. The leaf-width and cane length showed a positive and significant correlation whereas the leaf-spine density had a significant negative effect with pest-population. The Leaf-length and Cane-Diameter did not show a significant correlation with the pest population. (author)

  18. Phenotype adaptability and stability of sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane belt of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the agroindustrial performance of 25 sugarcane genotypes adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, within the microregions Mata Norte, Mata Sul, Região Central, Litoral Norte, and Litoral Sul. The variables analyzed were POL tonnage per hectare, sugarcane tonnage per hectare, fiber and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare, using a randomized block design with four repetitions. Combined variance of experiments, genetic parameter estimates, decomposition of the genotype-environment interaction, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotype adaptability and stability were also analyzed. The various genotypes presented great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern to the microregions Centro and Mata Sul of the state of Pernambuco. Genotypes RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB953180, SP81-3250, RB75126, and RB942520 were better in productivity and phenotype adaptability and stability compared to genotypes RB892700, RB943365, SP79-1011, Q138, RB943538, SP78-4764, RB953281, RB943066, RB928064, RB93509, RB72454, RB952675, RB952991, RB943161, RB942898, RB872552, RB952900, and RB942849. These genotypes are recommended as cultivation options in the sugarcane belt in the state of Pernambuco, since they stand out in terms of phenotype adaptability and stability as evaluated using the method by Annicchiarico, Lin and Bins, and the method by Eberhart and Russel. PMID:25177966

  19. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives.

    Andrade, Felipe Leite de; Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Trece, Aline Souza; Silva, Tadeu Eder; Fischer, Vivian; Weiss, Kirsten; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intake, digestibility, and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage, fresh sugarcane, and sugarcane ensiled in three different forms. Twenty-five Holstein cows at 114 ± 12.6 days in milk (DIM) were used. A randomized block design was adopted, using an arrangement of repeated measures over time. The following treatments were tested: corn silage (CS); fresh sugarcane (FS); sugarcane silage without additives (SCS); sugarcane silage enriched with calcium oxide at 5 g/kg of forage (SCSc); and sugarcane silage enriched with Lactobacillus buchneri at 5 × 10(4) cfu/kg of forage (SCSb). The roughage to concentrate ratio was 60:40 for the CS diet and 40:60 for the sugarcane-based diets. The dry matter intake (DMI) as a function of body weight had a downward trend for the cows fed sugarcane silage, compared with those fed FS. The sugarcane silages had higher digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDFap), compared with FS. The use of L. buchneri or calcium oxide improved the diet's digestibility. The use of FS, sugarcane silage, or sugarcane silage with additives had no effects on milk and fat-corrected milk yield, compared to corn silage. Cows fed FS presented lower milk total solids content and had a downward trend for milk fat, compared with cows fed sugarcane-silage diets. Cows fed sugarcane silages produced milk with higher casein stability in the alcohol test than cows fed fresh-sugarcane diet. Sugarcane silage, with or without additives, did not reduce the intake of dairy cows, and the use of additives improved the fiber's digestibility. PMID:26898688

  20. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  1. Short-term physiological changes in roots and leaves of sugarcane varieties exposed to H2O2 in root medium.

    Silva, Karina I; Sales, Cristina R G; Marchiori, Paulo E R; Silveira, Neidiquele M; Machado, Eduardo C; Ribeiro, Rafael V

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential sensitivity of sugarcane genotypes to H2O2 in root medium. As a hypothesis, the drought tolerant genotype would be able to minimize the oxidative damage and maintain the water transport from roots to shoots, reducing the negative effects on photosynthesis. The sugarcane genotypes IACSP94-2094 (drought tolerant) and IACSP94-2101 (drought sensitive) were grown in a growth chamber and exposed to three levels of H2O2 in nutrient solution: control; 3 mmol L(-1) and 80 mmol L(-1). Leaf gas exchange, photochemical activity, root hydraulic conductance (Lr) and antioxidant metabolism in both roots and leaves were evaluated after 15 min of treatment with H2O2. Although, root hydraulic conductance, stomatal aperture, apparent electron transport rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency have been reduced by H2O2 in both genotypes, IACSP94-2094 presented higher values of those variables as compared to IACSP94-2101. There was a significant genotypic variation in relation to the physiological responses of sugarcane to increasing H2O2 in root tissues, being root changes associated with modifications in plant shoots. IACSP94-2094 presented a root antioxidant system more effective against H2O2 in root medium, regardless H2O2 concentration. Under low H2O2 concentration, water transport and leaf gas exchange of IACSP94-2094 were less affected as compared to IACSP94-2101. Under high H2O2 concentration, the lower sensitivity of IACSP94-2094 was associated with increases in superoxide dismutase activity in roots and leaves and increases in catalase activity in roots. In conclusion, we propose a general model of sugarcane reaction to H2O2, linking root and shoot physiological responses. PMID:25703773

  2. Efeito da solarização do solo, seguida pela aplicação de Trichoderma spp: ou de fungicidas, sobre o controle de Pythium aphanidermatum e de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 Effect of soil solarization, followed or not by the application of Trichoderma spp: or fungicides for the control of Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani AG-4

    Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Hiroshi Kimati; João Tessarioli Neto; Ademir Petenatti; Benedito de Camargo Barros

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar alternativas para a desinfestação de solos, especialmente considerando a retirada do brometo de metila do mercado. Avaliou-se o efeito da solarização do solo, seguida ou não pela aplicação de isolados de Trichoderma spp. ou de fungicidas, sobre o controle de Pythium aphanidermatum e de Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, responsáveis por tombamento e podridão de raízes em várias culturas. Dois experimentos foram realizados em Piracicaba, SP (la...

  3. Influence of Soil Temperature and Matric Potential on Sugar Beet Seedling Colonization and Suppression of Pythium Damping-Off by the Antagonistic Bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis.

    Schmidt, C S; Agostini, F; Leifert, C; Killham, K; Mullins, C E

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas fluorescens B5 and Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 colonized sugar beet seedlings at matric potentials of -7 x 10(3), -140 x 10(3), and -330 x 10(3) Pa and under five temperature regimes ranging from 7 to 35 degrees C, with diurnal fluctuations of 5 to 22 degrees C. No interaction between matric potential and temperature was observed. In situ bioluminescence indicated physiological activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens B5. Colonization of the root at >/=4 cm below the seed decreased at very low matric potential (-330 x 10(3) Pa). Total population size of Pseudomonas fluorescens B5 per seedling was significantly increased at -140 x 10(3) Pa. However, matric potential had no significant effect on the population density of Pseudomonas fluorescens per gram of root fresh weight and did not affect the distribution of the population down the root. Total population size per seedling and downward colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens B5 were significantly reduced at high temperatures (25 to 35 degrees C). Maximum colonization down the root occurred at intermediate temperature (15 degrees C) at both matric potentials (-7 x 10(3) and -140 x 10(3) Pa). Addition of B. subtilis MBI 600 to the seed had no effect on rhizosphere populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens B5. Populations of B. subtilis MBI 600, which consisted largely of spores, were slightly reduced at lower matric potentials and were not affected by temperature. Survival and dry weight of plants in soils infested with Pythium spp. decreased with increasing soil temperature and matric potential, indicating an increase in disease pressure. However, there was no significant interaction between the two factors. At -330 x 10(3) Pa, soil dryness but not Pythium infection was the limiting factor for plant emergence. At temperatures of 7 to 25 degrees C and matric potentials of -7 x 10(3) to 120 x 10(3) Pa, treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens B5 increased plant survival and dry weight. At 7 degrees C and

  4. Differential Protein Expression in Sugarcane during Sugarcane-Sporisorium scitamineum Interaction Revealed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS

    Youxiong Que; Liping Xu; Jianwei Lin; Miaohong Ruan; Muqing Zhang; Rukai Chen

    2011-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of a specific plant-pathogen interaction, it is important to identify plant proteins that respond to the pathogen attack. Two sugarcane varieties, NCo376 and Ya71-374, were used in this study. By applying 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), the protein expression profile of sugarcane after inoculating with Sporisorium scitamineum was analyzed. In total, 23 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. Bioinformatics analysis reveale...

  5. Effect of trash mulch and nitrogen application on the cane yield and quality of sugarcane variety thatta

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of trash mulching and nitrogen application on the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane variety Thatta-10 at NSCRI, farm Thatta during 2008-09. The data revealed that the plots received 225 N kg ha-1+ trash mulch showed better results for cane yield, yield components and quality. It was further observed that that the plots with mulching and varying doses of nitrogen application had low weed occurrence as compared to control plots receiving 175 N kg ha-1 + no mulch. Economic analysis data revealed that there could be no additional income from the control treatment, which received low levels of N fertilizer (175 N kg/ha) with no mulching. However, all fertilizer levels with trash mulching proved profitable over control. Moreover, better response was observed at 225 N kg/ha+ trash mulch. It is recommended that 225 N kg ha-1 application with trash mulch was profitable for obtaining maximum production of sugarcane. (author)

  6. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from a moderate halophile strain of Aspergillus caesiellus isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation.

    Ramón Alberto Batista-García

    Full Text Available A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications.

  7. Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation

    Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

  8. Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane(Saccharum officinarum L.)

    Ashok; A.Nikam; Rachayya; M.; Devarumath; Akash; Ahuja; Harinath; Babu; Mahadeo; G.Shitole; Penna; Suprasanna

    2015-01-01

    Gamma ray-induced in vitro mutagenesis and selection for salt(NaC l) tolerance were investigated in sugarcane(Saccharum officinarum L.). Embryogenic callus cultures were irradiated(10 to 80 Gy) and subjected to in vitro selection by exposure of irradiated callus to NaC l(0, 50, 100,150, 200, and 250 mmol L-1). Increasing NaC l concentrations resulted in growth reduction and increased membrane damage. Salt-selected callus lines were characterized by the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine, and Na+and K+concentration. Higher accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was observed in NaC l stressed callus irradiated at 20 Gy. Na+concentration increased and K+concentration decreased with increasing salt level. Irradiated callus showed50–60% regeneration under NaC l stress, and in vitro-regenerated plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse, with 80–85% survival. A total of 138 irradiated and salt-selected selections were grown to maturity and their agronomic performance was evaluated under normal and saline conditions. Of these, 18 mutant clones were characterized for different agro-morphological characters and some of the mutant clones exhibited improved sugar yield with increased Brix%,number of millable canes, and yield. The result suggest that radiation-induced mutagenesis offers an effective way to enhance genetic variation in sugarcane.

  9. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Mendes, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Anderson; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting) under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments). In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere). An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community’s structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found mostly in

  10. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant.

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Mendes, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Anderson; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting) under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments). In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere). An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community's structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found mostly in the

  11. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant.

    Aline Silva Romão-Dumaresq

    Full Text Available Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842 variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance. For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments. In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere. An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community's structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found

  12. Effect of Lanthanum on Mycelium Growth and Some Pathogenic Factors

    2006-01-01

    Three soil-transmitted pathogenic fungi including Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, and Pythium sp. were selected to investigate the effect of lanthanum on their growth and the pathogenic enzymes using liquid culture. Variance analysis shows significant differences among treatments with different concentrations of lanthanum (Rhizoctonia solani F=6.75>F0.01=5.99; Fusarium solani F=18.1>F0.01=5.99, Pythium sp. F=23.29>F0.01=5.99). The inhibitory effect of lanthanum on pathogenic fungi increased with an increase in La concentration. The activities of the three pathogenic enzymes per gram mycelium were promoted remarkably. However, the quantity or the activities of the total enzymes were inhibited because of the strong inhibition of mycelium growth by lanthanum. Meanwhile, the effect of lanthanum on toxins of pathogenic fungi were studied using the seed germination experiment. Toxins of pathogenic fungi are influenced by lanthanum and the virulence decreases significantly with the increase of lanthanum concentration.

  13. Whole genome sequence of the emerging oomycete pathogen Pythium insidiosum strain CDC-B5653 isolated from an infected human in the USA.

    Ascunce, Marina S; Huguet-Tapia, Jose C; Braun, Edward L; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Keyhani, Nemat O; Goss, Erica M

    2016-03-01

    Pythium insidiosum ATCC 200269 strain CDC-B5653, an isolate from necrotizing lesions on the mouth and eye of a 2-year-old boy in Memphis, Tennessee, USA, was sequenced using a combination of Illumina MiSeq (300 bp paired-end, 14 millions reads) and PacBio (10  Kb fragment library, 356,001 reads). The sequencing data were assembled using SPAdes version 3.1.0, yielding a total genome size of 45.6 Mb contained in 8992 contigs, N50 of 13 Kb, 57% G + C content, and 17,867 putative protein-coding genes. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JRHR00000000. PMID:26981361

  14. Whole genome sequence of the emerging oomycete pathogen Pythium insidiosum strain CDC-B5653 isolated from an infected human in the USA

    Marina S. Ascunce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum ATCC 200269 strain CDC-B5653, an isolate from necrotizing lesions on the mouth and eye of a 2-year-old boy in Memphis, Tennessee, USA, was sequenced using a combination of Illumina MiSeq (300 bp paired-end, 14 millions reads and PacBio (10  Kb fragment library, 356,001 reads. The sequencing data were assembled using SPAdes version 3.1.0, yielding a total genome size of 45.6 Mb contained in 8992 contigs, N50 of 13 Kb, 57% G + C content, and 17,867 putative protein-coding genes. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JRHR00000000.

  15. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    Mario A. Jancso

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3 of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.A via de síntese de purino nucleotídeos é considerada uma via de central importância para todas as células. Na maioria dos organismos, os purino nucleotídeos são sintetizados ''de novo'' a partir de precursores não-nucleotídicos como amino ácidos, amônia e dióxido de carbono. O conhecimento das enzimas envolvidas na via de síntese de purinas da cana-de-açúcar vai abrir a possibilidade do uso dessas enzimas como alvos no desenho

  16. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.

  17. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    Lima D.U.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they came. The only significant correlations that we found between cell wall genes and/or their expression within particular libraries were neutral or synergetic. Genes related to cellulose biosynthesis were from the CesA family, and were found to be the most abundant cell wall related genes in the SUCEST database. We found that the highest number of CesA reads came from the root and stem libraries. The genes with the greatest number of reads were those involved in cell wall hydrolases (e.g. beta-1,3-glucanases, xyloglucan endo-beta-transglycosylase, beta-glucosidase and endo-beta-mannanase. Correlation analyses by surface mapping revealed that the expression of genes related to biosynthesis seems to be associated with the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, pectin hydrolases being mainly associated with xyloglucan hydrolases. The patterns of cell wall related gene expression in sugarcane based on the number of reads per cluster reflected quite well the expected physiological characteristics of the tissues. This is the first work to provide a general view on plant cell wall metabolism through the expression of related genes in almost all the tissues of a plant at the same time. For example, developing flowers behaved similarly to both meristematic tissues and leaf-root transition zone tissues. Besides providing a basis for future research on the mechanisms of plant development which involve the cell wall, our findings will provide valuable tools for plant engineering in the

  18. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  19. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA3, 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  20. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to char

  1. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  2. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    P.V. Gurgel; S.A. FURLAN; S.E.R. MARTINEZ; I.M. MANCILHA

    1998-01-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improv...

  3. Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling

    Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti; José Pavan Neto; André Luiz Veiga Conrado; Carolina Tobias Marino; Paula Marques Meyer; Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%), plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2)+1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH), limestone (CaCO3), urea (CO(NH2)2), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), quicklime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). The m...

  4. Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces

    Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

    2013-07-01

    Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

  5. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  6. Erianthus arundinaceus HSP70 (EaHSP70) Acts as a Key Regulator in the Formation of Anisotropic Interdigitation in Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) in Response to Drought Stress.

    Augustine, Sruthy Maria; Cherian, Anoop V; Syamaladevi, Divya P; Subramonian, N

    2015-12-01

    Plant growth during abiotic stress is a long sought-after trait especially in crop plants in the context of global warming and climate change. Previous studies on leaf epidermal cells have revealed that during normal growth and development, adjacent cells interdigitate anisotropically to form cell morphological patterns known as interlocking marginal lobes (IMLs), involving the cell wall-cell membrane-cortical actin continuum. IMLs are growth-associated cell morphological changes in which auxin-binding protein (ABP), Rho GTPases and actin are known to play important roles. In the present study, we investigated the formation of IMLs under drought stress and found that Erianthus arundinaceus, a drought-tolerant wild relative of sugarcane, develops such growth-related cell morphological patterns under drought stress. Using confocal microscopy, we showed an increasing trend in cortical F-actin intensity in drought-tolerant plants with increasing soil moisture stress. In order to check the role of drought tolerance-related genes in IML formation under soil moisture stress, we adopted a structural data mining strategy and identified indirect connections between the ABPs and heat shock proteins (HSPs). Initial experimental evidence for this connection comes from the high transcript levels of HSP70 observed in drought-stressed Erianthus, which developed anisotropic interdigitation, i.e. IMLs. Subsequently, by overexpressing the E. arundinaceus HSP70 gene (EaHSP70) in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid), we confirm the role of HSP70 in the formation of anisotropic interdigitation under drought stress. Taken together, our results suggest that EaHSP70 acts as a key regulator in the formation of anisotropic interdigitation in drought-tolerant plants (Erianthus and HSP70 transgenic sugarcane) under moisture stress in an actin-mediated pathway. The possible biological significance of the formation of drought-associated interlocking marginal lobes (DaIMLs) in sugarcane plants upon

  7. Highly improved chromium (III uptake capacity in modified sugarcane bagasse using different chemical treatments

    Vanessa Cristina Gonçalves Dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on improving chromium (III uptake capacity of sugarcane bagasse through its chemical modification with citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. The chemical modifications were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, with an evident peak observed at 1730 cm-1, attributed to carbonyl groups. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h, and the kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The highest chromium (III maximum adsorption capacity (MAC value was found when using sugarcane bagasse modified with sodium hydroxide and citric acid (58.00 mg g-1 giving a MAC value about three times greater (20.34 mg g-1 than for raw sugarcane bagasse.

  8. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Minussi Rosana Cristina; Soares-Ramos Juliana Rocha Lopes; Coelho Jorge Luiz Cavalcante; Silva Daison Olzany

    1998-01-01

    The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG) by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3) in a rotary shaker (150 rpm) for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium pro...

  9. Food consumption of sugarcane workers' families in the Brazilian Northeast

    Vanessa Messias Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the food intake of sugarcane workers' family members. METHODS: The food intake of 159 family members of sugarcane workers from Gameleira, Pernambuco, Brazilian Northeast, was investigated by directly weighing the foods on three non-consecutive days. The percent risk of inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes was analyzed according to the Reference Dietary Intakes. The macronutrients were analyzed in relation to acceptable distribution intervals. The energy consumed from the various food groups was expressed as a ratio of the total energy intake. RESULTS: The median intake of carbohydrates and proteins remained above the Estimated Average Requirement, and all age groups presented a low risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes. The median intakes of riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, and iron remained above the Estimated Average Requirement for all age groups, but children aged 1-3 years presented a high percent risk of inadequate iron intake. All age groups presented high percent risk of inadequate zinc, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intakes. Grains and derivatives had a greater participation in the total energy intake, especially in men aged 19-30 years. The group "milk and dairy products" had a greater participation in the diet of children aged 1-3 years. CONCLUSION: The low percent risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes in all age groups was opposed to the high risk of inadequate mineral and vitamin intakes, making the population vulnerable to nutritional disorders caused by excess macronutrient intake and inadequate micronutrient intake.

  10. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  11. Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling

    Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%, plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2+1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH, limestone (CaCO3, urea (CO(NH22, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, quicklime (CaO and hydrated lime (Ca(OH2. The material was ensiled in 52 laboratory silos using plastic buckets with 12 L of capacity. Silos were opened 60 days after ensiling, when organic acids concentration, aerobic stability and chemical composition were determined. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE was calculated by the slope ratio method, using the data obtained from ratio between desirable and undesirable silage products, according to the equation: D/U ratio = [lactic/(ethanol + acetic + butyric]. All additives affected dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber contents and buffering capacity. Except for urea and quicklime, all additives increased the in vitro dry matter digestibility. In general, these additives altered the fermentative pattern of sugarcane silage, inhibiting alcoholic fermentation and improving lactic acid production. The additive that showed the best RBE in relation to sodium hydroxide (100% was limestone (89.4%. The RBE values of urea, sodium bicarbonate and hydrated lime were 49.2%, 47.7% and 34.3%, respectively.

  12. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-01

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC. PMID:27516319

  13. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Y. C. Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples were prepared to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol yield, the pH was kept constant at 4.5. The ethanol concentrations were determined by running the samples in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that at highest ethanol concentration was obtained pH 4.5 and temperature 350C. This indicated that pH 4.5 and 350C was the optimum parameter for the yeast to produce ethanol.

  14. Use of sugarcane straw ash for zeolite synthesis

    Denise Alves Fungaro, Thais Vitória da Silva Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of biomass combustion residue is growing nowadays due to constant increasing demands of biomass utilization. The biomass ash produced currently is disposed on agricultural fields. The presence of metals, chlorine, sulphur and other species may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. The main challenge is related to the increase of possible applications of this byproduct. Sugarcane straw ash (SCSA was used in a study on synthesis of zeolitic material by alkaline conventional hydrothermal treatment. Different experimental conditions, such as, reaction time, alkali hydroxide concentration and liquid/solid ratio were studied. Raw ash material and synthesis products were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy powder, X-ray diffraction, cation exchange capacity and scanning electron microscopic. The presence of zeolite hydroxysodalite confirms successful conversion of native SCSA into zeolitic material. Sugarcane straw ash utilization minimizes the environmental impact of disposal problems and further appears as an alternative for the future sustainable large-scale management of biomass ash.

  15. Effect of sugarcane biopolymer gel injected in rabbit vocal fold

    Rodrigo Augusto de Souza Leão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in the vocal folds that involve volume reduction and glottal closure failure result in exaggerated air escape during speech. For such situations, the use of implants or grafts of different materials has been proposed. OBJECTIVE: To define the effect of sugarcane biopolymer gel when implanted in the vocal folds of rabbits. METHODS: This was an experimental study. The vocal folds of rabbits injected with sugarcane biopolymer and saline solution were histologically evaluated after 21 and 90 days. RESULTS: Mild to moderate inflammation and increased volume were observed in all vocal folds injected with biopolymer, when compared to controls. There were no cases of necrosis or calcification. DISCUSSION: This study showed higher inflammatory reaction in cases than in controls and biopolymer biointegration to the vocal fold. This fibrogenic response with absence of epithelial repercussions suggests that the biopolymer in its gel form can be bioactive and preserve the normal vibratory function of the epithelium. CONCLUSION: We show that in spite of producing an inflammatory reaction in vocal fold tissues, the material remained in vocal fold throughout the study period.

  16. Process integration and pinch analysis in sugarcane industry

    Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Process integration techniques were applied, particularly through the Pinch Analysis method, to sugarcane industry. Research was performed upon harvest data from an agroindustrial complex which processes sugarcane plant in excess of 3.5 million metric tons per year, producing motor fuel grade ethanol, standard quality sugar, and delivering excess electric power to the grid. Pinch Analysis was used in assessing internal heat recovery as well as external utility demand targets, while keeping the lowest but economically achievable targets for entropy increase. Efficiency on the use of energy was evaluated for the plant as it was found (the base case) as well as for five selected process and/or plant design modifications, always with guidance of the method. The first alternative design (case 2) was proposed to evaluate equipment mean idle time in the base case, to support subsequent comparisons. Cases 3 and 4 were used to estimate the upper limits of combined heat and power generation while raw material supply of the base case is kept; both the cases did not prove worth implementing. Cases 5 and 6 were devised to deal with the bottleneck of the plant, namely boiler capacity, in order to allow for some production increment. Inexpensive, minor modifications considered in case 5 were found unable to produce reasonable outcome gain. Nevertheless, proper changes in cane juice evaporation section (case 6) could allow sugar and ethanol combined production to rise up to 9.1% relative to the base case, without dropping cogenerated power. (author)

  17. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

  18. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  19. Microwave-induced torrefaction of rice husk and sugarcane residues

    This study utilized microwave irradiation to induce torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) of rice husk and sugarcane residues by varying different parameters, including microwave power level, processing time, water content, and particle size of biomass. Proper microwave power levels are suggested to be set between 250 and 300 W for the torrefaction of these two agricultural residues. With proper processing time, the caloric value can increase 26% for rice husk and 57% for sugarcane residue. Compared to dry rice husk, both maximum reaction temperature and mass reduction ratio increased with higher water content (not over 10%). Moreover, the particle size of biomass needs not to be very small. The mass reduction ratios were 65 wt.%, 69 wt.%, and 72 wt.%, when the sizes were 50/100 mesh, 100/200 mesh, and >200 mesh, respectively. Microwave-induced torrefaction reduces more oxygen/carbon ratio of biomass in comparison with traditional torrefaction. Microwave-induced torrefaction is considered as an efficient and promising technology with great potential. -- Highlights: ► Microwave-induced torrefaction is promising compared to conventional methods. ► Neither high microwave power nor small particle size is needed. ► High energy yield can be met under mild microwave power. ► Caloric value can increase up to about 60%.

  20. Identification, classification and expression pattern analysis of sugarcane cysteine proteinases

    Gustavo Coelho Correa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases are peptidyl hydrolyses dependent on a cysteine residue at the active center. The physical and chemical properties of cysteine proteases have been extensively characterized, but their precise biological functions have not yet been completely understood, although it is known that they are involved in a number of events such as protein turnover, cancer, germination, programmed cell death and senescence. Protein sequences from different cysteine proteinases, classified as members of the E.C.3.4.22 sub-sub-class, were used to perform a T-BLAST-n search on the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags project (SUCEST data bank. Sequence homology was found with 76 cluster sequences that corresponded to possible cysteine proteinases. The alignments of these SUCEST clusters with the sequence of cysteine proteinases of known origins provided important information about the classification and possible function of these sugarcane enzymes. Inferences about the expression pattern of each gene were made by direct correlation with the SUCEST cDNA libraries from which each cluster was derived. Since no previous reports of sugarcane cysteine proteinases genes exists, this study represents a first step in the study of new biochemical, physiological and biotechnological aspects of sugarcane cysteine proteases.Proteinases cisteínicas são peptidil-hidrolases dependentes de um resíduo de cisteína em seu sítio ativo. As propriedades físico-químicas destas proteinases têm sido amplamente caracterizadas, entretanto suas funções biológicas ainda não foram completamente elucidadas. Elas estão envolvidas em um grande número de eventos, tais como: processamento e degradação protéica, câncer, germinação, morte celular programada e processos de senescência. Diferentes proteinases cisteínicas, classificadas pelo Comitê de Nomenclatura da União Internacional de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (IUBMB como pertencentes à sub

  1. Effect of reduced sulfur compounds on the fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli.

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Miller, E N; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Fu, Z; Tong, Z; Ingram, L O

    2011-04-01

    The addition of reduced sulfur compounds (thiosulfate, cysteine, sodium hydrosulfite, and sodium metabisulfite) increased growth and fermentation of dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli (strains LY180, EMFR9, and MM160). With sodium metabisulfite (0.5mM), toxicity was sufficiently reduced that slurries of pretreated biomass (10% dry weight including fiber and solubles) could be fermented by E. coli strain MM160 without solid-liquid separation or cleanup of sugars. A 6-h liquefaction step was added to improve mixing. Sodium metabisulfite also caused spectral changes at wavelengths corresponding to furfural and soluble products from lignin. Glucose and cellobiose were rapidly metabolized. Xylose utilization was improved by sodium metabisulfite but remained incomplete after 144 h. The overall ethanol yield for this liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process was 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight, 250 L/tonne (61 gal/US ton). PMID:21353535

  2. Putative lipoproteins identified by bioinformatic genome analysis of Leifsonia xyli ssp. xyli, the causative agent of sugarcane ratoon stunting disease.

    Sutcliffe, Iain C; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Leifsonia xyli ssp. xyli is the causative agent of ratoon stunting disease, a major cause of economic loss in sugarcane crops. Understanding of the biology of this pathogen has been hampered by its fastidious growth characteristics in vitro. However, the recent release of a genome sequence for this organism has allowed significant novel insights. Further to this, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of the lipoproteins encoded in the L. xyli genome. These analyses suggest that lipoproteins represent c. 2.0% of the L. xyli predicted proteome. Functional analyses suggest that lipoproteins make an important contribution to the physiology of the pathogen and may influence its ability to cause disease in planta. PMID:20507484

  3. Metabolite Profiling of Sugarcane Genotypes and Identification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Phenolic Acids.

    Coutinho, Isabel D; Baker, John M; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Creste, Silvana; Cavalheiro, Alberto J

    2016-06-01

    Sugarcane is an important agricultural crop in the economy of tropical regions, and Brazil has the largest cultivated acreage in the world. Sugarcane accumulates high levels of sucrose in its stalks. Other compounds produced by sugarcane are currently not of economic importance. To explore potential coproducts, we have studied the chemical diversity of sugarcane genotypes, via metabolite profiling of leaves by NMR and LC-DAD-MS. Metabolites were identified via in-house and public databases. From the analysis of 60 HPLC-fractionated extracts, LC-DAD-MS detected 144 metabolites, of which 56 were identified (MS-MS and (1)H NMR), including 19 phenolics and 25 flavones, with a predominance of isomeric flavone C-glycosides. Multivariate analysis of the profiles from genotypes utilized in Brazilian breeding programs revealed clustering according to sugar, phenolic acid, and flavone contents. PMID:27152527

  4. Performance Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Juice and Sugarcane Molasses for Ethanol Production

    Hatamipour Mohammad Sadegh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum juice and traditional ethanol substrate i.e. sugarcane molasses were used for ethanol production in this work. At the end of the fermentation process, the sweet sorghum juice yielded more ethanol with higher ethanol concentration compared to sugarcane molasses in all experiments. The sweet sorghum juice had higher cell viability at high ethanol concentrations and minimum sugar concentration at the end of the fermentation process. The ethanol concentration and yield were 8.9% w/v and 0.45 g/g for sweet sorghum in 80 h and 6.5% w/v and 0.37 g/g for sugarcane molasses in 60 h, respectively. The findings on the physical properties of sweet sorghum juice revealed that it has better physical properties compared to sugarcane molasses, resulting to enhanced performance of sweet sorghum juice for ethanol production

  5. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). PMID:26210150

  6. Air Emissions and Health Benefits from Using Sugarcane Waste as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock

    Tsao, C.; Campbell, E.; Chen, Y.; Carmichael, G.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S.

    2010-12-01

    Brazil, as the largest ethanol exporter in the world, faces rapid expansion of ethanol production due to the increase of global biofuels demand. Current production of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol causes significant air emissions mainly from the open burning phase of agriculture wastes (i.e. sugarcane straws and leaves) resulting in potential health impacts. One possible measure to avoid undesired burning practices is to increase the utilization of unburned sugarcane residues as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. To explore the benefits of this substitution, here we first apply a bottom-up approach combining agronomic data and life-cycle models to investigate spatially and temporally explicit emissions from sugarcane waste burning. We further quantify the health benefits from preventing burning practices using the CMAQ regional air quality model and the BenMAP health benefit analysis tool adapted for Brazilian applications. Furthermore, the health impacts will be converted into monetary values which provide policymakers useful information for the development of cellulosic ethanol.

  7. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    Jennifer Crowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

  8. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  9. Analysis of process steam demand reduction and electricity generation in sugar and ethanol production from sugarcane

    The sugarcane industry represents one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, producing sugar and ethanol for the internal and external markets. Moreover, thermal and electric energy is produced for self-consumption, using sugarcane bagasse as fuel in cogeneration plants. Almost all the sugarcane plants in Brazil are self-sufficient in terms of energy supply and in the last few years some of them have been selling their surplus electricity for the grid. The reduction of process steam requirements and the use of more efficient cogeneration systems are new alternatives to increase the surplus electricity generation. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the steam demand reduction on sugar and ethanol process and alternatives for cogeneration systems in sugarcane plants, aiming at the surplus electricity generation increase

  10. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central–Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha−1 yr−1. These findings added to decreases in 15N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha−1 yr−1 totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased 15N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO2 balance of sugarcane ethanol. - Highlights: • An explanatory approach to the responses of soil C, N and P to sugarcane expansion is provided.

  11. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil

    Franco, André L.C., E-mail: andrefranco@usp.br [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Cherubin, Maurício R. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Pavinato, Paulo S.; Cerri, Carlos E.P. [Department of Soil Science, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Six, Johan [Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Davies, Christian A. [Shell Technology Centre Houston, 3333 Highway 6 South, Houston, TX 77082 (United States); Cerri, Carlos C. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central–Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}. These findings added to decreases in {sup 15}N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased {sup 15}N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO{sub 2} balance of sugarcane ethanol. - Highlights: • An explanatory approach to the responses of soil C, N and P to

  12. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content

    Renato Vicentini; Alexandra Bottcher; Michael Dos Santos Brito; Adriana Brombini Dos Santos; Silvana Creste; Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell; Igor Cesarino; Paulo Mazzafera

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in gener...

  13. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    Esayas Tena; Firew Mekbib; Hussein Shimelis; Learnmore Mwadzingeni

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 56...

  14. Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

    2008-06-01

    Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel

  15. Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter

    Nurhidayati Nurhidayati; Endang Arisoesilaningsih; Didik Suprayogo; Kurniatun Hairiah

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1) cattle manu...

  16. Assessment of sugarcane trash for agronomic and energy purposes in Brazil

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Maria Teresa Borges Pimenta; João Luís Nunes Carvalho; Paulo Sérgio Graziano Magalhães; Carlos Eduardo Vaz Rossell; Oscar Antonio Braunbeck; André Cesar Vitti; Oriel Tiago Kölln; João Rossi Neto

    2013-01-01

    Due to new possibilities for using sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) trash for electricity generation, and the production of 2nd generation ethanol and others chemicals, the interest for its recovery has increased. However, the question of how much trash can be removed from sugarcane field still needs to be clarified. This study evaluated the amount of dry matter, nutrients content, structural compounds and efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the hydrothermal pretreated materials for tops and ...

  17. Iron oxides and quality of organic matter in sugarcane harvesting systems

    Diogo Mazza Barbieri; José Marques Júnior; Diego Silva Siqueira; Daniel De Bortoli Teixeira; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Gener Tadeu Pereira; Newton La Scala Junior

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in working conditions, sustainable production, and competitiveness have led to substantial changes in sugarcane harvesting systems. Such changes have altered a number of soil properties, including iron oxides and organic matter, as well as some chemical properties, such as the maximum P adsorption capacity of the soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between iron oxides and the quality of organic matter in sugarcane harvesting systems. For that purpose,...

  18. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    Leandro Janke; Athaydes Leite; Marcell Nikolausz; Thomas Schmidt; Jan Liebetrau; Michael Nelles; Walter Stinner

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, an...

  19. Performance Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Juice and Sugarcane Molasses for Ethanol Production

    Hatamipour Mohammad Sadegh; Almodares Abbas; Ahi Mohsen; Gorji Mohammad Ali; Jahanshah Qazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice and traditional ethanol substrate i.e. sugarcane molasses were used for ethanol production in this work. At the end of the fermentation process, the sweet sorghum juice yielded more ethanol with higher ethanol concentration compared to sugarcane molasses in all experiments. The sweet sorghum juice had higher cell viability at high ethanol concentrations and minimum sugar concentration at the end of the fermentation process. The ethanol concentration and yield were 8.9% w/v...

  20. Towards the response of water balance to sugarcane expansion in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    F. F. Pereira; Tursunov, M.; C. B. Uvo

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the short-, medium- and long-term impacts of expansion of the sugarcane plantation on the water balance of the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil, as estimated by changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture content and surface runoff calculated by a hydrological model. Twenty years of simulation are made using three different land use scenarios that include the basin area planted with sugarcane in 1993, 2000 and 2007 as estimated from satellite im...

  1. A feasibility study: can Paraguay learn from the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol program?

    Bradsen, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the feasibility of Paraguay developing a productive sugarcane ethanol sector, by drawing from the Brazilian experience with biofuels. Brazil is clearly a key case for examining whether there are certain lessons which can be extrapolated for other developing countries, such as Paraguay which have the factor endowment conditions to grow sugarcane and use it for the development of an ethanol industry. This study is framed around the following question: to what extent c...

  2. How Relevant Has Been the Learning-by-Doing for Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Production?

    Héctor Mauricio Núñez

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of several factors in reducing the production costs of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol, including learning-by-doing (LBD), economies of scale, rising factor prices, market competitiveness, and exogenous technological changes. Using the aggregate industry-level data over the period 1975- 2010, we find that the reduction in production costs of sugarcane ethanol was primarily driven by autonomous technological changes and unrelated to LBD. The increase in energy prices r...

  3. Challenges in Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Mills in Developing Countries: A Case Study

    Guido Colombo; William Ocampo-Duque; Fabio Rinaldi

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide energy policies are moving towards a reduction of fossil fuels’ share in the energy mix and to invest in renewable and green energy sources. Biomass is one of these, and it represents, in the form of sugarcane, a strategic source in Colombia, especially in the Valle del Cauca. In this region, the sugarcane industry is able to convert the energy content of the cane into different energy products, such as ethanol, electricity, and high-pressure steam, which are cogenerated via bagass...

  4. A New Proposal of Cellulosic Ethanol to Boost Sugarcane Biorefineries: Techno-Economic Evaluation

    Juliana Q. Albarelli; Adriano V. Ensinas; Silva, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial simulator Aspen Plus was used to simulate a biorefinery producing ethanol from sugarcane juice and second generation ethanol production using bagasse fine fraction composed of parenchyma cells (P-fraction). Liquid hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies were evaluated. The processes were thermal and water integrated and compared to a biorefinery producing ethanol from juice and sugarcane bagasse. The results indicated that after thermal and water integration, the ev...

  5. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil.

    Franco, André L C; Cherubin, Maurício R; Pavinato, Paulo S; Cerri, Carlos E P; Six, Johan; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-05-15

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central-Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1). These findings added to decreases in (15)N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1) totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased (15)N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO₂ balance of sugarcane ethanol. PMID:25688522

  6. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell; Maximiliano Salles Scarpari; Mauro Alexandre Xavier; Ivan Antônio dos Anjos; Antônio Sampaio Baptista; Cláudio Lima de Aguiar; Daniel Nunes da Silva; Márcio Aurélio Pitta Bidóia; Sandro Roberto Brancalião; José Antônio Bressiani; Marcelo Ferraz de Campos; Paulo Eduardo Martins Miguel; Thiago Nogueira da Silva; Victor Hugo Pavelqueires da Silva; Luciana Oliveira Souza Anjos

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, dep...

  7. Effect of sugarcane harvesting systems on soil carbon stocks in Brazil : an examination of existing data

    Cerri, C. C.; Galdos, M. V.,; Maia, S. M. F.; Bernoux, Martial; Feigl, B. J.,; Powlson, D.; Cerri, C. E. P.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural management practices that promote net carbon (C) accumulation in the soil have been considered as an important potential mitigation option to combat global warming. The change in the sugarcane harvesting system, to one which incorporates C into the soil from crop residues, is the focus of this work. The main objective was to assess and discuss the changes in soil organic C stocks caused by the conversion of burnt to unburnt sugarcane harvesting systems in Brazil, when considering...

  8. Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?

    Furlan, Felipe F; Filho, Renato Tonon; Pinto, Fabio HPB; Costa, Caliane BB; Cruz, Antonio JG; Giordano, Raquel LC; Giordano, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G...

  9. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host Range and Sorghum Resistance Including Cross-Resistance From Greenbug Sources.

    Armstrong, J Scott; Rooney, William L; Peterson, Gary C; Villenueva, Raul T; Brewer, Michael J; Sekula-Ortiz, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The graminous host range and sources of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] plant resistance, including cross-resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in greenhouse no-choice experiments and field evaluations. The sugarcane aphid could not survive on field corn, Zea mays (L.), Teff grass, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and rye, Secale cereale L. Only sorghum genotypes served as hosts including Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), a highly suitable noncrop host that generates high numbers of sugarcane aphid and maintains moderate phenotypic injury. The greenbug-resistant parental line RTx2783 that is resistant to greenbug biotypes C and E was resistant to sugarcane aphid in both greenhouse and field tests, while PI 55607 greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E was highly susceptible. PI 55610 that is greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E maintained moderate resistance to the sugarcane aphid, while greenbug-resistant PI 264453 was highly susceptible to sugarcane aphid. Two lines and two hybrids from the Texas A&M breeding program B11070, B11070, AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx436, and AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx437 were highly resistant to sugarcane aphid, as were parental types SC110, SC170, and South African lines Ent62/SADC, (Macia/TAM428)-LL9, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15. Tam428, a parental line that previously showed moderate resistance in South Africa and India, also showed moderate resistance in these evaluations. Overall, 9 of 20 parental sorghum entries tested for phenotypic damage in the field resulted in good resistance to the sugarcane aphid and should be utilized in breeding programs that develop agronomically acceptable sorghums for the southern regions of the United States. PMID:26470168

  10. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS BASE CROP ACREAGE ESTIMATION OF THE SUGARCANE FOR SOLAPUR DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA

    ANIL S. YEDAGE; R.S.GAVALI; R.R. PATIL

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and faster estimation of crop area is very essential for projecting yearly agriculture production for formulating national budget and deciding agriculture policies. The present investigation deals with the estimation of sugarcane crop acreage of Maharashtra state. The cultivation of sugarcane crop in Maharashtra has been increasing steadily because of the increasing irrigation facilities. In the present study, comparison was carried out between conventional (field data) and remote se...

  11. Pineapple fruit bromelain recovery using recyclable functionalized ordered mesoporous silica synthesized from sugarcane leaf ash

    A. Arumugam; V. Ponnusami

    2013-01-01

    Bromelain, a protease enzyme found in Ananas comosus (Pineapple), was recovered from the fruit juice by adsorption using recyclable functionalized Santa Barbara Acid-15 (SBA-15) synthesized from sugarcane leaf ash. In this work, highly ordered mesoporous silica was synthesized from sugarcane leaf ash by a template-assisted method. It was successfully used as an adsorbent for the recovery of bromelain from pineapple fruit pulp. Amine-functionalized mesoporous silica exhibited a recovery effici...

  12. Chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by double distillation methodologies in rectifying still

    André Ricardo Alcarde; Paula Araújo de Souza; André Eduardo de Souza Belluco

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by different double distillation methodologies in rectifying still. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to three double distillation methodologies: the methodology used for cognac production; the methodology used for whisky production; and the 10-80-10 percentage composition methodology, referring to the volumes of head, heart and tail of the distillate fractions f...

  13. Physico-chemical and sensorial evaluation of sugarcane spirits produced using distillation residue

    Evandro Galvão Tavares Menezes; José Guilherme Lembi Ferreira Alves; Carolina Valeriano; Isabela Costa Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the use of vinasse from cachaça as an ingredient of the fermentation medium for the spirit production. The fermentations were conducted out in three successive batches using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate. In the first batch, the sugarcane broth was only diluted with distilled water. In the second and third batches, the fermentations were carried out using the cane broth diluted with vinasse from the distillation of the sugarcane wines of ...

  14. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addi...

  15. Sugarcane genome sequencing by methylation filtration provides tools for genomic research in the genus Saccharum.

    Grativol, Clícia; Regulski, Michael; Bertalan, Marcelo; McCombie, W Richard; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Zerlotini Neto, Adhemar; Vicentini, Renato; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana Silva; Martienssen, Robert A; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Many economically important crops have large and complex genomes that hamper their sequencing by standard methods such as whole genome shotgun (WGS). Large tracts of methylated repeats occur in plant genomes that are interspersed by hypomethylated gene-rich regions. Gene-enrichment strategies based on methylation profiles offer an alternative to sequencing repetitive genomes. Here, we have applied methyl filtration with McrBC endonuclease digestion to enrich for euchromatic regions in the sugarcane genome. To verify the efficiency of methylation filtration and the assembly quality of sequences submitted to gene-enrichment strategy, we have compared assemblies using methyl-filtered (MF) and unfiltered (UF) libraries. The use of methy filtration allowed a better assembly by filtering out 35% of the sugarcane genome and by producing 1.5× more scaffolds and 1.7× more assembled Mb in length compared with unfiltered dataset. The coverage of sorghum coding sequences (CDS) by MF scaffolds was at least 36% higher than by the use of UF scaffolds. Using MF technology, we increased by 134× the coverage of gene regions of the monoploid sugarcane genome. The MF reads assembled into scaffolds that covered all genes of the sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), 97.2% of sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 92.7% of sugarcane RNA-seq reads and 98.4% of sorghum protein sequences. Analysis of MF scaffolds from encoded enzymes of the sucrose/starch pathway discovered 291 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the wild sugarcane species, S. spontaneum and S. officinarum. A large number of microRNA genes was also identified in the MF scaffolds. The information achieved by the MF dataset provides a valuable tool for genomic research in the genus Saccharum and for improvement of sugarcane as a biofuel crop. PMID:24773339

  16. Effect of intercropping on nematodes in two small-scale sugarcane farming systems in South Africa

    Berry, S. D.; Dana, P.; Spaull, V.W.; Cadet, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Two trials were planted on sandy soils on small-scale grower farms to study the effect of intercropping on the nematode fauna, soil and plant fertility and sugarcane yield. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and sugar bean (Phaseolus limensis) were intercropped between the sugarcane rows in the first trial; velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were intercropped in the second trial. These practices were compared to a standard aldicarb (nematicide) treatment and an untreat...

  17. Investigation on variability, broad sensed heritability and genetic advance in Sugarcane (Saccharum spp

    Ahmed A.O. and Obeid A.

    2012-01-01

    A total of twelve exotic sugarcane clones was tested during 2003/04 and 2005/05 seasons in a randomized complete block design with four replicates at the Sugarcane Research Center - Gunied (14 o 48 N), Sudan, to study variability parameters for cane yield and quality traits in plant cane and ratoon crop. Observations were recorded on cane yield components namely; number of millable cane, stalk height, stalk diameter, single stalk weight, cane yield and sugar yield per feddan. Pol (%), brix (%...

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential from green harvested sugarcane scenarios in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Brazil is a major sugarcane producer and São Paulo State cultivates 5.5 million hectares, close to 50% of Brazil's sugarcane area. The rapid increase in production has brought into question the sustainability of biofuels, especially considering the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated to the agricultural sector. Despite the significant progress towards the green harvest practices, 1.67 million hectares were still burned in São Paulo State during the 2011 harvest season. Here an emissions inventory for the life cycle of sugarcane agricultural production is estimated using IPCC methodologies, according to the agriculture survey data and remote sensing database. Our hypothesis is that 1.67 million hectares shall be converted from burned to green harvest scenarios up to years 2021 (rate 1), 2014 (rate 2) or 2029 (rate 3). Those conversions would represent a significant GHG mitigation, ranging from 50.5 to 70.9 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2eq) up to 2050, depending on the conversion rate and the green harvest systems adopted: conventional (scenario S1) or conservationist management (scenario S2). We show that a green harvest scenario where crop rotation and reduced soil tillage are practiced has a higher mitigation potential (70.9 Mt CO2eq), which is already practiced in some of the sugarcane areas. Here we support the decision to not just stop burning prior to harvest, but also to consider other better practices in sugarcane areas to have a more sustainable sugarcane based ethanol production in the most dense cultivated sugarcane region in Brazil. -- Highlights: • Different management practices could result in quite different emissions. • Nitrogen fertilizer, pre-harvest burning and diesel were the main emissions sources. • GHG mitigation in sugarcane areas could vary from 50.5 to 70.9 Mt CO2eq up to 2050

  19. Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by using Adsorption on Treated Sugarcane Bagasse

    S. Saiful Azhar; A. Ghaniey Liew; D. Suhardy; K. Farizul Hafiz; M. D. Irfan Hatim

    2005-01-01

    The use of cheap and ecofriendly adsorbents has been studied as an alternative substitution of activated carbon for the removal dyes from wastewater. Adsorbents prepared from sugarcane baggase-an agro industries waste was successfully used to remove the methyl red from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. This study investigates the potential use of sugarcane baggase, pretreated with formaldehyde (PCSB) and sulphuric acid (PCSBC), for the removal of methyl red from simulated wastewater. Fo...

  20. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased