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Protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide effects on pythium root rot of sugarcane, pythium species, and the soil microbial community.  

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ABSTRACT The effects of three protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicides, azafenidin, flumioxazin, and sulfentrazone, on Pythium root rot of sugarcane and the soil microbial community were evaluated in greenhouse experiments. Herbicides were applied as foliar and soil treatments. There were no consistent effects on plant growth or disease parameters. However, some herbicide treatments affected the relative frequency of isolation of Pythium spp. from roots and reduced colonization by the pathogenic species Pythium arrhenomanes. A comparison of sole carbon source utilization profiles indicated that soil-applied herbicides altered the functional diversity of the soil microbial community, with some variation depending on herbicide used. All three herbicides inhibited the in vitro mycelial growth of P. arrhenomanes, P. aphanidermatum, and P. ultimum. Active ingredients were less inhibitory than formulated product for azafenidin and flumioxazin but not for sulfentrazone. PMID:18943113

Daugrois, J H; Hoy, J W; Griffin, J L

2005-03-01

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EFEITO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BENOMYL E PCNB SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO RADIAL DE Fusarium solani E Pythium sp., IN VITRO EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BENOMYL AND PCNB ON THE RADIAL GROWTH OF Fusarium solani AND Pythium sp. IN VITRO  

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Os experimentos foram realizado nas dependências do Laboratório de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no ano de 1997. Os fungos Fusarium e Pythium sp. foram cultivados em meio de cultura artificial contendo benomyl e PCNB nas concentrações de 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. Os crescimentos radiais dos fungos demonstraram que o benomyl foi eficiente contra o Fusarium, mas não surtiu efeito contra o Pythium, fato este também observado em relação ao PCNB. Este produto, embora menos eficiente, reduziu em mais de 50% o crescimento radial de Fusarium, obtendo uma redução progressiva com o aumento da concentração.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; quintozene.

The experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Escola de Agronomia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás, in the year of 1997. The fungi Fusarium moniliforme and Pythium sp. were treated in cultural medium with benomyl and PCNB in the concentrations of 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. The radial growth of the fungi demonstrated that benomyl was efficient against Fusarium, but not against Pythium sp. The same was also observed with PCNB. Although less efficient than benomyl, this product reduced radial growth of Fusarium in more than 50%. The increase of PCNB concentration reduced Fusarium growth progressively.

KEY-WORDS: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; PCNB.

Luciana Peliz Machado

2007-09-01

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Quantitative relationships of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to Pythium root rot and growth in hydroponic peppers Relações quantitativas de Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 com a podridão radicular causada por Pythium e ao crescimento de pimentão hidropônico  

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The ability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to suppress Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) and promote plant growth was investigated in hydroponic peppers that were predisposed or not predisposed to the disease. The biocontrol agent was introduced into the nutrient solution 10 days before the roots were inoculated with the pathogen. The root zone was maintained at 23ºC except when roots were exposed to 33ºC for three days before inoculation to induce predisposition to root rot. At ...

Sopher, Coralie R.; Sutton, John C.

2011-01-01

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Controle biológico da podridão de raiz causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento de alface hidropônica com Clonostachys rosea / Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum root rot and growth promotion of hydroponic lettuce by Clonostachys rosea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Clonostachys rosea foi avaliado como promotor de crescimento e no controle da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum) em sistemas de fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT) e "floating". Na promoção de crescimento, Clonostachys (0, 10³, 10(4), 10(5), 10(6) e 10(7) conídios/mL) foi introduzido na solução [...] nutritiva (SN) e avaliada a massa das plantas. O biocontrole, em sistema NFT, foi avaliado introduzindo Clonostachys na SN (10(6) conídios/mL) i. um dia após o transplantio na ausência do patógeno; ii. três dias antes e no momento da infestação com Pythium e, iii. três dias antes, no momento e três dias após infestação com Pythium. Em sistema "floating", Clonostachys foi introduzido na SN (10(6) conídios/mL) i. quatro dias antes e no momento da infestação com Pythium, e ii. quatro dias antes, no momento e quatro dias após a infestação com Pythium. Nesses experimentos foram determinadas as massas das plantas, e a recuperação do patógeno e antagonista. O antagonista não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, entretanto protegeu-as do subdesenvolvimento causado pelo patógeno no sistema NFT. Não foi observada proteção em sistema "floating". Clonostachys reduziu a incidência do patógeno nas raízes no sistema NFT em 28,6% e 42,8%, quando aplicado duas e três vezes, respectivamente. Abstract in english Clonostachys rosea was evaluated for growth promotion and control of root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) in hydroponic lettuce in NFT and floating systems. For growth promotion, Clonostachys (0, 10³, 10(4), 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) conidia/mL) was added in nutrient solution (NS) and the mass of the plan [...] ts was measured. To evaluate the control of the disease in NFT, Clonostachys was applied to the NS (10(6) conidia/mL) i. one day after transplanting in the absence of Pythium; ii. three days before and simultaneously with Pythium infestation; and, iii. three days before, simultaneously and three days after Pythium infestation. To evaluate the control of root rot in floating system, Clonostachys was added in NS (10(6) conidia/mL) i. four days before, and at the moment of pathogen infestation, and, ii. four days before, simultaneously, and four days after pathogen infestation. Plant mass and the recovery of pathogen and antagonist from the roots were evaluated. Clonostachys did not improve plant growth in the absence of Pythium. In the NFT system Clonostachys protected the plants from yield losses caused by Pythium, but not in the floating system. Pythium recovery from the roots was reduced by 28,6% and 42,8% when Clonostachys was applied two or three times, respectively.

Corrêa, Élida B; Bettiol, Wagner; Morandi, Marcelo A.B.

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Effect of Benomyl Treated Garlic on Growth and Sporulation of Pythium aphanidermatum and Achlya americana  

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Full Text Available Thirteen species belonging to six genera of zoosporic fungi, yielding 356 fungal colonies were isolated from 30 soil samples collected from Sohag city. The effect of different levels (0.0, 50.0, 100.0, 150.0 and 300.0 ppm of the fungicide benomyl on the morphological structures of mycelial, zoosporangia, sexual organs and gemmae of Pythium aphanidermatum and Achlya americana was studied on malt extract medium and callus cultures of garlic. Steroles was determined in garlic callus cultures treated with different levels of benomyl fungicide. GLC analysis showed differences in sterol contents between treated calli of garlic and control ones, which did not meet Achlya americana and Pythium aphanidermatum fungi requirements.

Gamalat A. Abd-Elaah

2006-01-01

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Modelling Sugarcane Growth in Response to Age, Insolation and Temperature.  

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Modelling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a non-linear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative values of insolation, maximum temperature and minimum temperature for 3, 6, 12, 18 months, or for each crop period derived from weather observations near the test plots. The low R-square values indicate that the selected predictor variables could not account for a substantial proportion of the variations of cane yield and the models have limited predictive values. The non-linear model is based on known functional relationships between growth and age, growth and insolation, and growth and maximum temperature. A mathematical expression that integrates the effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature is developed. The constant terms and coefficients of the equation are determined from the requirement that the model must produce results that are reasonable when compared with observed monthly elongation data. The non-linear model is validated and tested using another set of data. Following the successful validation of the model, simulated growth curves in response to age, insolation and maximum temperature are generated by computer. The three-dimensional presentation of the simulation curves provides a simple means for the analysis of the individual factors and their interactions on sugarcane growth. The proposed non-linear model may be useful in estimating potential growth and assessing growth performance. When combined with stalk population data, the model may be used to predict yields. The non-linear model shows that growth is not controlled by one factor alone, nor by a set of factors present in relative minima. Each factor has some definite influence on growth rate, depending upon the intensities of the other factors. However, only one limiting factor is required to cause the growth rate to be greatly reduced. Thus, when investigating sugarcane growth, the simultaneous effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature must be taken into consideration.

How, Karl Tiap Sen

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The Selection of Sugarcane Families That Display Better Associations with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria  

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The capacity of the sugarcane plant to respond to Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) is associated with both the efficiency of the bacterial strain and the capacity of the plant to respond to inoculation. For this reason, the appropriate selection of both the bacterial strain and the sugarcane genotype is required for generating optimal results from PGPR inoculations. To address this issue, this study sought to evaluate the response of 54 sugarcane families to inoculation with ...

Valeria Rosa Lopes; Bespalhok-filho, Joao C.; Luiza Maria de Araujo; Fabio Vieira Rodrigues; Edelclaiton Daros; Ricardo Augusto de Oliveira

2012-01-01

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Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica / Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3), cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5) e quatro ao [...] grupo T (T1 a T4) de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC) sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia. Abstract in english Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3), whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5) and four to group T (T1-T4) of Pythium. The id [...] entification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC) on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40 to 40.7ºC, respectively. The optimum temperature ranged from 24 to 37ºC for P. helicoides, from 25 to 35ºC for isolate F4 and 21 to 30ºC for the remaining isolates. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the isolates were evaluated by the inoculation of lettuce seeds plated in water-agar, at 21 and 30ºC. At 30ºC, P. helicoides isolates were clearly the most aggressives, determining 100 % seed mortality soon after germination. At 21ºC, all isolates reduced seedling growth, associated or not with root tissue necrosis. This is the first report of P. helicoides in Brazil and the first world reference of this species in hydroponic systems.

Liliane De Diana, Teixeira; Carmen Lídia Amorim Pires, Zottarelli; Hiroshi, Kimati.

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Correlation of Growth Traits and Yield of Sugarcane with Micronutrients  

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Experiments on the correlation coefficient of growth and cane yield traits of sugarcane with micro nutrients like: Zn (1.50, 3.00 and 4.50 kg ha-1), Cu (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg ha-1), B (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 kg ha-1) and Mn (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kg ha-1) and control where conducted. The results revealed that all micro nutrients showed positive correlation with tillers, tope weight, cane length, internode number and length, stem diameter, hieght, millable can...

Oad, F. C.; Jamro, G. H.; Lakho, A. A.; Chandio, G. Q.

2002-01-01

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Disease Progression by Active Mycelial Growth and Biocontrol of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum Studied Using a Rhizobox System.  

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ABSTRACT This study demonstrates that outward growth of mycelium from primary foci through bulk potting mix to roots of adjoining plants can be an important means of spread of damping-off and root rot caused by Pythium ultimum. The use of a rhizobox system, which confines plant roots, enabled us to study the spread of actively growing mycelium between root systems placed at precise distances from each other. In steamed potting mix, hyphae of P. ultimum on average grew 9.6 cm from diseased root tissue compared to 5.3 cm in raw potting mix. The density of mycelium was highest within the first 2 cm from the infected root tissue, decreasing with increasing distances from the roots. Accordingly, the disease on adjacent plants decreased as the distance from infected roots increased. The time required for damping-off of adjacent plants was 3 days slower in raw as compared to steamed potting mix and increased by 2 days for each additional centimeter between the rhizoboxes. The presence of Trichoderma harzianum diminished the production of secondary inoculum and reduced the ability of P. ultimum hyphae to extend through bulk potting mix. In conclusion, the concentration of the primary inoculum, the plant density, the distance separating diseased from healthy roots, the resident microflora, and the presence of an antagonist were shown to be important factors affecting disease spread by mycelial growth. PMID:18944533

Green, H; Jensen, D F

2000-09-01

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Sugarcane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to increase crop water use efficiency, a field study in northern Ivory Coast on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou. The can crop tested was Co 449, an early-maturing genotype of Indian origin. This experiment was conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop (from November, 1991 to December, 1992) first ratoon crop (from December, 1992 to January, 1994) and as second ratoon crop (from January, 1994 to January, 1995). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of plots 54 m2. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratton crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugarcane growth and yield decline owing to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to that during tillering. As a result, the sugarcane crop tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering (assuming that the crop is successfully established) for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency. (author). 15 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

1996-06-01

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Population dynamics of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane cultivars and its effect on plant growth.  

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Different experiments have estimated that the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is largely variable among sugarcane cultivars. Which bacteria are the most important in sugarcane-associated BNF is unknown. However, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been suggested as a strong candidate responsible for the BNF observed. In the present study, bacteria-free micropropagated plantlets of five sugarcane cultivars were inoculated with three G. diazotrophicus strains belonging to different genotypes. Bacterial colonization was monitored under different nitrogen fertilization levels and at different stages of plant growth. Analysis of the population dynamics of G. diazotrophicus strains in the different sugarcane varieties showed that the bacterial populations decreased drastically in relation to plant age, regardless of the nitrogen fertilization level, bacterial genotype or sugarcane cultivars. However, the persistence of the three strains was significantly longer in some cultivars (e.g., MEX 57-473) than in others (e.g., MY 55-14). In addition, some strains (e.g., PAl 5(T)) persisted for longer periods in higher numbers than other strains (e.g., PAl 3) inside plants of all the cultivars tested. Indeed, the study showed that the inoculation of G. diazotrophicus may be beneficial for sugarcane plant growth, but this response is dependent both on the G. diazotrophicus genotype and the sugarcane variety. The most positive response to inoculation was observed with the combination of strain PAl 5(T) and the variety MEX 57-473. Although the positive effect on sugarcane growth apparently occurred by mechanisms other than nitrogen fixation, the results show the importance of the sugarcane variety for the persistence of the plant-bacteria interaction, and it could explain the different rates of BNF estimated among sugarcane cultivars. PMID:14722690

Muñoz-Rojas, J; Caballero-Mellado, J

2003-11-01

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Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of Pythium species in South Africa.  

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The genus Pythium is important in agriculture, since it contains many plant pathogenic species, as well as species that can promote plant growth and some that have biocontrol potential. In South Africa, very little is known about the diversity of Pythium species within agricultural soil, irrigation and hydroponic systems. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterise a selection of 85 Pythium isolates collected in South Africa from 1991 through to 2007. The isolates were characterised morphologically as well as through sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and the 5.8S gene of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the isolates represented ten of the 11 published Pythium clades [Lévesque & De Cock, 2004. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Pythium. Mycological Research 108: 1363-1383]. Characterisation of isolates in clade D and J suggested that the phylogenetic concept of Pythium acanthicum and Pythium perplexum respectively, needs further investigation in order to enable reliable species identification within these clades. Our phylogenetic analyses of Pythium species in clade B also showed that species with globose sporangia group basal within this clade, and are not dispersed within the clade as previously reported. The 85 South African isolates represented 34 known species, of which 20 species have not been reported previously in South Africa. Additionally, three isolates (PPRI 8428, 8300 and 8418) were identified that may each represent putative new species, Pythium sp. WJB-1 to WJB-3. PMID:19463949

McLeod, Adéle; Botha, Wilhelm J; Meitz, Julia C; Spies, Chris F J; Tewoldemedhin, Yared T; Mostert, Lizel

2009-09-01

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Effects of Machine-Induced Soil Compaction on Growth and Yield of Sugarcane  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane is one of the main economic crops in Thailand. After planting, it can be harvested annually for several successive ratoon crops. Recently, soil compaction due to mechanization has been recognized as a serious problem in sugarcane production. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the effects of soil compaction on the growth and yield of sugarcane. Approach: The field experiments were conducted in loamy soil using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four treatments of soil compaction prepared by 0, 5, 15 and 20 numbers of wheel passages of a tractor. Results: The results showed that soil compaction had significant effects on both the growth and yield of sugarcane, with the exceptions of tillering and Brix. The greatest reduction in yield compared with the control field was 22.9%, which resulted from compacting with 15 tractor passages. The influence of block or furrow irrigation was indicated by the positive effect that higher watering had on minimizing the impact of soil compaction on the growth of sugarcane. Conclusion: Effects of soil compaction on growth and yield of sugarcane were clarified to some extent.

Prathuang Usaborisut

2010-01-01

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Pythium cryptoirregulare, a new species within the P. irregulare complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium identification is based on several characteristics with considerable variation, particularly in Pythium irregulare Buis. as currently recognized. Thirty-one isolates of Pythium irregulare Buis. from various hosts and geographic regions were compared by genetic analysis of multiloci DNA fingerprints, sequence analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes and morphological and growth rate studies. Previous research indicated two distinct groupings within the species, P. irregulare sensu stricto and a clade referred to here as Pythium sp. Parsimony analyses of 338 AFLP markers divided P. irregulare s.l. into two clades. Comparison of the allele frequencies of 236 polymorphic AFLP loci revealed significant differences between them. The two clades differed in the frequencies of 182 (77%) alleles. P. irregulare s.s. had 122 (52%) polymorphic loci while Pythium sp. had 205 (87%). Pythium sp. had one fixed allele and 79 polymorphic loci absent in P. irregulare s.s. P. irregulare s.s. displayed 16 polymorphic loci absent in Pythium sp. Parsimony and distance analyses of the ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS) and the cox II gene sequences support the separation of P. irregulare s.s. and Pythium sp. Amplicon length in P. irregulare s.s. ITS sequences were 936-938 bp and 936-949 bp in Pythium sp. The two clades were separated by two fixed insertion/deletion mutations, nine fixed nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region and three fixed single nucleotide substitutions in the cox II sequences. Average growth rates of the groups differed at 10, 30 and 36 C but not at 15, 21 or 25 C. Statistically significant differences were found in oogonium, oospore and ooplast diameters, antheridial cell length and in ooplast index. We propose that a new species, Pythium cryptoirregulare, be delineated from Pythium irregulare sensu stricto. PMID:17682782

Garzón, Carla D; Yánez, Jeniffer M; Moorman, Gary W

2007-01-01

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Sugarcane Response to Water-Deficit Stress during Early Growth on Organic and Sand Soils  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is grown on sand soils in south Florida, USA. Sugarcane yields in the region linearly increased in last 33 years on organic (muck soils, but not on sand soils. Water deficit during the formative growth phase on sand soils probably limits sugarcane yields. Approach: A greenhouse study was conducted in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the physiological and growth responses of sugarcane to water-deficit stress during formative growth. Treatments included organic (muck and sand soils and two water regimes Well Watered (WW and Water-Deficit Stress (WS. Sugarcane cultivar CP 80-1743 was planted in pots and fertilized with N, P and K based on soil analyses. All pots were well watered until 58 days after planting, when water was withheld from the WS pots. During the WS treatment, plant growth rate, leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, proline content and photosynthesis components were measured. Final tillers, Green Leaf Area (GLA and shoot biomass were determined 27 (in 2009 or 22 (in 2010 days after initiating the WS treatment. Results: Stress symptoms of sugarcane plants appeared 7-10 days earlier on sand soil than on muck soil. Water stress reduced stomatal conductance (gs, Photosystem II Photochemical Efficiency (FPSII, leaf Photosynthesis rate (Pn, the number of tillers and GLA, resulting in reduced shoot biomass, especially on sand soil. Neither leaf RWC nor proline content was a sensitive WS indicator. Conclusion: Nondestructive measurements of physiological traits of gs, FPSII and Pn during the formative stage may be useful for early detection of water stress in sugarcane.

Duli Zhao

2010-01-01

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Pythium insidiosum: An overview  

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Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete pathogenic in mammals. The infection occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, particularly in horses, dogs and humans. Infection is acquired through small wounds via contact with water that contains motile zoospores or other propagules (zoospores or hyphae). The disease, though described as emerging has in fact already been described since 1884. Depending on the site of entry, infection can lead to different forms of pythiosis i.e. a cutaneous, vascul...

Gaastra, W.; Lipman, L. J. A.; Cock, A. W.; Exel, T. K.; Pegge, R. B.; Scheurwater, J.; Vilela, R.; Mendoza, L.

2010-01-01

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The Selection of Sugarcane Families That Display Better Associations with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria  

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Full Text Available The capacity of the sugarcane plant to respond to Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR is associated with both the efficiency of the bacterial strain and the capacity of the plant to respond to inoculation. For this reason, the appropriate selection of both the bacterial strain and the sugarcane genotype is required for generating optimal results from PGPR inoculations. To address this issue, this study sought to evaluate the response of 54 sugarcane families to inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense strains. In particular, four months after germination, 54 families from crosses between clones of sugarcane were treated either with an inoculant named Triazo, which was composed of a mixture of the Abv5, Abv6 and Abv7 strains of A. brasilense, or with the IC26 strain of A. brasilense. The treated plants were then planted in fields. These plants were assessed 14 months after they had been planted on the basis of various productivity parameters. Significant differences among the inoculants were observed for stalk length, stalk diameter and Brix. Significant interactions between the families and bacteria occurred with respect to stalk diameter and Brix; the interaction coefficients could have either positive (0.7272 for Brix and 0.4061 for stalk diameter or negative (-0.5514 for Brix and -0.1858 for stalk diameter values, depending on the family and the inoculant that were considered. Therefore, the inoculation of the seedling in the first phase of selection is recommended for a sugarcane breeding program that seeks to select genotypes with better responses to PGPR inoculation.

Fabio Vieira Rodrigues

2012-01-01

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The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and yield of irrigated sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A layer of harvest residues from the previous crop can reduce wasteful evaporation from the soil surface and thereby increase the efficiency of use of limited water resources for agricultural production. The practice of harvesting sugarcane green and leaving crop residues in the field, as opposed to [...] burning the residue, has been re-adopted in many sugarcane industries worldwide. However, a better understanding of the dynamic impacts of residue layers on various aspects of the cropping system is required to (1) enable the formulation of sets of best management practices for specific production scenarios, and (2) promote the use of residue layers in areas where it is desirable and has not been adopted, such as irrigated sugarcane production in South Africa. The objective of this study, therefore, was to quantify the effect of 2 different types of residue layers on crop growth, cane yield and evapotranspiration of fully irrigated sugarcane. A layer of cane tops and dead leaves (Trash) and a layer of green tops (Tops) were applied to the soil surface of sugarcane crops (plant crop and first ratoon crop of variety N14) grown on lysimeters at Pongola, South Africa. Observations of crop growth (stalk population, stalk height, canopy cover), cane yield and evapotranspiration for these treatments were compared to that of a bare soil treatment. The data were also used to derive values of crop evaporation coefficients for different development phases and these were compared to FAO56 recommendations. Initial stalk population in the plant crop and radiation capture in the plant and ratoon crop were affected negatively by crop residue layers, but without significantly reducing final stalk population and cane yield. Peak stalk population occurred later in crops grown in residue layers, but peak and final stalk populations were unaffected. Evapotranspiration was reduced by both residue layers, mainly due to a slower developing canopy (reduced transpiration) and reduced evaporation from the soil, during the pre-canopy phases. Increased drainage was observed under residue layers, emphasising the importance of accurate irrigation scheduling to avoid water logging. The FAO56 methodology for calculating crop evaporation coefficient values for the initial, development and late season phases are supported by the results obtained here. Crop evaporation coefficient values were significantly reduced by residue layers. It is important that irrigation scheduling practices be adjusted to realise the potential water savings of sugarcane production systems that make use of residue layers. This study provides the information required to do that. The information could also be used to improve the ability of the crop models to accurately simulate crop growth and evapotranspiration in a residue layer cropping system.

FC, Olivier; A, Singels.

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Influence of Early Post Emergence Sulfonylurea Herbicides on Growth, Yield Parameters, Yield and Weed Control Efficiency in Sugarcane  

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Full Text Available Sugarcane is a slow growing long duration crop. Inefficient weed control is the major and important threat to sugarcane productivity. Weed control at early stage is important to increase the yield of the crop. Hence, the field study was conducted from October 2011 to August 2012 in sugarcane at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to find out the influence of early post emergence Sulfonylurea herbicides on growth, yield parameters, yield and weed control efficiency in Sugarcane. The study was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments included four doses of halosulfuron methyl (60, 90, 120, 180 g ha-1, chlorimuron ethyl (24, 36, 48 and 72 g ha-1 and combi (60, 90.120 and 180 g ha-1 compared with atrazine (2000 g ha-1 hand weeding and unweeded control. The results of the study showed that, post emergence application of combi at 120 and 180 g ha-1 and chlorimuron ethyl at 48 and 72 g ha-1 offered better weed control and resulted in increased plant growth and yield attributes which resulted in increased cane yield. This was comparable with recommended weed control methods of pre emergence application of atrazine at 2000 g ha-1 and two hand weedings. With regard to sedge control (Cyperus rotundus, halosulfuron at 90, 120 and 180 g ha-1 was found to be promising in sugarcane cultivation. The herbicides doses did not show any phytotoxicity effect on sugarcane.

C. Chinnusamy

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Avaliação patogênica in vitro de Pythium middletonii Sparrow e Pythium dissotocum Drechsler em alface / In vitro pathogenic evaluation of Pythium middletonii Sparrow and Pythium dissotocum Drechsler in lettuce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos de alface são frequentes e, na maior parte das vezes, causadas por espécies de Pythium, extremamente bem adaptadas ao ambiente aquático. Este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial patogênico in vitro de Pythium middletonii e P. dissotocum, em quatro cultiv [...] ares de alface: Elisa (lisa), Vera (crespa), Mimosa (mimosa) e Tainá (americana). Sementes de alface, de cada cultivar, foram desinfetadas superficialmente, pré-germinadas por 24 horas, e colocadas na superfície do meio ágar-água. Em seguida, um disco de micélio dos isolados de Pythium, foi disposto no centro de cada placa. Placas contendo apenas as sementes de alface serviram como controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma delas representada por uma placa de Petri. Avaliou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem das plântulas sobreviventes após dez dias de incubação. O experimento foi conduzido na temperatura ideal de crescimento da alface (20ºC), e nas ideais para o crescimento dos isolados, 23ºC para P. middletonii e 27ºC para P. dissotocum. A 20ºC, P. dissotocum foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii, reduzindo significativamente o comprimento dos hipocótilos e, principalmente, das radículas, de praticamente todas as cultivares. Na temperatura de 27ºC, P. dissotocum foi responsável pela mais baixa porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes entre as cultivares, sendo mais patogênico em Vera (54% de sobrevivência). Dentre as cultivares analisadas, a Mimosa mostrou tendência de menor suscetibilidade a este patógeno, apresentando a maior porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes e o maior comprimento das radículas em relação ao controle. P. dissotocum apresentou maior crescimento micelial e foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii em todos os experimentos realizados. Abstract in english Root infections in hydroponic lettuce are frequent and mostly caused by Pythium species, which are extremely well adapted to aquatic environments. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the pathogenic potential of Pythium middletonii and Pythium dissotocum in four cultivars of lettuce, Elisa ( [...] smooth), Vera (curly), Mimosa (mimosa) and Tainá (American). Lettuce seeds from each cultivar were superficially disinfected, pre-germinated for 24 hours and placed on the water agar medium surface. Then, a dish containing mycelium from Pythium isolates was placed in the center of each plate. Control consisted of plates containing lettuce seeds only. Experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates, each one represented by a Petri dish. Hypocotyl and radical length besides surviving seedlings percentage after ten days of incubation were evaluated. The experiment was carried out, at different temperatures, and the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated at the ideal temperature for the lettuce (20ºC), and at the ideal temperatures for the growth of the isolates, 23ºC for P. middletonii and 27ºC for P. dissotocum. At 20ºC, P. dissotocum had higher pathogenicity on lettuce cultivars than P. middletonii, significantly decreasing the length of hypocotyls, especially radicles, of most cultivars. For P. dissotocum, 27ºC was the most suitable temperature for the specimen growth; however, it led to the lowest percentage of surviving seedlings among all cultivars, with the lowest percentage (54%) detected for Vera. Among the cultivars, Mimosa presented higher percentage of survivor seedlings and higher length of radicles in relation to the control, and thus was considered less susceptible to the pathogen. P. dissotocum presented higher mycelium growth and was more pathogenic than P. middletonii in all experiments.

F.R., Baptista; C.L.A, Pires-Zottarelli; L.D., Teixeira; N.A., Santos Júnior.

22

Effects of temperature and pH on growth and oospore production of three water-borne Pythium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature and pH significantly affect the growth and oospore production of the test fungi. The optimum temperature for mycelial production was nearly the same on both solid and liquid media. H-ion concentration has milder effect than temperature. The optimum temperature and pH value for oospore production agree remarkably with their respectives for growth. PMID:6868650

El-Sharouny, H M

1983-01-01

23

Effect of Maize Population (As Intercrop on the Growth of Ratoon Sugarcane and Maize Yield  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted on the effect of maize population on the growth of ratoon sugarcane and maize yield Data was recorded on different yield and yield components of maize. Maximum (164.4 cm and minimum (133.6 cm plant height of maize was attained with 30,000 plants ha-1. Maximum number of (10.73 leaves plant-1, cob length (19.2 cm and grains cob-1 (205.2 were recorded with 30,000 maize population ha-1. While maximum barrenness of 18.90 was observed in plots containing maximum maize population of 60,000 plants ha-1. Maximum grain weight (240 g, grain yield (2400 kg ha-1 and harvest index (15.45 were recorded with lowest maize population of 30,000 plants ha-1, while maximum (7.2 and minimum (4.5 kg biological yield unit area-1 were recorded in 30,000 and 60,000 plant population of maize ha-1 respectively, maximum number of shoots stump-1 were 8.91, 11.33 and 12.08 with 30,000 plant population of maize ha-1, while minimum 0.57 were observed in 30,000 maize population ha-1, respectively. Maximum of 68.88 and minimum of 59.02 cm sugarcane heights at maize harvest were recorded with 30,000 and 60,000 maize population ha-1, respectively.

Imran Haider Shamsi

2003-01-01

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Ultrastructural and Cytochemical Investigation of Asymptomatic Infection by Pythium spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The influence exerted by Pythium group F (a minor pathogen ubiquitous in soilless cultures) and P. uncinulatum (a nonpathogenic species) colonization on tomato roots was investigated. In both interactions, infected roots did not exhibit obvious symptoms; however, major physiological changes occurred within the host tissues colonized by Pythium group F compared to P. uncinulatum. According to our cytological observations, Pythium group F colonization involved a series of events: first, development and growth of the fungus in the epidermis and outer cortex tissues, which was associated with marked host cell disorganization and even breakdown. In colonized roots, symptoms were not easily discernible because alterations were restricted to the epidermis and outer cortex tissues. Second, pathogen ingress in the inner cortex and stele tissues was associated with massive induction of host defense reactions and alteration of invading hyphae. In a complex interaction that involved major metabolic changes in root cells, an array of defense-related reactions was produced, as exemplified by the formation of wall appositions and plugging of host cells with osmiophilic, electron-dense, granular, or fibrillar materials. P. uncinulatum growth was restricted to the epidermis and outer cortex tissues and associated with relatively minor damage to host cells. P. uncinulatum colonization of root tissues did not result in defense events similar to those observed in Pythium group F-infected inner cortex and stele tissues. Moreover, most of the invading P. uncinulatum hyphae were moribund. The results of the current study indicated that symptomless infections can be insignificant in terms of pathology for the plant (i.e., P. uncinulatum) or can be potentially dangerous (i.e., Pythium group F). Our results clearly showed a striking difference between nonpathogenic and minor pathogenic Pythium spp. attacks. The description of the Pythium group F infection process suggests that this interaction is unique, because the fungus behaves as a necrotrophic fungus in the epidermis and outer cortex tissues, whereas it is a potential inducer of plant defense reactions in the inner cortex and stele tissues. To our knowledge, cytological events similar to those observed with Pythium group F have not been described until now, even though descriptions of these events could help elucidate several aspects of the relationships between plants and minor pathogens. PMID:18944970

Rey, P; Benhamou, N; Tirilly, Y

1998-03-01

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Pythium recalcitrans sp. nov. revealed by multigene phylogenetic analysis.  

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A new species of Pythium collected from grapevine roots (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and roots of common beet (Beta vulgaris) in Majorca, Spain, is described. The phylogenetic position of the new species was investigated by multigene sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the rDNA region, as well as three other nuclear and three mitochondrial coding genes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA and concatenated beta-tubulin and cytrochrome c oxidase II alignment place Pythium recalcitrans together with P. sylvaticum and P. intermedium. Pythium recalcitrans sp. nov. is morphologically almost indistinguishable from other Pythium species that only form hyphal swellings in culture. However its species status is justified by the distinctiveness of the DNA sequences in all the genes examined. In culture P. recalcitrans exhibits fast radial growth, abundant spherical to subglobose hyphal swellings but produces no zoosporangia. Sexual structures are not seen in agar media but form in autoclaved grass blades floated on water. Multiple antheridia (1-7) are encountered with most of them diclinous and crook-necked. Oospores are thin-walled and either aplerotic or plerotic. P. recalcitrans was pathogenic to seedlings of Beta vulgaris and Solanum lycopersicum. PMID:18592905

Moralejo, Eduardo; Clemente, Antonio; Descals, Enrique; Belbahri, Lassaad; Calmin, Gautier; Lefort, François; Spies, Chris F J; McLeod, Adele

2008-01-01

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Growth indices ans productivity in sugarcane Indicadores de crescimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

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Full Text Available A knowledge about the temporal development of agronomic variables in sugarcane is a very important aspect for the development of crop yield prediction models using remote sensing, and further studies are still needed. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugarcane biophysical parameters, such as total biomass, leaf area index, number of plants per meter, and productivity. During two seasons, a commercial field in Araras/SP, planted with variety SP80-1842, on the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored on eight different dates, and data were obtained for 2 m of sugarcane in three crop rows at 18 sampling points. Linear and multiple regression analyses were used to study growth analysis and to correlate agronomic variables (leaf area index and number of plants per meter with biomass and productivity. Gompertz model, a sigmoidal curve, was the best adjustment curve for total biomass and yield in relation to days after cutting (r² = 0.8987 and r² = 0.9682, respectively; number of plants and leaf area index showed best fit with a cubic exponential model and a quadratic exponential model, respectively. Total biomass and cane productivity were well correlated with LAI in the first two stages of the sugarcane cycle using linear regression. At the end of the cycle, total biomass and cane productivity were more related to number of plants, and lower r² values than in other stages were obtained by the models.O conhecimento do desenvolvimento temporal de variáveis agronômicas da cultura da cana-de-açúcar é um aspecto preponderante, e ainda pouco explorado, para o desenvolvimento de modelos de entendimento e predição da produção em estudos de sensoriamento remoto. O presente descreve a análise da evolução temporal de variáveis agronômicas da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT, produtividade (TCH, índice de área foliar (IAF e número de plantas por metro (NPM. Durante duas safras um talhão comercial em Araras/SP cultivado com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes foi acompanhado em oito campanhas de campo para a coleta de dados. O IAF, o NPM, a TCH e a BMT foram coletados em 18 amostras de 2 m em três linhas de cana-de-açúcar. Análise de regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise do crescimento da cultura e para o estudo da correlação e ajuste de modelos entre as variáveis agronômicas e a BMT e a TCH. O modelo Gompertz, de curva sigmoidal, foi o modelo que melhor se ajustou para a curva de BMT e para a TCH com r² = 0,8987 e r² = 0,9682, respectivamente. A BMT e o IAF tiveram melhores ajustes com curvas exponencial cúbica e exponencial quadrática, respectivamente. A BMT e a TCH foram bem relacionadas com o IAF nas duas primeiras fases do ciclo, ajustando-se regressões lineares. Para a fase de maturação, a BMT e a TCH foram mais relacionadas com o NPM que com o IAF e as curvas obtiveram valores menores de que r² que as demais fases do ciclo.

Maurício dos Santos Simões

2005-01-01

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Growth indices ans productivity in sugarcane / Indicadores de crescimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O conhecimento do desenvolvimento temporal de variáveis agronômicas da cultura da cana-de-açúcar é um aspecto preponderante, e ainda pouco explorado, para o desenvolvimento de modelos de entendimento e predição da produção em estudos de sensoriamento remoto. O presente descreve a análise da evolução [...] temporal de variáveis agronômicas da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT), produtividade (TCH), índice de área foliar (IAF) e número de plantas por metro (NPM). Durante duas safras um talhão comercial em Araras/SP cultivado com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes foi acompanhado em oito campanhas de campo para a coleta de dados. O IAF, o NPM, a TCH e a BMT foram coletados em 18 amostras de 2 m em três linhas de cana-de-açúcar. Análise de regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise do crescimento da cultura e para o estudo da correlação e ajuste de modelos entre as variáveis agronômicas e a BMT e a TCH. O modelo Gompertz, de curva sigmoidal, foi o modelo que melhor se ajustou para a curva de BMT e para a TCH com r² = 0,8987 e r² = 0,9682, respectivamente. A BMT e o IAF tiveram melhores ajustes com curvas exponencial cúbica e exponencial quadrática, respectivamente. A BMT e a TCH foram bem relacionadas com o IAF nas duas primeiras fases do ciclo, ajustando-se regressões lineares. Para a fase de maturação, a BMT e a TCH foram mais relacionadas com o NPM que com o IAF e as curvas obtiveram valores menores de que r² que as demais fases do ciclo. Abstract in english A knowledge about the temporal development of agronomic variables in sugarcane is a very important aspect for the development of crop yield prediction models using remote sensing, and further studies are still needed. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugarcane biophysical parameters, s [...] uch as total biomass, leaf area index, number of plants per meter, and productivity. During two seasons, a commercial field in Araras/SP, planted with variety SP80-1842, on the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored on eight different dates, and data were obtained for 2 m of sugarcane in three crop rows at 18 sampling points. Linear and multiple regression analyses were used to study growth analysis and to correlate agronomic variables (leaf area index and number of plants per meter) with biomass and productivity. Gompertz model, a sigmoidal curve, was the best adjustment curve for total biomass and yield in relation to days after cutting (r² = 0.8987 and r² = 0.9682, respectively); number of plants and leaf area index showed best fit with a cubic exponential model and a quadratic exponential model, respectively. Total biomass and cane productivity were well correlated with LAI in the first two stages of the sugarcane cycle using linear regression. At the end of the cycle, total biomass and cane productivity were more related to number of plants, and lower r² values than in other stages were obtained by the models.

Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

28

Soil physical properties and sugarcane root growth in a red oxiso Propriedades físicas de solo e crescimento radicular de cana-de-açúcar em um latossolo vermelho  

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Sugarcane, which involves the use of agricultural machinery in all crop stages, from soil preparation to harvest, is currently one of the most relevant crops for agribusiness in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to investigate soil physical properties and root growth in a eutroferric red Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico) after different periods under sugarcane. The study was carried out in a cane plantation in Rolândia, Paraná State, where treatments consisted of a number of cut...

José Euripides Baquero; Ricardo Ralisch; Cristiane de Conti Medina; João Tavares Filho; Maria de Fátima Guimarães

2012-01-01

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Efficacy of bio-K fertilizer on the growth and sugar content of sugarcane plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bio-K- fertilizer has been used as a source of potassium to enhance the concentration of sugar in sugarcane and prevent loss of resources and environmental damage. Potassium sul phate and murate of Potash are K fertilizers. The field experiments were done during 2009-2010 to see the increase of sugar contents in sugarcane by using K- fertilizer. The use of bio-K-fertilizer has been found effective which resulted better yield in terms of both quantity and quality of sugarcane and found an increase in concentration of sucrose in sugarcane up to 28% calculated as 3-7% sugar content increase as a whole. The increase in crop production as whole was recorded as 74% due to Bio-K-fertilizer as compared to control plots. No chemical fertilizer was used during this experiment. (author)

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Growth indices ans productivity in sugarcane Indicadores de crescimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A knowledge about the temporal development of agronomic variables in sugarcane is a very important aspect for the development of crop yield prediction models using remote sensing, and further studies are still needed. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugarcane biophysical parameters, such as total biomass, leaf area index, number of plants per meter, and productivity. During two seasons, a commercial field in Araras/SP, planted with variety SP80-1842, on the 4th and 5th cuts, wa...

Maurício dos Santos Simões; Jansle Vieira Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo Lamparelli

2005-01-01

31

Pythium oligandrum: an example of opportunistic success.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium oligandrum, a non-pathogenic soil-inhabiting oomycete, colonizes the root ecosystem of many crop species. Whereas most members in the genus Pythium are plant pathogens, P. oligandrum distinguishes itself from the pathogenic species by its ability to protect plants from biotic stresses in addition to promoting plant growth. The success of P. oligandrum at controlling soilborne pathogens is partly associated with direct antagonism mediated by mycoparasitism and antimicrobial compounds. Interestingly, P. oligandrum has evolved with specific mechanisms to attack its prey even when these belong to closely related species. Of particular relevance is the question of how P. oligandrum distinguishes between self- and non-self cell wall degradation during the mycoparasitic process of pathogenic oomycete species. The ability of P. oligandrum to enter and colonize the root system before rapidly degenerating is one of the most striking features that differentiate it from all other known biocontrol fungal agents. In spite of this atypical behaviour, P. oligandrum sensitizes the plant to defend itself through the production of at least two types of microbe-associated molecular patterns, including oligandrin and cell wall protein fractions, which appear to be closely involved in the early events preceding activation of the jasmonic acid- and ethylene-dependent signalling pathways and subsequent localized and systemic induced resistance. The aim of this review is to highlight the expanding knowledge of the mechanisms by which P. oligandrum provides beneficial effects to plants and to explore the potential use of this oomycete or its metabolites as new disease management strategies. PMID:22977087

Benhamou, Nicole; le Floch, Gaêtan; Vallance, Jessica; Gerbore, Jonathan; Grizard, Damien; Rey, Patrice

2012-11-01

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Antigenic relationship between the animal and human pathogen Pythium insidiosum and nonpathogenic Pythium species.  

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Identification of the newly named pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum and its differentiation from other Pythium species by morphologic criteria alone can be difficult and time-consuming. Antigenic analysis by fluorescent-antibody and immunodiffusion precipitin techniques demonstrated that the P. insidiosum isolates that cause pythiosis in dogs, horses, and humans are identical and that they were distinguishable from other Pythium species by these means. The immunologic data agreed with th...

Mendoza, L.; Kaufman, L.; Standard, P.

1987-01-01

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Patogenicidade in vitro de Pythium aphanidermatum e Pythium dissotocum em variedades de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) / Pathogenicity in vitro of Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium dissotocum in varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pythium spp. são importantes causadoras de infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos, tendo sido objetivo deste estudo avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum e P. dissotocum, em alface. Placas de Petri contendo ágar-água e micélio dos isolados foram incubadas de 15 a 45 ºC, para ve [...] rificação da temperatura ótima de crescimento, estabelecendo-se 31 ºC para P. aphanidermatum e, 26 ºC para P. dissotocum. Avaliou-se, então, a patogenicidade dos espécimes nas suas temperaturas ótimas e, em 20 ºC, ideal para a alface, colocando-se sementes em ágar-água e um disco com micélio no centro das placas. Placas contendo somente sementes em meio de cultura serviram como controle. Verificou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes, selecionando-se P. aphanidermatum como mais patogênico; as variedades Vera e Tainá como menos suscetíveis e, Elisa, como mais suscetível. Abstract in english Pythium species are responsible for root rot in hydroponically grown, being the aims of this study to evaluate the Pythium aphanidermatum and P. dissotocum pathogenicity, in lettuce. Petri dishes contained water-agar and the mycelium of the isolates were incubated at 15 to 45 ºC to verify the optimu [...] m temperature of growth, which were 31 ºC for P. aphanidermatum and 26 ºC for P. dissotocum. It was evaluated the pathogenicity of the isolates in the optimum temperatures, and 20 ºC ideal to lettuce, placing the seeds in water-agar and the mycelium in the center of the dishes. Petri dishes contained only the seeds in media as controls. It was evaluated the hypocotyl and primary root length and the percentage of survivors seedlings, selecting P. aphanidermatum as more pathogenic; Vera and Tainá varieties as less susceptible and Elisa most susceptible.

Katya da Silva, Patekoski; Carmen Lidia Amorim Pires, Zottarelli.

34

Effect of iron, manganese, zinc and their combinations on growth and yield of sugarcane at Kenana sugar scheme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two field experiments were conducted at two different sites for one season (1992/93) in order to study the effects of iron, manganese, zinc and their combinations on growth and yield of sugarcane at kenana sugar scheme. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block with four replications. Sulfates of iron, manganese and zinc were used as foliar fertilizers at concentrations of 200 ppm for iron and zinc and 100 ppm for manganese. Half of the fertilizer dose was applied when the crop was four months old, and the other half was applied when the crop was six months old, and the control was sprayed with distilled water only. All the treatments received 415 kg/ha urea fertilizer (46% nitrogen) as nitrogen source and 108 kg/ha triple superphosphate(48% P2 O5) as a source of phosphorus. Data were recorded on the growth and yield of sugarcane crop. The results showed that the lowest stalk height was obtained with treatments receiving iron fertilizer. The highest stalk diameter value was obtained in plants sprayed with zinc. The application of manganese or zinc and their combinations resulted in higher values of cane yield than the control. (Author)

2003-01-01

35

Control of Pythium Damping-off of Squash (Cucurbita pepo) by Seed Treatment with Crop Straw and Soil by the Biocontrol Agent Trichodema harzianum  

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Seed treatment by non-sterilized powdered straw from 4 crops was tested for Pythium damping-off of squash. The tested straws including wheat, faba bean, soybean and sorghum were effective in controlling the disease in soil artificially infested with Pythium ultinum. Sterilizing straws eliminated the efficacy of these straw, faba bean and soybean straws inhibit the mycelial growth of Pythium more than wheat and sorghum on potato dextrose agar when the straws were mixed with steri...

Haikal, Nahed Z.

2007-01-01

36

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND RATES OF NITROGEN AND SUPRA OPTIMAL LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY SUGARCANE GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS  

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Full Text Available The results of our pervious studies indicated that application of potassium @150 kg K2O ha-1 is effective in achieving economical sugarcane yield and optimum nutrient uptake under saline conditions. Keeping in view these findings, experiments were conducted on salt-affected soils at three sites of Punjab, Pakistan to select a suitable source and rate of N for obtaining optimum sugarcane yield and nutrient uptake from salt-affected soils. The experiments were conducted with two sugarcane varieties, salt tolerant (SPSG-26 and sensitive (CP-77400 using supra optimal level of K (150 kg K2O ha-1 as sulphate of potash SOP, P @ 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 as DAP (diammonium phosphate and N @100 and 200 kg N ha-1 as urea or calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN. The results showed that cane length and diameter, number of tillers per plant, cane yield and sugar recovery increased with the application of N in both the sugarcane varieties under normal or saline conditions. Sugarcane growth and yield increased with increasing N rate from 100 to 200 kg N ha-1 in case of both urea and CAN. However, CAN as N source was more effective in enhancing sugarcane growth and yield than urea. The concentration of Na+ increased in both the sugarcane varieties due to salinity, however, application of K and N decreased its concentration. The combined application of NPK also significantly reduced Na+ uptake in leaves, however, the best combination observed was DAP+SOP+CAN. It was also observed that salt tolerant variety (SPSG-26 had lesser accumulation of Na+ than that of sensitive one (CP-77400. Application of N fertilizers significantly enhanced the nutrient (K, P, and N uptake in both the varieties at both N rates (100 and 200 kg N ha-1 under normal as well as saline conditions. However, maximum uptake of nutrients was recorded at the highest dose (200 kg N ha-1 but CAN treated plants performed better than that of urea. On the basis of above results, the application of K as SOP and N as CAN was recommended for salt-affected soils to enhance the sugarcane yield. The salt tolerant variety for higher yield in salt-affected soil is also necessary for improving the cost benefit ratio. The results revealed that if salinity level of soil would exceed 10 dS m-1, considerable reduction in sugarcane yield could occur.

MARCUSS ROSS

2008-08-01

37

Evaluation of Salt Tolerance of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Genotypes Based on the Ability to Regulate Ion Uptake and Transport at Early Stage of Growth  

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Full Text Available   Sugarcane is one of the most important sugar crops in the world. Because of semi-arid climate and salinity of its cultivation area in our country, increasing salt tolerance of sugarcane is signifying. To achieve this goal determining salt tolerant cultivars and understanding salinity mechanisms in sugarcane are very important. This study was conducted to evaluate 8 commercial and promising sugarcane cultivars at early stage of growth. A complete randomized design with three replicates and four salinity treatments (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 % NaCl was used in a hydroponics system. The effect of salinity on absorption, transport and accumulation of Na+, Cl- , K+ and Ca2+ ions in shoot and root was determined. At high level salt concentration, Cl- content in shoot and root increased. Result showed that sodium accumulation in sugarcane plants was more than potassium. By increasing salinity level, sodium uptake and its translocation to shoots increased reducing growth and dry matter yield of plants. With rising salt concentration from medium (0.5% to high (0.75%, content of chloride in shoot and root of NCO-310 was constant showed that this cultivar had genetic ability to avoid Cl- uptake. CP82-1592 with lowest ratio of shoot / root chloride had minimum transport of Cl- to shoots. Also this cultivar had high content of Ca2+ in shoot and low Na+/Ca2+ ratio at all salinity levels. CP48-103 had low sodium in shoot and relatively low sodium in root. Thus it probably has genetic potential to avoid sodium uptake. At last, exclusion of Na+ and Cl- to older leaves and tillers was seen in CP82-1592 and CP72-2086 cultivars. According to results, to avoid once of absorption and transport, and exclusion of harmful Na+ and Cl- ions were mechanisms that could be used in salinity tolerance of sugarcane.

A. Arzani

2008-01-01

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Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-7 [...] 76 (drought susceptible) and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant). Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit). At 0,30 and 60 days after the treatment, gas exchange variables were evaluated for their relationship with water use, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. The SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential and relative water content in the leaves were also analyzed. The genotype HoCP93-776 was more sensitive to drought treatment as indicated by the significantly lower values of SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential (?w) and relative water content (RWC) variables. The genotype TCP02-4587 had higher water potential, stomatal control efficiency, water use efficiency (WUE), intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEintr), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. The highest air vapor pressure deficit during the drought conditions could be due to the stomatal closing in the HoCP93-776, which contributed to its lower photosynthetic capacity.

Silva, Marcelo de Almeida; Jifon, John Lonfover; Santos, Claudiana Moura dos; Jadoski, Cleber Junior; Silva, Jorge Alberto Gonçalves da.

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Process-based simple model for simulating sugarcane growth and production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dynamic simulation models can increase research efficiency and improve risk management of agriculture. Crop models are still little used for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) because the lack of understanding of their capabilities and limitations, lack of experience in calibrating them, difficulties in eva [...] luating and using models, and a general lack of model credibility. This paper describes the biophysics and shows a statistical evaluation of a simple sugarcane processbased model coupled with a routine for model calibration. Classical crop model approaches were used as a framework for this model, and fitted algorithms for simulating sucrose accumulation and leaf development driven by a source-sink approach were proposed. The model was evaluated using data from five growing seasons at four locations in Brazil, where crops received adequate nutrients and good weed control. Thirteen of the 27 parameters were optimized using a Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation algorithm using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Model predictions were evaluated using measured data of leaf area index, stalk and aerial dry mass, and sucrose content, using bias, root mean squared error, modeling efficiency, correlation coefficient and agreement index. The model well simulated the sugarcane crop in Southern Brazil, using the parameterization reported here. Predictions were best for stalk dry mass, followed by leaf area index and then sucrose content in stalk fresh mass.

Fábio R., Marin; James W., Jones.

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Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources  

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Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Antigenic relationship between the animal and human pathogen Pythium insidiosum and nonpathogenic Pythium species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of the newly named pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum and its differentiation from other Pythium species by morphologic criteria alone can be difficult and time-consuming. Antigenic analysis by fluorescent-antibody and immunodiffusion precipitin techniques demonstrated that the P. insidiosum isolates that cause pythiosis in dogs, horses, and humans are identical and that they were distinguishable from other Pythium species by these means. The immunologic data agreed with the morphologic data. This indicated that the animal and human isolates belonged to a single species, P. insidiosum. Fluorescent-antibody and immunodiffusion reagents were developed for the specific identification of P. insidiosum. PMID:3121666

Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Standard, P

1987-11-01

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Rhizosphere Competence of Pythium oligandrum.  

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ABSTRACT The associations of Pythium oligandrum with the root cortex, rhizoplane, and rhizosphere were measured with 11 crop species. This work was expedited by the use of a semiselective technique for isolation of P. oligandrum from soil and plant material. Cortical colonization of roots by P. oligandrum was not detected, and the rhizoplanes of the roots of most crops were free of the fungus. However, P. oligandrum was detected in large quantities with every crop tested when roots with adhering soil (rhizosphere soil) were assayed. Different crop species and cultivars of cantaloupe, cauliflower, and tomato varied in rhizosphere densities of P. oligandrum, but rhizosphere population densities of the fungus were consistently higher than in nonrhizosphere soils with plants grown in P. oligandrum-infested sterilized potting mix or an unsterilized mineral soil. After transplanting tomatoes into potting mix infested with P. oligandrum, increases in CFU occurred over time in the rhizosphere but not in the nonrhizosphere soil. In trials on delivery methods of inoculum of P. oligandrum, the rhizosphere populations of tomato plants grown in potting mix were about sixfold higher compared to seed-coat treatments when ground, alginate pelleted oospores were applied to seedlings growing in plug containers prior to transplanting or to pots containing potting mix before direct seeding. PMID:18945067

Al-Rawahi, A K; Hancock, J G

1997-09-01

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Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Vegetative and Root Growth of three Sugarcane Genotypes (Smoocher officinarum L.) In vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane explants of three genotypes namely CO.J.64, CO.J.86 and Missan were exposed to 0,10, 20, 30,40,Gray of gamma rays,and cultured in MS medium supplemented with hormones for vegetative and root growth. The cultures were including in growth room at 25±2 degree centigrade and 16th photo period with light intensity of 1000 Lux. Results of vegetative explants of three genotypes namely Co. J.64, Co.J.86 and Missan growth revealed gradual reductions in the number of shoots, fresh, and dry weights as with the increased of gamma doses, The reduction percentage were 59.40, 59.70 and 54.40% at 40 Gray respectively, as compared with control treatment, while the dose 10 Gray increased the shoot length by 10.90%.Mean time, gamma rays were significantly affected the root formation,no roots were developed when plants treated with 40 Gray,while 10 Gray reduced the number of root formation, lengths, fresh and dry weights of roots by 28.80, 12.30, 78.30 and 58. 60% respectively as compared with the control. However the genotype Co.J.86 was significantly superior than others in numbers and lengths of the shoots with the root lengths while higher fresh and dry weights of vegetative growth were obtained in Missan genotypes. (author)

2005-06-01

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Increasing P-Availability and P-Uptake Using Sugarcane Filter Cake and Rice Husk Ash to Improve Chinesse Cabbage (Brassica Sp) Growth in Andisol, East Java  

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The production potential in Andisols is limited by the high P-retention capacity. Farmers commonly use organic matter. Sugarcane filter cake (blothong, Indonesian, SFC) and rice husk ash (RHA) are locally available in Coban Rondo, Malang, East Java and hence potentially used for soil amendment. To study the effects of SFC and RHA on P availability, P uptake and plant growth (Brassica sp.), soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth, incubated with SFC (2...

Utami, S. R.; Kurniawan, S.; Situmorang, B.; Rositasari, N. D.

2012-01-01

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Involvement of Pyochelin and Pyoverdin in Suppression of Pythium-Induced Damping-Off of Tomato by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2  

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The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 produces three siderophores when iron is limited: the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdin, the salicylate derivative pyochelin, and salicylic acid. This Pseudomonas strain was shown to be an efficient antagonist of Pythium-induced damping-off. The role of pyoverdin and pyochelin in the suppression of Pythium splendens was investigated by using various siderophore-deficient mutants derived from P. aeruginosa 7NSK2 in a bioas...

1996-01-01

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Thioquinolobactin, a Pseudomonas siderophore with antifungal and anti-Pythium activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under conditions of iron limitation Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 produces two siderophores, pyoverdine, and a second siderophore quinolobactin, which itself results from the hydrolysis of the unstable molecule 8-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-quinoline thiocarboxylic acid (thioquinolobactin). Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 also displays a strong in vitro antagonism against the Oomycete Pythium, which is repressed by iron, suggesting the involvement of a siderophore(s). While a pyoverdine-negative mutant retains most of its antagonism, a thioquinolobactin-negative mutant only slowed-down Pythium growth, and a double pyoverdine-, thioquinolobactin-negative mutant, which does not produce any siderophore, totally lost its antagonism against Pythium. The siderophore thioquinolobactin could be purified and identified from spent medium and showed anti-Pythium activity, but it was quickly hydrolysed to quinolobactin, which we showed has no antimicrobial activity. Analysis of antagonism-affected transposon mutants revealed that genes involved in haem biosynthesis and sulfur assimilation are important for the production of thioquinolobactin and the expression of antagonism. PMID:17222140

Matthijs, Sandra; Tehrani, Kourosch Abbaspour; Laus, George; Jackson, Robert W; Cooper, Richard M; Cornelis, Pierre

2007-02-01

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A Study on the Application and Residues of Plant Growth Regulators in the Fruit Sugarcane Grown in the Sub-Suitable Region  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we used plant growth regulators, such as gibberellin and ethephon to treat fruit sugarcane Qiantang5 respectively. The results show that the spraying of gibberellin on the plants with its concentration of30g/year.667m2 has positive effects on most agronomic characters, such as growth speed, plant height, validstalks, brix, sucrose content and yield. The residue of gibberellin is 0.05mg/kg. However, ethephon has nopositive effects on agronomic characters except the growth speed.

Jiaju Lu

2010-11-01

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Soil physical properties and sugarcane root growth in a red oxiso / Propriedades físicas de solo e crescimento radicular de cana-de-açúcar em um latossolo vermelho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A cana-de-açúcar é, na atualidade, uma das culturas de maior importância no agronegócio brasileiro, a qual envolve o uso de máquinas agrícolas em todas as fases do cultivo - do preparo do solo até a colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os atributos físicos e o crescimento de raízes em Lat [...] ossolo Vermelho eutroférrico cultivado com cana-de-açúcar por diferentes períodos de tempo. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área de produção de cana-de-açúcar em Rolândia, Paraná, com diferentes tratamentos (número de cortes: 1, 3, 8, 10 e 16); a colheita foi realizada com cana queimada e corte manual, determinando-se: densidade, macro e microporosidade, resistência do solo à penetração, densidade do solo, densidade de comprimento e área de raízes. Conclui-se que as práticas de manejo na cultura da cana-de-açúcar promovem alterações na resistência, densidade e porosidade do solo, em comparação com a mata nativa; essas alterações nos atributos físicos foram impeditivas ao pleno desenvolvimento radicular da cana-de-açúcar além de 10 cm de profundidade, em todos os períodos de cultivo analisados. Abstract in english Sugarcane, which involves the use of agricultural machinery in all crop stages, from soil preparation to harvest, is currently one of the most relevant crops for agribusiness in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to investigate soil physical properties and root growth in a eutroferric red Oxisol [...] (Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico) after different periods under sugarcane. The study was carried out in a cane plantation in Rolândia, Paraná State, where treatments consisted of a number of cuts (1, 3, 8, 10 and 16), harvested as green and burned sugarcane, at which soil bulk density, macro and microporosity, penetration resistance, as well as root length, density and area were determined. Results showed that sugarcane management practices lead to alterations in soil penetration resistance, bulk density and porosity, compared to native forest soil. These alterations in soil physical characteristics impede the full growth of the sugarcane root system beneath 10 cm, in all growing seasons analyzed.

Baquero, José Euripides; Ralisch, Ricardo; Medina, Cristiane de Conti; Tavares Filho, João; Guimarães, Maria de Fátima.

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Effect of Soil Acidity on Diseases Caused by Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum on Tomato Plants  

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Full Text Available Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum are important pathogens in agriculture crops and cause serious diseases that resulted in reducing the yield of many crops. The effect of soil acidity on the occurrence and severity of diseases caused by Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum were examined. Pathogens were grew at pH levels of 2-10 in vitro. Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum isolates have an optimum growth pH level of 6 and 7 and grew well at pH level of 5 and slightly at pH level of 4 and 8 but no growth at pH levels of 2, 3, 9 and 10. Six treatments (4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were tested in vivo to examine the effect of soil pH on the occurrence and severity of disease. The pH level of 5 was the best for plant growth but not to both pathogens. However, more disease severity by the two pathogens were found at the pH levels of 6 and 7. The pH levels could be used to reduce the plant disease reduction by knowing the optimum levels for plants and pathogens.

Khalaf M. Alhussaen

2012-01-01

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Crescimento e produtividade da cana planta cultivada em diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita = Sugarcane growth and productivity under different tillage and crop systems  

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Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita sobre o crescimento e produtividade da cana planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Linhares, Estado do Espírito Santo. Trata-se de um dos ensaios mais antigos no país que investiga os efeitos da Cana crua e queimada. Instalados num Argissolo Amarelo textura arenosa/média, os tratamentos consistiram de parcelas (preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo e subparcelas (Cana crua e Cana queimada. Foi avaliado o crescimento da cultura, o aporte de matéria orgânica e a quantificação do rendimento da cana-de-açúcar. O diâmetro foi maior para o cultivo mínimo, e o perfilhamento foi maior para o preparo convencional. A altura e o perfilhamento foram superiores no corte sem queima. Para produtividade de colmos, os tratamentos nãoapresentaram diferenças significativas. As folhas foram maiores em cultivo mínimo e pontas em Cana crua. O cultivo mínimo propicia, inicialmente, aumento do diâmetro e maior produtividade de folhas na colheita. O perfilhamento é favorecido pelo preparo convencional. A Cana crua não apresentou influência negativa da palhada na rebrota. Após 16 anos de cultivo da cana-de-açúcar com e sem queima do palhiço, observou-se maior produtividade de ponteiros, incrementando o rendimento dos colmos em Cana crua. This study had as its objective to evaluate the effects of different tillage and crop systems on the growth and productivity of sugarcane plants. The experiment was conducted in Linhares, ES. It is one of the oldest assays in the country investigating the effects ofunburned and burned sugarcane. Installed in a Yellow Latosol with sandy/medium texture, the treatments consisted of plots (conventional and minimum tillage and subplots (raw and burned sugarcane. Plant growth, contribution of organic matter and quantification ofsugarcane yield were evaluated. The diameter was larger for minimum tillage, and tillering was greater for conventional tillage. The height and tillering were superior in the cut without burning. For stems productivity, the treatments did not present significantdifferences. The leaves were larger in minimum tillage and tips in unburned cane. The minimum tillage propitiates the increase in diameter initially and largest productivity of leaves in the crop. Tillering is favored by conventional tillage. The unburned cane did not present negative influence of straw in the regrowth. After 16 years of sugarcane cultivation with and without straw burning, it resulted in larger productivity of pointers increasing theproductivity of the stems in unburned cane.

Orlando Carlos Huertas Tavares

2010-01-01

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Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes in Pythium and Their Role in Plant Cell Wall and Storage Polysaccharide Degradation  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are involved in the metabolism of glycoconjugates, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides and, in the case of plant pathogens, in the degradation of the host cell wall and storage compounds. We performed an in silico analysis of CAZymes predicted from the genomes of seven Pythium species (Py. aphanidermatum, Py. arrhenomanes, Py. irregulare, Py. iwayamai, Py. ultimum var. ultimum, Py. ultimum var. sporangiiferum and Py. vexans) using the “CAZymes Analysis Toolkit” and “Database for Automated Carbohydrate-active Enzyme Annotation” and compared them to previously published oomycete genomes. Growth of Pythium spp. was assessed in a minimal medium containing selected carbon sources that are usually present in plants. The in silico analyses, coupled with our in vitro growth assays, suggest that most of the predicted CAZymes are involved in the metabolism of the oomycete cell wall with starch and sucrose serving as the main carbohydrate sources for growth of these plant pathogens. The genomes of Pythium spp. also encode pectinases and cellulases that facilitate degradation of the plant cell wall and are important in hyphal penetration; however, the species examined in this study lack the requisite genes for the complete saccharification of these carbohydrates for use as a carbon source. Genes encoding for xylan, xyloglucan, (galacto)(gluco)mannan and cutin degradation were absent or infrequent in Pythium spp.. Comparative analyses of predicted CAZymes in oomycetes indicated distinct evolutionary histories. Furthermore, CAZyme gene families among Pythium spp. were not uniformly distributed in the genomes, suggesting independent gene loss events, reflective of the polyphyletic relationships among some of the species.

Zerillo, Marcelo M.; Adhikari, Bishwo N.; Hamilton, John P.; Buell, C. Robin; Levesque, C. Andre; Tisserat, Ned

2013-01-01

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Trehalose induces antagonism towards Pythium debaryanum in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400.  

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Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 shows in vitro activity against Pythium debaryanum under conditions of iron limitation. A lacZ reporter gene introduced by transposon mutagenesis into the P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 trehalase gene (treA) was induced by a factor released by the phytopathogen Pythium debaryanum. The induction of the lacZ gene was lost upon treatment of the Pythium supernatant with commercial trehalase. A trehalose concentration as low as 1 microM could induce the expression of treA. The mutation did not affect the wild-type potential for fungus antagonism but drastically decreased the osmotolerance of the mutant in liquid culture and suppressed the ability of P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 to utilize trehalose as a carbon source. A subsequent transposon insertion in treP, one of the trehalose phosphotransferase genes upstream of treA, silenced the lacZ gene. This double mutant restricted fungal growth only under conditions of high osmolarity, which probably results in internal trehalose accumulation. These data confirm the role of the disaccharide trehalose in osmotolerance, and they indicate its additional role as an initiator of or a signal for fungal antagonism. PMID:9361421

Gaballa, A; Abeysinghe, P D; Urich, G; Matthijs, S; De Greve, H; Cornelis, P; Koedam, N

1997-11-01

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Phenazines and biosurfactants interact in the biological control of soil-borne diseases caused by Pythium spp.  

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In this study, the putative role of phenazines and rhamnolipid-biosurfactants, antagonistic metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PNA1, was tested in the biological control of Pythium splendens on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) and Pythium myriotylum on cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium L Schott). A rhamnolipid-deficient and a phenazine-deficient mutant of PNA1 were used either separately or jointly in plant experiments. When the mutants were applied separately, no disease-suppressive effect was observed, although both mutants still produced one of the antagonistic compounds (phenazines or rhamnolipids). When the mutants were concurrently introduced in the soil, the biocontrol activity was restored to wild-type levels. Bean seeds developed significantly less pre-emergence damping-off caused by P. splendens when treated with a mixture of purified phenazine-1-carboxamide and rhamnolipids than with any of the chemicals alone. When phenazines and rhamnolipids were combined at concentrations that had no observable effects when the metabolites were applied separately, mycelial growth of P. myriotylum was significantly reduced. In addition, microscopic analysis revealed substantial vacuolization and disintegration of Pythium hyphae after incubation in liquid medium amended with both metabolites. Results of this study indicate that phenazines and biosurfactants are acting synergistically in the control of Pythium spp. PMID:18237310

Perneel, Maaike; D'hondt, Liesbet; De Maeyer, Katrien; Adiobo, Amayana; Rabaey, Korneel; Höfte, Monica

2008-03-01

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Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma / Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de [...] alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1) e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings o [...] f Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1), and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

Katya da Silva, Patekoski; Carmen Lidia Amorim, Pires-Zottarelli.

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Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

Katya da Silva Patekoski

2010-08-01

56

Dynamic distribution of potassium in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the distribution of potassium in sugarcane has been studied during its growth. The soil was prepared with natural fertilizers prepared with sugarcane bagasse. For the measurement of potassium concentration in each part of the plant, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure gamma-rays emitted from the radioisotope 40K. The concentrations of potassium in roots, stems and leaves were measured every two to three months beginning about five months after planting the sugarcane. The results show a higher concentration of potassium at the beginning of plant development and over time, there is an oscillatory behavior in this concentration in each part of the plant, reaching a lower concentration in the adult plant. To describe the evolution of potassium distribution in sugarcane we proposed a phenomenological model assuming that the potassium incorporation rate is proportional to the difference between the element concentration in the plant and a very long term equilibrium value and it is coupled to a resource-limited growth model. The proposed model succeeded in interpreting the results for the potassium distribution in stems and leaves during the sugarcane growth. -- Highlights: • Sugar-cane. • Distribution of potassium from root to aerial parts of the plant. • Gamma-ray spectrometry. • Phenomenological model to describe potassium distribution

2013-12-01

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Control of Pythium Damping-off of Squash (Cucurbita pepo by Seed Treatment with Crop Straw and Soil by the Biocontrol Agent Trichodema harzianum  

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Full Text Available Seed treatment by non-sterilized powdered straw from 4 crops was tested for Pythium damping-off of squash. The tested straws including wheat, faba bean, soybean and sorghum were effective in controlling the disease in soil artificially infested with Pythium ultinum. Sterilizing straws eliminated the efficacy of these straw, faba bean and soybean straws inhibit the mycelial growth of Pythium more than wheat and sorghum on potato dextrose agar when the straws were mixed with sterilized distilled water and left to ferment for 3 days. The soil treatment by the biocontrol agent T. harzianum control the damping-off disease in artificially infested soil and combination between seed treatment by straw powder and soil treatment by T. harzianum improve the efficacy of the biocontrol agent.

Nahed Z. Haikal

2007-01-01

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Determination of Optimum Level of Phosphorus and its Effect on Growth, Yield and Quality of Ratoon Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.  

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Full Text Available The various components of the sugarcane crop such as stripped cane yield, number of millable canes and unstripped cane yield were affected significantly by different levels of phosphorus. Phosphorus application in the range of 100-150 kg ha-1 along with 200-kg ha-1 and 150 kg K2O ha-1 was found to be an optimum dose. Phosphorus application beyond the range of 100 to 150 kg ha-1 will not be profitable. Phosphorus had non-significant effect on the photo biomass and quality parameters.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry

2000-01-01

59

Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives  

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The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium...

John Clifford Sutton; Coralie Rachelle Sopher; Tony Nathaniel Owen-Going; Weizhong Liu; Bernard Grodzinski; John Christopher Hall; Ruth Linda Benchimol

2006-01-01

60

New lignan esters from Alyxia schlechteri and antifungal activity against Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new lignan esters, alyterinates A-C (1-3), as well as 10 known compounds were isolated from the roots of Alyxia schlechteri. Antifungal activity against Pythium insidiosum of all lignan derivatives was evaluated using disk diffusion assay. P. insidiosum is not a true fungus since its cell walls do not contain ergosterol as usual fungi, so the antifungals available now are not effective. From activity testing, it was found that compounds 3, 4 and 5 could inhibit the mycelia growth of P. insidiosum. PMID:23994626

Sriphana, Uraiwan; Thongsri, Yordhathai; Ardwichai, Pispong; Poopasit, Kitisak; Prariyachatigul, Chularut; Simasathiansophon, Sontaya; Yenjai, Chavi

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas / Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB) é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT) e a es [...] timativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA) interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT). A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto) foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados. Abstract in english Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP) is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint) and the estimated accumulative G [...] P. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR) was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART), which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August) was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

Ferreira Junior, Ricardo A.; Souza, José L. de; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Teodoro, Iêdo; Santos, Marcos A. dos; Porfirio, Anthony C. S..

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Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables  

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Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT e a estimativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT. A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados.Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint and the estimated accumulative GP. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART, which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

Ricardo A. Ferreira Junior

2012-11-01

63

Pythium infection activates conserved plant defense responses in mosses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The moss Physcomitrella patens (P. patens) is a useful model to study abiotic stress responses since it is highly tolerant to drought, salt and osmotic stress. However, very little is known about the defense mechanisms activated in this moss after pathogen assault. In this study, we show that P. patens activated multiple and similar responses against Pythium irregulare and Pythium debaryanum, including the reinforcement of the cell wall, induction of the defense genes CHS, LOX and PAL, and accumulation of the signaling molecules jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). However, theses responses were not sufficient and infection could not be prevented leading to hyphae colonization of moss tissues and plant decay. Pythium infection induced reactive oxygen species production and caused cell death of moss tissues. Taken together, these data indicate that Pythium infection activates in P. patens common responses to those previously characterized in flowering plants. Microscopic analysis also revealed intracellular relocation of chloroplasts in Pythium-infected tissues toward the infection site. In addition, OPDA, JA and its methyl ester methyl jasmonate induced the expression of PAL. Our results show for the first time JA and OPDA accumulation in a moss and suggest that this defense pathway is functional and has been maintained during the evolution of plants. PMID:19551405

Oliver, Juan Pablo; Castro, Alexandra; Gaggero, Carina; Cascón, Tomas; Schmelz, Eric A; Castresana, Carmen; Ponce de León, Inés

2009-08-01

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Pythium abappressorium--a new species from eastern Washington.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new species of Pythium isolated from wheat and apple roots in eastern Washington is described. Pythium abappressorium sp. nov. is characterized by abundant appressoria. Plerotic oospores and sporangia are formed from the appressoria and remnants of the appressoria remain attached to the base of sporangia at maturity. Smaller appressorial swellings, reminiscent of hyphal swellings, are also formed within the appressoria. Pythium abappressorium is pathogenic to wheat, causing damping-off and stunting, but is not pathogenic to apples. The fungus can grow in the temperature range 5 to 30 C, with an optimum of 20 C. The sequence of the ITS1 region of the rDNA did not match the sequences from a worldwide collection of over 1200 isolates, including types and neotypes, suggesting that this species has not been previously described. PMID:21156591

Paulitz, Timothy C; Adams, Karen; Mazzola, Mark

2003-01-01

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Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultivation using sugarcane molasses and glucose syrup from cassava starch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose syrup from cassava starch and sugarcane molasses were studied using batch and fed-batch cultivation. The optimum temperature and pH required for growth were 30 degrees C and pH 5.5, respectively. In batch culture the productivity and overall cell yield were 0.31 g L-1 h-1 and 0.23 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on glucose syrup and 0.22 g L-1 h-1 and 0.18 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on molasses. In fed-batch cultivation, a productivity of 3.12 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.52 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in glucose syrup cultivation and a productivity of 2.33 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.46 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in molasses cultivation by controlling the reducing sugar concentration at its optimum level obtained from the fermentation model. By using an on-line ethanol sensor combined with a porous Teflon tubing method in automating the feeding of substrate in the fed-batch culture, a productivity of 2.15 g L-1 h-1 with a yield of 0.47 g cells g-1 sugar was achieved using glucose syrup as substrate when ethanol concentration was kept at a constant level by automatic control. PMID:8730575

Win, S S; Impoolsup, A; Noomhorm, A

1996-02-01

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Zoosporogênese in vitro entre isolados do oomiceto Pythium insidiosum / In vitro zoosporogenesis among oomycetes Pythium insidiosum isolates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto aquático, responsável pela etiologia da pitiose, uma enfermidade crônica, observada freqüentemente em eqüinos. A produção de zoósporos móveis por este microrganismo se constitui no fator determinante da ocorrência da enfermidade. Este estudo avaliou a zoosporogênese [...] e quantificou a produção de zoósporos de 32 amostras de Pythium insidiosum isoladas de eqüinos naturalmente infectados. Pythium insidiosum foi cultivado em meio Corn Meal Agar acrescido de fragmentos de grama, durante 5 dias, a 37°C. Posteriormente, os fragmentos de grama parasitados foram incubados em Meio de Indução a 37°C, por 24 horas. Observou-se que 16 amostras (50%) produziram 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, 12 isolados (37,5%) produziram acima de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, enquanto quatro amostras (12,5%) produziram menos de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1. O período de maior produção de zoósporos foi entre 6 e 8 horas de incubação. O protocolo utilizado na indução da zoosporogênese mostrou-se eficiente e representa uma importante ferramenta, tanto para a identificação do Pythium insidiosum, como para a obtenção de zoósporos em quantidades suficientes para a inoculação em animais experimentais e aplicação no desenvolvimento de testes de suscetibilidade. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete and the etiology of a chronic disease called pythiosis, commonly found in the skin of horses. The production of mobile zoospores by this microorganism is the determinant factor of this disease. This study evaluated the zoosporogenesis and quantification of z [...] oospores in 32 samples of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses with pythiosis. The assay used culture of the Pythium insidiosum in Corn Meal Agar plus grass blades for 5 days at 37°C. The grass blades were incubated in Induction Medium at 37°C for 24 hours. The findings showed 16 samples (50%) yielded 20,000 zoospores mL-1, 12 (37.5%) samples yielded over 20,000 zoospores mL-1 and 4 samples (12.5%) yielded less than 20,000 zoospores mL-1. The zoospores production was higher between 6 and 8 hours of incubation. The protocol used in the zoosporogenesis induction was efficient and represents an important tool for Pythium insidiosum identification and the attainment of zoospores in adequate amounts for inoculation in experimental animals and application in the development of susceptibility tests.

Daniela Isabel Brayer, Pereira; Janio Morais, Santurio; Sydney Hartz, Alves; Juliana Siqueira, Argenta; Ayrton Sydnei, Cavalheiro; Laerte, Ferreiro.

67

Zoosporogênese in vitro entre isolados do oomiceto Pythium insidiosum In vitro zoosporogenesis among oomycetes Pythium insidiosum isolates  

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Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto aquático, responsável pela etiologia da pitiose, uma enfermidade crônica, observada freqüentemente em eqüinos. A produção de zoósporos móveis por este microrganismo se constitui no fator determinante da ocorrência da enfermidade. Este estudo avaliou a zoosporogênese e quantificou a produção de zoósporos de 32 amostras de Pythium insidiosum isoladas de eqüinos naturalmente infectados. Pythium insidiosum foi cultivado em meio Corn Meal Agar acrescido de fragmentos de grama, durante 5 dias, a 37°C. Posteriormente, os fragmentos de grama parasitados foram incubados em Meio de Indução a 37°C, por 24 horas. Observou-se que 16 amostras (50% produziram 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, 12 isolados (37,5% produziram acima de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, enquanto quatro amostras (12,5% produziram menos de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1. O período de maior produção de zoósporos foi entre 6 e 8 horas de incubação. O protocolo utilizado na indução da zoosporogênese mostrou-se eficiente e representa uma importante ferramenta, tanto para a identificação do Pythium insidiosum, como para a obtenção de zoósporos em quantidades suficientes para a inoculação em animais experimentais e aplicação no desenvolvimento de testes de suscetibilidade.Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete and the etiology of a chronic disease called pythiosis, commonly found in the skin of horses. The production of mobile zoospores by this microorganism is the determinant factor of this disease. This study evaluated the zoosporogenesis and quantification of zoospores in 32 samples of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses with pythiosis. The assay used culture of the Pythium insidiosum in Corn Meal Agar plus grass blades for 5 days at 37°C. The grass blades were incubated in Induction Medium at 37°C for 24 hours. The findings showed 16 samples (50% yielded 20,000 zoospores mL-1, 12 (37.5% samples yielded over 20,000 zoospores mL-1 and 4 samples (12.5% yielded less than 20,000 zoospores mL-1. The zoospores production was higher between 6 and 8 hours of incubation. The protocol used in the zoosporogenesis induction was efficient and represents an important tool for Pythium insidiosum identification and the attainment of zoospores in adequate amounts for inoculation in experimental animals and application in the development of susceptibility tests.

Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira

2008-02-01

68

Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications  

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Full Text Available Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1, respectively. Sucrose contents and commercial cane sugar were not affected significantly by fertilizer application. However, variety SPSG-26 gave significantly higher sucrose contents (18.82 % and commercial cane sugar (12.89 % than SPSG-394 and BL-4. The fertilizer application @ 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 was found to be optimum level for achieving maximum cane yield.

M. Ayub

1999-01-01

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Reguladores vegetais e qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em meio de safra / Growth regulators and technological quality of sugarcane in the middle of the cropping season  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A maturação da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.) refere-se a um dos aspectos fundamentais para o sistema de produção da indústria sucroalcooleira. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra. [...] O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos da aplicação de quatro maturadores da classe dos retardantes de crescimento (Ethefon, Etil-trinexapac, KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro) e uma testemunha (maturação natural). A eficiência agronômica dos maturadores foi influenciada pela época de aplicação, pela condição climática e pela característica genética da variedade. A aplicação dos maturadores em 10/05/2004 permitiu explorar de forma significativa o potencial genético da variedade quanto ao acúmulo de sacarose nos colmos, implicando em melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. A adoção dessa prática em 04/08/2005, de modo geral, pouco afetou os parâmetros tecnológicos, exceto a aplicação de Etil-trinexapac, o qual induziu melhoria significativa na qualidade da matéria-prima. A produtividade de açúcar refletiu-se de forma direta na margem de contribuição agrícola, sendo constatado maior retorno econômico para as plantas tratadas com KNO3 na safra 2004. Abstract in english The ripening of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is the most important aspect in the production system for sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the technological quality of sugarcane as a function of plant regulators application in the middle of the cropping sea [...] son. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators application of the class of growth retainers (Ethephon, Ethyl.trinexapac, Potassium nitrate and Potassium nitrate + Boron) and a control (natural ripening). The agricultural efficiency of maturators was affected by time application, weather condition and genetic characteristic of variety. The maturation application on 10/05/2004 allowed to explore of a significant form the genetic potential of variety as to sucrose storage in stems implicating in improvement technological quality of raw material. The maturation application on 04/08/2005 little affected technological parameters, except for Ethyl-trinexapac application, that induced significant improvement in technological quality of raw material. The sugar productivity reflected direct agricultural contribution and provided greater economical return with Potassium nitrate treatment in 2004.

Glauber Henrique Pereira, Leite; Carlos Alexandre Costa, Crusciol; Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; Waldemar Gastoni, Venturini Filho.

70

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.

Vincentz Michel GA

2009-03-01

71

Supplementation of sugarcane bagasse with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for shiitake (Lentinula edodes spawn production  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the myceliation rate, mycelial vigor and "estimated biomass" of Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler, grown on a sugarcane bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for spawn production. The proportions of rice bran used were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse and the sugarcane molasses concentrations tested were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran. The myceliation rate was decreased by the addition of the higher quantities of rice bran. The 25 and 30% rice bran proportions induced the highest stimulation of mycelial vigor. The addition of sugarcane molasses did not change myceliation rate or mycelial vigor. The "estimated biomass" values were similar when intermediate rice bran proportions were used and for all sugarcane molasses concentrations. Based on response surface obtained for the "estimated biomass" data, higher values were obtained with substrates containing 20 to 25% rice bran combined with 10 to 30 g sugarcane molasses, although the latter supplement was not considered to stimulate L. edodes growth.

Rossi Ivan Henrique

2003-01-01

72

Trehalose induces antagonism towards Pythium debaryanum in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 shows in vitro activity against Pythium debaryanum under conditions of iron limitation. A lacZ reporter gene introduced by transposon mutagenesis into the P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 trehalase gene (treA) was induced by a factor released by the phytopathogen Pythium debaryanum. The induction of the lacZ gene was lost upon treatment of the Pythium supernatant with commercial trehalase. A trehalose concentration as low as 1 microM could induce the expression of ...

Gaballa, A.; Abeysinghe, P. D.; Urich, G.; Matthijs, S.; Greve, H.; Cornelis, P.; Koedam, N.

1997-01-01

73

First report of Pythium indigoferae and P. irregulare associated to apple trees decline in Tunisia  

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Pythium indigoferae and Pythium irregulare, identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics, were isolated from necrotic roots, crown tissues and the rhizosphere of apple trees in Tunisia from 23 apple orchards in spring and autumn 2007-2009. The virulence assays on excised twigs, using different Pythium species isolated demonstrated that these oomycetes were pathogenic on the Anna, Lorka and Meski varieties and the MM106 rootstock. However, the biggest lesion area was not...

Souli, Mounira; Boughalleb, Naima; Abad Campos, Mari?a Paloma; A?lvarez, Luis Armando; Pe?rez Sierra, Ana Mari?a; Armengol Forti?, Josep; Garci?a Jime?nez, Jose?

2011-01-01

74

Intraspecific variability of Pythium myriotylum isolated from cocoyam and other host crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraspecific variability within 51 isolates of Pythium myriotylum from cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and other host crops was analysed using optimum growth temperature, esterase banding patterns, AFLPs, rDNA-ITS sequencing, and virulence to cocoyam. P. myriotylum isolates virulent to cocoyam could easily be differentiated from other isolates of P. myriotylum by their optimum growth temperature. Isolates from cocoyam grew best at 28 degrees C with no growth at 37 degrees C, while P. myriotylum isolates from other host crops had their optimum growth temperature at 37 degrees C. Esterases produced consistent zymograms with 18 discrete esterase markers, but no monomorphic markers were produced for isolates virulent to cocoyam. Isozyme profiles based on esterase analysis showed that isolates that infect cocoyam plantlets formed a related group, irrespective of their geographic origin. P. myriotylum isolates from other host plants also grouped together, but could clearly be distinguished from the cocoyam cluster. AFLPs produced 189 scorable bands for the cocoyam isolates, of which 77% are monomorphic. Phenetic analysis of AFLP data grouped all isolates originating from cocoyam together except for the isolates C103-04, CMR17, CMR22, and CMR25. These isolates regrouped with isolates of Pythium myriotylum from other host crops or the outgroup and were found not to be pathogenic for cocoyam. ITS sequences of isolates of P. myriotylum from cocoyam were 99.1-99.7% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. However, alignments of ITS sequences revealed a base transition at position 824 from adenine in typical isolates of P. myriotylum to guanine in isolates that could infect cocoyam plantlets. In a limited pathogenicity test, all isolates from cocoyam having guanine at position 824 were able to infect tissue culture derived cocoyam but not those exhibiting adenine. This study demonstrates for the first time, molecular evidence that isolates of P. myriotylum that infect cocoyam are distinct from P. myriotylum isolates from other crops and have developed a certain degree of host adaptation. PMID:16546366

Perneel, Maaike; Tambong, James T; Adiobo, Amayana; Floren, Caroline; Saborío, Francisco; Lévesque, André; Höfte, Monica

2006-05-01

75

Understanding interception losses under sugarcane plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being planted around 20 million hectares in over 70 countries. The Brazil is a leader in terms of area harvested and production with 9.5 million hectares and 715 million tons in 2011, respectively. Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop which is planted and after the first harvesting, the re-growth is harvested several times (five to eight times) until replanting is needed mainly due to yield decline. The rainfall interception loss is an important process in the hydrological cycle which has a key role on climate change. Details on sugarcane canopy interception are still not well understood in particular within the tropics. In this study, rainfall interception was measured during the complete ratoon crop cycle of the sixth re-growth, observing their growth stage. Five through (each with an area of 2000 cm2) were installed randomly on the plantation. The gross rainfall for the study period of one year was 1413 mm, while the throughfall was 972 mm (69%). Thus, annual rainfall interception loss was 441 mm (31%). The interception losses started to occur in the third stage of plant development (between 110 and 240 days after the onset of re-growth period). During the formation of the stems, the interception was 25.5%. Furthermore, at stage when the plant reached maturity (240 to 385 days), interception loss was increased to 57.5%. Our results indicate that interception losses are an important component of water use in sugarcane crops and the annual values of interception losses from sugarcane may be similar to some results found in tropical and temperate forests.

Costa Silva, R. W.; Salemi, L.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; de Moraes, J. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

2012-12-01

76

Pythium recalcitrans sp. nov. revealed by multigene phylogenetic analysis  

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A new species of Pythium collected from grapevine roots (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and roots of common beet (Beta vulgaris) in Majorca, Spain, is described. The phylogenetic position of the new species was investigated by multigene sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the rDNA region, as well as three other nuclear and three mitochondrial coding genes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA and concatenated ?-tubulin and cytrochro...

Moralejo, Eduardo; Clemente, Antonio; Descals, Enric; Belbahri, Lassaad; Calmin, Gautier; Lefort, Franc?ois; Spies, Chris F. J.; Mcleod, Adele

2008-01-01

77

Sugarcane Culture and Syrup Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The publication gives the basic information needed by growers of syrup sugarcane. It includes descriptions of the sugarcane plant characteristics needed in syrup varieties, the best varieties, cultural requirements and practices, and the diseases and inse...

D. M. Broadhead N. Zummo

1988-01-01

78

Pythium insidiosum: morphological and molecular identification of Brazilian isolates Pythium insidiosum: identificação morfológica e molecular de isolados brasileiros  

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Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete belonging to the kingdom Stramenipila and it is the etiologic agent of pythiosis. Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease characterized by the development of chronic lesions on cutaneous and subcutaneous, intestinal, and bone tissues in humans and many species of animals. The identification of P. insidiosum is important in order to implement a rapid and definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment. This study reports the identification of 54 iso...

Maria Isabel de Azevedo; Pereira, Daniela I. B.; Botton, So?nia A.; Da Costa, Mateus M.; Mahl, Camila D.; Alves, Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

2012-01-01

79

Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization Amido de cana-de-açúcar: determinação quantitativa e caracterização  

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Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and co...

Joelise de Alencar Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann Carvalho; Hélia Harumi Sato

2011-01-01

80

Biological Control of Pythium aphanidermatum, the Causal Agent of Damping off Disease of Greenhouse Cucurbits in Kerman Province of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Actinomycetes enhance soil fertility and have antagonistic activity against wide range of plant root-pathogens. These micro organisms were isolated from agricultural soils of Kerman and Fars Provinces as pure cultures. Pythium aphanidermatum, causes damping off and root and stem rots of cucurbits worldwide. From 178 Actinomycetes isolates, 43 inhibited growth of the pathogen in culture plates and two of the most active isolates exhibited biological control of the pathogen u...

Sharifi, F.; Rashid Farrokhi, P.; Shahidi Bonjar, G. H.; Aghighi, S.; Aram, F.; Khalesi, E.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Short-term cover crop decomposition inorganic and conventional soils : Soil microbial and nutrient cycling indicator variables associated with different levels of soil suppressiveness to Pythium aphanidermatum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stages of oat–vetch cover crop decomposition were characterized over time in terms of carbon and nitrogen cycling, microbial activity and community dynamics in organically and conventionally managed soils in a field experiment and a laboratory incubation experiment. We subsequently determined which variables describing soil microbial community dynamics, C and N cycling could be used as predictors of Pythium aphanidermatum damping-off incidence and relative growth. Disease incidence and rela...

Gru?nwald, N. J.; Hu, S.; Bruggen, A. H. C.

2000-01-01

82

Modelagem do crescimento de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar no período de formação da cultura / Modeling of growth of sugarcane cultivars during the crop formation period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo ajustar modelos de crescimento ao acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea da cana-de-açúcar durante o período de formação da cultura, para as cultivares RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 e RB855453. Dados de matéria seca foram obtidos durante a execução de experimento em cond [...] ições de campo entre 26/08/11 e 18/05/12. Os dados experimentais foram coletados a partir dos 45 dias após o plantio, em intervalos de uma ou duas semanas, totalizando 17 datas de amostragem. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear para determinação dos parâmetros dos modelos expolinear, logístico e Gompertz. Todos os modelos avaliados foram capazes de simular adequadamente o acúmulo de matéria seca pelas cultivares ao longo do período estudado, com valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados (R²aj) acima de 0,9245. Com base no modelo de crescimento expolinear, constatou-se que, ao final do período experimental, a massa seca foi ligeiramente maior para a cultivar RB855453 em comparação à RB867515, as quais se destacaram em relação às cultivares RB928064 e RB92579. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to adjust growth models to the above-ground accumulated sugarcane dry matter, during the crop formation period, for cultivars RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 and RB855453. Dry matter data were obtained during the execution of experiment under field conditions from [...] October 26, 2011 to May 18, 2012. Experimental data were collected from 45 days after planting, in one or two week time intervals, totalizing 17 sampling dates. The obtained values were subjected to nonlinear regression analysis in order to determine the parameters of the expolinear, logistic and Gompertz models. All evaluated models were capable of adequately simulating the dry matter accumulation by the cultivars during the studied period, with values of the adjusted determination coefficient above 0.9245. Based on the expolinear growth model, it was observed, at the end of the experimental period, that the accumulated dry mass was stightly superior for the cultivar RB855453 as compared to the RB867515, which outperformed the cultivars RB928064 and RB92579.

Evandro L. da S., Batista; Sérgio, Zolnier; Aristides, Ribeiro; Gustavo B., Lyra; Thieres G. F. da, Silva; Davi, Boehringer.

83

[Effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and economic benefit of sugarcane intercropped with soybean].  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-factor field experiment of randomized block design was conducted in Guangzhou to investigate the effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and total biomass dynamic of sugarcane as well as the economic benefit of the sugarcane population under different sugarcane/soybean intercropping patterns. Neither N application nor intercropping pattern had significant effects on the yield and quality of sugarcane, and no significant differences were observed in the yield and quality of sugarcane among all treatments. The land equivalent ratio (LER) of sugarcane/soybean intercropping at different N application levels was from 1.36 to 2.12, suggesting that sugarcane/soybean intercropping had higher LER than monoculture sugarcane. The total dry matter (except root) of sugarcane in all treatments increased with plant growth, and the growth pattern fitted sigmoid function. At lower nitrogen application level, the eigenvalues of the dynamic dry matter accumulation model were more coordinative, compared with those at higher nitrogen application level, which meant that in the later case, sugarcane had an advanced peak growth time and shortened fast-growth duration, and thereby, its yield decreased. Therefore, it was possible to reasonably adjust nitrogen application level to improve the eigenvalues of the sugarcane dynamic dry matter accumulation model, and accordingly, to achieve high yield. The population economic benefit under sugarcane/soybean intercropping was 3.2%-26.3% higher at lower than at higher nitrogen application level, suggesting the increase of the economic benefit of sugarcane population under reduced nitrogen application. Among the treatments, 1:2 sugarcane/soybean intercropping had the best economic benefit. PMID:21657029

Li, Zhi-xian; Wang, Jian-wu; Yang, Wen-ting; Shu, Ying-hua; Du, Qing; Liu, Li-ling; Shu, Lei

2011-03-01

84

Evaluation of Some Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Extracts for Immunostimulatory and Growth Promoting Effects in Industrial Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present paper describes the immunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of some sugar cane extracts (SCEs in broiler chickens. Aqueous extract (AE from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum juice and ethanolic extract (EE from bagasse were used to demonstrate their effects on lymphoproliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P and Concanavalin-A (Con-A; antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs; growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR in experimental chickens as compared to control. Results showed significantly higher (P<0.05 in vitro and in vivo lymphoproliferative responses to Con-A and PHA-P, respectively in chickens administered with SCEs as compared to those in control group. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05 lymphoproliferative responses were detected in chickens administered with EE as compared to chickens administered with AE. Anti-SRBC total Igs, IgG and IgM titers were significantly higher (P<0.05 in chickens of experimental groups administered with SCEs as compared to those of control group; whereas titers were comparable among the experimental groups. The organ-body weight ratios of lymphoid organs were statistically similar in experimental and control groups. Both the experimental groups administered with SCEs showed better FCR and significantly higher (P<0.05 weight gains as compared to control. In conclusion, oral administration of SCEs showed immunostimulatory effects in broiler chickens and resulted in improved feed utilization and decreased amount of food needed for unit gain in body weight.

Mian Muhammad Awais and Masood Akhtar*

2012-06-01

85

Metabolic profiling of Zingiber zerumbet following Pythium myriotylum infection: investigations on the defensive role of the principal secondary metabolite, zerumbone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Induced biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites constitutes one of the mechanisms of plant basal innate immunity to fungal infection. Metabolic changes were studied in rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet, a wild congener of ginger, after infection with soft rot-causative necrotrophic phytopathogen, Pythium myriotylum, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Infection triggered a considerable alteration in the relative content of zerumbone and ?-caryophyllene (humulene) with enhancement in zerumbone content (81.59%) and that of ?-caryophyllene (11.91%) compared to 9.97 and 1.11%, respectively, in uninfected rhizomes. While zerumbone is the principal secondary metabolite in Z. zerumbet, ?-caryophyllene is its immediate precursor. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the correlations between metabolite changes in Z. zerumbet rhizomes and P. myriotylum infection. Radial diffusion assay with zerumbone indicated a concentration-dependent P. myriotylum growth inhibition with 93.75% inhibition observed at 700 ?g and 50% maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 206 ?g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the mechanistic basis of zerumbone's antagonistic action on P. myriotylum growth involved the induction of aberrant morphology including severe hyphal deformities and membrane disruption. Results are discussed highlighting the critical role played by sesquiterpenoid zerumbone in affording resistance in Z. zerumbet and could expedite the development of appropriate strategies for biocontrol of Pythium spp., thus reducing the usage of broad-spectrum fungicides. PMID:24414941

Keerthi, D; Geethu, C; Nair, R Aswati; Pillai, Padmesh

2014-03-01

86

Determination of Optimum Level of Phosphorus and its Effect on Growth, Yield and Quality of Ratoon Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The various components of the sugarcane crop such as stripped cane yield, number of millable canes and unstripped cane yield were affected significantly by different levels of phosphorus. Phosphorus application in the range of 100-150 kg ha-1 along with 200-kg ha-1 and 150 kg K2O ha-1 was found to be an optimum dose. Phosphorus application beyond the range of 100 to 150 kg ha-1 will not be profitable. Phosphorus had non-significant effect...

Aman Ullah Chaudhry; Chattha, F. A.

2000-01-01

87

Two pathogenic species of Pythium: P. aphanidermatum and P. diclinum from a wheat field.  

Science.gov (United States)

During a survey of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Pythium spp. in different localities in Egypt, several isolates of Pythia were obtained and maintained on corn meal agar. Among these isolates, Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium diclinum were obtained from rhizosphere of wheat plants grown in Dear Attia village, Minia, Egypt. Identification was made using morphological and molecular analyses. P. aphanidermatum and P. diclinum were able to cause reductions in emergence and adulating in wheat in laboratory scale. P. aphanidermatum appeared to be the most aggressive parasite under agar and pot experimental conditions. PMID:23961096

Al-Sheikh, Hashem

2010-10-01

88

Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

2012-07-01

89

Pythium insidiosum: morphological and molecular identification of Brazilian isolates Pythium insidiosum: identificação morfológica e molecular de isolados brasileiros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete belonging to the kingdom Stramenipila and it is the etiologic agent of pythiosis. Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease characterized by the development of chronic lesions on cutaneous and subcutaneous, intestinal, and bone tissues in humans and many species of animals. The identification of P. insidiosum is important in order to implement a rapid and definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment. This study reports the identification of 54 isolates of P. insidiosum of horses, dogs and sheep that presented suspicious clinical lesions of pythiosis from different regions in Brazil, by using morphological and molecular assays. Throughout the PCR it was possible to confirm the identity of all Brazilian isolates as being P. insidiosum.Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto pertencente ao Reino Stramenopila e agente etiológico da pitiose, uma doença infecciosa com riscos de morte. A pitiose é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento de lesões crônicas sobre os tecidos cutâneos, subcutâneas, intestinal e ósseo em humanos e muitas espécies de animais. A identificação de P. insidiosum é importante, a fim de se obter um diagnóstico rápido e definitivo, bem como um tratamento eficaz. Este estudo relata a identificação de 54 isolados de P. insidiosum de cavalos, cães e ovelhas que apresentavam lesões compatíveis e suspeita clínicas de pitiose, provenientes de diferentes regiões do Brasil, através de métodos morfológicos e moleculares. Através da PCR foi possível confirmar a identidade de todos os isolados brasileiros como sendo P. insidiosum.

Maria Isabel de Azevedo

2012-07-01

90

Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications  

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Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 ...

Ayub, M.; Ahmad, R.; Tanveer, A.; Ahmad, Hafiz Z.; Sharar, M. S.

1999-01-01

91

Evidence for the occurrence of natural hybridization in reed-associated Pythium species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comparison of oomycete diversity in reed stands (Phragmites australis) of Lake Constance, Germany, and maize fields close by provided evidence for the occurrence of natural hybridization between Pythium phragmitis, a newly described reed pathogen, and an as-yet unknownPythiumspecies closely related to P. phragmitis and P. arrhenomanes. Internal transcribed spacer and ß-tubulin sequences of a large set of Pythium isolates from reeds showed dimorphic signals at several positions, indicative ...

Nechwatal, Jan; Mendgen, Kurt

2009-01-01

92

Mechanism for mercury tolerance in fungi. [Aspergillus niger; Rhizoctonia solani; Pythium ultimum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aspergillus niger was protected from mercury (Hg) poisoning by sulfhydryl (SH) compounds (glutathione and cysteine) in culture experiments, whereas Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum were not protected. Two- to 30-day-old mycelium of A. niger was found to be more tolerant to Hg than either younger or older mycelia. Mycelia of the other fungi were sensitive regardless of age. Mercury tolerance of A. niger mycelium was altered when sulfur nutrition was modified; it was greater after growth on a substrate containing reduced sulfur than after growth on one containing sulfate. The Hg tolerance of A. niger mycelium appears to be due to a pool of intracellular SH that is free of protein and that protects enzyme systems by forming complexes with Hg as it is taken up by the thallus. Potato-dextrose broth-grown mats of A. niger contained about 100 ..mu..g of SH/g of dry mycelia after 36 hr and after 5 days. R.. solani had about 9 ..mu..g of SH/g of mycelia after 5 days; a measurable amount was not recovered from P. ultimum. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Ashworth, L.J. Jr.; Amin, J.V.

1964-01-01

93

A method to obtain rapid zoosporogenesis of Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine strains of Pythium insidiosum the etiologic agent of pythiosis, were inoculated on 2% water agar plus grass blades and then incubated one day at 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Sporangium and secondary biflagellate-type zoosporas from the parasitized grass blades were noticed in induction medium after one hour of incubation at 35 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The number of sporangia and zoospores were lower at 25 degrees C, than 35 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Increasing the days of incubation of the parasitized grass blades resulted in the increase in the time of incubation in the induction medium. Corn meal agar, Schmitthenner medium and Sabouraud dextrose agar were also tested but the sporangium and zoosporas were always observed after five hours of incubation in induction medium. PMID:3216883

Mendoza, L; Prendas, J

1988-10-01

94

Crescimento e acúmulo de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em solo coberto com palhada Growth and accumulation of nitrogen by sugarcane cultivated in soil covered with cane trash  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do nitrogênio da uréia e a influência da palhada na produtividade de soqueira de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi instalado no campo, num solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo no Município de Piracicaba, SP, com dois tratamentos: mistura de vinhaça e uréia aplicada em toda a área sobre o solo coberto com palhada; uréia enterrada em sulcos nos dois lados das linhas da cana-de-açúcar, com prévia aplicação de vinhaça sobre o solo sem palhada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas comparações de produtividade da cultura, do acúmulo de N pela parte aérea, da utilização do N da uréia pela cultura ao final do ciclo. O desenvolvimento vegetal foi representado por curvas de acúmulo de massa de material seco e pelos índices fisiológicos de taxa de produção de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento relativo, que foram semelhantes nas condições, com ou sem a presença da palhada de cana-de-açúcar. Do N total acumulado na parte aérea da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar, 10 a 16% foram absorvidos do fertilizante. A eficiência de utilização do N da uréia pela soqueira de cana foi em média de 17%, e não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of nitrogen from urea and the influence of the cane trash in the productivity of sugarcane ratoon. It was a field experiment, in a ustalfs soil, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, in October 1997, with two treatments: application of a vinasse-urea mixture in the total area of a soil covered with cane trash; and urea buried in furrows in both sides of the cane rows, with previous application of vinasse in a soil without cane trash. A randomized block design with four replications was used. Parameters of crop productivity accumulation of N by the top and use of urea N by the crop were evaluated in each treatment. Plant development was represented by a dry matter mass accumulation and by physiological indexes of dry matter production rate and relative growth rate, which were similar in both conditions, with and without cane trash. From the total N accumulated in the top of the sugarcane ratoon, 10-16% was absorbed from the fertilizer. The mean efficiency of the use of urea N by the sugarcane ratoon was 17%.

Glauber José de Castro Gava

2001-11-01

95

Crescimento e acúmulo de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em solo coberto com palhada / Growth and accumulation of nitrogen by sugarcane cultivated in soil covered with cane trash  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do nitrogênio da uréia e a influência da palhada na produtividade de soqueira de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi instalado no campo, num solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo no Município de Piracicaba, SP, com dois tratamentos: mistura de vinhaça e [...] uréia aplicada em toda a área sobre o solo coberto com palhada; uréia enterrada em sulcos nos dois lados das linhas da cana-de-açúcar, com prévia aplicação de vinhaça sobre o solo sem palhada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas comparações de produtividade da cultura, do acúmulo de N pela parte aérea, da utilização do N da uréia pela cultura ao final do ciclo. O desenvolvimento vegetal foi representado por curvas de acúmulo de massa de material seco e pelos índices fisiológicos de taxa de produção de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento relativo, que foram semelhantes nas condições, com ou sem a presença da palhada de cana-de-açúcar. Do N total acumulado na parte aérea da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar, 10 a 16% foram absorvidos do fertilizante. A eficiência de utilização do N da uréia pela soqueira de cana foi em média de 17%, e não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of nitrogen from urea and the influence of the cane trash in the productivity of sugarcane ratoon. It was a field experiment, in a ustalfs soil, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, in October 1997, with two treatments: application of a vinasse-urea mixture i [...] n the total area of a soil covered with cane trash; and urea buried in furrows in both sides of the cane rows, with previous application of vinasse in a soil without cane trash. A randomized block design with four replications was used. Parameters of crop productivity accumulation of N by the top and use of urea N by the crop were evaluated in each treatment. Plant development was represented by a dry matter mass accumulation and by physiological indexes of dry matter production rate and relative growth rate, which were similar in both conditions, with and without cane trash. From the total N accumulated in the top of the sugarcane ratoon, 10-16% was absorbed from the fertilizer. The mean efficiency of the use of urea N by the sugarcane ratoon was 17%.

Glauber José de Castro, Gava; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin; Mauro Wagner de, Oliveira; Claudimir Pedro, Penatti.

96

Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1) e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium....

2010-01-01

97

Biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus citrinopileatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemically as well as hot water treated agrowaste sugarcane bagasse was subjected to degradation by Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The fungus degraded lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and carbon content of both chemically as well as hot water treated waste and produced in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body. Biodegradation of the waste in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During mycelial growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the sugarcane bagasse decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated substrate supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrates. Degradation of the hot water treated sugarcane bagasse was better and faster than chemically treated substrates. PMID:23273185

Pandey, V K; Singh, M P; Srivastava, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Takshak, S

2012-01-01

98

Effect of substrates and plant growth promoting bacteria in the germination of sugarcane seeds / Efeito de substratos e bactérias promotoras do crescimento vegetal na germinação de sementes de cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi testar diferentes substratos e a inoculação com bactérias promotoras do crescimento vegetal (BPCV) na germinação de sementes de cana-de-açúcar. Os susbtratos foram areia, vermiculita e Plantmax®. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 2x3, com 4 r [...] epetições. Foram estimados os parâmetros índice de velocidade de germinação, dias para emergência, e aos 30 dias após a semeadura os parâmetros: altura das plântulas (cm), volume das raízes (cm³), comprimento das raízes (cm) e o número de plântulas germinadas. A aplicação de BPCV promoveu o crescimento das plântulas, principalmente das raízes. O Plantmax® apresentou as melhores condições para o desenvolvimento das plântulas e para a germinação. Na vermiculita o desenvolvimento das plântulas foi limitado. Na areia não houve resposta à aplicação de BPCV. Recomenda-se a utilização do substrato Plantmax® e a aplicação de BPCV na germinação de sementes de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to test different substrates with Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) inoculation on sugarcane seed germination. The substrates were sand, vermiculite and Plantmax®. The completely randomized factorial design 2x3, with 4 repetitions was used. The parameters estimated were [...] speed of germination index, days for emergence, and 30 days after sowing the parameters: height of seedlings (cm), volume of roots (cm³), length of roots (cm), and the number of germinated plants. The application of PGPB promoted better development of seedlings, mainly roots. The Plantmax® presented the better conditions for germination and seedling development. Vermiculite had the worst results. No response to PGPB was observed in the sand. The use of Plantmax® and PGPB in germination of sugarcane seeds is recommended.

Guilherme Grodzki O., Figueiredo; Valéria Rosa, Lopes; João Carlos, B. Filho; Edelclaiton, Daros.

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Pythium insidiosum: morphological and molecular identification of Brazilian isolates / Pythium insidiosum: identificação morfológica e molecular de isolados brasileiros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto pertencente ao Reino Stramenopila e agente etiológico da pitiose, uma doença infecciosa com riscos de morte. A pitiose é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento de lesões crônicas sobre os tecidos cutâneos, subcutâneas, intestinal e ósseo em humanos e muitas espécies de a [...] nimais. A identificação de P. insidiosum é importante, a fim de se obter um diagnóstico rápido e definitivo, bem como um tratamento eficaz. Este estudo relata a identificação de 54 isolados de P. insidiosum de cavalos, cães e ovelhas que apresentavam lesões compatíveis e suspeita clínicas de pitiose, provenientes de diferentes regiões do Brasil, através de métodos morfológicos e moleculares. Através da PCR foi possível confirmar a identidade de todos os isolados brasileiros como sendo P. insidiosum. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete belonging to the kingdom Stramenipila and it is the etiologic agent of pythiosis. Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease characterized by the development of chronic lesions on cutaneous and subcutaneous, intestinal, and bone tissues in humans and many sp [...] ecies of animals. The identification of P. insidiosum is important in order to implement a rapid and definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment. This study reports the identification of 54 isolates of P. insidiosum of horses, dogs and sheep that presented suspicious clinical lesions of pythiosis from different regions in Brazil, by using morphological and molecular assays. Throughout the PCR it was possible to confirm the identity of all Brazilian isolates as being P. insidiosum.

Maria Isabel de, Azevedo; Daniela I.B., Pereira; Sônia A., Botton; Mateus M. da, Costa; Camila D., Mahl; Sydney H., Alves; Janio M., Santurio.

100

Biological control of plant pathogens: advantages and limitations seen through the case study of Pythium oligandrum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of certain plant beneficial microorganisms [biological control agents (BCAs)] seems to be a promising and environmental friendly method to control plant pathogens. However, applications are still limited because of the lack of consistency of BCAs when they are applied in the field. In the present paper, the advantages and limitations of BCAs are seen through the example of Pythium oligandrum, an oomycete that has received much attention in the last decade. The biological control exerted by P. oligandrum is the result of a complex process, which includes direct effects through the control of pathogens and/or indirect effects mediated by P. oligandrum, i.e. induction of resistance and growth promotion. P. oligandrum antagonism is a multifaceted and target fungus-dependent process. Interestingly, it does not seem to disrupt microflora biodiversity on the roots. P. oligandrum has an atypical relationship with the plant because it rapidly penetrates into the root tissues but it cannot stay alive in planta. After root colonisation, because of the elicitation by P. oligandrum of the plant-defence system, plants are protected from a range of pathogens. The management of BCAs, here P. oligandrum, is discussed with regard to its interactions with the incredibly complex agrosystems. PMID:23695856

Gerbore, J; Benhamou, N; Vallance, J; Le Floch, G; Grizard, D; Regnault-Roger, C; Rey, P

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Influence of temperature on Pythium splendens--induced root disease on carambola, Averrhoa carambola.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of glasshouse and incubator studies were conducted to investigate the role played by Pythium splendens in a decline disorder of carambola, Averrhoa carambola. Plants, 4-6 months old, were grown in native calcareous soil either infested or not infested with the pathogen. Isolates recovered from atemoya, carambola and passion fruit grew optimally at 30 degrees C, and significantly (P carambola. Temperature had a profound impact on the latter relationships. Two or more times more necrosis developed at 10 and 15 degrees C than at 25 and 30 degrees C. Total biomass accumulations were over four times greater at 30 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, and were always lower in soil infested with P. splendens. When biomass totals from infested and noninfested soil were compared, relative values were lowest at 15 and 20 degrees C and were almost two times greater at 30 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. Root infection by P. splendens was greatest at 15 and 20 degrees C, far below the species' optimum for growth, and at 30 degrees C was over nine times lower than at 15 and 20 degrees C. This is the first detailed report of P. splendens as a pathogen of carambola. PMID:15119860

Ploetz, Randy C

2004-02-01

102

IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO MEASURE SUGARCANE LEAF AREA  

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Full Text Available In order to increase the average sugarcane yield per acres with minimum cost farmers are adapting precision farming technique. This paper includes the area measurement of sugarcane leaf based on image processing method which is useful for plants growth monitoring, to analyze fertilizer deficiency and environmental stress,to measure diseases severity. In image processing method leaf area is calculated through pixel number statistic. Unit pixel in the same digital images represent the same size hence from known reference area and pixel count, unit pixel size can calculate, so that it is easy to calculate leaf area by counting total pixel in leaf area region. The results are compared with the results of graphical area measurement method. The experimentally it is proved that image processing method for measuring sugarcane leaf area is accurate and strong practicabilitywith small relative error.

Sanjay B. Patil

2011-08-01

103

Antagonism of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (a sugarcane endosymbiont) against Xanthomonas albilineans (pathogen) studied in alginate-immobilized sugarcane stalk tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xanthomonas albilineans, a pathogenic bacterium that produces leaf scald disease of sugarcane, secretes a xanthan-like gum that invades both xylem and phloem of the host. Xanthan production has been verified after experimental infection of stalk segments of healthy plants. Moreover, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of sugarcane plants that antagonizes with X. albilineans by impeding the production of the bacterial gum. The physiological basis of this antagonism has been studied using tissues of sugarcane stalks previously inoculated with the endosymbiont, then immobilized in calcium alginate and maintained in a culture medium for Gluconacetobacter. Under these conditions, bacteria infecting immobilized tissues are able to secrete to the medium a lysozyme-like bacteriocin that inhibits the growth of X. albilineans. PMID:16233803

Blanco, Yolanda; Blanch, María; Piñón, Dolores; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

2005-04-01

104

Sugarcane: A versatile energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass is shown to be viable given the same, economic environment as other energy sources. Sugarcane is shown to be the most economic and versatile biomass feedstock at present. The Brazilian national program has proved that gasoline may be substituted and biomass offers a viable alternative to fossil fuel if rationalization of production, distribution and pricing is implemented. A major step towards feasibility of the sugarcane alternative would be the commercialization of bagasse, preferably as a fuel for generating surplus chemical energy. The efficient use of sugarcane as an energy feedstock offers the possibility of very considerable reductions in (net) greenhouse gas emissions as compared to petroleum derivative fuels

1992-06-15

105

Towards the response of water balance to sugarcane expansion in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This study explores the short-, medium- and long-term impacts of expansion of the sugarcane plantation on the water balance of the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil, as estimated by changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture content and surface runoff calculated by a hydrological model. Twenty years of simulation are made using three different land use scenarios that include the basin area planted with sugarcane in 1993, 2000 and 2007 as estimated from satellite images. Complementary, it is used a scenario for sugarcane plantation defined by the Brazilian Institute for Agricultural Research (EMPRAPA as all areas suitable for sugarcane cultivation within the Rio Grande Basin. In addition, parameters for sugarcane fields were specifically defined via calibration and validation of the hydrological model for all growth phases based on the annual cycle of sugarcane phenology in the Rio Grande Basin. According to results from the land use classification of satellite images, the expansion of sugarcane fields mostly replaced pasture lands. Modelling results for short-, medium- and long-term clarify that impacts of this expansion depended not only on the amount of areas planted with sugarcane, but also the type of land use replaced, location of the expansion within the basin and regional soil properties. Largest impacts on the water balance are observed if areas located close to headwaters with low soil water capacity are planted with sugarcane. In case all areas suitable for sugarcane plantation, as defined by EMBRAPA will actually be planted, simulations showed that the annual accumulated values of evapotranspiration increase up to 180% while surface runoff is reduced to 20% of the values calculated using a land use scenario from 1993.

F. F. Pereira

2013-05-01

106

Produtividade e qualidade tecnológica da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar submetida à aplicação de biorregulador e fertilizantes líquidos Productivity and technological quality of sugarcane ratoon subject to the application of plant growth regulator and liquid fertilizers  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a aplicação de biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos, na rebrota e na produtividade da soqueira de cinco genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Município de Jaú, São Paulo (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x5, constituído por cinco genótipos (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 e IACSP93-6006 e cinco tratamentos com biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos (Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1 + Cellerate® a 0,5L ha-1; Etefon a 3,0L ha-1 e Testemunha, com quatro repetições. A aplicação dos produtos ocorreu 70 dias após a quarta colheita. Foram avaliados: perfilhamento, produtividade de colmos industrializáveis e de açúcar, fibra, pol % cana e açúcar total recuperável. O etefon proporcionou melhor perfilhamento, mas a resposta foi dependente do genótipo. O maior número de perfilhos promovido pelo etefon não refletiu em maior produtividade. A aplicação de Stimulate® e fertilizantes líquidos não proporcionou efeitos na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar. Houve aumento da produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, independente do genótipo, com o emprego do biorregulador Stimulate®, com ou sem complementação de fertilizante líquido, indicando a possibilidade do aumento da longevidade da cana-de-açúcar.The present work aimed to evaluate the application of plant growth regulators, associate or not to liquid fertilizers, on the ratoon sprouting and productivity of sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú city (SP, in a Eutroferric Red Latosol. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with factorial treatment structure 5x5, constituted by five genotypes (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 and IACSP93-6006 and five plant growth regulators treatments associated or not to liquid fertilizers (Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1, + Cellerate®, 0,5L ha-1; Ethephon, 3,0L ha-1, and control, with four replicates. The application of the products occurred at 70 days after the fourth crop harvest. The attributes tillering, stalk productivity, sugar productivity, fiber, pol % cane and total sugar recoverable were evaluated. Ethephon provided better tillering, but this response was dependent of the genotype. The highest tiller number caused by Ethephon did not mean the highest productivity. The application of Stimulate® and liquid fertilizers did not provide effects on the sugarcane technological quality. There was increase of cane productivity and sugar productivity with the use of plant growth regulator Stimulate® for all genotypes, with or without supplementation of liquid fertilizer, being an indicative for increasing the sugarcane longevity.

Marcelo de Almeida Silva

2010-04-01

107

Produtividade e qualidade tecnológica da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar submetida à aplicação de biorregulador e fertilizantes líquidos / Productivity and technological quality of sugarcane ratoon subject to the application of plant growth regulator and liquid fertilizers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a aplicação de biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos, na rebrota e na produtividade da soqueira de cinco genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Município de Jaú, São Paulo (SP), num Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico. U [...] tilizou-se o delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x5, constituído por cinco genótipos (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 e IACSP93-6006) e cinco tratamentos com biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos (Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1 + Cellerate® a 0,5L ha-1; Etefon a 3,0L ha-1 e Testemunha), com quatro repetições. A aplicação dos produtos ocorreu 70 dias após a quarta colheita. Foram avaliados: perfilhamento, produtividade de colmos industrializáveis e de açúcar, fibra, pol % cana e açúcar total recuperável. O etefon proporcionou melhor perfilhamento, mas a resposta foi dependente do genótipo. O maior número de perfilhos promovido pelo etefon não refletiu em maior produtividade. A aplicação de Stimulate® e fertilizantes líquidos não proporcionou efeitos na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar. Houve aumento da produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, independente do genótipo, com o emprego do biorregulador Stimulate®, com ou sem complementação de fertilizante líquido, indicando a possibilidade do aumento da longevidade da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The present work aimed to evaluate the application of plant growth regulators, associate or not to liquid fertilizers, on the ratoon sprouting and productivity of sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú city (SP), in a Eutroferric Red Latosol. The experimental design was in rand [...] omized complete blocks with factorial treatment structure 5x5, constituted by five genotypes (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 and IACSP93-6006) and five plant growth regulators treatments associated or not to liquid fertilizers (Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1, + Cellerate®, 0,5L ha-1; Ethephon, 3,0L ha-1, and control), with four replicates. The application of the products occurred at 70 days after the fourth crop harvest. The attributes tillering, stalk productivity, sugar productivity, fiber, pol % cane and total sugar recoverable were evaluated. Ethephon provided better tillering, but this response was dependent of the genotype. The highest tiller number caused by Ethephon did not mean the highest productivity. The application of Stimulate® and liquid fertilizers did not provide effects on the sugarcane technological quality. There was increase of cane productivity and sugar productivity with the use of plant growth regulator Stimulate® for all genotypes, with or without supplementation of liquid fertilizer, being an indicative for increasing the sugarcane longevity.

Silva, Marcelo de Almeida; Cato, Stella Consorte; Costa, Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura.

108

Efficacy of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia brown patch and Pythium blight on turfgrass in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brown patch, incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Pythium blight, caused by Pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. In such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in Italy. The results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and Pythium blight are reported. On mature turfgrass, maintained under fairway conditions, azoxystrobin, and trifoxystrobin, not yet registered on turf, were very effective against brown patch. Tebuconazole, applied in three different formulations, was very effective against R. solani, while Trichoderma spp. and azadiractine did not control the pathogen. In greenhouse conditions on Agrostis stolonifera, in the presence of severe disease incidence, due to artificial inoculation, benalaxyl-M satisfactorily controlled Pythium blight; Trichoderma spp. as well as a commercial formulation of T. harzianum, applied one week before the inoculation, were not effective. Among the fungicides not yet registered for use on turfgrass in Italy, metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was effective against Pythium blight. PMID:15151284

Mocioni, M; Titone, P; Garibaldi, A; Gullino, M L

2003-01-01

109

Transstadial transmission of Pythium in Bradysia impatiens and lack of adult vectoring capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus gnats have been shown to transmit a variety of plant-pathogenic fungi that produce aerial dispersal stages. However, few studies have examined potential interactions between fungus gnats and oomycetes, including Pythium spp. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether fungus gnat adults are vectors of several common greenhouse Pythium spp., including Pythium aphanidermatum, P. irregulare, and P. ultimum. An additional objective was to determine whether P. aphanidermatum can be maintained transstadially in the gut of a fungus gnat larva through the pupal stadium to be transmitted by the subsequent adult. Adult fungus gnats did not pick up infectious Pythium propagules from diseased plants and transmit them to healthy plants in any experiment. Species-specific primers and a probe for real-time polymerase chain reaction were developed to detect the presence of P. aphanidermatum DNA in fungus gnat tissue samples. P. aphanidermatum DNA was detectable in the larval and pupal stages; however, none was detected in adult fungus gnats. These results are in agreement with previous studies that have suggested that adult fungus gnats are unlikely vectors of Pythium spp. PMID:20718667

Braun, Sarah E; Castrillo, Louela A; Sanderson, John P; Daughtrey, Margery L; Wraight, Stephen P

2010-12-01

110

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

Goldman Gustavo H

2011-10-01

111

Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugar cane growth was about 257,000 ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 75% and 70% respectively were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugar cane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn2+, Cu2+) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

2005-10-01

112

Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

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Full Text Available Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT, yield (TSS, leaf area index (LAI, and number of plants per linear meter (NPM correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2 window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS. No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3 was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT, produtividade (TSS, índice de área foliar (LAI e número de plantas por metro (NPM por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma área comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronômicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados médios do talhão (DMt. Regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de índices de vegetação. As correlações e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variáveis agronômicas não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Os modelos quadráticos e cúbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variáveis espectrais, em função dos dias após o corte e apresentaram significância com os índices de vegetação da razão e por diferença normalizada (NDVI. As correlações entre os dados espectrais médios do talhão e as variáveis agronômicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados médios do talhão (DMt, para primeira safra (1ªS, para a segunda safra (2ªS e ambas juntas geraram regressões múltiplas, com coeficientes determinação (r² variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar.

Maurício dos Santos Simões

2009-08-01

113

Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield / Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT), produtividade (TSS), índice de área foliar (LAI) e número de plantas [...] por metro (NPM) por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma área comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronômicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados médios do talhão (DMt). Regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de índices de vegetação. As correlações e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variáveis agronômicas não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Os modelos quadráticos e cúbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variáveis espectrais, em função dos dias após o corte e apresentaram significância com os índices de vegetação da razão e por diferença normalizada (NDVI). As correlações entre os dados espectrais médios do talhão e as variáveis agronômicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados médios do talhão (DMt), para primeira safra (1ªS), para a segunda safra (2ªS) e ambas juntas geraram regressões múltiplas, com coeficientes determinação (r²) variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT), yield (TSS), leaf area index (LAI), and number of plants per line [...] ar meter (NPM) correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2) window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS). No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3) was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.

Simões, Maurício dos Santos; Rocha, Jansle Vieira; Lamparelli, Rubens Augusto Camargo.

114

Desenvolvimento da cana-de-açúcar cultivar na 56-79 proveniente da propagação de colmos tratados com ethephon / Growth of sugarcane cultivar na 56-79 originated from stalks treated with ethephon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Aplicou-se ethephon nas dosagens de 0,2 e 3 l/ha em cana-de-açúcar NA 56-79, 31 dias antes da colheita. Dos colmos colhidos foram efetuadas avaliações referentes a: infestação da broca da cana; gemas danificadas,entumescidas e brotadas; altura dos colmos; comprimento do ápice; número total de gemas [...] e por último, análises tecnológicas para Pol, Brix, pureza e teor de fibras. Os toletes obtidos desses colmos foram plantados combinando-se as três dosagens de ethephon com três densidades de plantio: colmos simples, cruzados e duplos. Foram coletados dados semanais e posteriormente mensais de brotação e dados mensais de altura dos colmos. Dados de produção e número de colmos produzidos foram tomados por ocasião do 1º, 2º e 3º cortes da cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados revelaram que a aplicação de ethephon 2 l/ha, no estágio que antecede a colheita, promoveu um aumento do número de gemas e na altura dos colmos, e a dosagem 3 l/ha reduziu o teor de fibras na região apical da cana-de-açúcar em relação ao controle. Observou-se um aumento na velocidade de emergência de gemas obtidas de colmos tratados com o produto na dosagem 2 l/ha, antes do início do perfilhamento. Quanto à densidade de plantio, colmos duplos possibilitaram maior velocidade de emergência, seguidos de colmos cruzados, com relação a colmos simples. O crescimento, perfilhamento e produção de três anos consecutivos da cana-de-açúcar proveniente de toletes obtidos de plantas tratadas com ethephon não diferiram do controle. Notou-se um maior número de colmos produzidos no 1º ano, na densidade de plantio colmos duplos, quando comparados a colmos simples, sem, contudo, haver um aumento correspondente na produção. Abstract in english Ethephon was applied on the dosages 0, 2 e 3 liters per hectare on sugarcane cultivar NA 56-79, 3l days before harvesting. At harvesting time, the following parameters were evaluated: infestation by the Diatraea saccharalis; damaged, swelled and emerged buds; stalks lenght, top lenght; number of bud [...] s per stalk and the cane quality. The setts obtained from the stalks were planted at three differents densities: normal, crossed and doubles setts. Initially, the number of sprouts was collected weekly and later monthly. The other parameter, stalk lenght, was obtained under monthly intervals. The stalks number and the production were taken at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year's growth. The results showed that the ethephon's application on 2 l/ha, before harvesting, increased the number of buds and the stalks lenght. The dosage 3 l/ha reduced the amount of fibers on the apical region of the sugarcane. Increasing of the bud emergency velocity was observed on the dosage 21/ha, before tillering. With reference to planting density, doubles setts showed emergency velocity greater than crossed setts. In turn, the crossed setts proved emergency velocidy greater than normal setts. The growth, tillering and the three years productions of the sugarcane coming from setts of the stalks treated or not with ethephon showed no significative differences.

Melotto, Eunice; Castro, Paulo R.C.; Godoy, Oswaldo P.; Câmara, Gil M.S.; Stupiello, José P.; Iemma, Antonio F..

115

Sites of infection by pythium species in rice seedlings and effects of plant age and water depth on disease development.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Seedling disease, caused primarily by several species of Pythium, is one of the major constraints to water-seeded rice production in Louisiana. The disease, also known as water-mold disease, seed rot, and seedling damping-off, causes stand reductions and growth abnormalities. In severe cases, fields must be replanted, which may result in delayed harvests and reduced yields. To develop more effective disease management tactics including biological control, this study was conducted primarily to determine sites of infection in seeds and seedlings; effect of plant age on susceptibility to P. arrhenomanes, P. myriotylum, and P. dissotocum; and minimum exposure times required for infection and seedling death. In addition, the effect of water depth on seedling disease was investigated. Infection rates of seed embryos were significantly higher than those of endosperms for all three Pythium spp. The development of roots from dry-seeded seedlings was significantly reduced by P. arrhenomanes and P. myriotylum at 5 days after planting compared with that of roots from noninoculated controls. Susceptibility of rice to all three species was sharply reduced within 2 to 6 days after planting, and seedlings were completely resistant at 8 days after planting. There was a steep reduction in emergence through the flood water, relative to the noninoculated control, following 2 to 3 days of exposure to inoculum of P. arrhenomanes and P. myriotylum. In contrast, P. dissotocum was much less virulent and required longer exposure times to cause irreversible seedling damage. Disease incidence was higher when seeds were planted into deeper water, implying that seedlings become resistant after they emerge through the flood water. These results suggest that disease control tactics including flood water management need to be employed for a very short period of time after planting. Also, given that the embryo is the primary site of infection and it is susceptible for only a few days, the disease should be amenable to biological control. PMID:18944826

Chun, S C; Schneider, R W

1998-12-01

116

Evaluation of lectin-expressing transgenic sugarcane against stalkborers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effects on life history parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) expressed in transgenic sugarcane on life history parameters of Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar)] and sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.)] (both Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was evaluated. In the laboratory, lyophilized sugarcane leaf sheath tissue was incorporated in a meridic diet resulting in a GNA concentration of 0.47% of total protein, and used for insect bioassays over two successive generations. Deleterious effects of GNA were not observed on survival, weight, and developmental periods of larvae and pupae, nor on adult fecundity and egg viability of D. saccharalis. Moreover, in the first generation, addition of transgenic sugarcane tissue to the diet enhanced larval growth in D. saccharalis resulting in higher larval and pupal weight compared with diet with nontransgenic sugarcane, but this effect was not observed in the second generation. In contrast, larval survival, percent adult emergence, and female fecundity of E. loftini were significantly reduced when fed transgenic sugarcane diet compared with nontransgenic sugarcane diet. In addition, a substantial reduction of female pupal weight of E. loftini was observed in the second generation. For both species, the only consistent effect of GNA in both generations was a reduction in adult female longevity. Life table parameters showed that GNA at the level found in the transgenic diet negatively affected development and reproduction of E. loftini, whereas it had a nil to positive effect on development and reproduction of D. saccharalis. PMID:12020029

Sétamou, M; Bernal, J S; Legaspi, J C; Mirkov, T E; Legaspi, B C

2002-04-01

117

Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane in Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugarcane growth was about 257,000ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 70% were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugarcane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one (100%). In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn++, Cu++) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be largely used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

2007-08-01

118

Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane / Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variá [...] veis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF), número de perfilhos por metro (NPM), produtividade (TCH) e biomassa total (BMT). Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talhão comercial, localizada no município de Araras/SP foi monitorado em nove campanhas de coleta de dados radiométricos e agronômicos. O comportamento temporal das variáveis espectrais acompanhou o comportamento das variáveis agronômicas. A banda 4 (B4), o índice de vegetação da razão simples (SR), o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI) e o índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo (SAVI) aumentaram seus valores até o fim da fase de crescimento vegetativo, aproximadamente até os 240 dias após o corte, a partir do qual os valores se estabilizaram e diminuíram em função da entrada da cultura na fase de maturação. A banda 3 (B3) e o índice de vegetação da razão (RVI) tiveram queda em seus valores desde o início do ciclo, com posterior estabilização e aumento em seus valores devido ao aumento da quantidade de palha e da queda da biomassa foliar. As variáveis espectrais B3, RVI, NDVI e SAVI tiveram correlações maiores que 0,79 com as variáveis IAF e BMT e de aproximadamente 0,50 com o NPM. Os melhores modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram os com RVI, IAF e NPM e explicaram 0,97 da variação da TCH e 0,99 da BMT. Abstract in english Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic para [...] meters such as leaf area index (LAI), number of stalks per meter (NPM), yield (TSS) and total biomass (BMT). A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4), Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC). After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3) and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79) with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.

Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

119

Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic parameters such as leaf area index (LAI, number of stalks per meter (NPM, yield (TSS and total biomass (BMT. A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4, Simple Ratio (SR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC. After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3 and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79 with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variáveis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF, número de perfilhos por metro (NPM, produtividade (TCH e biomassa total (BMT. Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talhão comercial, localizada no município de Araras/SP foi monitorado em nove campanhas de coleta de dados radiométricos e agronômicos. O comportamento temporal das variáveis espectrais acompanhou o comportamento das variáveis agronômicas. A banda 4 (B4, o índice de vegetação da razão simples (SR, o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI e o índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo (SAVI aumentaram seus valores até o fim da fase de crescimento vegetativo, aproximadamente até os 240 dias após o corte, a partir do qual os valores se estabilizaram e diminuíram em função da entrada da cultura na fase de maturação. A banda 3 (B3 e o índice de vegetação da razão (RVI tiveram queda em seus valores desde o início do ciclo, com posterior estabilização e aumento em seus valores devido ao aumento da quantidade de palha e da queda da biomassa foliar. As variáveis espectrais B3, RVI, NDVI e SAVI tiveram correlações maiores que 0,79 com as variáveis IAF e BMT e de aproximadamente 0,50 com o NPM. Os melhores modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram os com RVI, IAF e NPM e explicaram 0,97 da variação da TCH e 0,99 da BMT.

Maurício dos Santos Simões

2005-06-01

120

Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois reguladores vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte.The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulators, applied before the harvest, in the stool regrowth and productivity of three sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú (SP. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in split-plot, with four repetitions, constituted by the genotypes IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 and IAC91-5155, and by three crop management: 20 g ha-1 sulfomethuron-methyl; 480 g a.i. ha-1 ethephon and control. The growth regulators were applied 126 days before harvest. To quantify the action of growth regulators the following variables were evaluated: the number of tillers m-1 at 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 days after the harvest; the final percentage of stalk number by meter in relation to the initial percentage; the mass of 10 stalks, the length and the diameter of stalks; the pol and the fiber% cane, the reducing and total recoverable sugars, and the productivity of stalks and sugar. It was concluded that there was stimulating effect on the emergency of tillering up to six months after the harvest. The ethephon promoted larger productivities of stalks and sugar. There were differences among genotypes in relation to growth regulators for stalk length. There was no effect on the technological quality over the subsequent ratoon crop.

Marcelo de Almeida Silva

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca / Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois regulador [...] es vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte. Abstract in english The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulat [...] ors, applied before the harvest, in the stool regrowth and productivity of three sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú (SP). The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in split-plot, with four repetitions, constituted by the genotypes IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 and IAC91-5155, and by three crop management: 20 g ha-1 sulfomethuron-methyl; 480 g a.i. ha-1 ethephon and control. The growth regulators were applied 126 days before harvest. To quantify the action of growth regulators the following variables were evaluated: the number of tillers m-1 at 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 days after the harvest; the final percentage of stalk number by meter in relation to the initial percentage; the mass of 10 stalks, the length and the diameter of stalks; the pol and the fiber% cane, the reducing and total recoverable sugars, and the productivity of stalks and sugar. It was concluded that there was stimulating effect on the emergency of tillering up to six months after the harvest. The ethephon promoted larger productivities of stalks and sugar. There were differences among genotypes in relation to growth regulators for stalk length. There was no effect on the technological quality over the subsequent ratoon crop.

Silva, Marcelo de Almeida; Gava, Glauber José de Castro; Caputo, Marina Maitto; Pincelli, Renata Passos; Jerônimo, Elisangela Marques; Cruz, Juliana Cristina Sodário.

122

Identification and Quantification of Pathogenic Pythium spp. from Soils in Eastern Washington Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Traditional methods of quantifying Pythium spp. rely on the use of selective media and dilution plating. However, high variability is inherent in this type of enumeration and counts may not be representative of the pathogenic population of Pythium spp. Variable regions of the internal transcribed spacer of the rDNA were used to design species-specific primers for detection and quantification of nine Pythium spp. from soils in eastern Washington. Primer pairs were designed for Pythium abappressorium, P. attrantheridium, P. heterothallicum, P. irregulare group I, P. irregulare group IV, P. paroecandrum, P. rostratifingens, P. sylvaticum, and P. ultimum and used with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Standard curves were generated for each of the species using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye for detection of amplification. Seventy-seven isolates of Pythium were screened to confirm specificity of each primer set. DNA was extracted from soil and standard curves were generated for P. irregulare group I, P. irregulare group IV, and P. ultimum to correlate populations of each species in the soil with quantities of DNA amplified from the same soil. Examination of raw field soils revealed results similar to those observed in previous studies. This new technique for the quantification of Pythium spp. is rapid and accurate, and will be a useful tool in the future study of these pathogenic Pythium spp. PMID:18943182

Schroeder, K L; Okubara, P A; Tambong, J T; Lévesque, C A; Paulitz, T C

2006-06-01

123

Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos f...

2002-01-01

124

Efeitos do glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl no crescimento e na qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar Effect of glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl on the growth and technological quality of sugarcane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os herbicidas, mesmo quando usados em doses reduzidas ou utilizados como maturadores, podem alterar a morfofisiologia da planta, o que pode levar a modificações qualitativas e quantitativas na produção. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência agronômica e os efeitos, durante o crescimento da cana-soca, da aplicação de glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl em baixas doses. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos herbicidas sulfometuron-methyl e glyphosate em diferentes doses e misturas e por uma testemunha (sem aplicação dos produtos. Uma linha de plantas de cana-de-açúcar foi destinada à aferição da qualidade tecnológica, sendo estabelecido 1 m aleatório a cada época de amostragem. Os colmos coletados foram submetidos ao desponte na altura da gema apical e à desfolha; em seguida, foram encaminhados para processamento segundo a metodologia do Sistema de Pagamento de Cana pelo Teor de Sacarose (SPCTS, sendo considerados os parâmetros tecnológicos: pol cana (PCC, pureza do caldo (PUI, açúcar total recuperável (ATR e Brix. Nas soqueiras de cana-de-açúcar, realizaram-se análises de crescimento (altura e perfilhos. As avaliações foram realizadas na pré-colheita (30 dias após aplicação dos maturadores e 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias após a colheita. Os herbicidas glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl propiciaram melhoria da qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima,com incrementos significativos na pureza do caldo e no Brix. A aplicação dos produtos não interferiu na produtividade e no teor de açúcar. Houve efeito estimulante no perfilhamento quando se usou glyphosate na dose de 400 mL ha-1 e redução em crescimento (altura no início do desenvolvimento da cana, porém, com o tempo, o efeito não se manteve.Even when used at low doses, or used as growth regulators, herbicides can change the morphology and physiology of the plant, leading to qualitative and quantitative changes in production. This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic efficiency and the effects during sugarcane ratoon growth after applying low doses of glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of application of two herbicides (glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl at various doses and mixtures and a control (without herbicide application. One row of plants was used to measure technological quality, with a random 1 m being established for each sampling time. The stems collected were submitted to apical bud emergence and defoliation and were sent to be processed according to the methodology of the Cane Payment System based on Sucrose Content (CPSSC, considering the following technological parameters: pol cane (PCC, broth purity (BP, total recoverable sugar (TRS, and Brix. The stumps were analyzed for sugarcane growth (height and tillers. Evaluations were performed during pre-harvest (30 DAA, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after harvest. The treatments with glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl provided improved technological quality of the raw material, with significant increases in broth purity and Brix. Herbicide application did not affect productivity and sugar content. There was a stimulating effect on tillering with glyphosate at a dose of 400 mL, and growth reduction (height at the start of cane development, but such effect was not maintained along time.

D.K. Meschede

2010-01-01

125

Efeitos do glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl no crescimento e na qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar / Effect of glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl on the growth and technological quality of sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os herbicidas, mesmo quando usados em doses reduzidas ou utilizados como maturadores, podem alterar a morfofisiologia da planta, o que pode levar a modificações qualitativas e quantitativas na produção. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência agronômica e os efeitos, durante o crescimento d [...] a cana-soca, da aplicação de glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl em baixas doses. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos herbicidas sulfometuron-methyl e glyphosate em diferentes doses e misturas e por uma testemunha (sem aplicação dos produtos). Uma linha de plantas de cana-de-açúcar foi destinada à aferição da qualidade tecnológica, sendo estabelecido 1 m aleatório a cada época de amostragem. Os colmos coletados foram submetidos ao desponte na altura da gema apical e à desfolha; em seguida, foram encaminhados para processamento segundo a metodologia do Sistema de Pagamento de Cana pelo Teor de Sacarose (SPCTS), sendo considerados os parâmetros tecnológicos: pol cana (PCC), pureza do caldo (PUI), açúcar total recuperável (ATR) e Brix. Nas soqueiras de cana-de-açúcar, realizaram-se análises de crescimento (altura e perfilhos). As avaliações foram realizadas na pré-colheita (30 dias após aplicação dos maturadores) e 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias após a colheita. Os herbicidas glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl propiciaram melhoria da qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima,com incrementos significativos na pureza do caldo e no Brix. A aplicação dos produtos não interferiu na produtividade e no teor de açúcar. Houve efeito estimulante no perfilhamento quando se usou glyphosate na dose de 400 mL ha-1 e redução em crescimento (altura) no início do desenvolvimento da cana, porém, com o tempo, o efeito não se manteve. Abstract in english Even when used at low doses, or used as growth regulators, herbicides can change the morphology and physiology of the plant, leading to qualitative and quantitative changes in production. This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic efficiency and the effects during sugarcane ratoon growth after apply [...] ing low doses of glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of application of two herbicides (glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl at various doses and mixtures) and a control (without herbicide application). One row of plants was used to measure technological quality, with a random 1 m being established for each sampling time. The stems collected were submitted to apical bud emergence and defoliation and were sent to be processed according to the methodology of the Cane Payment System based on Sucrose Content (CPSSC), considering the following technological parameters: pol cane (PCC), broth purity (BP), total recoverable sugar (TRS), and Brix. The stumps were analyzed for sugarcane growth (height and tillers). Evaluations were performed during pre-harvest (30 DAA), 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after harvest. The treatments with glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl provided improved technological quality of the raw material, with significant increases in broth purity and Brix. Herbicide application did not affect productivity and sugar content. There was a stimulating effect on tillering with glyphosate at a dose of 400 mL, and growth reduction (height) at the start of cane development, but such effect was not maintained along time.

D.K., Meschede; E.D., Velini; C.A., Carbonari.

126

Aislamiento y patogenicidad de un posible Pythium aphanidermatum en Jatropha Curcas L. no tóxica / Isolation and pathogenicity of a possible Pythium aphanidermatum in Jatropha Curcas L. non toxic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un cromista, posible Pythium aphanidermatum, fue aislado de semillas y plántulas recién emergidas de semillas de Jatropha curcas L. no tóxica severamente dañadas sembradas en la región tropical de Veracruz, México. Para estudiar su efecto sobre las etapas de pre y post-emergencia, el patógeno aislad [...] o fue inoculado en semillas y plántulas de reciente emergencia. Se corroboró un cierto potencial patogénico en la etapa de pre-emergencia, que no fue estadísticamente significativo en la etapa post-emergente a mediano plazo. Abstract in english A chromista, possible Pythium aphanidermatum, was isolated from severely damage seeds and seedlings recently started from Jatropha curcas L. non toxic seeds sown in the tropical area of Veracruz, Mexico. In order to study pathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum effects over pre-emergent and post-emergent [...] stages, seeds and young seedlings were inoculated with the isolated pathogen, and the chromista showed possible pathogenic activity against pre-emergency and recently started post-emergency; however, statistically significant damaged was not found in older seedlings.

Valdés Rodríguez, Ofelia Andrea; García Espinoza, Roberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Odilón; Pérez Vazquez, Arturo.

127

A plant-defensin from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparing available Poaceae defensins with sugarcane ESTs, a putative defensin gene was identified in sugarcane and cloned from genomic sugarcane DNA. The deduced encoded peptide shows the structure and amino acid composition typical of other plant defensins. Using RT-PCR, defensin expression in sugarcane and differences between "normal" and infected sugarcane were evidenced. PMID:19356142

Padovan, Lara; Segat, Ludovica; Tossi, Alessandro; Antcheva, Nikolinka; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Ederson, Akio Kido; Brandao, Lucas; Calsa, Tercilio; Crovella, Sergio

2009-01-01

128

Relationships between methods of variety adaptability and stability in sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification and recommendation of superior genotypes is crucial for the growth of industrial crops, and sugarcane breeding performs a vital role by developing more productive cultivars. The study of genotype x environment interaction has been an essential tool in this process. Thereby, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between methods of adaptability and stability in sugarcane. Data were collected from trials using a randomized block design with three repetitions and 15 clones of sugarcane in nine environments in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methodologies based on analysis of variance, linear regression, multivariate analysis, nonparametric statistics, and mixed model were used. The methods of Lin and Binns, Annicchiarico, and harmonic mean of relative performance of genotypic values (MHPRVG) were similar in their classification of genotypes. The additive main effect and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) and Wricke methods tended to select the most stable genotypes; however, genotypes were less productive, coinciding with the stability parameter of Eberhart and Russell. The MHPRVG method is preferred over the methods of Lin and Binns and Annicchiarico because it includes the concepts of productivity, adaptability, and stability, and it provide direct genetic values of individuals. The use of the MHPRVG and Eberhart and Russell methods is recommended because the combination of these methods is complementary and leads to greater accuracy in the identification of genotypes of sugarcane for different environments. PMID:25036165

Mendes de Paula, T O; Marinho, C D; Souza, V; Barbosa, M H P; Peternelli, L A; Kimbeng, C A; Zhou, M M

2014-01-01

129

Biochemical and biophysical characterization of sugarcane proteins involved in thermal stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane has gained worldwide interest due to its potential to produce ethanol as an alternative energy source. 2 Therefore, it is of general interest to study the physiological and biochemical aspects of sugarcane, especially those involved in stress tolerance, which may be important to understand survival during exposure to high temperatures. In plants, sHsps rank among the most important heat shock proteins expressed during heat stress. They can accumulate up to 1% in leaves and are correlated with the acquisition of thermotolerance. In this context, the study of sHsps proteins may lead to strategies for increasing sugarcane survival and fitness, allowing for its growth in regions where sugarcane has not been produced before. (author)

2006-01-01

130

Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper substrate in petri dishes. The capacity of fungus gnat larvae to transmit P. aphanidermatum to seedlings rooted in a commercial peat-based potting mix and germination of Pythium oospores and hyphal swellings before and after passage through the guts of larval fungus gnats were also examined. Assays revealed that Pythium spp. transmission by larval fungus gnats varied greatly with the assay substrate and also with the number and nature of ingested propagules. Transmission was highest (65%) in the petri dish assays testing larvae fed P. aphanidermatum K-13, a strain that produced abundant oospores. Transmission of strain K-13 was much lower (potting mix. Larvae were less efficient at vectoring P. ultimum strain PSN-1, which produced few oospores, and no transmission was observed with two non-oospore-producing strains: P. aphanidermatum Pa58 and P. ultimum P4. Passage of P. aphanidermatum K-13 through larval guts significantly increased oospore germination. However, decreased germination of hyphal swellings was observed following larval gut passage for strains of P. ultimum. These results expand previous studies suggesting that larval fungus gnats may vector Pythium spp. PMID:22085299

Braun, S E; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P

2012-03-01

131

Pythium delawarii--a new species isolated from soybean in Ohio.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new species of Pythium isolated from soybean in Ohio is described. Pythium delawarii sp. nov. is characterized by globose internally proliferating sporangia, aplerotic oospores and diclinous antheridia that make broad lengthwise contact. Sporangia produce conspicuous papilla and germinate indirectly by producing zoospores via a vesicle and proliferate internally or the sporangia germinate directly with either one or more germ tubes. Pythium delawarii is pathogenic on soybean causing damping-off of seedlings. This oomycete can grow at 10-34 C with an optimum of 28 C. The sequence of the ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 region of the rDNA did not match the sequence of any known Pythium species but was similar to P. citrinum, P. litorale and P. sterilum. P. delawarii can be distinguished from these three species based on the presence of aplerotic oospores and diclinous antheridia and the absence of hypogynous antheridia. Therefore biological, morphological and molecular data support the recognition of a new species. PMID:19397196

Broders, Kirk D; Lipps, Patrick E; Ellis, Margaret L; Dorrance, Anne E

2009-01-01

132

Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar: II. micronutrientes Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane: I. Micronutrients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar la dinámica de acumulación y distribución de micronutrientes en el cultivo de caña de azúcar variedad RB 85-5035, se condujo un estudio en Fundacaña, ubicada en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Se realizaron 10 muestreos de la parte aérea de la planta a través del ciclo de crecimiento. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas, tomadas al azar con una frecuencia mensual, en una superficie de 0,6 m²/cepa, a las cuales se les determinó la concentración de Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B y Mo en tallos y hojas. Las muestras de tejido fueron analizadas por los laboratorios Land Crop en York, Inglaterra. Se determinó que los períodos críticos de absorción de micronutrientes se ubican en la fase vegetativa y en la etapa de maduración del cultivo. Los micronutrientes Fe, Mn, B y Mo se almacenaron en mayor cantidad en el tejido foliar de la planta, mientras que Cu y Zn se acumularon de forma más pronunciada en los tallos a lo largo del ciclo. Los patrones de acumulación mostraron que los requerimientos de micronutrientes fueron: Fe=5241,5 g·ha-1, Cu=121,1 g·ha-1, Zn=875,6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142,4 g·ha-1, B=116,4 g·ha-1 y Mo=33,4 g·ha-1.With the purpose of determining the dynamics of micronutrient accumulation and partitioning of sugarcane var. RB 85-5035, a trial was conducted in Fundacaña, located in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ten samples of the aerial part of the plant were taken through the growing season, and each sample consisted of three stumps, taken at random on a monthly basis in an area of 0.6 m²·cepa-1. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B and Mo on stems and leaves were analyzed by Land Crop Laboratories in York, England. It was determined that the critical periods for micronutrient absorption are found in the vegetative phase and crop ripening. The micronutrients Fe, Mn, B and Mo were stored in greater amounts in the leaf tissue of the plant, while Cu and Zn accumulated more pronounced in the stems during the cycle. The accumulation patterns showed that the crop micronutrient requirements were: Fe=5241.5 g·ha-1, Cu=121.1 g·ha-1, Zn=875.6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142.4 g·ha-1, B=116.4 g·ha-1 and Mo=33.4 g·ha-1.

Marcos Rengel

2011-08-01

133

Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and <2% ash content. The results show that it is possible to develop a nonfeed application for rendered animal protein by hydrolysis of the protein and feeding to industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds. PMID:22010831

Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

2011-11-23

134

7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004...

2009-01-01

135

7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435.311 Section 1435...1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a) Proportionate shares...through 1435.316 apply only to Louisiana sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will...

2010-01-01

136

Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar: II. micronutrientes / Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane: I. Micronutrients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de determinar la dinámica de acumulación y distribución de micronutrientes en el cultivo de caña de azúcar variedad RB 85-5035, se condujo un estudio en Fundacaña, ubicada en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Se realizaron 10 muestreos de la parte aérea de la plan [...] ta a través del ciclo de crecimiento. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas, tomadas al azar con una frecuencia mensual, en una superficie de 0,6 m²/cepa, a las cuales se les determinó la concentración de Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B y Mo en tallos y hojas. Las muestras de tejido fueron analizadas por los laboratorios Land Crop en York, Inglaterra. Se determinó que los períodos críticos de absorción de micronutrientes se ubican en la fase vegetativa y en la etapa de maduración del cultivo. Los micronutrientes Fe, Mn, B y Mo se almacenaron en mayor cantidad en el tejido foliar de la planta, mientras que Cu y Zn se acumularon de forma más pronunciada en los tallos a lo largo del ciclo. Los patrones de acumulación mostraron que los requerimientos de micronutrientes fueron: Fe=5241,5 g·ha-1, Cu=121,1 g·ha-1, Zn=875,6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142,4 g·ha-1, B=116,4 g·ha-1 y Mo=33,4 g·ha-1. Abstract in english With the purpose of determining the dynamics of micronutrient accumulation and partitioning of sugarcane var. RB 85-5035, a trial was conducted in Fundacaña, located in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ten samples of the aerial part of the plant were taken through the growing season, and each sam [...] ple consisted of three stumps, taken at random on a monthly basis in an area of 0.6 m²·cepa-1. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B and Mo on stems and leaves were analyzed by Land Crop Laboratories in York, England. It was determined that the critical periods for micronutrient absorption are found in the vegetative phase and crop ripening. The micronutrients Fe, Mn, B and Mo were stored in greater amounts in the leaf tissue of the plant, while Cu and Zn accumulated more pronounced in the stems during the cycle. The accumulation patterns showed that the crop micronutrient requirements were: Fe=5241.5 g·ha-1, Cu=121.1 g·ha-1, Zn=875.6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142.4 g·ha-1, B=116.4 g·ha-1 and Mo=33.4 g·ha-1.

Rengel, Marcos; Gil, Fernando; Montaño, José.

137

Biology of Azospirillum-Sugarcane Association: Enhancement of Nitrogenase Activity †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Azospirillum brasilense was reisolated from associations with callus tissue cultures of sugarcane and compared with stock cultures of the inoculated bacterium and related strains. Although the reisolate had a growth rate similar to stock cultures, it exhibited a severalfold increase in maximum specific activity of nitrogenase. The reisolate and the parent culture had similar ultrastructure. The general ultrastructure of Azospirillum is described. The bacterium was capsulated when grown on nit...

Berg, R. Howard; Tyler, Max E.; Novick, Norman J.; Vasil, Vimla; Vasil, Indra K.

1980-01-01

138

Mapping salinity stress in sugarcane fields with hyperspectral satellite imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. An area with more than 70,000 ha sugarcane farming and its by-products are the major agricultural activities in the Khuzestan province, in the southwest of Iran. Therefore, mapping and identification of soil salinity is the most important issue to improve management of large scale crop production in this area. Besides labour intensive fieldwork, re...

2012-01-01

139

Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia), capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens) e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.) influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool / Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia), brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as influenced by alcohol by-products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia), capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens) e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454), cultivadas simultan [...] eamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v) de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água) foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1) no solo dos vasos (22 L), contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura) e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações), e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia), brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), cultivated simultaneously under [...] greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v) of each by-product and the check treatment (water) were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1) to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height), and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations) and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and flegmass reduced B. decumbens emergence and growth and S. rhombifolia growth but did not affect sugarcane growth.

Azania, A.A.P.M.; Azania, C.A.M.; Marques, M.O.; Pavani, M.C.M.D..

140

Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the potential to detect the impact of climatic effects, such as frost, on crop growth, which is relevant information to evaluate the negative impact on sugarcane production. Thus, the objective of the present study is to detect the impact of the frost occurred on 28 June 2011 in the sugarcane production region of São Paulo state, using MODIS images acquired on board of Terra and Aqua satellites before and after the frost event. Also, Landsat type images were used to map the harvested sugarcane fields up to the frost event based on a sugarcane crop map for year 2011. The remaining sugarcane fields available for harvest in 2011 were monitored with the MODIS images acquired on 17, 19, 27, 28 June and 8 and 9 July, to detect frost damage. Field work was conducted shortly after frost occurrence to identify sugarcane fields with frost damage for training and validation purposes. MODIS images transformed to vegetation indices and morphometric variables extracted from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data are being analyzed to detect and quantify the damage of the frost from 28 July 2011 on sugarcane crop.

Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Microbial Properties of Composts That Suppress Damping-Off and Root Rot of Creeping Bentgrass Caused by Pythium graminicola  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Composts prepared from a variety of feedstocks were tested for their ability to suppress seedling and root diseases of creeping bentgrass caused by Pythium graminicola. Among the most suppressive materials in laboratory experiments were different batches of a brewery sludge compost and a biosolids compost from Endicott, N.Y. Batches of these composts that were initially not suppressive to Pythium damping-off became more suppressive with increasing compost age. Leaf, yard waste, food, and spen...

Craft, C. M.; Nelson, E. B.

1996-01-01

142

Surface motility in Pseudomonas sp DSS73 is required for efficient biological containment of the root-pathogenic microfungi Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pseudomonas sp. DSS73 was isolated from the rhizoplane of sugar beet seedlings. This strain exhibits antagonism towards the root-pathogenic microfungi Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of the cyclic lipopeptide amphisin in combination with expression of flagella enables the growing bacterial culture to move readily over the surface of laboratory media. Amphisin is a new member of a group of dual-functioning compounds such as tensin, viscosin and viscosinamid that display both biosurfactant and antifungal properties. The ability of DSS73 to efficiently contain root-pathogenic microfungi is shown to arise from amphisin-dependent surface translocation and growth by which the bacterium can lay siege to the fungi. The synergistic effects of surface motility and synthesis of a battery of antifungal compounds efficiently contain and terminate growth of the microfungi.

Andersen, Jens Bo; Koch, Birgit

2003-01-01

143

Sugarcane Pests and Their Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 100 species of insects, besides non-insect pests like mites, nematodes, jackals, rats, squirrels, and birds have been identified as damaging the sugarcane crop in India. Of these, about 25 species of insects are considered as major pests. These inclu...

A. N. Kalra

1982-01-01

144

A family of small tyrosine rich proteins is essential for oogonial and oospore cell wall development of the mycoparasitic oomycete Pythium oligandrum  

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The mycoparasitic oomycete Pythium oligandrum is homothallic, producing an abundance of thick-walled spiny oospores in culture. After mining a cDNA sequence dataset, we identified a family of genes that code for small tyrosine rich (Pythium oligandrum small tyrosine rich (PoStr)) proteins. Sequence analysis identified similarity between the PoStr proteins and putative glycine-rich cell wall proteins from the related plant pathogenic oomycete Pythium ultimum, and mating-induced genes from the ...

Grenville-briggs, Laura J.; Horner, Neil R.; Phillips, Andrew J.; Beakes, Gordon W.; West, Pieter

2013-01-01

145

Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed over the past 30 years, but attempts to further increase crop yield have been limited due to the complexity of the sugarcane genome. An alternative to boost the crop yield is the introduction of genes encoding desirable traits in the elite sugarcane cultivars. Genetically modified sugarcane with increased yield and pest and disease resistance has already proven its value not only by the increased sugar content but also for the improvement of the crop performance. However, transgene stability is still a challenge since transgene silencing seems to occur in a large proportion of genetically modified sugarcane plants. In addition, regulatory issues associated with the crop propagation model will also be a challenge to the commercial approval of genetically modified sugarcane. PMID:22093808

Arruda, Paulo

2012-06-01

146

Crescimento e produtividade agrícola de cana-de-açúcar em diferentes fontes de fósforo Growth and yield of sugarcane under different phosphorus sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a produtividade agrícola da cana-planta em diferentes fontes de fósforo, conduziu-se um experimento de campo em Coruripe, AL, com 10 tratamentos: 1. Testemunha; 2. NK + micro; 3. Superfosfato simples (SS; 4. Superfosfato triplo (ST; 5. Fosmag; 6. Gafsa; 7. MAP; 8. Fórmula 06-26-24 (460 kg ha-1; 9. Composto e 10. SSP - parcelado. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. Avaliaram-se: população de perfilhos, altura de plantas, Índice de Área Foliar (IAF, taxa de crescimento do colmo, taxa de produção de matéria fresca do colmo, taxa de crescimento relativo, rendimento agrícola e as concentrações foliares de P e os níveis disponíveis no solo. As fontes de fósforo não influenciaram o crescimento da cana-planta em função do efeito residual, proveniente de adubações anteriores, mas proporcionaram produtividades médias superiores a 80 t ha-1. O ST proporcionou o melhor rendimento agrícola na cana-planta a qual, por sua vez, apresentou três fases de crescimento: 1ª fase: intenso perfilhamento até 120 DAP; 2ª fase: grande crescimento de 120 a 240 DAP e 3ª fase: maturação dos 240 aos 360 DAP. As maiores taxas de crescimento e produção de matéria fresca do colmo ocorreram logo após a fase de intenso perfilhamento entre 120 e 240 DAP.This work had as its objective in the evaluation of the growth and production of the sugarcare plant under different phosphorus sources. The experiment was carried out in Coruripe, AL, Brazil with 10 fertilizer treatments: 1 Control; 2 NK + micronutrient; 3 Super Phosphate Simple; 4 Triple Super Phosphate; 5 Fosmag; 6 Gafsa; 7 MAP; 8 NPK 06-26-24 (460 kg ha-1; 9 Compost and 10 Simple Super Phosphate - splitdose. The experiment was in random blocks, with four replicates. Parameters evaluated were: number of tillers, height of plants, IAF, rate of stalk growth, rate of biomass production of the stalk, relative growth rate, production and P in leaf and available in soil. P sources did not show any significant influence upon the growth of cane-plant due to the residual effect of previous manuring, with average yield of 80 t ha-1. The triple super phosphate produced the best production in the cane-plant, which presented three growth phases: 1st phase: intense tillering until 120 days after planting (DAP; 2nd phase:intense growth between 120 and 240 DAP; and 3rd phase: maturation, between 240 and 360 DAP. The major growth rate and fresh matter stalk production occurred after intense tillering phase between 120 and 240 DAP.

Valdevan R. dos Santos

2009-08-01

147

A search for markers of sugarcane evolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA) region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarc...

Bacci Jr, M.; Miranda, V. F. O.; Martins, V. G.; Figueira, A. V. O.; Lemos, M. V.; Pereira, J. O.; Marino, C. L.

2001-01-01

148

Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest; biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduce risks of groundwater contamination, eutrophication of surface waters, soil pollution, and acidifi...

Hartemink, A. E.

2008-01-01

149

Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558–5565) in which experimental b...

2010-01-01

150

Crecimiento y acumulación de prolina en dos genotipos de caña de azúcar sometidos a salinización con cloruro de sodio Growth and proline accumulation in two sugarcane genotypes under sodium cloride salinization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluaron en condiciones de cobertizo, dos genotipos de caña de azúcar con respuesta diferencial ante las sales: PR692176 (tolerante y V78-1 (sensible, a fin de obtener información sobre las causas de ese comportamiento diferencial. Las plantas crecieron en un sustrato artificial (arena irrigado con solución nutritiva y cuando tuvieron dos meses de edad se iniciaron los riegos con solución nutritiva a la que se añadió cloruro de sodio (100 mM. Se determinaron algunos componentes del crecimiento y la acumulación de prolina en raíces y en hojas de diferentes edades. La salinización con NaCl tuvo efecto negativo sobre el crecimiento de ambos genotipos, pero en el genotipo resistente el área foliar, peso seco de raíces y la relación peso seco del sistema radical/peso seco del sistema aéreo, se redujeron menos. La acumulación de prolina aumentó en las plantas salinizadas, especialmente en raíces y en las vainas foliares, siendo ese incremento mayor para el genotipo sensible, excepto en la lámina foliar de la hoja más recientemente expandida (hoja TVD.Two sugarcane genotypes differing in salinity response were evaluated: PR692176 (salt tolerant and V78-1 (salt sensitive, in order to get information about the causes of that differential behavior. The plants grew in an artificial substrate (sand irrigated with nutrient solution and after two months they were subjected to salinization with sodium chloride (100 mM. Some growth parameters and proline accumulation in roots and leaves of different ages were studied. Sodium chloride salinization affected the growth in both genotypes, however, the leaf area, root dry weight and root dry weight/shoot dry weigh ratio were less reducted in the resistant genotype. Proline accumulation was increased in response to salinization, mainly in roots and sheaths. Proline accumulation in the plants under salinization was greater in the sensitive genotype than in the resistant genotype, except in the blade of the leaf forming the top visible dew lap (TVD leaf.

M García

2003-04-01

151

Popularizing of Sugarcane Based Intercropping Systems in Non Millzone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the popularity of different intercrops with sugarcane at Nakla thana under Sherpur district of Bangladesh during cropping year 2000-2001. Five intercrops with sugarcane combination such as potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa, coriander (Coriandrum sativum, mustard (Brassica campestris and garlic(Allium sativum were studied against sole sugarcane crop. In respect of agronomic performances, sugarcane with potato, sugarcane with onion and sugarcane with coriander were suitable though they produce lower cane yield than sole cane. In respect of economic profitability sugarcane with potato combination was the most profitable and sugarcane with onion and sugarcane with coriander combination were 2nd and 3rd profitable combinations, respectively. In respect of adjusted yield sugarcane with potato was the best combination and sugarcane with onion was the 2nd combination than the sole cane yield. Sugarcane with mustard and sugarcane with garlic combination was found to be inferior in respect of agronomic yield, economic profitability and adjusted cane yield. Hence, The study reveals that sugarcane with potato, sugarcane with onion and sugarcane with coriander combination may be suggested as intercropping with sugarcane for non mill zone area of Sherpur district (AEZ 8 to get interim benefit from the same piece of land.

M.A.K. Al Azad

2004-01-01

152

Utilisation of Carbon Sources by Pythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium Species as Determined by Biolog® Microplate Assay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the metabolic activity of pure cultures of five root pathogens commonly found in closed hydroponic cultivation systems (Phytophthora cryptogea (PC), Phytophthora capsici (PCP), Pythium aphanidermatum (PA), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) and Fusarium solani (FS)) using sole carbon source utilisation in order to develop effective biocontrol strategies against these pathogens. Aliquots of 150 µL of the mycelial suspension were inoculated in each well of ...

2009-01-01

153

Influence of Pythium oligandrum Biocontrol on Fungal and Oomycete Population Dynamics in the Rhizosphere?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fungal and oomycete populations and their dynamics were investigated following the introduction of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum into the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in soilless culture. Three strains of P. oligandrum were selected on the basis of their ability to form oospores (resting structures) and to produce tryptamine (an auxin-like compound) and oligandrin (a glycoprotein elicitor). Real-time PCR and plate counting demonstrated the persistence of large amounts of the a...

Vallance, Jessica; Le Floch, Gae?tan; De?niel, Franck; Barbier, Georges; Le?vesque, C. Andre?; Rey, Patrice

2009-01-01

154

Life cycle of the human and animal oomycete pathogen Pythium insidiosum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pythium insidiosum, the etiologic agent of pythiosis insidiosii, causes life-threatening infections in humans and animals. Previous studies of the epidemiology of this disease hypothesized about the possible life cycle of this oomycete. Details, however, were not provided on the steps required to cause infection. We investigated the life cycle of P. insidiosum by inoculating pieces of equine skin and plant leaves and then studying the ensuing events with a scanning electron microscope. Our ob...

Mendoza, L.; Hernandez, F.; Ajello, L.

1993-01-01

155

Cytological Effects of Cellulases in the Parasitism of Phytophthora parasitica by Pythium oligandrum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ubiquitous oomycete Pythium oligandrum is a potential biocontrol agent for use against a wide range of pathogenic fungi and an inducer of plant disease resistance. The ability of P. oligandrum to compete with root pathogens for saprophytic colonization of substrates may be critical for pathogen increase in soil, but other mechanisms, including antibiosis and enzyme production, also may play a role in the antagonistic process. We used transmission electron microscopy and gold cytochemistry...

Picard, Karine; Tirilly, Yves; Benhamou, Nicole

2000-01-01

156

In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum Isolates to Aminoglycoside Antibiotics and Tigecycline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the in vitro activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics and tigecycline against Pythium insidiosum. The susceptibility tests were carried out using the broth microdilution method in accordance with the CLSI document M38-A2. MIC values for gentamicin, neomycin, paromomycin, and streptomycin ranged from 32 to 64 mg/liter, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranged from 32 to 128 mg/liter, which are incompatible with safe concentrations of these drugs in plasma in viv...

Mahl, Deise Luiza; Jesus, Francielli Pantella Kunz; Loreto, E?rico Silva; Zanette, Re?gis Adriel; Ferreiro, Laerte; Pilotto, Maiara Ben; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2012-01-01

157

Identification of Emerging Human-Pathogenic Pythium insidiosum by Serological and Molecular Assay-Based Methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pythium insidiosum is a pathogen that causes disease in both animals and humans. Human infection is rare; however, when it does occur, most patients, especially those having underlying hemoglobinopathy syndromes, such as thalassemia, exhibit a severe form. We identified four isolates of P. insidiosum. Two were recovered from tissue biopsy specimens from thalassemic and leukemic patients, one was derived from brain tissue from a thalassemic patient, and another was isolated from a corneal ulce...

Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Supabandhu, Jitwadee; Khamwan, Chantana; Praparattanapan, Jutarut; Thirach, Sophit; Prasertwitayakij, Narawudt; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Chiewchanvit, Siri; Tananuvat, Napaporn

2004-01-01

158

Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos f...

2002-01-01

159

In Vitro Activity of Terbinafine Combined with Caspofungin and Azoles against Pythium insidiosum?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this text we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of terbinafine combined with caspofungin, miconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole against 17 Pythium insidiosum strains by using the microdilution checkerboard method. Synergistic interactions were observed with terbinafine combined with caspofungin (41.2% of the strains), fluconazole (41.2%), ketoconazole (29.4%), and miconazole (11.8%). No antagonistic effects were observed. The combination of terbinafine plus caspofungin or ter...

Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Maboni, Grazieli; Azevedo, Maria I.; Argenta, Juliana S.; Pereira, Daniela I. B.; Spader, Tatiana B.; Alves, Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

2009-01-01

160

Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Pythium ultimum (P. ultimum) is a ubiquitous oomycete plant pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases on a broad range of crop and ornamental species. Results: The P. ultimum genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora species, including the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86% of genes, with detectable differential expression of suites of ...

Le?vesque, C. Andre?; Brouwer, Henk; Cano, Liliana; Hamilton, John P.; Holt, Carson; Huitema, Edgar; Raffaele, Sylvain; Robideau, Gregg P.; Thines, Marco; Win, Joe; Zerillo, Marcelo M.; Beakes, Gordon W.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Busam, Dana; Dumas, Bernard

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background - Pythium ultimum is a ubiquitous oomycete plant pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases on a broad range of crop and ornamental species. Results -The P. ultimum genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora species, including the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86% of genes, with detectable differential expression of suites of genes under...

Le?vesque, C. A.; Brouwer, H.; Cano, L.; Hamilton, J. P.; Holt, C.; Huitema, E.; Raffaele, S.; Robideau, G. P.; Thines, M.; Win, J.; Zerillo, M. M.; Beakes, G. W.; Boore, J. L.; Busam, D.; Dumas, B.

2010-01-01

162

Development of a Species-Specific Probe for Pythium insidiosum and the Diagnosis of Pythiosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pythium insidiosum, the only species in the genus that infects mammals, is the etiological agent of pythiosis, a granulomatous disease characterized by cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and vascular diseases. Accurate diagnosis of pythiosis and identification of its causal agent are often inconsistent with current immunological diagnostic methods. A species-specific DNA probe was constructed by using a 530-bp HinfI fragment from the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer of P. insidiosum. When the ...

Schurko, Andrew M.; Mendoza, Leonel; Cock, Arthur W. A. M.; Bedard, James E. J.; Klassen, Glen R.

2004-01-01

163

Parasitic relationships between Pythium oligandrum Drechsler and some other species of the Oomycetes class.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic relationships between Pythium oligandrum Drechsler and some phytopathogenic species of the Oomycetes class were investigated on agar plates. A high parasitic ability of Pythium oligandrum on Pythium ultimum Trow, P. debaryanum Hesse, and Aphanomyces laevis De By species was proved in this study of relationships among these fungi, commonly populating the rhizosphere of emerging sugar beet. P. oligandrum produces numerous thin haustorial threads, searching the hyphae of host species and enwrapping them during the parasitation. In a later parasitation stage the host organs were enwrapped by thicker hyphae of P. oligandrum as well. P. oligandrum grew through the colony of parasitized species mostly within 24 hours after inoculation and was able to destroy it entirely within 5--6 days. P. oligandrum produced numerous fructification organs in contradistinction to parasitized species. P. oligandrum oospores germinated abundantly when host species were present. Hyperparasitism of P. oligandrum was found both in cultivation with a single host and in common cultivation with all three host species simultaneously. PMID:726706

Veselý, D

1978-01-01

164

Development of a species-specific probe for Pythium insidiosum and the diagnosis of pythiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum, the only species in the genus that infects mammals, is the etiological agent of pythiosis, a granulomatous disease characterized by cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and vascular diseases. Accurate diagnosis of pythiosis and identification of its causal agent are often inconsistent with current immunological diagnostic methods. A species-specific DNA probe was constructed by using a 530-bp HinfI fragment from the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer of P. insidiosum. When the probe was incubated with dot blots of genomic DNA from 104 Pythium species, it hybridized only to the DNA of P. insidiosum and P. destruens-two species that have been considered conspecific. The probe also hybridized to DNA from 22 P. insidiosum isolates in this study, regardless of their geographic origin or animal host. When tested against genomic DNA from other pathogenic organisms (Aspergillus fumigatus, Basidiobolus ranarum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Lagenidium giganteum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Prototheca wickerhamii), no cross-hybridization of the probe was detected. The specificity of the probe to hybridize to genomic DNA from all isolates of P. insidiosum and not cross-react with DNA from other Pythium species or pathogens that cause symptoms similar to pythiosis in their hosts makes it a powerful tool for the accurate diagnosis of pythiosis. In addition, the probe has the potential for pathological and environmental diagnostic applications. PMID:15184412

Schurko, Andrew M; Mendoza, Leonel; de Cock, Arthur W A M; Bedard, James E J; Klassen, Glen R

2004-06-01

165

Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased leaves, percentage severity were measured. Growth and yield parameters such as stalk length, number of leaves, number of tillers and yield parameters such as fresh and dry shoot weights, percentage dry matter at harvest were also measured. Analysis of variance showed that percentage severity of sugarcane mosaic disease, increased in non-weeded plots compared with weeded plots. Twice weeding (52.1% and the weed free plots (53.7% had the significantly lowest severities. Varietal influence significantly influenced severity and variety NCO-270 produced the significantly lowest severity (45.8%.The interaction of weeding regime and variety indicated that variety CB36411 in the weed free plots, produced the lowest severity (33.5%.Yield parameters showed that significantly highest shoot weight was recorded in the weed free plot, while variety NCO-270 gave the highest fresh and dry shoot weights (254.8g and 50.2g respectively. The results indicate that variety NCO-270 was the most tolerant and that weeding at least once in six months is required to mitigate the effect of sugarcane mosaic disease, as witnessed in significantly increased growth and yield attributes of plants in the weeded plots.

Taiye Hussein Aliyu

2013-09-01

166

Oxidative stress response in sugarcane  

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Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide ...

Luis Eduardo Soares Netto

2001-01-01

167

Trimming and clustering sugarcane ESTs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The original clustering procedure adopted in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag project (SUCEST) had many problems, for instance too many clusters, the presence of ribosomal sequences, etc. We therefore redesigned the clustering procedure entirely, including a much more careful initial trimming of the reads. In this paper the new trimming and clustering strategies are described in detail and we give the new official figures for the project, 237,954 expressed sequence tags and 43,141 cluster...

Telles, Guilherme P.; Da Silva, Felipe R.

2001-01-01

168

Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

2003-01-01

169

Reguladores vegetais no enraizamento e desenvolvimento de gemas de cana-de-açúcar tratadas termicamente / Plant regulators on rooting and growth of sugarcane shoots treated with high temperature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve por finalidade estudar o efeito de reguladores vegetais sobre a emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de gemas de cana-de-açúcar 'IAC 52-150', submetidas ao tratamento térmico por via úmida. Para tanto, as gemas foram tratadas durante uma hora em soluções de ácido indolilacético (I [...] AA) e ácido naftalenacêtico (NAA), nas concentrações de 10, 25, 50 e 100 ppm, em ácido indolbutírico (IBA) nas concentrações de 10 e 25 ppm e em água pura (testemunha). Imediatamente após o tratamento, as gemas foram plantadas em germinadores de areia. IBA 10 ppm tendeu a favorecer a emergência e o enraizamento das gemas. IAA não afetou a emergência, enraizamento e peso da parte aérea da cana-de-açúcar. Aplicação de NAA 100 ppm reduziu a porcentagem de emergência e o peso da parte aérea do cultivar IAC 52-150. Abstract in english The effect of growth regulators on the germination and initial development of sugar cane shoots submitted to high temperature treatment by the moist method was studied. The shoots were treated during 1 hour with indoleacetic´acid (IAA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at the concentrations of 10, 25 [...] , 50 and 100 ppm, with indolebutyric acid (IBA) at the concentrations of 10 and 25 ppm and with pure water (control). Immediately after the treatment, the shoots were planted in sand germinators. The results showed that treatment with IBA 10 ppm promote a tendency to induce germination and roots development. The root system development was not affected by other treatments, but the development of the aerial portion was adversely affected by NAA 100 ppm. The results showed that, after 60 days, the number of emerged shoots was significantly lower than that of the control in the plots treated with 100 ppm of NAA.

Verri, A.R.; Pitelli, R.A.; Casagrande, A.A.; Castro, P.R.C..

170

Diversity of Cultivated Endophytic Bacteria from Sugarcane: Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and from inside the roots and stems of sugarcane plants grown in the field in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria were found in both the roots and the stems of sugarcane plants, with a significantly higher density in the roots. Many of the cultivated endophytic bacteria were shown to produce the plant growth hormone indoleacetic acid, and this trait was more frequently found among bacteria from the stem. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the sel...

Mendes, Rodrigo; Pizzirani-kleiner, Aline A.; Araujo, Welington L.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

2007-01-01

171

Biochemical and molecular characterisation of the bacterial endophytes from native sugarcane varieties of Himalayan region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven endophytic bacterial isolates were finally recovered from native sugarcane varieties at hilly areas namely Berinag, Champawat and Didihat of Uttarakhand state in northern Himalayan region. New isolates and two standard cultures—Azospirillum brasilense and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, were evaluated for their morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Morphologically all were rod shaped, Gram-negative bacteria. Their plant growth promotory properties were also asses...

2012-01-01

172

Biofiltration kinetics of ethylacetate and xylene using sugarcane bagasse based biofilter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and xylene in a sugarcane bagasse biofilter were investigated. Microbial growth rate, biochemical reaction rate and kinetic analysis were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of xylene in the inlet concentration range of 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and ...

saravanan Viswanathan; Rajasimman Manivasagam; Rajamohan Natarajan

2010-01-01

173

Nematode Interactions with Weeds and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus in Louisiana Sugarcane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Weeds did not appear to serve as reservoirs for phytophagous Louisiana sugarcane nematode populations except for Criconemella spp., Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchorhynchus annulatus, and total phytophagous nematode densities were lower on weed-stressed cane and were accompanied by reduced accumulations of free cysteine, proline, and 13 other free amino acids in sugarcane. A significant weed-virus interaction for sugarcane free cysteine accumulation was detected; T. annulatus populations were highl...

Showler, A. T.; Reagan, T. E.; Shao, K. P.

1990-01-01

174

Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500°C, in presence of air. Sugarcane

Durange, Josilaine A. C.; Santos, Margareth R. L.; Pereira, Marcelo M.; Fernandes Jr, Luiz A. P.; Souza, Marcio N.; Mendes, Anderson N.; Mesa, Liena M.; Sa?nchez, Caio G.; Sanchez, Elisabete M. S.; Pe?rez, Juan M. M.; Carvalho, Nake?dia M. F.

2013-01-01

175

Determination of Site Specific Fertilizer Requirement of Sugarcane and Intercrops in Sugarcane-based Cropping Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The site-specific nutrient requirement of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and companion crops, viz. onion (Allium cipa) and lentil (Lens culinaris) in sugarcane based cropping systems field experiments was determined under two Agro-ecological zones (AEZ), namely High Barind Tract (AEZ 26) and Tista Meander Floodplain soils (AEZ 3). The application of fertilizers for sugarcane and intercrops, onion and lentil as per soil test basis followed by dhaincha (Sesbania...

Bokhtiar, S. M.; Kabir, M. L.; Alam, M. J.; Alam, M. M.; Rahman, M. H.

2002-01-01

176

Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

Adnan Nazir

2013-05-01

177

Obstrução intestinal por Pythium insidiosum em um cão: relato de caso Intestinal obstruction by Pythium insidiosum in a dog: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de pitiose intestinal em um Husky Siberiano, de um ano de idade, macho atendido em um Hospital Veterinário Escola com sinais de obstrução intestinal. Ao exame físico, notou-se massa cilíndrica na região abdominal cranial, posteriormente confirmada por meio de radiografia e ultrassonografia. Durante a laparotomia exploratória, constatou-se massa extraluminal envolvendo o jejuno e alterações na parede do órgão. Realizou-se a ressecção da porção afetada do intestino e, posteriormente, anastomose. O exame histológico do tecido evidenciou inflamação piogranulomatosa acentuada. Na coloração de prata metenamina de Grocott, hifas septadas foram observadas. O diagnóstico de infecção por Pythium insidiosum foi confirmado por meio da imunoistoquímica. Após a cirurgia, o animal restabeleceu a defecação; no 30° dia pós-cirúrgico, foi relatada ainda presença de diarreia. O tratamento com itraconazol e terbinafina foi instituído durante 60 dias. Após dois anos do procedimento cirúrgico e do tratamento com antifúngicos orais, o cão não apresentou recidiva.A case of intestinal pythiosis in a one-year-old male Siberian Husky treated at a Veterinary School Hospital with signs of intestinal obstruction is reported. At physical examination, a cylindrical mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen, later confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography. During the exploratory laparotomy, it was evidenced an extraluminal mass involving the jejunum and alterations of the wall in the organ. After that, a resection of the affected portion of the intestine was made followed by anastomosis. The histologic examination evidenced accented pyogranulomatous inflammation. By the Grocott methenamine silver stain, branching hyphae were observed. The diagnosis of infection by Pythium insidiosum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The animal reestablished the defecation after the surgery; on the 30th postoperative day, it was also reported the presence of diarrhea. The treatment with itraconazol and terbinafina was instituted for 60 days. Two years after the surgical procedure and treatment with oral antifungals, the dog did not show recurrence.

P.S. Hunning

2010-08-01

178

Cultivation of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: The yeast strain IB09 was isolated from the gut of Calosoma sp. (Carabidae, Coleoptera, Insecta) that were collected in the central Amazon rainforest. First, tolerance of the strain to ethanol and heat was tested. Then, IB09 was cultivated in a medium using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulos [...] ic hydrolyzate as a carbon source, and cell growth (OD600), specific growth rate (µMAX, h-1), biomass yield (Y B, g.g-1) and relative sugar consumption (RSC, %) were evaluated. Taxonomic identification was determined by sequencing the ITS1 region of IB09 and comparing it to sequences obtained from the GenBank database (NCBI). Results: IB09 showed both ethanol tolerance and thermotolerance. Relative sugar consumption indicated that IB09 was able to perform saccharification of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, increasing the total reducing sugar concentration by approximately 50%. The ?MAX value obtained was 0,20, indicating that cell growth was slow under the assessed conditions. Biomass yield was 0,701 g per g of consumed sugar, which is relatively high when compared with other findings in the literature. After 120 hrs of cultivation, 80,1% of total reducing sugar had been consumed. Sequencing of the ITS1 region identified IB09 as Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans. Conclusion: This is the first report to document this species in the central Amazon rainforest at this host. Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans has great biotechnological potential for use in the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and for biomass production with this substrate as carbon source.

Ítalo Thiago Silveira Rocha, Matos; Luciana Araújo, Cassa-Barbosa; Pedro Queiroz Costa, Neto; Spartaco Astolfi, Filho.

2012-01-15

179

Investigations on Sugarcane De-Trashing Mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugarcane is the second most important industrial crop in India grown in 4.4 million hectares with an average productivity of about 68 tonnes per hectare (Anon.2013. To mitigate the labour scarcity and ensure timely operations mechanization is a must. Mechanisation will also improve the overall energy use efficiency of sugarcane based farming (Duttamajumder et al. 2011. About 45-48% of the total cost of cultivation is accountable to harvesting operation in manual harvesting. Mechanisation of harvesting operations is imperative in increasing the cost effectiveness of sugarcane production system.

Joby Bastian, B. Shridar

2014-07-01

180

In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Macrolides and Tetracycline Antibiotics ?  

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We describe the in vitro activity of macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics against Pythium insidiosum. The MICs were determined according to CLSI procedures (visual MIC) and by a colorimetric method [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. The lowest geometric mean (GM) MIC (MICs in ?g/ml) (0.39 and 0.7 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively) and MIC ranges (0.125 to 2.0) were obtained for minocycline, while the highest MICs were shown for er...

Loreto, E?rico Silva; Mario, De?bora Alves Nunes; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Use of biotic agents and abiotic compounds against damping off of cauliflower caused by Pythium aphanidermatum  

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Damping off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, is a major disease of vegetables including cauliflower throughout the world. The present study was attempted to understand the effects of abiotic compounds and biotic agents on the damping off disease control, plant v...

Sain, Pratibha Sharma And S. K.

2012-01-01

182

Yield and quality of induced mutants in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-one near-normal and 4 drastic mutants isolated from mutagen-treated (X-rays, gamma rays and chemical mutagens) sugarcane variety 'Co 419' were tested for yield and juice quality. Mutants '368. and '419/1' had higher yield of cane and higher commercial cane sugar than 'Co 419'. Several mutants, especially the drastic mutants, had higher percentage of sucrose than 'Co 419'. The types with higher percentage of sucrose occurred much more frequently than the higher-yielding ones, indicating more frequent occurrence of disturbances in growth, resulting in diversion of more sucrose to storage than to the apical meristem. (auth.)

1981-01-01

183

Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) / Seletividade de herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar para imaturos de Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas são frequentemente utilizados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Entretanto, o uso de compostos não seletivos pode prejudicar a eficiência de insetos benéficos no manejo integrado de pragas. Nesse contexto, avaliou-se o efeito desses produtos sobre as fas [...] es imaturas do parasitoide Trichogramma galloi. Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis contendo o parasitoide no período de ovo-larva e nas fases de pré-pupa e pupa foram imersos em caldas dos produtos avaliados (doses máximas recomendadas para a cana-de-açúcar), sendo eles: os herbicidas clomazone e diuron+hexazinone e os reguladores de crescimento de plantas sulfometuron-methyl e trinexapac-ethyl. As características biológicas avaliadas foram a emergência (gerações F1 e F2) e o número de ovos parasitados por T. galloi (F1). Os produtos foram classificados, conforme percentual de redução da emergência e parasitismo, em: inócuo (99%). Os compostos avaliados foram classificados como inócuos ou levemente prejudiciais aos imaturos de T. galloi e, por isso, devem ser preferidos, visando à preservação dessa espécie de parasitoide em programas de manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products o [...] n the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test solutions of the following pesticides (maximum recommended doses for sugarcane): herbicides clomazone and diuron + hexazinone, and plant growth regulators trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl. The biological properties evaluated were emergence (F1 and F2) and number of eggs parasitized by T. galloi (F1). The products were classified according to percentage of reduction in emergence and parasitism: harmless (99%). The pesticides evaluated were considered to be harmless or slightly harmful to immature T. galloi and, thus, their use should be preferred for preserving this parasitoid species in sugarcane management programs.

H.N., Oliveira; M.R., Antigo; G.A., Carvalho; D.F., Glaeser.

184

Interação de imazapic no sistema integrado palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida e vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca Interaction of imazapic in the integrated system using sugarcane mulch residue, herbicide and vinasse on purple nutsedge growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da interação palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida imazapic e diferentes meios de aplicação de vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e em vasos dispostos em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, sendo avaliados os tratamentos: controle; apenas palha; apenas vinhaça; apenas o herbicida imazapic; palha + vinhaça; palha + herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; e palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura. O imazapic foi aplicado na dose de 122,5 g ha-1 e, no tratamento onde a vinhaça foi aplicada em mistura com o herbicida, este foi diluído com água até ¼ do volume necessário e completado com vinhaça. O imazapic foi eficiente no controle da tiririca quando comparado com a testemunha. A aplicação isolada da vinhaça ou a adição de apenas a palha ao solo estimularam o crescimento da tiririca embora tenha reduzido a viabilidade dos tubérculos. Nos tratamentos sem palha, não houve diferença no crescimento da tiririca, quando a aplicação de vinhaça foi realizada antes ou depois do imazapic, sendo observado controle da espécie. Entretanto, quando em mistura com a vinhaça, o produto não controlou a tiririca. A presença da palha no tratamento onde foi aplicada vinhaça antes do herbicida reduziu a ação do imazapic, em comparação com aquele sem palha. O número de brotações e a altura média de plantas de tiririca foram maiores nos tratamentos com palha quando foi aplicado imazapic depois ou mesmo junto com a vinhaça. Sob palha, a aplicação de vinhaça após o herbicida ou em mistura com imazapic aumentou apenas o número de brotações.The objective of this paper was to evaluate sugarcane mulch residue, imazapic and vinasse application interaction on the initial development of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.. A greenhouse experiment was set up using pots filled with soil, arranged in a randomized complete blocks design, with four replications, with the following treatments: check; straw alone; vinasse alone; imazapic alone; straw + vinasse; straw + herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied before the herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied together; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; and straw + herbicide + vinasse applied together. Imazapic was applied at the rate of 122.5 g ha-1 and in the treatment in which vinasse was applied mixed with the herbicide, this compound was diluted in water until ¼ of the volume needed, the remaining volume being completed with vinasse. Imazapic was efficient for purple nutsedge control when compared to the check. Application of vinasse alone or straw alone stimulated the growth of this weed, though tuber viability was reduced. In the treatments without straw there was no difference in purple nutsedge development when vinasse was applied before or after imazapic, though control of this weed species was attained. However, when mixed with vinasse, the herbicide did not control the weed. The presence of straw in the treatment in which vinasse was applied before imazapic reduced the action of this weed killer when compared with the treatment without straw. The number of sprouts and height of the purple nutsedge plants were enhanced by the treatments with straw when imazapic was applied after or even mixed with vinasse. Only the number of sprouts increased when vinasse was applied after or mixed with the herbicide in soil covered with straw.

M.C.S.S. Novo

2008-06-01

185

Influência da densidade do solo infestado por nematoide no desenvolvimento inicial de cana-de-açúcar / Influence of density of soil infested with nematode on initial growth of sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em áreas cultivadas com cana-de-açúcar no Nordeste do Brasil, a compactação do solo e a presença de altas densidades populacionais de nematoides, principalmente Meloidogyne spp. restringem severamente a produtividade agrícola. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis de [...] densidade do solo infestado por nematoides da espécie M. incognita no desenvolvimento inicial da cana-de-açúcar, variedade RB 863129, em condições de casa de vegetação. As avaliações, realizadas 90 dias após a infestação do solo, se fundamentaram na altura da planta, diâmetro do colmo, número de folhas, biomassa fresca das raízes, biomassa fresca e biomassa seca da parte aérea, número de ovos do nematoide por grama de raiz. O aumento dos níveis de compactação do solo de 1,65 para 1,82 kg dm-3 proporcionou redução na multiplicação de M. incognita e aumento no comprimento do colmo da cana-de-açúcar mas não afetou as outras variáveis de desenvolvimento da planta. Abstract in english In cultivated areas of sugarcane in Northeastern Brazil, soil compaction and infestation of nematodes, mainly Meloidogyne spp., severely restrict crop production. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of four levels of density of soil infested with nematodes of the species M. incognita in t [...] he early development of sugarcane variety RB 863129 in greenhouse conditions. Evaluations were carried out 90 days after soil infestation, based on plant height, stalk diameter, number of leaves, root and shoot fresh biomass, shoot dry biomass and number of nematode eggs. The increase in soil compaction level from 1.65 to 1.82 kg dm-3 decreased M. incognita reproduction and increased sugarcane stalk length, but it did not affect the other plant development variables.

Carmem C. M. de, Sousa; Elvira M. R., Pedrosa; Mario M., Rolim; João V., Pereira Filho; Marcela A. L. M. de, Souza.

186

Control of Chinese-kale damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum by antifungal metabolites of Trichoderma virens  

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Full Text Available Seven strains of Trichoderma virens were isolated from Chinese-kale planting soil in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Efficacy of those isolates to inhibit mycelial growth and overgrow on mycelia ofPythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of damping-off on Chinese-kale, were determined by a dual culture test. All strains significantly inhibited growth and overgrew on mycelia of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA as compared with the control. Strains T-NST-01, T-NST-05 and T-NST-07 gave high values of inhibition by 85.5, 82.5 and 78.5%, respectively. For efficacy to overgrow on mycelia of pathogen test, strains T-NST-05, T-NST-07 and T-NST-01 provided 48.3, 47.0 and 46.1% of mycelial overgrowth, respectively. Antifungal metabolites were extracted from three promising strains and tested against mycelial growth and sporangium production of P. aphanidermatum. The results showed that 1,000 mg/L of all metabolites completely inhibited mycelial growth and sporangium production. Under laboratory condition, all metabolites (1,000 mg/L significantly increased the number of Chinese-kale seedling germination, especially the metabolites from T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 provided germination of 92.5 and 87.5%, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, Chinese-kale seedlings treated with 1,000 mg/L of metabolites from strains T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 survived by 90.5 and 87.5%, respectively, while the control 1 (sterile water and control 2 (2% methanol had 19.0 and 18.5% of survived seedlings, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from three strains of T. virens showed no visible growth, while the control with 2% methanol or sterile water, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered whole surface of PDA in of the Petri dish within 4 days.

Chiradej Chamswarng

2007-07-01

187

Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes agricultural and industrial activities, distribution, cogeneration of electricity and steam, ethanol use during car driving, and industrial by-products recycling to irrigate sugarcane fields. The use of sugarcane by the ethanol agribusiness is one of the foremost financial resources for the economy of the Brazilian rural area, which occupies extensive areas and provides far-reaching potentials for renewable fuel production. But, there are environmental impacts during the fuel ethanol lifecycle, which this paper intents to analyze, including addressing the main activities responsible for such impacts and indicating some suggestions to minimize the impacts. This study is classified as an applied quantitative research, and the technical procedure to achieve the exploratory goal is based on bibliographic revision, documental research, primary data collection, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The lifecycle impact assessment (LCIA) covers the following emission-related impact categories: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. The results of the fuel ethanol LCI demonstrate that even though alcohol is considered a renewable fuel because it comes from biomass (sugarcane), it uses a high quantity and diversity of nonrenewable resources over its lifecycle. The input of renewable resources is also high mainly because of the water consumption in the industrial phases, due to the sugarcane washing process. During the lifecycle of alcohol, there is a surplus of electric energy due to the cogeneration activity. Another focus point is the quantity of emissions to the atmosphere and the diversity of the substances emitted. Harvesting is the unit process that contributes most to global warming. For photochemical ozone formation, harvesting is also the activity with the strongest contributions due to the burning in harvesting and the emissions from using diesel fuel. The acidification impact potential is mostly due to the NOx emitted by the combustion of ethanol during use, on account of the sulfuric acid use in the industrial process and because of the NOx emitted by the burning in harvesting. The main consequence of the intensive use of fertilizers to the field is the high nutrient enrichment impact potential associated with this activity. The main contributions to the ecotoxicity impact potential come from chemical applications during crop growth. The activity that presents the highest impact potential for human toxicity (HT) via air and via soil is harvesting. Via water, HT potential is high in harvesting due to lubricant use on the machines. The normalization results indicate that nutrient enrichment, acidification, and human toxicity via air and via water are the most significant impact potentials for the lifecycle of fuel ethanol. The fuel ethanol lifecycle contributes negatively to all the impact potentials analyzed: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. Concerning energy consumption, it consumes less energy than its own production largely because of the electricity cogeneration system, but this process is highly dependent on water. The main causes for the biggest impact potential indicated by the normalization is the nutrient application, the burning in harvesting and the use of diesel fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agric

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

2009-01-01

188

An-Overview on invertase in sugarcane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saccharum officinarum is one of the most cultivated hybrid varieties among the sugarcane varieties. In sugarcane plant sucrose is the major carbohydrate which can be stored and transported. Different physiological and biochemical studies on this crop report that invertase activity and sucrose concentration some how are key limiting step in the process of sucrose accumulation. Significant efforts have been made in relation to the sucrose cycle by altering the sucrose phosphate synthet...

Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Yadav, Ashok; Lal, Ramji

2013-01-01

189

Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under var...

Franc?a, S. C.; Roberto, P. G.; Marins, M. A.; Puga, R. D.; Rodrigues, A.; Pereira, J. O.

2001-01-01

190

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting grow...

Papini-Terzi Flávia S; Rocha Flávia R; Zn, Ve?ncio Ricardo; Felix Juliana M; Branco Diana S; Waclawovsky Alessandro J; Ev, Del Bem Luiz; Lembke Carolina G; Dl, Costa Maximiller; Nishiyama Milton Y; Vicentini Renato; Ga, Vincentz Michel; Ulian Eugênio C; Menossi Marcelo; Souza Glaucia M

2009-01-01

191

RB966928: Early maturing sugarcane cultivar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english RB966928 is an early to medium maturing sugarcane cultivar and in Central-Southern Brazil it is harvested between April and June; it is recommended for planting in environments with medium to high soil fertility. It stands out with a high ratoon yield and with excellent sprouting in both plant cane [...] and ratoon cane. It is tolerant to the major diseases of economic importance of sugarcane.

Edelclaiton, Daros; João Carlos, Bespalhok Filho; José Luis Camargo, Zambon; Oswaldo Teruyo, Ido; Ricardo Augusto de, Oliveira; Lucimeris, Ruaro; Heroldo, Weber.

192

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) ...

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

193

An-Overview on invertase in sugarcane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saccharum officinarum is one of the most cultivated hybrid varieties among the sugarcane varieties. In sugarcane plant sucrose is the major carbohydrate which can be stored and transported. Different physiological and biochemical studies on this crop report that invertase activity and sucrose concentration some how are key limiting step in the process of sucrose accumulation. Significant efforts have been made in relation to the sucrose cycle by altering the sucrose phosphate synthetase, sucr...

Mohammad Israil Ansari; Ashok Yadav; Ramji Lal

2013-01-01

194

Effect of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol on pythium: cellular responses and variation in sensitivity among propagules and species.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) plays an important role in the suppression of plant pathogens by several strains of Pseudomonas spp. Based on the results of this study, there is variation within and among Pythium spp. to 2,4-DAPG. Also, various propagules of Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum, that are part of the asexual stage of the life cycle, differ considerably in their sensitivity to 2,4-DAPG. Mycelium was the most resistant structure, followed by zoosporangia, zoospore cysts, and zoospores. Additionally, we report for the first time that pH has a significant effect on the activity of 2,4-DAPG, with a higher activity at low pH. Furthermore, the level of acetylation of phloroglucinols is also a major determinant of their activity. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that 2,4-DAPG causes different stages of disorganization in hyphal tips of Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum, including alteration (proliferation, retraction, and disruption) of the plasma membrane, vacuolization, and cell content disintegration. The implications of these results for the efficacy and consistency of biological control of plant-pathogenic Pythium spp. by 2,4-DAPG-producing Pseudomonas spp. are discussed. PMID:18943863

de Souza, Jorge T; Arnould, Christine; Deulvot, Chrystel; Lemanceau, Philippe; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Raaijmakers, Jos M

2003-08-01

195

In Vitro Activities of Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Terbinafine Alone or in Combination against Pythium insidiosum Isolates from Brazil?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine against 30 clinical isolates of Pythium insidiosum using a checkerboard macrodilution method. The combined activity of terbinafine plus itraconazole or plus voriconazole was synergic against 17% of the strains. Antagonism was not observed.

Argenta, Juliana S.; Santurio, Janio M.; Alves, Sydney H.; Pereira, Daniela I. B.; Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Spanamberg, Andre?ia; Ferreiro, Laerte

2008-01-01

196

The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production

2008-06-01

197

A search for markers of sugarcane evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.

Bacci Jr. M.

2001-01-01

198

Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

Fonseca Ghislaine V.

2001-01-01

199

Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

2009-05-01

200

The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2013-12-01

202

Influence of siderurgical slag about gaseous changes and production of biomass of sugarcane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was installed in greenhouse, using one of the most representative soils of the state of Ceará, Brazil, for sugarcane crop, a Red-Yellow Argissoil. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of silicon in the gas exchange and production of biomass of sugarcane cultivars in sandy loam soil. It was used a completely randomized in 5x2 factorial scheme with five silicon doses: 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0 and 15.0 g per pot-1 of siderurgical slag, two cultivars of sugarcane and four repetitions. The siderurgical slag (calcium and magnesium silicato used containing 11% of soluble SiO2. It was evaluated the silicon level in the leaf, the production of dry matter of the aerial part, the relative growth rate of the plant, the water use efficiency, transpiration and conductance of the leaf. The results showed increase in concentration of Si in leaf with the application of the silicon; practically no influence in growth and physiological characteristics of the plants.Key-words: Argissoil, calcium, greenhouse, sugarcane.

Lúcio Bastos Madeiros

2009-08-01

203

PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING  

Science.gov (United States)

The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

204

Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados com antígeno macerado de micélio (AMM associado a três adjuvantes. Grupo I: hidróxido de alumínio; grupo II: adjuvante de Freund; grupo III: óleo mineral e grupo IV: água destilada -controle. Os tratamentos foram avaliados a diferentes intervalos, quanto à capacidade de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas específicas da classe G, através da técnica de ELISA. Na fase 1, os animais receberam três doses do imunógeno (dias zero, 14 e 28 e foram avaliados sorologicamente nos dias 14, 21, 28 e 35. Nessa fase, os adjuvantes oleosos (GII e III induziram níveis de anticorpos estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos nos grupos I e IV. Durante a fase 2 (dias 42 a 120, cada grupo foi subdividido em dois; sendo um subgrupo mantido em tratamento (imunizações adicionais nos dias 42, 56, 68 e 82 e o outro tendo o tratamento interrompido após a 3ª dose (dia 28. Nos subgrupos mantidos em tratamento, os níveis de anticorpos dos grupos imunizados com adjuvantes foram estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos no grupo GIV (controle. Nos coelhos com tratamento interrompido, os grupos I, II e III apresentaram manutenção nos níveis de IgG e foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo controle, que apresentou declínio nos níveis de anticorpos. Os resultados demonstraram a capacidade dos adjuvantes testados em potencializar e prolongar a resposta humoral aos antígenos do P. insidiosum. O uso de adjuvantes associado aos atuais imunógenos pode aumentar os índices de cura em eqüinos submetidos à imunoterapia, assim como viabilizar sua utilização como preventivo.Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic fungi living in flooded areas which can infect humans and animals. Natural infection in these species results in clinical pythiosis, a granulomatous disease of difficult treatment. Immunotherapy with antigens obtained from cultures of the agent is a promising alternative therapy. In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvants in the immunologic response to P. insidiosum antigens, 24 rabbits were assigned to four groups and immunized with mycelian mass antigen with each of there adjuvants. Group I: aluminum hydroxide; group II: Freund’s adjuvant; group III: mineral oil and group IV: distilled water-control. The effects of the adjavants were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-pythium imunoglobulin G (IgG produced by the immunized rabbits at different time-points after immunization, using an ELISA test. During phase 1, the animals were immunized three times (days zero, 14 and 28 and serologically tested at days 14, 21, 28 and 35. The oil adjuvants (groups II and III were statistically superior to groups I and IV. During phase 2 (from day 42 to 120 each group was subdivided in two, with one subgroup having additional immunizations at days 42, 56, 68 and 82 and the other having the treatment interrupted. Among the rabbits with continued immunizations, groups I, II and III (adjuvants had statistically higher IgG levels than GIV. Among rabbits with interrupted treatment, GI, GII and presented stable IgG levels and were statistically superior to the control group, that presented decrease in the levels. These results demonstrated that the adjuvants were capable of inducing stronger and longer imunologic responses (IgG to P. insidiosum antigens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants associated with P. insidiosum antigens may increase the recovery rates obtained through immunotherapy.

Alexandre Trindade Leal

2002-12-01

205

Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes / Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia c [...] om antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados com antígeno macerado de micélio (AMM) associado a três adjuvantes. Grupo I: hidróxido de alumínio; grupo II: adjuvante de Freund; grupo III: óleo mineral e grupo IV: água destilada -controle. Os tratamentos foram avaliados a diferentes intervalos, quanto à capacidade de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas específicas da classe G, através da técnica de ELISA. Na fase 1, os animais receberam três doses do imunógeno (dias zero, 14 e 28) e foram avaliados sorologicamente nos dias 14, 21, 28 e 35. Nessa fase, os adjuvantes oleosos (GII e III) induziram níveis de anticorpos estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos nos grupos I e IV. Durante a fase 2 (dias 42 a 120), cada grupo foi subdividido em dois; sendo um subgrupo mantido em tratamento (imunizações adicionais nos dias 42, 56, 68 e 82) e o outro tendo o tratamento interrompido após a 3ª dose (dia 28). Nos subgrupos mantidos em tratamento, os níveis de anticorpos dos grupos imunizados com adjuvantes foram estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos no grupo GIV (controle). Nos coelhos com tratamento interrompido, os grupos I, II e III apresentaram manutenção nos níveis de IgG e foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo controle, que apresentou declínio nos níveis de anticorpos. Os resultados demonstraram a capacidade dos adjuvantes testados em potencializar e prolongar a resposta humoral aos antígenos do P. insidiosum. O uso de adjuvantes associado aos atuais imunógenos pode aumentar os índices de cura em eqüinos submetidos à imunoterapia, assim como viabilizar sua utilização como preventivo. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic fungi living in flooded areas which can infect humans and animals. Natural infection in these species results in clinical pythiosis, a granulomatous disease of difficult treatment. Immunotherapy with antigens obtained from cultures of the agent is a promising altern [...] ative therapy. In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvants in the immunologic response to P. insidiosum antigens, 24 rabbits were assigned to four groups and immunized with mycelian mass antigen with each of there adjuvants. Group I: aluminum hydroxide; group II: Freund’s adjuvant; group III: mineral oil and group IV: distilled water-control. The effects of the adjavants were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-pythium imunoglobulin G (IgG) produced by the immunized rabbits at different time-points after immunization, using an ELISA test. During phase 1, the animals were immunized three times (days zero, 14 and 28) and serologically tested at days 14, 21, 28 and 35. The oil adjuvants (groups II and III) were statistically superior to groups I and IV. During phase 2 (from day 42 to 120) each group was subdivided in two, with one subgroup having additional immunizations at days 42, 56, 68 and 82 and the other having the treatment interrupted. Among the rabbits with continued immunizations, groups I, II and III (adjuvants) had statistically higher IgG levels than GIV. Among rabbits with interrupted treatment, GI, GII and presented stable IgG levels and were statistically superior to the control group, that presented decrease in the levels. These results demonstrated that the adjuvants were capable of inducing stronger and longer imunologic responses (IgG) to P. insidiosum antigens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants associated with P. insidiosum antigens may increase the recovery rates obtained through immunotherapy.

Alexandre Trindade, Leal; Janio Morais, Santurio; Adriana Bardemaker Monteiro, Leal; Alexandre Machado, Pinto; Josiane, Griebeler; Eduardo Furtado, Flores; Laerte, Ferreiro; João Batista, Catto.

206

Photosynthetic and Canopy Characteristics of Different Varieties at the Early Elongation Stage and Their Relationships with the Cane Yield in Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

During sugarcane growth, the Early Elongation stage is critical to cane yield formation. In this study, parameters of 17 sugarcane varieties were determined at the Early Elongation stage using CI-301 photosynthesis measuring system and CI-100 digital plant canopy imager. The data analysis showed highly significant differences in leaf area index (LAI), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for diffused light penetration (TD), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), leaf distribution (LD), net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (GS) among sugarcane varieties. Based on the photosynthetic or canopy parameters, the 17 sugarcane varieties were classified into four categories. Through the factor analysis, nine parameters were represented by three principal factors, of which the cumulative rate of variance contributions reached 85.77%. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 0.05, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = ?27.19 ? 1.69 × PN + 0.17 ×??E + 90.43 × LAI ? 408.81 × LD + 0.0015 × NSH + 101.38 ×??D (R2 = 0.928**). This study helps provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the screening of new sugarcane varieties with high net photosynthetic rate and ideal canopy structure.

Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Yuye; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Rukai

2014-01-01

207

Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane.

Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Khraiwesh, Basel; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Gupta, Ram Sagar; Singh, Jyotsnendra; Duttamajumder, Sanjoy Kumar; Kapur, Raman

2014-01-01

208

Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. PMID:25009768

Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Khraiwesh, Basel; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Gupta, Ram Sagar; Singh, Jyotsnendra; Duttamajumder, Sanjoy Kumar; Kapur, Raman

2014-01-01

209

Popularizing of Sugarcane Based Intercropping Systems in Non Millzone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field experiment was conducted to study the popularity of different intercrops with sugarcane at Nakla thana under Sherpur district of Bangladesh during cropping year 2000-2001. Five intercrops with sugarcane combination such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), onion (Allium cepa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), mustard (Brassica campestris) and garlic(Allium sativum) were studied against sole sugarcane crop. In respect of agronomic performances, sugarcane wit...

Al Azad, M. A. K.; Alam, M. J.

2004-01-01

210

CRICISE BEFORE SUGARCANE GROWERS: DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM –SOME REMEDIAL MEASURES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out to study the constraints faced by the Sugarcane growers and to suggest some remedial measures for use of Drip Irrigation System. Drip Irrigation may help to solve the most important problem of irrigation to sugarcane- water scarcityandrising electricity bills. Majority of sugarcane growers faced the constraints i.e. the higher initial costs for installation of drip irrigation unit and clogging and cracking of emitters.Mostly the sugarcane grow...

2012-01-01

211

The Large-Scale Sugarcane Stripper with Automatic Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study mainly introduce the large-scale sugarcane stripper with automatic feeding, which including the automatic feeding module, cleaning leaves module, collecting module and control module. The machine is an important part of the segmental type sugarcane harvester, using to solve the highest labor intensity problem of cleaning leaves. Collecting the hilly areas sugarcane and cleaning their leaves, can greatly improve the labor productivity and changing the current mode of sugarcane harvest.

Jiaxiang Lin

2012-07-01

212

Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed. (author)

Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A. [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos, DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP, CP 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Koehlinger, John [Energy Consultant. 1322 Hepburn Ave 1, Louisville, KY 40204 (United States); Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto [ENEA Trisaia Research Centre. Prot-STP. SS106 Jonica, Rotondella (Italy)

2008-06-15

213

Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed

2008-06-01

214

Reuteran and levan as carbohydrate sinks in transgenic sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports the effect of high molecular weight bacterial fructan (levan) and glucan (reuteran) on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in transgenic sugarcane plants. These biopolymers are products of bacterial glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glucose or fructose residues from sucrose. Constructs, targeted to different subcellular compartments (cell wall and cytosol) and driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S: maize-ubiquitin promoter, were introduced into sugarcane by biolistic transformation. Polysaccharide accumulation severely affected growth of callus suspension cultures. Regeneration of embryonic callus tissue into plants proved problematic for cell wall-targeted lines. When targeted to the cytosol, only plants with relative low levels of biopolymer accumulation survived. In internodal stalk tissue that accumulate reuteran (max 0.03 mg/g FW), sucrose content (ca 60 mg/g FW) was not affected, while starch content (<0.4 mg/g FW) was increased up to four times. Total carbohydrate content was not significantly altered. On the other hand, starch and sucrose levels were significantly reduced in plants accumulating levan (max 0.01 mg/g FW). Heterologous expression resulted in a reduction in total carbohydrate assimilation rather than a simple diversion by competition for substrate. PMID:22903192

Bauer, Rolene; Basson, Carin E; Bekker, Jan; Eduardo, Iban; Rohwer, Johann M; Uys, Lafras; van Wyk, Johannes H; Kossmann, Jens

2012-12-01

215

Estructura y ultraestructura de Pythium insidiosum en la pitiosis gastrointestinal canina / Structure and ultrastructure of Pythium insidiosum in canine gastrointestinal pythiosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La pitiosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa que se presenta en humanos y en otros mamíferos, causada por Pythium insidiosum, un pseudohongo clasificado en el reino Straminipila. En Venezuela se han diagnosticado casos de pitiosis en perros con diarrea hemorrágica crónica, sin embargo, las caracterís [...] ticas estructurales y ultraestructurales de las lesiones han sido poco estudiadas. Se planteó como objetivo describir, a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido y de transmisión, la estructura y ultraestructura de P. insidiosum y las lesiones que produce en el tracto gastrointestinal de los perros. Se procesaron para microscopia electrónica muestras de tejido procedentes de caninos con diagnóstico de pitiosis gastrointestinal, referidos al Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad Centroccidental ?Lisandro Alvarado?. Las muestras examinadas mostraron tejido necrótico, trombosis vascular y numerosas hifas de P. insidiosum, caracterizadas por ser largas, onduladas, de paredes aplanadas, de 3 a 5 µm de diámetro, ramificadas en ángulo de 90° y externamente rodeadas por un material granular electrón denso en forma de incrustaciones, sugestivo del fenómeno de Splendore-Hoeppli. Se concluyó que la pitiosis en caninos cursa con lesiones granulomatosas y trombóticas, donde se observa que el agente etiológico mantiene su integridad, a pesar de estar íntimamente relacionado con células fagocíticas. Abstract in english Pythiosis is a granulomatous disease that occurs in humans and other mammals, produced by Pythium insidiosum, a pseudofungus classified in the Straminipila kingdom. In Venezuela, pythiosis cases have been diagnosed in dogs with chronic hemorrhagic diarrhea; nevertheless, the structural and ultrastru [...] ctural characteristics of the lesions have not been studied in depth. The objective set for this study was to describe, through scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the structure and ultrastructure of P. insidiosum, and the lesions it produces in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. Tissue samples from canines with a gastrointestinal pythiosis diagnosis, referred by the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidad Centroccidental ?Lisandro Alvarado?, were processed for electron microscopy study. The samples examined showed necrotic tissue, vascular thrombosis and numerous P. insidiosum hyphae, characterized by being long, ondulating, with flattened walls, 3 to 5 µm in diameter, ramified in a 90º angle, and externally surrounded by an electron dense granular material in the form of inlays, suggestive of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. It was concluded that canine pythiosis evolves with granulomatous and thrombotic lesions, which show that the etiologic agent maintains its integrity, in spite of being intimately related with phagocytic cells.

Salas Araujo, Yaritza Josefina; Colmenares, Victoria del Rosario; Márquez Alvarado, Adelys Antonio; León, Juan Jesús Luis; Castejón, Olivar.

216

Obstrução intestinal por Pythium insidiosum em um cão: relato de caso / Intestinal obstruction by Pythium insidiosum in a dog: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relata-se um caso de pitiose intestinal em um Husky Siberiano, de um ano de idade, macho atendido em um Hospital Veterinário Escola com sinais de obstrução intestinal. Ao exame físico, notou-se massa cilíndrica na região abdominal cranial, posteriormente confirmada por meio de radiografia e ultrasso [...] nografia. Durante a laparotomia exploratória, constatou-se massa extraluminal envolvendo o jejuno e alterações na parede do órgão. Realizou-se a ressecção da porção afetada do intestino e, posteriormente, anastomose. O exame histológico do tecido evidenciou inflamação piogranulomatosa acentuada. Na coloração de prata metenamina de Grocott, hifas septadas foram observadas. O diagnóstico de infecção por Pythium insidiosum foi confirmado por meio da imunoistoquímica. Após a cirurgia, o animal restabeleceu a defecação; no 30° dia pós-cirúrgico, foi relatada ainda presença de diarreia. O tratamento com itraconazol e terbinafina foi instituído durante 60 dias. Após dois anos do procedimento cirúrgico e do tratamento com antifúngicos orais, o cão não apresentou recidiva. Abstract in english A case of intestinal pythiosis in a one-year-old male Siberian Husky treated at a Veterinary School Hospital with signs of intestinal obstruction is reported. At physical examination, a cylindrical mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen, later confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography. During t [...] he exploratory laparotomy, it was evidenced an extraluminal mass involving the jejunum and alterations of the wall in the organ. After that, a resection of the affected portion of the intestine was made followed by anastomosis. The histologic examination evidenced accented pyogranulomatous inflammation. By the Grocott methenamine silver stain, branching hyphae were observed. The diagnosis of infection by Pythium insidiosum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The animal reestablished the defecation after the surgery; on the 30th postoperative day, it was also reported the presence of diarrhea. The treatment with itraconazol and terbinafina was instituted for 60 days. Two years after the surgical procedure and treatment with oral antifungals, the dog did not show recurrence.

P.S., Hunning; G., Rigon; C.S., Faraco; S.P., Pavarini; D., Sampaio; W., Beheregaray; D., Driemeier.

217

Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA ...

Wang Jianping; Roe Bruce; Macmil Simone; Yu Qingyi; Murray Jan E; Tang Haibao; Chen Cuixia; Najar Fares; Wiley Graham; Bowers John; Van Sluys Marie-Anne; Rokhsar Daniel S; Hudson Matthew E; Moose Stephen P; Paterson Andrew H

2010-01-01

218

Flooding events and rising water temperatures increase the significance of the reed pathogen Pythium phragmitis as a contributing factor in the decline of Phragmites australis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pythium species are economically significant soilborne plant pathogens with worldwide distribution, causing seedling damping-off or root rot diseases. Pythium phragmitis is a newly described pathogen of common reed (Phragmites australis), widespread in the reed-belt of Lake Constance, Germany. It is highly aggressive towards reed leaves and seedlings, but obviously does not affect roots. Inthe context of reed decline phenomena, P. phragmitis infection of reed inundated during flooding event...

Nechwatal, Jan; Wielgoss, Anna Marina; Mendgen, Kurt

2008-01-01

219

Biochemical and physiological responses of sugarcane cultivars to soil water deficiencies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english For sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops, the effects of an environmental stress, especially water deficiency, may cause severe productivity reduction, inferring negatively in the sugarcane industry. The tolerance of two sugarcane cultivars to a lack of water was made by analyzing the levels of the osmo [...] protectors, trehalose and free proline, and the biometrical variables of their initial growth. Biochemical and physiological responses of the cultivars, when subjected to water stress, were assayed to determine how these plants tolerate drought. The study was conducted in an acclimatized greenhouse (29.7 ± 4.3ºC and 75.0 ± 10.1% relative humidity) during 100 days and was divided into random blocks using a factorial 2 × 3 × 2 design (sugarcane cultivars × water availability × time periods) with four replicates. Forty days after germination, sugarcane was planted in pots (12 dm³) containing topsoil material taken from a medium textured Rhodic Ferralsol, submitted to three levels of water availability (WAS): 55% (control), 40% (moderate stress) and 25% (severe stress), for 60 days. The effect of the WAS on the accumulation of trehalose and free proline was detected in both cultivars, although it was found to be more distinctive for the cv. IAC91-5155. Trehalose and free proline are biochemical and physiological indicators of water deficiency. The cv. IAC91-5155 had altered growth and allocation of biomass when subjected to severe water stress conditions. The univariate and the multivariate analysis of the biochemical and physiological responses, presented by the IAC91-5155 cultivar, indicate relative tolerance to drought conditions.

Rafaela Josemara Barbosa, Queiroz; Durvalina Maria Mathias dos, Santos; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo; Samira Domingues, Carlin; Marcelo de Almeida, Silva.

220

Biochemical and physiological responses of sugarcane cultivars to soil water deficiencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crops, the effects of an environmental stress, especially water deficiency, may cause severe productivity reduction, inferring negatively in the sugarcane industry. The tolerance of two sugarcane cultivars to a lack of water was made by analyzing the levels of the osmoprotectors, trehalose and free proline, and the biometrical variables of their initial growth. Biochemical and physiological responses of the cultivars, when subjected to water stress, were assayed to determine how these plants tolerate drought. The study was conducted in an acclimatized greenhouse (29.7 ± 4.3ºC and 75.0 ± 10.1% relative humidity during 100 days and was divided into random blocks using a factorial 2 × 3 × 2 design (sugarcane cultivars × water availability × time periods with four replicates. Forty days after germination, sugarcane was planted in pots (12 dm³ containing topsoil material taken from a medium textured Rhodic Ferralsol, submitted to three levels of water availability (WAS: 55% (control, 40% (moderate stress and 25% (severe stress, for 60 days. The effect of the WAS on the accumulation of trehalose and free proline was detected in both cultivars, although it was found to be more distinctive for the cv. IAC91-5155. Trehalose and free proline are biochemical and physiological indicators of water deficiency. The cv. IAC91-5155 had altered growth and allocation of biomass when subjected to severe water stress conditions. The univariate and the multivariate analysis of the biochemical and physiological responses, presented by the IAC91-5155 cultivar, indicate relative tolerance to drought conditions.

Rafaela Josemara Barbosa Queiroz

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The biochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.

Drummond Rodrigo D.

2001-01-01

222

DRIS norms validation for sugarcane crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS indices and foliar nutrient concentrations, to establish optimum foliar nutrient concentrations with DRIS and to validate the DRIS norms for sugarcane crop. Foliar nutrient concentrations from 126 sugarcane commercial fields were analyzed during the 1996/97 season, to calculate DRIS indices. Regression analysis was used to fit a model relating DRIS indices to nutrient concentrations. Experiments were carried out during the 1997/98 season, whose treatments consisted of the addition of the most limiting nutrients according to DRIS. A new diagnosis was performed. At the end of 1997/98 season, the yields of each plot were collected. Analysis of variance and Duncan test (5% were used for the evaluation of the collected data. There was a positive and significant relationship between sugarcane foliar nutrient concentrations and DRIS indices. The optimum foliar nutrient concentrations for sugarcane are: 13.4 g ha-1 for N, 1.91 g ha-1 for P, 12.2 g ha-1 for K, 2.99 g ha-1 for Ca, 2.15 g ha-1 for Mg, 1.61 g ha-1 for S, 4.48 mg ha-1 for Cu, 67.8 mg ha-1 for Mnand 11.7 mg ha-1 for Zn. DRIS norms evaluated are useful to correct nutritional imbalances and to increase sugarcane yield.

Reis Junior Roberto dos Anjos

2003-01-01

223

Development of cassava plants and its mycorrhizal association in soil supplemented with sugarcane agroindustrial residue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of organic agroindustrial residues on agriculture can be one way to improve the development and chemical composition of plants, reducing the cost with chemical fertilizers and impacts generated by the excessive use of them. Sugarcane agroindustrial residue has been generated in high quantity in Brazilian semiarid region and can be applied to cassava crop to improve its growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of sugarcane agroindustrial residue on the vegetative development, chemical composition and mycorrhizal association of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta var. Engana ladrão. It was performed an experiment in greenhouse with completely randomized design with four treatments of addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue (0, 5, 10 and 15% with nine replicates. The addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue increased fresh dry root biomass, leaf area, crude protein and mineral matter, without reducing the mycorrhizal colonization and glomerospores number. This type of residue can be one alternative to improve the nutritional value of these fodder.

Jorge Messias Leal Nascimento

2014-02-01

224

In vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum isolates to aminoglycoside antibiotics and tigecycline.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the in vitro activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics and tigecycline against Pythium insidiosum. The susceptibility tests were carried out using the broth microdilution method in accordance with the CLSI document M38-A2. MIC values for gentamicin, neomycin, paromomycin, and streptomycin ranged from 32 to 64 mg/liter, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranged from 32 to 128 mg/liter, which are incompatible with safe concentrations of these drugs in plasma in vivo. Tigecycline showed the lowest MIC (0.25 to 2 mg/liter) and MFC (1 to 8 mg/liter) range values. The in vitro susceptibility observed to tigecycline makes this drug a good option in future tests in vitro and in vivo for the management of pythiosis. PMID:22508303

Mahl, Deise Luiza; de Jesus, Francielli Pantella Kunz; Loreto, Érico Silva; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Ferreiro, Laerte; Pilotto, Maiara Ben; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2012-07-01

225

Sugarcane production evaluated by the state-space approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of soil properties on crop growth and yield have traditionally been analyzed using classical statistics methodologies. These methodologies do, however, not consider sampling position coordinates and assume independence between samples. This study had the objective of using the state-space approach, which considers sampling position, to evaluate and to discuss a spatial process using variables related to the soil-plant system. For this, six data sets were collected in a sugarcane experiment carried out on a Dark Red Latosol (Rhodic Kandiudalf), at Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane was planted on a 0.21 ha field, comprising 15 rows, 100 m long, spaced 1.4 m apart, with three treatments (mulching, bare soil and straw burning before harvest) and four replicates, forming a transect of 84 points. In this way, the relationships between the number of canes per meter of row and available soil P, Ca and Mg, clay content and aggregate stability were studied using a first order state-space model. Results show that all of the used state-space equations described the spatial distribution of number of canes better than the equivalent multiple regression equations. It was also identified that the soil clay content spatial series has an effective contribution to describe the number of canes in this study, because it is related to the best performance in each different scenario.

Timm, L. C.; Reichardt, K.; Oliveira, J. C. M.; Cassaro, F. A. M.; Tominaga, T. T.; Bacchi, O. O. S.; Dourado-Neto, D.

2003-03-01

226

Induction and isolation of mutants in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the progress made on the induction of mutations in sugarcane at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, is presented. A description of some of the mutants is given. A few disease-resistant mutants have been obtained. Yield of C.C.S./ha of some of the mutants has surpassed the parent variety. Selection based on individual canes has increased the mutation rate and stability of mutants. Different techniques such as decapitation, closer planting and growing vM_1 generation at different N levels have been observed to be promising methods to increase mutation rate. Raising of plants from mutated tissues by in vitro culture seems to be a potential tool in induced mutagenesis in sugarcane. (author)

1976-05-21

227

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion: The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha; Albano, Rodolpho

2009-01-01

228

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

Bertalan, Marcelo; Albano, Rodolpho; de Padua, Vania; Rouws, Luc; Rojas, Cristian; Hemerly, Adriana; Teixeira, Katia; Schwab, Stefan; Araujo, Jean; Oliveira, Andre; Franca, Leonardo; Magalhaes, Viviane; Alqueres, Sylvia; Cardoso, Alexander; Almeida, Wellington; Loureiro, Marcio Martins; Nogueira, Eduardo; Cidade, Daniela; Oliveira, Denise; Simao, Tatiana; Macedo, Jacyara; Valadao, Ana; Dreschsel, Marcela; Freitas, Flavia; Vidal, Marcia; Guedes, Helma; Rodrigues, Elisete; Meneses, Carlos; Brioso, Paulo; Pozzer, Luciana; Figueiredo, Daniel; Montano, Helena; Junior, Jadier; de Souza Filho, Goncalo; Martin Quintana Flores, Victor; Ferreira, Beatriz; Branco, Alan; Gonzalez, Paula; Guillobel, Heloisa; Lemos, Melissa; Seibel, Luiz; Macedo, Jose; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; Coelho, Ana; Santos, Eidy; Amaral, Gilda; Neves, Anna; Pacheco, Ana Beatriz; Carvalho, Daniela; Lery, Leticia; Bisch, Paulo; Rossle, Shaila C; Urmenyi, Turan; Rael Pereira, Alessandra; Silva, Rosane; Rondinelli, Edson; von Kruger, Wanda; Martins, Orlando; Baldani, Jose Ivo; Ferreira, Paulo CG

2009-01-01

229

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to b...

Bertalan Marcelo; Albano Rodolpho; de Pádua Vânia; Rouws Luc; Rojas Cristian; Hemerly Adriana; Teixeira Kátia; Schwab Stefan; Araujo Jean; Oliveira André; França Leonardo; Magalhães Viviane; Alquéres Sylvia; Cardoso Alexander; Almeida Wellington

2009-01-01

230

Variability induced through vegetative mutagenesis in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both physical and chemical mutagens were found to be effective in inducing genetic variations in sugarcane. Among the mutagens employed EMS(ethyl methane sulphonate) and gamma rays significantly reduced the germination of buds at all levels tested with LD 50 at 0.8% and 6 Kr., respectively. By repeated clonal selection, mutants for various morphological characters were isolated in pure form. An induced mutant combining red rot disease resistance alongwith improved leaf characters has shown commercial potential. The significance of induced mutations in basic genetic studies and improvement of sugarcane are discussed. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

1989-01-01

231

The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br) that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a suga...

Glaucia Mendes Souza; Ana Carolina Quirino Simoes; Katia Cristina Oliveira; Humberto Miguel Garay; Leonardo Costa Fiorini; Felipe dos Santos Gomes; Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior; Aline Maria da Silva

2001-01-01

232

Forecasting Regional Sugarcane Yield Based on Time Integral and Spatial Aggregation of MODIS NDVI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the suitability of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS obtained for six sugar management zones, over nine years (2002–2010, to forecast sugarcane yield on an annual and zonal base. To take into account the characteristics of the sugarcane crop management (15-month cycle for a ratoon, accompanied with continuous harvest in Western Kenya, the temporal series of NDVI was normalized through an original weighting method that considered the growth period of the sugarcane crop (wNDVI, and correlated it with historical yield datasets. Results when using wNDVI were consistent with historical yield and significant at P-value = 0.001, while results when using traditional annual NDVI integrated over the calendar year were not significant. This correlation between yield and wNDVI is mainly drawn by the spatial dimension of the data set (R2 = 0.53, when all years are aggregated together, rather than by the temporal dimension of the data set (R2 = 0.1, when all zones are aggregated. A test on 2012 yield estimation with this model realized a RMSE less than 5 t·ha?1. Despite progress in the methodology through the weighted NDVI, and an extensive spatio-temporal analysis, this paper shows the difficulty in forecasting sugarcane yield on an annual base using current satellite low-resolution data. This is particularly true in the context of small scale farmers with fields measuring less than the size of MODIS 250 m pixel, and in the context of a 15-month crop cycle with no seasonal cropping calendar. Future satellite missions should permit monitoring of sugarcane yields using image resolutions that facilitate extraction of crop phenology from a group of individual plots.

Pierre Todoroff

2013-05-01

233

Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

2014-01-01

234

Characterization of the microbial community involved in the suppression of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown on rockwool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The root pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum induced lower levels of disease in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants on unsterilized, re-used rockwool slabs than on heat-sterilized, re-used rockwool. Several recolonization treatments of the sterilized rockwool enhanced the suppressiveness of the rockwool. Microbial community structures in the different rockwool treatments were investigated by plate counts on selective media. Disease suppressiveness in the different rockwool treatments showed the hig...

Postma, J.; Geraats, B. P. J.; Pastoor, R.; Elsas, J. D.

2005-01-01

235

Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization / Amido de cana-de-açúcar: determinação quantitativa e caracterização  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O amido é encontrado na cana-de-açúcar como um polissacarídeo de reserva. A quantidade depende de diversos fatores. Este trabalho visou a determinação do conteúdo de amido em diferentes variedades de cana-de-açúcar durante o período de Maio a Novembro de 2007; e determinação de algumas característic [...] as do amido de cana-de-açúcar como: estrutura e tamanho dos grânulos de amido; determinação da temperatura de gelificação; determinação da filtrabilidade da solução de amido de cana-de-açúcar; susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar às enzimas glicoamilase, pululanase, -amilases bacterianas e fúngica comerciais. Foi testado também a susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar à enzima amilolítica desramificante isoamilase de Flavobacterium sp. O amido de cana-de-açúcar apresentou forma esférica e diâmetro entre 1-3 µm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar complexado com iodo apresentou maior absorção na faixa de 540 a 620 nm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar in natura mostrou maior susceptibilidade à enzima glicoamilase em relação aos outros amidos testados. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade à enzima amilolítica desramificante pululanase de modo similar ao amido de arroz ceroso. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade às ?-amilases de Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis e Aspergillus oryzae de modo similar aos outros amidos testados produzindo glicose; maltose; maltotriose; maltotetraose e ?- dextrinas limite. Abstract in english Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, [...] and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal ?-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit ?- dextrin.

Joelise de Alencar, Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann, Carvalho; Hélia Harumi, Sato.

236

Micropropagation of Two Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Varieties from Callus Culture  

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Protocol for induction of callus and regeneration response of two sugarcane varieties (Isd-16, Isd-28) was established through callus culture using leaf sheath. Multiple shoot regeneration at various frequencies was observed using different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. The highest percentage of callus induction was observed in the medium containing 3.0 mg l -1 2,4-D with 10% coconut water (CM). The best response in terms of multiple shoot format...

Karim, M. Z.; Amin, M. N.; Hossain, M. A.; Islam, S.; Faruk Hossin; Alam, R.

2002-01-01

237

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported-biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 89.73-77.13 g/l in average value), and ethanol productivities (about 59.53-62.79 g/l d in average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.34-3.60 g/l) with conversions ranging from 97.67-99.80%, showing efficiency (90.11-94.28%) and operational stability of the biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of this study concerning the use of sugarcane as yeast supports could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:18685877

Liang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-ping; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Ming-jun; Liang, Shi-zhong; Huang, Yu-nan

2008-12-01

238

Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura  

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Full Text Available Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500°C, in presence of air. Sugarcane in natura was also pyrolysed as a model for comparison, in order to determine the viability of processing different sources of raw biomass. The physicochemical characterization of the biomass precursors as well as of the bio-oils was also carried out, which points both biomass feedstocks as suitable for bio-oil production in terms of viscosity, surface tension, density and acidity. The bio-oil obtained from sugarcane in natura presented higher carbon and hydrogen content as well as lower oxygen content. On the other hand, the metal content is higher in the bio-oil obtained from sugarcane straw, in special the iron and potassium contents were 807 ppm and 123 ppm against 27 ppm and 1 ppm in the bio-oil from sugarcane in natura. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds as well as carbohydrates scaffolds were identified as the main components of the bio-oil. GC-MS analyses showed aromatic products from lignine fragmentation and free sugars and sugar derivatives.

Josilaine A. C. Durange

2013-04-01

239

Oxidative stress response in sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias funções em plantas apesar do gene que codificaria para óxido nítrico sintetase nunca ter sido isolado. Este trabalho descreve os resultados de u [...] ma busca no banco de dados de seqüências expressas de cana de açúcar (SUCEST) de genes envolvidos na resposta ao estresse oxidativo. Eu não encontrei genes similares a óxido nítrico no banco de dados do SUCEST, mas uma via alternativa para a produção deste radical livre pode ser proposta. Eu também encontrei vários genes envolvidos na defesa antioxidante, como quelantes de metais, antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular, enzimas antioxidantes e sistemas de reparo. Ascorbato (vitamina C) é um importante antioxidante em plantas porque é encontrado em altas concentrações em células vegetais e porque é substrato de ascorbato peroxidase, uma enzima que eu encontrei em diferentes isoformas no banco de dados do SUCEST. Eu também encontrei várias enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese de antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular que podem ser alvos para manipulação genética. A obtenção de plantas modificadas geneticamente que sintetizariam vitaminas C e E em altos níveis poderiam melhorar o valor nutricional e a tolerância a estresses de cana de açúcar. Os diversos componentes do sistema de defesa antioxidante interagem entre si e as suas sínteses devem ser muito bem reguladas. Fatores de transcrição envolvidos na regulação da resposta ao estresse oxidativo de bactérias, leveduras e de humanos diferem consideravelmente entre si e quando foram utilizados para buscas no banco de dados do SUCEST, somente genes com similaridades fracas foram encontrados, sugerindo que estas proteínas não são muito conservadas. O envolvimento de espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio na defesa de plantas contra patógenos também é discutido neste trabalho. Abstract in english Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the [...] results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.

Luis Eduardo, Soares Netto.

240

Oxidative stress response in sugarcane  

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Full Text Available Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias funções em plantas apesar do gene que codificaria para óxido nítrico sintetase nunca ter sido isolado. Este trabalho descreve os resultados de uma busca no banco de dados de seqüências expressas de cana de açúcar (SUCEST de genes envolvidos na resposta ao estresse oxidativo. Eu não encontrei genes similares a óxido nítrico no banco de dados do SUCEST, mas uma via alternativa para a produção deste radical livre pode ser proposta. Eu também encontrei vários genes envolvidos na defesa antioxidante, como quelantes de metais, antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular, enzimas antioxidantes e sistemas de reparo. Ascorbato (vitamina C é um importante antioxidante em plantas porque é encontrado em altas concentrações em células vegetais e porque é substrato de ascorbato peroxidase, uma enzima que eu encontrei em diferentes isoformas no banco de dados do SUCEST. Eu também encontrei várias enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese de antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular que podem ser alvos para manipulação genética. A obtenção de plantas modificadas geneticamente que sintetizariam vitaminas C e E em altos níveis poderiam melhorar o valor nutricional e a tolerância a estresses de cana de açúcar. Os diversos componentes do sistema de defesa antioxidante interagem entre si e as suas sínteses devem ser muito bem reguladas. Fatores de transcrição envolvidos na regulação da resposta ao estresse oxidativo de bactérias, leveduras e de humanos diferem consideravelmente entre si e quando foram utilizados para buscas no banco de dados do SUCEST, somente genes com similaridades fracas foram encontrados, sugerindo que estas proteínas não são muito conservadas. O envolvimento de espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio na defesa de plantas contra patógenos também é discutido neste trabalho.

Luis Eduardo Soares Netto

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes  

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Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating the...

Parida Swarup K; Pandit Awadhesh; Gaikwad Kishor; Sharma Tilak R; Srivastava Prem; Singh Nagendra K; Mohapatra Trilochan

2010-01-01

242

CULTIVAR RELEASE - Sugarcane: cultivar RB937570  

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Full Text Available he sugarcane cultivar RB937570 is early to medium maturing. It should be grown preferably on medium texture soils with medium to high fertility. In central-southeastern Brazil, RB937570 should be harvested between May and August. It is tolerant to the major economically relevant crop diseases, has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting and high sucrose yields.

Luís Cláudio Inácio da Silveira

2012-01-01

243

Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

2012-06-01

244

Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome.

Singh Nagendra K

2010-11-01

245

Determination of flavonoids in cultivated sugarcane leaves, bagasse, juice and in transgenic sugarcane by liquid chromatography-UV detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with photo-diode array (DAD) detection was developed to separate and quantify flavonoids in sugarcane leaves and bagasse (= the crushed sugarcane refuse from juice extraction), and in sugarcane juice. Sugarcane flavonoids consist of a complex mixture of aglycones and glycosides (including flavonolignan glycosides), and the HPLC-UV method herein proposed is suitable for their quantification as total flavonoids. This method was applied to analyze samples of cultivated sugarcane, commercial juice and transgenic sugarcane leaves. Sugarcane leaves proved a promising source of flavonoids: an average of 1.10 mg of total flavonoids/g plant material was found in fresh leaves. Moreover, the flavonoid content of sugarcane juice (0.6 mg/mL) is comparable to other food sources of flavonoids previously reported. Transgenic sugarcane leaves ("Bowman-Birk" and "Kunitz") were compared with non-modified ("control") plant samples using the proposed HPLC-UV method, which indicated that the content of total flavonoids in transgenic plants is different from that in non-modified sugarcane. PMID:16310199

Colombo, Renata; Lanças, Fernando M; Yariwake, Janete H

2006-01-20

246

Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse  

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Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI) and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH4)2SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II). The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these b...

2006-01-01

247

Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group; Esterilizacao quimica da broca da cana-de-acucar Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) atraves de isca com melaco e inseticidas do grupo dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80%. (author)

Sazaki, Catia Sumie Shimatai. E-mail csazaki@yahoo.com.br

2006-07-01

248

Daily changes of infections by Pythium ultimum after a nutrient impulse in organic versus conventional soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial populations (CFU) have been shown to oscillate in wavelike patterns after nutrient impulses in previous studies. The amplitudes and periods of oscillations could possibly be used as indicators of soil health analogous to the stability and resilience of biological populations widely accepted as indicators for ecosystem health. Limited plant and animal disease outbreaks can also be viewed as a manifestation of a healthy soil ecosystem. Two pot experiments were carried out to verify whether damping-off of beet seedlings by Pythium ultimum, measured as area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), fluctuated over time after incorporation of organic materials into organic versus conventional soils, and to investigate whether daily dynamics of AUDPCs were linked to the dynamics of microbial populations and chemical parameters. AUDPCs oscillated significantly over time when Pythium bioassays were initiated daily after addition of ground grass and clover shoots (GC) into unplanted soils. Similar oscillations with significant harmonics of AUDPC were also observed in composted manure (CM)-amended soils but with smaller amplitudes than in GC-amended soils. The AUDPC harmonics in amended soils had periods similar to those of CFU of copiotrophic bacteria. Cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that periodic fluctuations of P. ultimum infections (AUDPCs) did not coincide with those of copiotrophic CFU but were shifted in phase. It appears that competition or antagonism from some fast-growing bacteria influenced pathogen infections, because these bacterial populations were growing and dying. Soil chemical variables, including pH, dissolved organic carbon, and NO(3)(-)-N, and NH(4)(+)-N contents, changed significantly in the initial 7 days after a nutrient impulse into soils. These changes were cross-correlated with copiotrophic CFU with time lags of approximately 1 to 2 days but were seldom associated with daily changes in AUDPCs. Organically managed soils always had lower AUDPC ratios of amended to nonamended treatments, indicating that organic materials showed stronger suppressive abilities to P. ultimum in organic than in conventional soils. The oscillations in AUDPCs and copiotrophic CFU in amended organic soil also had smaller amplitudes than in amended conventional soil. These results suggested that organically managed soils had a greater resistance and resilience to the disturbance of the amendments and, therefore, could be considered healthier than conventionally managed soils. PMID:20465415

He, Miaomiao; Ma, Wenjun; Tian, Guangming; Blok, Wim; Khodzaeva, Anna; Zelenev, Vladimir V; Semenov, Alexander M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2010-06-01

249

Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development  

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Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regul...

Menossi, M.; Silva-filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; -a Van-sluys, M.; Souza, G. M.

2007-01-01

250

Purification and Characterization of Invertase Enzyme from Sugarcane  

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Sugarcane invertase was purified from mature sugarcane stem tissue to an electrophoretically homogenous state, by successive ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose and CM-Cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of purified invertase enzyme was determined 218 kDa on SDS-Polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. When the enzyme was characterized, it was found that the sugarcane invertase is glycoprotein in nature and it contained 7.29% sugar. The height enzyme activity was f...

Mahbubur Rahman, S. M. M.; Palash Kumar Sen; Fida Hasan, M.; Samad Miah, M. A.; Habibur Rahman, M.

2004-01-01

251

Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy  

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The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transfo...

Poonsak Miphokasap; Kiyoshi Honda; Chaichoke Vaiphasa; Marc Souris; Masahiko Nagai

2012-01-01

252

Feasibility of cultivation of sugarcane in agroforestry systems  

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Brazil is the world's main sugarcane producer and the production system has changed abiding to legal and technical recommendation. In Piracicaba many smallholders grow sugarcane in steep areas. Under such situation, mechanization at harvest makes cultivation impossible. This work assess the viability of agroforestry systems on joining crop production and conservation of natural resources. Soils at 12-20% slope class were identified, tree species which could be cultivated along with sugarcane ...

2003-01-01

253

Modelling response patterns of physico-chemical indicators during high-rate composting of green waste for suppression of Pythium ultimum.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-rate composting studies on green waste, i.e. banana leaves (BL) and lawn clippings (LC), were conducted in 0.25-m3 rotary barrel composters to evaluate and model changes in key physico-chemical parameters during composting. Time to compost maturity and antagonistic effects and relationships of composts against Pythium ultimum were also investigated. Higher temperatures were achieved in LC compost (LCC), which did not translate to higher total organic carbon (TOC) loss but resulted in lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and a more mature compost. With the exception of electrical conductivity (EC), net decreases were observed in pH, TOC and C:N across compost types. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) showed a net increase in LCC and a net decrease in BLC. With the exception of TOC and pH, the results showed that compost type and time had a significant effect on the respective TKN, EC and C:N models. Compost temperature and TOC were best described by the critical exponential and rectangular hyperbola functions, respectively. Whereas TKN, C:N and pH were described using double Fourier functions and EC using Fourier functions. Composts achieved maturity within 19 days and significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum. Bacterial population was positively related to growth inhibition (GI) across compost types, whereas total microbial population had a positive relationship with GI in LCC. Evidence suggests that multiple groups of microorganisms contributed to GI through antibiosis and competition for resources. Composts were determined to be suitable for use as components of plant growth substrates based on compost maturity indices. PMID:24645438

St Martin, Chaney C G; Bekele, Isaac; Eudoxie, Gaius D; Bristol, Dexter; Brathwaite, Richard A I; Campo, Kenia-Rosa

2014-01-01

254

Main trends on sustainability of sugarcane production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter concerns with the development of sustainability concepts, bio fuels and sustainability, trends in the sustainability of sugarcane based production processes, cane production, and cane processing.

Macedo, Isaias C.

2012-07-01

255

CRICISE BEFORE SUGARCANE GROWERS: DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM –SOME REMEDIAL MEASURES  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to study the constraints faced by the Sugarcane growers and to suggest some remedial measures for use of Drip Irrigation System. Drip Irrigation may help to solve the most important problem of irrigation to sugarcane- water scarcityandrising electricity bills. Majority of sugarcane growers faced the constraints i.e. the higher initial costs for installation of drip irrigation unit and clogging and cracking of emitters.Mostly the sugarcane growers suggested that the cost of drip irrigation units should be reduced And there is a need to give technical knowledge about remedies against the clogging of the emitters.

ANIL BARBOLE AND B.B.JAGTAP

2012-11-01

256

Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico / Root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum of lettuce cultivars produced in a hydroponic system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, c [...] ausada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica) e lisa (Regina e Elisa), infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique), sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano. Abstract in english Lettuce root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and other Pythium species is the main disease in hydroponic systems in Brazil. The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of four commercial lettuce cultivars as to their sensitivity to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum in hydroponic systems. [...] Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing water-agar medium and seedlings of the crisp head lettuce cultivars (Vera and Verônica) and leafy lettuce cultivars (Regina and Elisa), infested or not with the pathogen. With the same cultivars, four other experiments were carried out in hydroponic systems (Nutrient Film Technique), two in a shaded greenhouse and the other two in a conventional greenhouse. Seedlings infected or not with P. aphanidermatum were transplanted to hydroponic systems infested or not with the pathogen. The disease severity and the plant development were evaluated. All cultivars were susceptible to root rot in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The shading did not reduce root rot in the lettuce cultivars in hydroponic system. The cultivar Regina showed higher shoot and root dry mass in the presence or absence of the pathogen, constituting thus the most suitable cultivar for hydroponic systems during the hottest period of the year.

Pinto, Zayame Vegette; Cipriano, Matheus Aparecido Pereira; Galvão, José Abrahão Haddad; Bettiol, Wagner; Patrício, Flávia Rodrigues Alves; Santos, Amaury da Silva dos.

257

Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance  

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Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The biochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually...

Drummond, Rodrigo D.; Guimara?es, Claudia T.; Juliana Felix; Ninamango-ca?rdenas, Fernando E.; Carneiro, Newton P.; Edilson Paiva; Marcelo Menossi

2001-01-01

258

Bioinformatics of the sugarcane EST project  

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The Sugarcane EST project (SUCEST) produced 291,904 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in a consortium that involved 74 sequencing and data mining laboratories. We created a web site for this project that served as a ‘meeting point’ for receiving, processing, analyzing, and providing services to help explore the sequence data. In this paper we describe the information pathway that we implemented to support this project and a brief explanation of the clustering procedure, which resulted in 43,...

Telles, Guilherme P.; Braga, Mari?lia D. V.; Zanoni Dias; Lin Tzy-Li; Quitzau, Jose? A. A.; Da Silva, Felipe R.; João Meidanis

2001-01-01

259

Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function  

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Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence...

Fonseca, Ghislaine V.; Tambor, Jose? Humberto M.; Nobrega, Marina P.; Rafael Santos; Nobrega, Francisco G.

2001-01-01

260

Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sugarcane  

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Somatic embryogenesis was studied in sugarcane cultivars CPF-237 and SPF-213. Explants used were leaves, lateral buds and pith. MS medium along with NAA and 2,4-D in various concentrations were used and it was observed that 1.0 mg NAA and 3-mg/l 2,4-D was optimal for embryogenesis. Leaf portion showed maximum embryogenesis and proved a better explant source than pith.

Farheen Niaz; Azra Quraishi

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Study of thermal treatment combined with radiation on the decomposition of polysaccharides in sugarcane bagasse  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment is a physical and chemical process that reduces the crystalline structure and disrupts the hydrogen bonding of cellulose to improve the accessibility to hydrolytic depolymerization reactions. The combination of pretreatment technologies intends to decrease the severity of the processes and to avoid excessive sugar degradation and formation of toxic by-products. An effective pretreatment preserves the pentose fractions and limits the formation of degradation products that inhibits the growth of fermentative microorganisms. This study presents the evaluation of the cleavage of polysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse using ionizing radiation combined with thermal and diluted acid treatment to further enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis of cellulose. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were irradiated using a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with different absorbed doses, and then were submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid, m/m) hydrolysis for 10, 20 and 40 min at 180 °C. Taking into account the sugars and by-products liberated in these treatments the conversion rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses were calculated.

Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.

2013-03-01

262

Development of salt tolerant potato and sugarcane through in vitro techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improvement of sugarcane and potato in Pakistan is hampered by their intricate flowering behavior under natural day-length conditions. The improvement of these crops for their salt tolerance can be carried out by tissue culture mediated techniques. To induce variation in sugarcane, five-week old white yellow nodular embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5, 20, 40 and 60 Gy gamma rays. After one month, the calli were cultured on regeneration media, and plant hardening procedures were optimized. Irradiated and non-irradiated calli were subjected to various levels of salt stress and plant regeneration was investigated. Although growth of sugarcane calli was observed at 200 mM NaCl, regeneration was inhibited even at 50 mM NaCl in the medium. The regenerants from gamma irradiated material are under field evaluation. Variation was detected in both irradiated and salt treated calli by DNA fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In potato, 6-7 weeks old in vitro grown plants with single shoots having 8-10 buds were irradiated with 20 Gy gamma rays. Shoot formation was successful only from 50% of the axillary buds. The cultures were subjected to four levels of salinity (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM Nacl). Shoot-tip necrosis was observed along with significant reduction in shoot height. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

1997-07-01

263

Ameliorative Effect of NP Fertilization on Ratoon Sugarcane under Intercrops  

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Full Text Available An experiment on Ameliorative effect of NP fertilization (0-0, 60-60, 120-60, 180-60, 60-120, 120-120 and 180-120 kg/ha on ratoon sugarcane under intercrops" was conducted during 1999 at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Number of shoots per stump of sugarcane was significantly increased by the increasing rate of nitrogen. Similarly, number of water shoots per stump of sugarcane was decreased by the increasing rate of nitrogen. In impact of various intercrops sunflower and soybean reduced shoots per stump of sugarcane up to 34 and 25% respectively. Maximum number of water shoots per stump of sugarcane was recorded in sunflower intercrop followed by soybean intercrop. Grain yield (kg/ha of sunflower increased with increasing rate of nitrogen, while grain yield (kg/ha of soybean increased with increasing rate of phosphorus.

Sheraz Farid

2000-01-01

264

Sugarcane (Saccharum X officinarum): A Reference Study for the Regulation of Genetically Modified Cultivars in Brazil  

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Global interest in sugarcane has increased significantly in recent years due to its economic impact on sustainable energy production. Sugarcane breeding and better agronomic practices have contributed to a huge increase in sugarcane yield in the last 30 years. Additional increases in sugarcane yield are expected to result from the use of biotechnology tools in the near future. Genetically modified (GM) sugarcane that incorporates genes to increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses co...

Cheavegatti-gianotto, Adriana; Abreu, Hellen Mari?lia Couto; Arruda, Paulo; Bespalhok Filho, Joa?o Carlos; Burnquist, William Lee; Creste, Silvana; Di Ciero, Luciana; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Oliveira Figueira, Anto?nio Vargas; Sousa Filgueiras, Tarciso; Grossi-de-sa?, Ma?ria Fa?tima; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Hoffmann, Hermann Paulo; Andrade Landell, Marcos Guimara?es; Macedo, Newton

2011-01-01

265

Analysis of the Pythium ultimum transcriptome using Sanger and Pyrosequencing approaches  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pythium species are an agriculturally important genus of plant pathogens, yet are not understood well at the molecular, genetic, or genomic level. They are closely related to other oomycete plant pathogens such as Phytophthora species and are ubiquitous in their geographic distribution and host rage. To gain a better understanding of its gene complement, we generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the transcriptome of Pythium ultimum DAOM BR144 (= ATCC 200006 = CBS 805.95 using two high throughput sequencing methods, Sanger-based chain termination sequencing and pyrosequencing-based sequencing-by-synthesis. Results A single half-plate pyrosequencing (454 FLX run on adapter-ligated cDNA from a normalized cDNA population generated 90,664 reads with an average read length of 190 nucleotides following cleaning and removal of sequences shorter than 100 base pairs. After clustering and assembly, a total of 35,507 unique sequences were generated. In parallel, 9,578 reads were generated from a library constructed from the same normalized cDNA population using dideoxy chain termination Sanger sequencing, which upon clustering and assembly generated 4,689 unique sequences. A hybrid assembly of both Sanger- and pyrosequencing-derived ESTs resulted in 34,495 unique sequences with 1,110 sequences (3.2% that were solely derived from Sanger sequencing alone. A high degree of similarity was seen between P. ultimum sequences and other sequenced plant pathogenic oomycetes with 91% of the hybrid assembly derived sequences > 500 bp having similarity to sequences from plant pathogenic Phytophthora species. An analysis of Gene Ontology assignments revealed a similar representation of molecular function ontologies in the hybrid assembly in comparison to the predicted proteomes of three Phytophthora species, suggesting a broad representation of the P. ultimum transcriptome was present in the normalized cDNA population. P. ultimum sequences with similarity to oomycete RXLR and Crinkler effectors, Kazal-like and cystatin-like protease inhibitors, and elicitins were identified. Sequences with similarity to thiamine biosynthesis enzymes that are lacking in the genome sequences of three Phytophthora species and one downy mildew were identified and could serve as useful phylogenetic markers. Furthermore, we identified 179 candidate simple sequence repeats that can be used for genotyping strains of P. ultimum. Conclusion Through these two technologies, we were able to generate a robust set (~10 Mb of transcribed sequences for P. ultimum. We were able to identify known sequences present in oomycetes as well as identify novel sequences. An ample number of candidate polymorphic markers were identified in the dataset providing resources for phylogenetic and diagnostic marker development for this species. On a technical level, in spite of the depth possible with 454 FLX platform, the Sanger and pyro-based sequencing methodologies were complementary as each method generated sequences unique to each platform.

André Lévesque C

2008-11-01

266

Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane  

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Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes relacionados ao metabolismo secundário da cana de açúcar e investigar o padrão de expressão gênica de enzimas chaves reguladoras das principais vias biossintéticas ativas nos diferentes tipos de tecidos e situações de estresse físico-químico e biológico a que estão submetidas plantas cultivadas em casas de vegetação, campo ou in vitro. A estratégia de mineração dos dados da database de sequências expressas de cana de açúcar, SUCEST, usando ferramentas de bioinformática, focalizou classes de compostos como isoprenóides e fenilpropanóides que comprovadamente desempenham um papel na resposta de plantas a variações ambientais. Foram identificados e caracterizados genes que codificam enzimas chaves para a síntese de terpenóides, como a sesquiterpeno ciclase (SC; (CHS para síntese de flavonóides; isoflavona sintase (IFS envolvida na biossíntese de isoflavonóides que desempenharm importante papel na defesa de plantas e nodulação de raízes; isoflavona redutases (IFR enzimas chaves para a síntese de fenilpropanóide fitoalexinas, bem como enzimas relacionadas à síntese de precursores de lignina, como a enzima ácido caféico- O- metiltransferase. O efeito do estresse causado por bactérias como Herbaspirillum rubri e Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans também foi avaliado tendo sido constatada a indução da expressão de chalcona sintase (CHS em plântulas infectadas com esses agentes, sugerindo a ativação da via de flavonóides em resposta a este estresse biológico. Esses resultados apontam para o fato de que as vias do metabolismo de isopropanóides e de fenilpropanóides em cana de açúcar são ativadas de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento, especificidade de tecidos e em resposta a situações de estresse. Essas observações deverão ser confirmadas por meio de experimentação genética e bioquímica.

S.C. França

2001-12-01

267

Loss of pectin is an early event during infection of cocoyam roots by Pythium myriotylum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) is an important tuber crop in most tropical zones of Africa and America. In Cameroon, its cultivation is hampered by a soil-borne fungus Pythium myriotylum which is responsible for root rot disease. The mechanism of root colonisation by the fungus has yet to be elucidated. In this study, using microscopical and immunocytochemical methods, we provide a new evidence regarding the mode of action of the fungus and we describe the reaction of the plant to the early stages of fungal invasion. We show that the fungal attack begins with the colonisation of the peripheral and epidermal cells of the root apex. These cells are rapidly lost upon infection, while cortical and stele cells are not. Labelling with the cationic gold, which binds to negatively charged wall polymers such as pectins, is absent in cortical cells and in the interfacial zone of the infected roots while it is abundant in the cell walls of stele cells. A similar pattern of labelling is also found when using the anti-pectin monoclonal antibody JIM5, but not with anti-xyloglucan antibodies. This suggests that early during infection, the fungus causes a significant loss of pectin probably via degradation by hydrolytic enzymes that diffuse and act away from the site of attack. Additional support for pectin loss is the demonstration, via sugar analysis, that a significant decrease in galacturonic acid content occurred in infected root cell walls. In addition, we demonstrate that one of the early reactions of X. sagittifolium to the fungal invasion is the formation of wall appositions that are rich in callose and cellulose. PMID:16160840

Boudjeko, Thaddée; Andème-Onzighi, Christine; Vicré, Maïté; Balangé, Alain-Pierre; Ndoumou, Denis Omokolo; Driouich, Azeddine

2006-01-01

268

Ultrastructural and Cytochemical Aspects of the Interaction Between the Mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum and Soilborne Plant Pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The interaction between the oomycete Pythium oligandrum and various soilborne oomycete and fungal plant pathogens (P. ultimum, P. aphanidermatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Verticillium albo-atrum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Phytophthora megasperma) was studied by light and electron microscopy in order to assess the relative contribution of mycoparasitism and antibiosis in the antagonistic process. Scanning electron microscope investigations of the interaction regions showed that structural alterations of all pathogenic fungi and oomycetes (except for Phytophthora megasperma) occurred soon after contact with the antagonist. Light and transmission electron microscope studies of the interaction region between the antagonist and P. ultimum revealed that intimate contact between both partners preceded a sequence of degradation events including aggregation of host cytoplasm and penetration of altered host hyphae. Localization of the host wall cellulose component showed that cellulose was altered at potential penetration sites. A similar scheme of events was observed during the interaction between P. oligandrum and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, with the exception that complete loss of host protoplasm was associated with antagonist invasion. The interaction between P. oligandrum and R. solani resulted in an abnormal deposition of a wall-like material at potential penetration sites for the antagonist. However, the antagonist displayed the ability to circumvent this barrier and penetrate host hyphae by locally altering the chitin component of the host hyphal wall. Interestingly, antagonist cells also showed extensive alteration as evidenced by the frequent occurrence of empty hyphal shells. In the case of Phytophthora megasperma, hyphal interactions did not occur, but hyphae of the plant pathogen were damaged severely. At least two distinct mechanisms appear to be involved in the process of oomycete and fungal attack by P. oligandrum: (i) mycoparasitism, mediated by intimate hyphal interactions, and (ii) antibiosis, with alteration of the host hyphae prior to contact with the antagonist. However, the possibility that the antagonistic process may rely on the dual action of antibiotics and hydrolytic enzymes is discussed. PMID:18944723

Benhamou, N; Rey, P; Picard, K; Tirilly, Y

1999-06-01

269

Utilisation of carbon sources by pythium, phytophthora and fusarium species as determined by biolog® microplate assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the metabolic activity of pure cultures of five root pathogens commonly found in closed hydroponic cultivation systems (Phytophthora cryptogea (PC), Phytophthora capsici (PCP), Pythium aphanidermatum (PA), Fusariumoxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) and Fusarium solani (FS)) using sole carbon source utilisation in order to develop effective biocontrol strategies against these pathogens. Aliquots of 150 microL of the mycelial suspension were inoculated in each well of GN2 microtitre plates. On the basis of average well colour development and number of positive wells, the pathogens were divided into two groups, (i) PA and FORL and (ii) PC, PCP and FS. Group (i) was characterised by a short lag-phase, a rapid exponential phase involving almost all carbon sources offered and a long stationary phase, while group (ii) had a more extended lag-phase and a slower utilisation rate of the carbon sources offered. The three isolates in group (ii) differed significantly during their exponential phase. The lowest utilisation rate of carbon sources and number of sources utilised was found for PCP. Of the major group of carbon sources, six carbohydrates, three carboxylic acids and four amino acids were rapidly used by all isolates tested at an early stage. The carbon sources gentibiose, alpha-D-glucose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-proline persisted to the end of the exponential phase.Moreover, similarities between the metabolic profiles of the tested pathogen and the those of the resident microflora could also be found. These findings are of great importance as regards the role of the resident microflora in the biocontrol. PMID:19294012

Khalil, Sammar; Alsanius, Beatrix W

2009-01-01

270

Population dynamics of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown in closed systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foot and root rot in cucumber, caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., is an economically important disease in soilless culture systems. Nevertheless, very few data are available on the populations of this pathogen. Therefore, two detection methods, nested PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and plating on a selective medium after concentration of samples, were optimised and evaluated. With both methods very low concentrations of P. aphanidermatum could be detected; i.e. the detection limits were around 0.05 CFU/ml nutrient solution. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR using a Molecular Beacon probe was designed and tested. The potential and limitations of the different detection methods are discussed. With these different detection techniques, the population dynamics of P. aphanidermatum in a cucumber crop was followed. The impact of different disinfection treatments was studied in a greenhouse experiment with a cucumber crop growing on rockwool slabs in 12 independent closed systems. The nutrient solution was recirculated without disinfection (control), after UV-irradiation (250 mJ/cm2), or after slow sand filtration treatment. Part of the crop was inoculated with an isolate of P. aphanidermatum. The non-inoculated part could only become infected through the recirculated nutrient solution. Disease symptoms (stem rot, wilt, and root rot) and the yield loss were recorded in addition to the population dynamics of the pathogen. Very clear differences in the spread of the pathogen and in disease symptoms were measured between the systems with and without disinfection. UV-irradiation and slow sand filtration were both effective in removing the pathogen and protected the crop from disease symptoms. Correlation indices between the final yield and the different measurements during the experiment were calculated. PMID:12425020

Postma, J; Bonants, P J; Van Os, E A

2001-01-01

271

Genetic diversity analysis of sugarcane ( Saccharum sp. clones using simple sequence repeat markers of sugarcane and rice  

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Full Text Available Molecular markers are powerful tools, which help in differentiating plant varieties at the DNA level and have been widelyused for genetic diversity studies in a number of crop species'. Understanding the genetic diversity of available clones of S.officinarum and S. spontaneum will be helpful in breeding programs. In the present study, a set of 48 sugarcane clones fromNational Hybridization Garden, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore was subjected to genetic diversity analysisinvolving 40 SSR markers of sugarcane and rice. SSR analysis involving a set of 20 sugarcane and 20 rice primer pairsgenerated 147 and 114 markers with average polymorphism information content (PIC value of 0.665 and 0.532respectively. Cluster analysis using rice marker across 48 genotypes revealed two major clusters with ISH 23 remaining adeviant from the rest of the cultivars. Cluster analysis based on sugarcane SSR markers were found to be more or lesssimilar to that based on rice SSR markers showing minor difference in grouping. Hence, similar results obtained forcharacterizing the sugarcane clones by using SSR markers from sugarcane and rice reveal that markers with betterdiscriminating power from other cereals can bring out better characterization of sugarcane clones.

G.Banumathi , V.Krishnasamy, M.Maheswaran, R.Samiyappan, P.Govindaraj and N.Kumaravadivel

2010-07-01

272

Crescimento e produção de taro 'Chinês' influenciados por tipos de mudas e camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar / Plant growth and yield of 'Chinês' corms taro influenced by propagation methods and sugar-cane mulch  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram conduzidos dois experimentos consecutivos, numa mesma área, em Viçosa (MG), de 19/11/1997 a 08/08/1998 (experimento I) e de 01/09/1998 a 06/06/1999 (experimento II), com o taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928). Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7 (tipos de [...] mudas x camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar), com três repetições. No experimento I avaliaram-se os efeitos de quatro tipos de mudas (rizoma-mãe e rizomas filhos grande, médio e pequeno, com 80; 55; 35 e 20 g de massa fresca média, respectivamente) e sete espessuras de camadas de bagaço em cobertura (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 cm). No experimento II avaliou-se o efeito residual das camadas de bagaço utilizadas no experimento I, mantendo-se os mesmos tipos de mudas, com massas semelhantes. Avaliaram-se o estande e altura de plantas, índice de área foliar (IAF) e produção final de classes de rizomas. Menores estandes foram obtidos no experimento I e para o tipo de muda filho pequeno, principalmente na ausência de bagaço. Mudas com maior massa e camadas intermediárias de bagaço proporcionaram plantas mais vigorosas e com maiores valores de IAF. Não houve interação entre camadas de bagaço e tipos de mudas, para produção de rizomas, em ambos experimentos. No experimento I verificou-se efeito significativo para ambos os fatores, isoladamente, com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis obtidas para o tipo de muda rizomas-mãe, seguido de filho grande, e camada de bagaço entre 16,4 a 17,4 cm de espessura. No experimento II houve efeito apenas de tipos de mudas com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis para as mudas tipos rizoma-mãe e filho grande. Abstract in english Two consecutive experiments were carried out, in the same area, from 11/19/1997 to 08/08/1998 (experiment I) and from 09/01/1998 to 06/06/1999 (experiment II), with taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928). The experiments consisted of 28 treatments, in a randomized complete block design, arranged in a factorial 4 [...] x 7 (types of seedlings x layers of sugar-cane mulch), with three repetitions. In experiment I the effect of four types of seedlings were evaluated (corm and comels large, medium and small, with 80; 55; 35 and 20 g of medium fresh mass, respectively) and seven thickness of mulch layers on covering (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 and 24 cm). In experiment II the residual effect of the mulch layers used in experiment I was evaluated, the same types of seedlings staying with similar masses. The stand and height of plants, leaf area index (LAI) and final corm yield and classes of cormels were evaluated. Smaller stands were obtained in experiment I and for the type of seedling graded as small cormel, mainly in the absence of mulch. Seedlings with larger masses and intermediate layers of mulch provided more vigorous plants and with higher values of LAI. There was no interaction between mulch layers x types of seedlings, for yield of corm and cormels, in both experiments. In experiment I significant effect was verified for both factors, separately, with larger yield of total and commercial cormels obtained for the type seedling corm (head), followed by large cormel, and mulch layer from 16.4 to 17.4 cm of thickness. In experiment II, an evident effect of types of seedlings with larger yield of total and commercial cormels for the seedlings types corm and large cormel was observed.

Puiatti, Mário; Pereira, Francisco H.F.; Aquino, Leonardo Angelo.

273

Crescimento e produção de taro 'Chinês' influenciados por tipos de mudas e camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Plant growth and yield of 'Chinês' corms taro influenced by propagation methods and sugar-cane mulch  

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Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos consecutivos, numa mesma área, em Viçosa (MG, de 19/11/1997 a 08/08/1998 (experimento I e de 01/09/1998 a 06/06/1999 (experimento II, com o taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7 (tipos de mudas x camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, com três repetições. No experimento I avaliaram-se os efeitos de quatro tipos de mudas (rizoma-mãe e rizomas filhos grande, médio e pequeno, com 80; 55; 35 e 20 g de massa fresca média, respectivamente e sete espessuras de camadas de bagaço em cobertura (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 cm. No experimento II avaliou-se o efeito residual das camadas de bagaço utilizadas no experimento I, mantendo-se os mesmos tipos de mudas, com massas semelhantes. Avaliaram-se o estande e altura de plantas, índice de área foliar (IAF e produção final de classes de rizomas. Menores estandes foram obtidos no experimento I e para o tipo de muda filho pequeno, principalmente na ausência de bagaço. Mudas com maior massa e camadas intermediárias de bagaço proporcionaram plantas mais vigorosas e com maiores valores de IAF. Não houve interação entre camadas de bagaço e tipos de mudas, para produção de rizomas, em ambos experimentos. No experimento I verificou-se efeito significativo para ambos os fatores, isoladamente, com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis obtidas para o tipo de muda rizomas-mãe, seguido de filho grande, e camada de bagaço entre 16,4 a 17,4 cm de espessura. No experimento II houve efeito apenas de tipos de mudas com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis para as mudas tipos rizoma-mãe e filho grande.Two consecutive experiments were carried out, in the same area, from 11/19/1997 to 08/08/1998 (experiment I and from 09/01/1998 to 06/06/1999 (experiment II, with taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928. The experiments consisted of 28 treatments, in a randomized complete block design, arranged in a factorial 4 x 7 (types of seedlings x layers of sugar-cane mulch, with three repetitions. In experiment I the effect of four types of seedlings were evaluated (corm and comels large, medium and small, with 80; 55; 35 and 20 g of medium fresh mass, respectively and seven thickness of mulch layers on covering (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 and 24 cm. In experiment II the residual effect of the mulch layers used in experiment I was evaluated, the same types of seedlings staying with similar masses. The stand and height of plants, leaf area index (LAI and final corm yield and classes of cormels were evaluated. Smaller stands were obtained in experiment I and for the type of seedling graded as small cormel, mainly in the absence of mulch. Seedlings with larger masses and intermediate layers of mulch provided more vigorous plants and with higher values of LAI. There was no interaction between mulch layers x types of seedlings, for yield of corm and cormels, in both experiments. In experiment I significant effect was verified for both factors, separately, with larger yield of total and commercial cormels obtained for the type seedling corm (head, followed by large cormel, and mulch layer from 16.4 to 17.4 cm of thickness. In experiment II, an evident effect of types of seedlings with larger yield of total and commercial cormels for the seedlings types corm and large cormel was observed.

Mário Puiatti

2004-12-01

274

Site Specific Nutrient Management for Sugarcane-potato And Sugarcane-onion in Intercropping Systems  

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Full Text Available Four field experiments were conducted under different Agro-ecological zones (AEZs of Bangladesh at Ishurdi (AEZ 11, Jamalpur (AEZ 9, Rajshahi (AEZ 11 and Thakurgaon (AEZ 1 in 2001-2002 cropping season. The main aims of the studies were to determine the fertilizer requirements on productivity of cane and intercrops (potato and onion and their economics under sugarcane based cropping systems. Cane yield was enhanced when it was intercropped with potato and onion for the residual effect of applied fertilizer to intercrops. Net economic return was greater in cane intercropped with potato and onion over sole crop for all the experiments. Intercropping potato with sugarcane using FRG`97 rates of fertilizer for cane (130 kg N, 35 kg P, 60 kg K, 20 kg S and 3 kg Zn ha-1 and potato (50 kg N, 10 kg P and 20 kg K ha -1 gave higher economic benefit at Ishurdi site. In Jamalpur site, sugarcane intercropped with potato following fertilizer rates based on BSRI`98 for cane (150 kg N, 42 kg P, 100 kg K, 30 kg S and 2 kg Zn ha -1 and potato (50 kg N, 10 kg P and 40 kg K ha -1 gave the highest net profit. But, the treatment received fertilizers as per FRG`97 showed higher economic benefit from sugarcane-onion intercropping systems both at Rajshahi and Thakurgaon sites.

S.M. Bokhtiar

2003-01-01

275

Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse  

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Full Text Available Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II. The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4, 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comprising of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI. All the four strains grew best at pH 7 and 37°C. Aeration was not required for these bacterial strains. 5% inocula sizes were found optimum for the bacterial isolates except strain No. 23, which yielded best growth with 10% inoculum. After 2nd day of incubation in M-IV medium the bacteria liberated upto 8033 mg/100 mL of total sugar content, which showed reduction in subsequent sampling periods. On the other hand glucose content showed variable response to incubation periods. The strain 11a expressed 1411 mg/100 mL of glucose at 10th day while isolate No. 23 yielded 808 mg/100 mL glucose at 18th day of incubation. Fermentation by ethanologenic yeast of culture fluids saccharification by the isolate 194 and 23 expressed about 0.2 and 1.2% ethanol on 3rd and 7th days, respectively. The bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus cereus based upon their chemical characterization. These isolates appear potential candidates for saccharifying the sugarcane bagasse and production of ethanol employing ethanologenic yeast.

Naureen Chaudhary

2006-01-01

276

The changes in lipid composition of Pythium irregulare LX oomycetes at a stressful situation created with crude oil  

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Full Text Available Pythium irregulare oomycetes adapts with environmental changes including crude oil concentration by changing the composition of lipids in the cytoplasmic membrane and providing the required characteristics for adaptation in improper and stressful environmental situations. It was found that cultivation of Pythium irregulare LX oomycetes in the nutrient media with different concentrations of crude oil with 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 (%, incubated for 5 days at 26-28°C on a rotary shaker (200 rpm in aerobic conditions and deep culturing caused an increase in the lipid content and the unsaturation degree of fatty acids, confirming the correspondence between the increase of polar lipid/free sterol in the composition of membrane lipids’ ratio and that of polar lipids in general lipid fractions. Represented data shows that the process of adaptation of oomycetes to a stressful situation created with crude oil motivated the increase of the rate of membrane phospholipids with a high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids.

Mehdi Ghasemi

2012-01-01

277

Development of SCAR markers and PCR assays for single or simultaneous species-specific detection of Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides in ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe.  

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Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides are important water-borne oomycete pathogens of irrigated ornamentals particularly ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe in Japan. We developed novel PCR-based sequence characterized amplified region markers and assays for rapid identification and species-specific detection of both pathogens in separate PCR reactions or simultaneously in a duplex PCR. PMID:20826191

Ahonsi, Monday O; Ling, Yin; Kageyama, Koji

2010-11-01

278

A search for markers of sugarcane evolution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S), com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarca [...] ne Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST). Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres informativos para parcimônia e à homoplasia presentes na região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, não foi possível determinar com segurança a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e alguns dos demais membros da tribo Saccharine. Como alternativa para esta baixa resolução, dezessete regiões gênicas nucleares, cloroplasmáticas ou mitocondriais foram selecionadas a partir do banco de dados SUCEST com o objetivo de encontrar marcadores mais apropriados para a reconstrução da filogenia da cana-de-açúcar. Entre elas, aquelas correspondentes à alfa-tubulina, rpl16, e rpoC2 apresentaram baixa incidência de polimorfismo e taxas de evolução equivalentes ou mesmo maiores do que a observada para a região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2. Estes marcadores são propostos como preferenciais para estudos filogenéticos da subtribo Saccharinae. Abstract in english To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA) region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag ( [...] SUCEST) genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial) from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16) and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2) were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.

Bacci Jr., M.; Miranda, V.F.O.; Martins, V.G.; Figueira, A.V.O.; Lemos, M.V.; Pereira, J.O.; Marino, C.L..

279

Genetic improvement of sugarcane for drought and salinity stress tolerance using arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane plant is a glycophyte, hence its growth and sucrose contents are severely affected by drought and salinity stresses. Bioengineering approaches offer a plausible and rapid solution to mitigate these losses. Therefore for genetic improvement of sugarcane against these stresses, the present study was conceived to transform Arabidopsis Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene--confers tolerance against drought and salinity--into sugarcane through Agrobacterium. For this purpose, highly regenerable apical buds of sugarcane variety CP77-400 were used as explants. EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium harboring pGreen0029 vector containing AVP1 gene driven under 35SCaMV promoter was employed for transformation. The key factors studied include application of acetosyringone, cefotaxime, kanamycin, and co-cultivation period for successful transformation. Maximum regeneration frequency of 77.5 % was achieved on MS media containing 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l Kn, 1 mg/l GA?, 0.25 mg/l NAA, 50 ?M acetosyringone, 500 mg/l cefotaxime, and 150 mg/l kanamycin on 3 days of co-cultivation. The results revealed that apical buds are distinctive viable tissues for sugarcane transformation and regeneration to produce a large number of CP77-400 transgenic plants in shorter period of time without intervening mosaics and chimeras. The AVP1 transcripts expression in transgenic lines at various levels was detected by RT-PCR. Longer and profuse root system was observed in transgenic plants in comparison with control plants. Concomitantly, only transgenic plants were able to withstand higher NaCl salt stress as well as scarcity of water thus, showing tolerance against salinity and drought stresses. PMID:24002911

Kumar, Tanweer; Uzma; Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Abbas, Zaheer; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad

2014-03-01

280

Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  

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The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Treatment with the Mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum Triggers Induction of Defense-Related Reactions in Tomato Roots When Challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.  

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ABSTRACT The influence exerted by the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum in triggering plant defense reactions was investigated using an experimental system in which tomato plants were infected with the crown and root rot pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. To assess the antagonistic potential of P. oligandrum against F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, the interaction between the two fungi was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively). SEM investigations of the interaction region between the fungi demonstrated that collapse and loss of turgor of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici hyphae began soon after close contact was established with P. oligandrum. Ultrastructural observations confirmed that intimate contact between hyphae of P. oligandrum and cells of the pathogen resulted in a series of disturbances, including generalized disorganization of the host cytoplasm, retraction of the plasmalemma, and, finally, complete loss of the protoplasm. Cytochemical labeling of chitin with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)/ovomucoid-gold complex showed that, except in the area of hyphal penetration, the chitin component of the host cell walls was structurally preserved at a time when the host cytoplasm had undergone complete disorganization. Interestingly, the same antagonistic process was observed in planta. The specific labeling patterns obtained with the exoglucanase-gold and WGA-ovomucoid-gold complexes confirmed that P. oligandrum successfully penetrated invading cells of the pathogen without causing substantial cell wall alterations, shown by the intense labeling of chitin. Cytological investigations of samples from P. oligandrum-inoculated tomato roots revealed that the fungus was able to colonize root tissues without inducing extensive cell damage. However, there was a novel finding concerning the structural alteration of the invading hyphae, evidenced by the frequent occurrence of empty fungal shells in root tissues. Pythium ingress in root tissues was associated with host metabolic changes, culminating in the elaboration of structural barriers at sites of potential fungal penetration. Striking differences in the extent of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici colonization were observed between P. oligandrum-inoculated and control tomato plants. In control roots, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the tissues, whereas in P. oligandrum-colonized roots pathogen growth was restricted to the outermost root tissues. This restricted pattern of pathogen colonization was accompanied by deposition of newly formed barriers beyond the infection sites. These host reactions appeared to be amplified compared to those seen in nonchallenged P. oligandrum-infected plants. Most hyphae of the pathogen that penetrated the epidermis exhibited considerable changes. Wall appositions contained large amounts of callose, in addition to be infiltrated with phenolic compounds. The labeling pattern obtained with gold-complexed laccase showed that phenolics were widely distributed in Fusarium-challenged P. oligandrum-inoculated tomato roots. Such compounds accumulated in the host cell walls and intercellular spaces. The wall-bound chitin component in Fusarium hyphae colonizing P. oligandrum-inoculated roots was preserved at a time when hyphae had undergone substantial degradation. These observations provide the first convincing evidence that P. oligandrum has the potential to induce plant defense reactions in addition to acting as a mycoparasite. PMID:18945162

Benhamou, N; Rey, P; Chérif, M; Hockenhull, J; Tirilly, Y

1997-01-01

282

Morphological Characters of Some Exotic Sugarcane Varieties  

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Six exotic varieties of sugarcane (CP84-1198, CP85-1491, CP88-1165, CP77-400, CP89-846, TCP86-3368) planted at the National Agricultural Research Centre during 1998-99 were described for their morphological characters. All the varieties greatly varied in different characters. Mean leaf length, number of green leaves and width of leaf lamina/blade was different in different varieties. These varieties also differed in leaf sheath colour, carriage, and other leaf characters. Shape of the dewlap,...

Maqbool Akhtar; Nosheen Noor Elahi; Ashraf, M.

2001-01-01

283

ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE  

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Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL) and semi-pilot (25 L) reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140ºC for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%); 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9%) and 150ºC for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%). These conditions were also used for hyd...

Pessoa Jr, A.; Mancilha, I. M.; Sato, S.

1997-01-01

284

Kinetics of 35S uptake in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of 35S uptake was studied in excised shoot roots in three sugarcane cultivars Co 419, Co 997 and Co 1148 in relation to concentration. There were at least four distinct phases in uptake in the concentration range from 0.01 mM to 5.00 mM. At higher concentration ranges, cultivars did not differ in kinetics of 35S uptake. However, at lower concentrations Co 1148 was more efficient in 35S uptake compared to Co 419 and Co 997. (author)

1983-12-01

285

Frecuencia de presentación de Pythiosis Cutánea Bovina (Pythium insidiosum) en tres explotaciones ganaderas de Córdoba, Colombia / Frequency of presentation of bovine cutaneous pythiosis (Pythium insidiosum) in three cattle farms in Córdoba, Colombia / Freqüência de apresentação da Pitose Cutânea Bovina (Pythium insidiosum) em 3 fazendas em Córdoba, Colômbia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A pitiose cutânea é uma doença granulomatosa crônica, muitas vezes pruriginosa e rapidamente progressiva, causada por Pythium insidiosum. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a freqüência de ocorrência de pitiose cutânea bovina (Pythium insidiosum) em três fazendas no departamento de Córdoba, Colô [...] mbia. Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo em animais a conveniência, entre Maio e Agosto de 2011. Foram avaliados clínica, epidemiológica e histopatologicamente 72 bovinos com lesões cutâneas granulomatosas compatíveis com pitiose, a partir de 187 bovinos pertencentes a 3 fazendas localizadas em zonas inundáveis, no departamento de Córdoba, Colômbia. A freqüência de ocorrência de pitiose cutânea bovina em 3 fazendas no departamento de Córdoba, Colômbia foi de 38,5%. Concluímos que as manifestações clínicas e epidemiológicas, características macroscópicas das lesões de pele e achados patológicos, relatou uma presença mediana de pitiose bovina cutânea em 3 fazendas localizadas em zonas inundáveis no departamento de Córdoba, na Colômbia. Abstract in spanish La Pythiosis cutánea es una enfermedad crónica, granulomatosa, a menudo pruriginosa y rápidamente progresiva, causada por el Pythium insidiosum. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de presentación de pythiosis cutánea bovina en tres explotaciones ganaderas del departamento [...] de Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo en animales a conveniencia, entre los meses de mayo y agosto de 2011. Fueron evaluados clínica, epidemiológica e histopatológicamente 72 bovinos con lesiones cutáneas granulomatosas compatibles con Pythiosis, a partir de 187 bovinos pertenecientes a tres explotaciones ganaderas ubicadas en zonas inundables del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. La frecuencia de la enfermedad fue de 38.5%. Se concluye que por las manifestaciones clínico-epidemiológicas, las características macroscópicas de las lesiones cutáneas y los hallazgos histopatológicos, se informa una mediana presencia de pythiosis cutánea en bovinos de tres explotaciones ganaderas ubicadas en zonas inundables del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Abstract in english The skin pythiosis is a chronic granulomatous, often pruriginous, rapidly progressive illness, caused by Pythium insidiosum. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of bovine cutaneous pythiosis (Pythium insidiosum) in three farms in the department of Córdoba, Colomb [...] ia. A prospective study in animáis was performed, for convenience, between May and August 2011. 72 cattle with granulomatous skin lesions compatible with Pythiosis were evaluated clinical, epidemiological and histopathologically, from 187 cows belonging to three farms located in flood zones in the department of Córdoba, Colombia. The frequency of occurrence of bovine cutaneous Pythiosis in 3 cattle farms in Córdoba department, Colombia was 38,5%. It was concluded that clinical and epidemiological manifestations, macroscopic characteristics of the skin lesions and pathological findings, reported a median pythiosis presence of bovine dermal three farms located in flood zones of the department of Córdoba, Colombia.

José A, Cardona Álvarez; Marlene, Vargas Viloria; Sandra C, Perdomo A.

286

Productivity of Smallholder Sugarcane Farmers in Swaziland: The Case of Komati Downstream Development Programme (KDDP) Farmers’ Associations, 2005-2011  

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Smallholder sugarcane growing is central to rural development and poverty alleviation in Swaziland. The main objective of smallholder sugarcane growing is to reduce poverty through increased household income as a result of sugarcane production. This study investigated the productivity of smallholder sugarcane farmers’ associations under KDDP and the factors affecting sugarcane productivity. The study used data from 2004/05 to 2010/2011 production seasons for 15 smallholder sugarcan...

2012-01-01

287

Ameliorative Effect of NP Fertilization on Ratoon Sugarcane under Intercrops  

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An experiment on Ameliorative effect of NP fertilization (0-0, 60-60, 120-60, 180-60, 60-120, 120-120 and 180-120 kg/ha) on ratoon sugarcane under intercrops" was conducted during 1999 at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Number of shoots per stump of sugarcane was significantly increased by the increasing rate of nitrogen. Similarly, number of water shoots per stump of sugarcane was decreased by the increasing rate of nitrogen. In impact of various intercrops sunflower and soybean redu...

Sheraz Farid; Sherin Khan; Syed Zahid Hussain

2000-01-01

288

Xanthan production by Xanthomonas albilineans infecting sugarcane stalks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xanthomonas albilineans is the causal organism of leaf scald, a bacterial vascular disease of sugarcane. Xanthomonas may invade the parenchyma between the bundles and cause reddened pockets of gum, identified as a xanthan-like polysaccharide. Since xanthan contains glucuronic acid, the ability of Xanthomonas to produce an active UDP glucose dehydrogenase is often seen as a virulence factor. X. albilineans axenically cultured did not secrete xanthans to Willbrink liquid media, but the use of inoculated sugarcane tissues for producing and characterizing xanthans has been required. A hypothesis about the role of sugarcane polysaccharides to assure the production of bacterial xanthan is discussed. PMID:17646030

Blanch, María; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

2008-03-13

289

Effects of Every-Other Furrow Irrigation on Water Use Efficiency and Sugarcane Characteristics in Southern Ahvaz Sugarcane Fields  

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Full Text Available Sugarcane has been cultivated in an extensive area in Khuzestan and irrigated by hydro-flume or siphon and furrow. In a field experiment during 2005-6 at Amir Kabir Agro-Industry, Khuzestan, the effect of every other-furrow irrigation method was studied on sugarcane in regard to irrigation water volume, water use efficiency and quality and quantity of sugarcane. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three irrigation treatments, including conventional method (blank, variable every other furrow(alternative furrow and fixed every other furrow. This experiment was conducted by cv. Cp69-1062 sugarcane. The results showed that water use efficiency rates were 0.41, 0.58 and 0.7 kg/m3 for conventional, fixing furrow and alternative, respectively. However, water use efficiency rates were not significantly different in treatments. It had minimum amount of water use efficiency in every other furrow treatments. Maximum water use efficiency, quality and quantity of sugarcane were obtained every other irrigation. Maximum irrigation water was used in conventional treatment and resulted in minimum irrigation, quality sugarcane and water use efficiency. It produced 14.5 ton/ha sugar for 20604 m3/ha application of irrigation. Sugarcane quality and quantity characteristics in variable treatments, except for length number per hectare, were not significant.

H.A Kashkuli

2009-10-01

290

Studies on Chemical Control of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Sugarcane Saccharum officinarum Linn  

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Full Text Available During the survey of sugarcane fields, a total of 25 plant parasitic nematode species were found. The nematodes population were high at Tajpur (22.08% followed by Latif farm (21.71%, and lowest at ARI farm (17.20%. Among the three nematicides tested, application of furadan at 25 kg ha-1 significantly reduced nematode population and produced taller plant, greater number of tillers/stool, weight of single cane, total cane yield/plot and sucrose content. Although tenekil and miral reduced nematode population, results better plant growth and gave more yield over control but remained at par to furadan.

Mazhar Ali Qureshi

2002-01-01

291

Mechanisms of sugarcane response to herbivory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deciphering plant-insect interactions at the molecular level is one of the major topics of interest in contemporary plant biology research. In the last few years, various aspects of the plant response to insect damage have been investigated, including the characterization of direct and indirect responses, the regulation of gene expression resulting from insect attack and the signal transduction pathways. Such research has resulted in the proposal of new methods to enhance host resistance to insect pests, including the use of insecticidal genes that can be transferred by genetic engineering into target crops. By integrating the understanding of how plants react to insect damage with the techniques of molecular biology researchers should be able to increase the wide range of methods available for the control of insect pests. The sugarcane transcriptome project (SUCEST has allowed the identification of several orthologues genes involved in the plant response to insect damage. In this paper we summarize several aspects of the complex interaction between plants and insects and describe the use of in silico analysis to provide information about gene expression in different sugarcane tissues in response to insect attack.

Falco Maria Cristina

2001-01-01

292

Bioinformatics of the sugarcane EST project  

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Full Text Available The Sugarcane EST project (SUCEST produced 291,904 expressed sequence tags (ESTs in a consortium that involved 74 sequencing and data mining laboratories. We created a web site for this project that served as a ‘meeting point’ for receiving, processing, analyzing, and providing services to help explore the sequence data. In this paper we describe the information pathway that we implemented to support this project and a brief explanation of the clustering procedure, which resulted in 43,141 clusters.O projeto SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project produziu 291.904 ESTs de cana-de-açúcar. Nesse projeto, o Laboratório de Bioinformática criou o web site que foi o "ponto de encontro" dos 74 laboratórios de sequenciamento e data mining que fizeram parte do consórcio para o projeto. O Laboratório de Bioinformática (LBI recebeu, processou, analisou e disponibilizou ferramentas para a exploração dos dados. Neste artigo os dados, serviços e programas implementados pelo LBI para o projeto são descritos, incluindo o procedimento de clustering que gerou 43.141 clusters.

Guilherme P. Telles

2001-12-01

293

Bioinformatics of the sugarcane EST project  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O projeto SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project) produziu 291.904 ESTs de cana-de-açúcar. Nesse projeto, o Laboratório de Bioinformática criou o web site que foi o "ponto de encontro" dos 74 laboratórios de sequenciamento e data mining que fizeram parte do consórcio para o projeto. O Laboratório de Bioinfor [...] mática (LBI) recebeu, processou, analisou e disponibilizou ferramentas para a exploração dos dados. Neste artigo os dados, serviços e programas implementados pelo LBI para o projeto são descritos, incluindo o procedimento de clustering que gerou 43.141 clusters. Abstract in english The Sugarcane EST project (SUCEST) produced 291,904 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in a consortium that involved 74 sequencing and data mining laboratories. We created a web site for this project that served as a ‘meeting point’ for receiving, processing, analyzing, and providing services to help ex [...] plore the sequence data. In this paper we describe the information pathway that we implemented to support this project and a brief explanation of the clustering procedure, which resulted in 43,141 clusters.

Guilherme P., Telles; Marília D.V., Braga; Zanoni, Dias; Lin, Tzy-Li; José A.A., Quitzau; Felipe R. da, Silva; João, Meidanis.

294

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species).  

Science.gov (United States)

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

295

SUGARCANE BAGASSE: A NOVEL SUBSTRATE FOR MASS MULTIPLICATION OF FUNNELIFORMIS MOSSEAE WITH ONION AS HOST  

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Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to test the influence of sugarcane bagasse (fibrous waste left over by recovery of sugarcane juice as a substrate for the inoculum production of Funneliformis mosseae which was recorded in terms of root colonization, spore number and colonization pattern. Their effect on growth performance of onion was also recorded in terms of increase in plant height, above ground fresh and dry weight, root length, root fresh and dry weight. The experiment is a 3×4 factorial design employing three forms of bagasse (fresh, dry and compost and their four different concentrations (without substrate, 25 g/pot, 50 g/pot and 100 g/pot. The results showed that the positive influence of compost bagasse, which promoted higher root colonization and sporulation, followed by dry and fresh bagasse. Maximum spores, vesicles, arbuscules and 100 per cent colonized roots were detected in plants supplemented with 25 g compost bagasse. This treatment also influences significant increase in plant growth. Although, increasing substrate concentration proved stimulatory to AM fungus as well as onion plant growth but highest concentration (100 g proved inhibitory. Hence, compost bagasse can be exploited for the multiplication of F. mosseae by farmers as it is a cost effective method of production.

Anju Tanwar

2013-12-01

296

Cross-Polarized Magic-Angle Spinning (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Relative to Culturable Bacterial Species Composition and Sustained Biological Control of Pythium Root Rot  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the use of a model system that examines the dynamics of biological energy availability in organic matter in a sphagnum peat potting mix critical to sustenance of microorganism-mediated biological control of pythium root rot, a soilborne plant disease caused by Pythium ultimum. The concentration of readily degradable carbohydrate in the peat, mostly present as cellulose, was characterized by cross-polarized magic-angle spinning (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A decr...

Boehm, M. J.; Wu, T.; Stone, A. G.; Kraakman, B.; Iannotti, D. A.; Wilson, G. E.; Madden, L. V.; Hoitink, H.

1997-01-01

297

In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

2009-01-01

298

Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

299

Feasibility of cultivation of sugarcane in agroforestry systems  

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Full Text Available Brazil is the world's main sugarcane producer and the production system has changed abiding to legal and technical recommendation. In Piracicaba many smallholders grow sugarcane in steep areas. Under such situation, mechanization at harvest makes cultivation impossible. This work assess the viability of agroforestry systems on joining crop production and conservation of natural resources. Soils at 12-20% slope class were identified, tree species which could be cultivated along with sugarcane were selected, and the design of the systems to be adopted was evaluated. Identified area occupies 11,556 ha and the most representative soil types are Typic Kandiuldult and Lithic Hapludoll. The exotic species coconut, eucalyptus, pejibaye and rubber, and eight native species have potential to be grown in contourhedgerows with sugarcane. Initial planting of exotic, domesticated trees is recommended, and gradual introduction of native, non-domesticated species, can be set according to their ecological requirements.

Pinto Luís Fernando Guedes

2003-01-01

300

Solar UV-B Radiation Inhibits the Growth of Antarctic Terrestrial Fungi  

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We tested the effects of solar radiation, and UV-B in particular, on the growth of Antarctic terrestrial fungi. The growth responses to solar radiation of five fungi, Geomyces pannorum, Phoma herbarum, Pythium sp., Verticillium sp., and Mortierella parvispora, each isolated from Antarctic terrestrial habitats, were examined on an agar medium in the natural Antarctic environment. A 3-h exposure to solar radiation of >287 nm reduced the hyphal extension rates of all species relative to controls...

Hughes, Kevin A.; Lawley, Blair; Newsham, Kevin K.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Site Specific Nutrient Management for Sugarcane-potato And Sugarcane-onion in Intercropping Systems  

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Four field experiments were conducted under different Agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Bangladesh at Ishurdi (AEZ 11), Jamalpur (AEZ 9), Rajshahi (AEZ 11) and Thakurgaon (AEZ 1) in 2001-2002 cropping season. The main aims of the studies were to determine the fertilizer requirements on productivity of cane and intercrops (potato and onion) and their economics under sugarcane based cropping systems. Cane yield was enhanced when it was intercropped with potato and onion for the residual effect of...

Bokhtiar, S. M.; Hossain, M. S.; Mahmud, K.; Paul, G. C.

2003-01-01

302

Root system stabilization of sugarcane fertigated by subsurface drip using a minirhizotron  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the efficiency of water use in irrigation practices and to provide information for modeling the knowledge of plants root system becomes necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies about the root system of sugarcane were performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system, which enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the time required for stabilization of the root system growth of sugarcane cultivar IACSP-5000 around the access tube in which images were captured. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The fertigation was applied by a subsurface drip system.. The soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution were monitored through solution extractor. Two access tubes with 1.05 m length were used, with 7 days difference between installations. The images were captured at 110, 128, 136, 143 and 151 days after harvest cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon), with the Root Scanner CI-600 ™ and were analyzed the number of roots and root length in each layer in different depths in the soil profile by software RootSnap! ™. The results show that the highest rates of increase in the number and length of roots were observed in the first 27 days. Absolute growth rates of up to 81 mm day-1 and 38 mm day-1 were presented in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer respectively. The number of roots stabilized from 27 days after installation of the tube, while the length of the root system stabilized between 30 and 40 days. Root growth was more intense in the first two layers (0 to 0.4 m depth) of soil profile, which presented more than 80% of the total root length after the stabilization.

Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andre Luiz; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

2013-04-01

303

Sugarcane resources for sustainable development: A case study in Luena, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to provide an independent source of information for decision makers in the public and private sectors as to the feasibility of establishing a sugarcane estate in Luena and stimulating sustainable development under a range of scenarios. The goal of the study was to determine not simply whether an investment would pay off from a business perspective, but whether or not it would be in the best interest of the people in the region, and of the country as a whole. The sugarcane plant is a multi-commodity biomass resource from which many valuable products can be derived. The scenarios were based on four sucrose utilization strategies. These were classified by product: 1 Sugar only; 2 Ethanol only; 3 Fixed quantities of sugar and ethanol; or 4 Flexible quantities of sugar and ethanol. Each of these primary scenarios were analyzed for three different options with respect to bagasse utilization for cogeneration: a No surplus electricity generated (reference case); b Surplus electricity with a Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST); and a Surplus electricity with a Biomass Integrated Gasifier/Combined Cycle (BIG-CC). The analysis encompassed technical, economic/financial, social and environmental aspects of the scenarios. The scope of this study was limited in several important respects. Further analysis is required before an actual project proposal should be considered. In parallel, two issues related to product costs and markets need to be analyzed in depth. A wider range of sensitivity analyses with respect to expected product markets and prices is needed. A detailed analysis of transport costs and their impact on competitiveness in domestic and regional markets would also be required. A full Social Impact Assessment should be carried out, including the development of a resettlement strategy. Finally, an investment analysis to identify and evaluate specific financing options is needed. The baseline scenario (with no sugarcane estate) would mean continued degradation of the natural environment on and around the study site. This result suggests that action should be taken to address dwindling forest cover and related environmental degradation, even if a sugarcane investment is not made. Significant opportunities exist in Luena to use sugarcane resources as a vehicle for sustainable development. Given GRZ expectations for economic and population growth over the medium term, there appear to be significant market potentials (both domestic and export) for the sale of all three primary products addressed in this study (sugar, ethanol and electricity). More than one financially viable option appears to be available, although more variation in prices and demand must be analyzed. Regardless of the scenario chosen, establishing a sugarcane estate would require investments in public infrastructure in the order of 30 million USD. Measures are available for avoiding and/or mediating all of the potentially significant negative environmental and social impacts associated with the scenarios. Local support exists, including tribal chiefs and villagers as well as businessmen and local politicians. Government interest exists. The potential risks and benefits of establishing a new sugarcane estate in Luena depend as much on how any given scenario is implemented as which scenario is implemented. The financial viability of the scenarios was analyzed by evaluating their internal rates of return, net present value, and payback periods. The most profitable scenario (CEST1F) maximizes sugar and surplus electricity production. The second most profitable scenario is one in which sugar and ethanol are produced in fixed quantities with full electrification (CEST3F). The traditional sugar-only scenario with no surplus electricity production (REF1) also ranks high (third), because of its lower investment cost, which in turn drives up the rate of return. In general, the sugar-only strategies and those with fixed quantities of sugar and ethanol production are financially viable. Adding advanced cogeneration (using a CEST 8 syst

Cornland, D.W.; Johnson, Francis X. (eds.) [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Yamba, F. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Ltd. (Zambia); Chidumayo, E.N.; Mtonga-Chidumayo, S.B. [CHI-CHI Consultancy (Zambia); Morales, M.M. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Kalumiana, O. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia)

2001-04-01

304

Evaluation of Exotic Sugarcane Germplasm for Agronomic Characters and Productivity  

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Six exotic sugarcane varieties were evaluated for their agronomic characters and productivity. All exotic sugarcane varieties had similar germination percentage except standard variety CP77-400 which had higher germination. Significant differences were found in number of tillers ha -1, stalk height, girth and total soluble solids. Minimum (102.3 thousands ha -1) number of millable canes were found in variety CP84-1198 and the maximum (160 thousands ha -1) in C...

Maqbool Akhtar; Nosheen Noor Elahi; Ashraf, M.

2001-01-01

305

Evaluating sugarcane diets for dairy cows using a digestion model  

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To eliminate unnecessary feeding trials, a mechanistic model of sugarcane digestion was used in the search for suitable supplements to improve milk production. Milk production simulated by the model was compared with data observed in four feeding trials published in the tropical literature where crossbred dairy cows were fed sugarcane/urea diets with different types of supplements. The predicted effects of the supplements on the ruminal microbial population, concentrations of ammonia and vola...

Kebreab, E.; Assis, A. G.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.

2001-01-01

306

ICT for traceability of sugarcane harvesting operations in small farms  

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The purpose of our work is to analyze different harvesting solutions in different situations in order to provide players of the sugarcane sector viable solutions in the context of Re?union island. Two sugarcane harvesters, with different technologies have been instrumented in order to trace the various phases of work and better understand the operating conditions of machines in collective management. The embedded sensors could discriminate and localize the various stages of the harvest opera...

Deurveilher, D.; Chiroleu, F.; Chanet, M.; Chanet, J. P.; Boffety, D.

2012-01-01

307

Sugarcane genetic resistance against holoparasitic angiosperm Aeginetia pedunculata (Orobanchaceae)  

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Twenty eight sugarcane genotypes were screened against the total root parasitic angiosperm Aeginetia pedunculata (Orobanchaceae) by root inoculation with parasite seed. All the entries tested showed parasitization and wilt but variations were observed in respect of first flowering, growing degree days (GDD), area under Aeginetia progress curve (AUAPC) of the parasite and wilting of cane. Breeding of sugarcane by making crosses involving NCo 3...

Bikash Ranjan Ray Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta, And

2012-01-01

308

PREPARATION OF CELLULOSIC FIBERS FROM SUGARCANE FOR TEXTILE USE  

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The production of natural fibers is not sufficient to accommodate the textile needs of the growing world population. Therefore, textile research is exploring alternative natural resources to produce fibers. Though typically known for its nutritional use, the sugarcane can also be used for textile production because of its high fiber content.The aim of our study was to extract fibers from sugarcane and to analyze their mechanical behavior. Cane particles were treated with an alkaline solution ...

Michel, Davina; Bachelier, Bruno; Drean, Jean-yves; Harzallah, Omar

2013-01-01

309

Soil Compaction in Sugarcane Fields Induced by Mechanization  

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Problem statement: Recently in Thailand, the problem of soil compaction, especially associated with more mechanized sugarcane production, has drawn attention from both the government and private sectors. Approach: To understand this problem, investigations of soil compaction using cone penetration resistance and bulk density were conducted in 16 sugarcane fields with 10 fields involving mechanized farming and 6 field's mainly manual labor farming. Results: It was found th...

Prathuang Usaborisut; Watcharachan Sukcharoenvipharat

2011-01-01

310

Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs  

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Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics sear...

2012-01-01

311

Expression Analysis of Sugarcane Aquaporin Genes under Water Deficit  

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The present work is a pioneer study specifically addressing the aquaporin transcripts in sugarcane transcriptomes. Representatives of the four aquaporin subfamilies (PIP, TIP, SIP, and NIP), already described for higher plants, were identified. Forty-two distinct aquaporin isoforms were expressed in four HT-SuperSAGE libraries from sugarcane roots of drought-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, respectively. At least 10 different potential aquaporin isoform targets and their respective unitags ...

Silva, Manasse?s Daniel Da; Oliveira Silva, Roberta Lane; Ferreira Neto, Jose? Ribamar Costa; Ribeiro Guimara?es, Ana Carolina; Truffi Veiga, Daniela; Moutinho Chabregas, Sabrina; Burnquist, William Lee; Kahl, Gu?nter; Benko-iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

2013-01-01

312

Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US$1=R$2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. - Research highlights: ?The relative cost of ethanol produced in the US and imported from Brazil is shown to depend on currency exchange rate, feedstock costs, and co-product credits. ?In 2006-2008, the cost of corn ethanol is estimated to be 15% lower than the cost of imported sugarcane ethanol at US ports. ?A carbon pricing policy could affect relative costs in favor of sugarcane ethanol, but only at a high carbon price.

2010-11-01

313

A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS  

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This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics an...

Cortez, L. A. B.; Go?mez, E. O.

1998-01-01

314

Cloning, expression and characterization of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) transketolase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants. PMID:24132392

Kalhori, Nahid; Nulit, R; Go, Rusea

2013-10-01

315

PRIMEIRA OCORRÊNCIA DE Pythium sp. E Rhizoctonia sp. CAUSANDO PODRIDÃO-DE-RAÍZES EM ERVAIS NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL  

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Full Text Available RESUMOEm 2004, algumas plantações de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. do Vale do Taquari, RS, apresentaram estagnação do crescimento, amarelecimento, queda de folhas e necrose no sistema radicular, sintomas típicos da podridão-de-raízes. Amostras de raízes de plantas foram coletadas, em propriedades dos municípios de Ilópolis e Putinga, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Fitopatologia do Departamento de Defesa Sanitária/CCR/UFSM para análise fitopatológica. Foi constatada a presença de fungos dos gêneros Rhizoctonia e Pythium e estes se mostraram patogênicos quando inoculados em plantas de erva-mate. É a primeira constatação desses dois fungos causando podridão-de-raízes em ervais no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

Elena Blume

2007-03-01

316

Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2012-07-01

317

Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

2010-11-01

318

Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3 of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.

Jancso Mario A.

2001-01-01

319

Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

2012-02-28

320

Factors that Interfere in Dextran Production By Sugarcane Contaminating Microorganisms  

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Full Text Available Dextrans are polysaccharides produced by microorganisms, specially bacterias from the Leuconostoc genus. Dextrans have a high molecular weigh and most of the glycosidic bonds are a(1®6. For the sugar manufacture, dextran is a problem which changes the quality of sugar and the industry efficiency. Dextrans are synthesized when the sugarcane is spoiled before the harvest period, through the sugarcane fissures, which permit the penetration of microorganisms that deteriorate the sugarcane. This work aims at improving the sugar quality and the industry efficiency by isolating dextran producing microorganisms, comparing the time of burning with the infection index and the dextran concentration in the sugarcane juice. Dextran producing microorganisms were isolated from sugarcane juice during the 97/98; 99/00 and 2001 harvests. The isolated strains were maintained in MRS agar at the temperature of 4°C. The fermentation was carried out in MRS broth for 72 hours at 28°C with 180 rpm. Dextran was analyzed by spectrophotometry at 485 nm. Only three isolated strains showed good dextran production. The average of dextran production in MRS broth was 390 mg%. It was observed that a burning period above 72 hours increases the sugarcane contamination and causes high dextran production, and consequently the reduction of the industry efficiency of the sugar factory.

Maria Celia Oliveira Hauly

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE  

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Full Text Available Glutamate decarboxylase [GAD (EC 4.1.1.15], a g-aminobutyric acid (GABA metabolizing enzyme is characterized in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Var. Co 86032. The sugarcane GAD was purified by 7.8 folds and SDS-PAGE analysis revealed presence of apparent 65 and 52 kD GAD isomers. Biochemical characterization of Sugarcane GAD revealed the Km values of 1.6 mM for L-glutamate, 2 µM for PLP, 3.5 µM for Ca+2 and 6.3 nM for CaM at a sharp optimum pH of 6.0. Ca+2/CaM induced sugarcane GAD by 360%, however Ca+2 alone was ineffective. In absence of Ca+2, CaM induced the activity by 150% at pH 6.0, but no such induction was found at neutral pH. Metal ion and inhibitor studies revealed that the sugarcane GAD gets induced by Co+2, 1-10 phenanthroline and requires -SH groups. Isolation of GAD gene through cDNA yielded 1481 bp stretch of sequence occupying distant position in the phylogram of plant GADs.  Further analysis confirmed the presence of a plant specific C-terminal extension of 30-amino acid lacking authentic CaM binding domain.  The results indicate the presence of at least two forms of GAD in sugarcane.

Gireesh Babu K* * and Naik GR

2013-06-01

322

Effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation in sugarcane by 15N isotope dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

15N stable-isotope dilution technique was used to study effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in sugarcane varieties B8 and ROC22. The results showed that there were significant differences of % Ndfa (Nitrogen-fixing percentage) at different development stages between B8 and ROC22. The % Ndfa of B8 was obviously higher than that of ROC22 at young shoot stage, tillering stage and early elongation stage, and the highest % Ndfa of B8 reached 31.28% Ndfa. BNF was found in root, stem and leaf but the maximum BNF was in leaf at 60d. Inoculation with L03 could increase total nitrogen content in both B8 and ROC22. The leaf of ROC22 and the stem of B8 were found benefited most from the inoculation. BNF varied significantly in different varieties, organs and growth stages of sugarcane. (authors)

2010-10-01

323

Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation contribution in sugarcane plants originated from seeds and inoculated with nitrogen-fixing endophytes Avaliação da contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar originada de sementes e inoculada com endófitos fixadores de nitrogênio  

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The inoculation technique with endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in sugarcane has been shown as an alternative practice to plant growth promotion. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) contribution by different strains of Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane plant inoculated from seeds. The seeds were planted in pots filled with non-sterile soil, inoculated with the bacterial strains and grown 10 months outside of th...

Erineudo de Lima Canuto; André Luis Martinez de Oliveira; Verônica Massena Reis; José Ivo Baldani

2003-01-01

324

Antimicrobial Activity Of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated From sugarcane And Banana Plant  

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Full Text Available Endophytes - “Microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without carrying any immediate over negative effects". In this present investigation the endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from root, stem and leaf of Sugarcane and Banana for their antimicrobial activity. Totally 6 endophytic actinomycetes were obtained from all the samples. Population enumeration, phenotypic characters like substrate mycelium, aerial mycelium, aerial mass colour, reverse side pigment, melanoid pigment, spore chain morphology, salt tolerance on growth, growth on different pH, effect of different temperature on growth, Biochemical characteristics, and enzymatic activity were studied. For antimicrobial activity 7 bacterial pathogens and 4 fungal pathogens were used. Up on the 6 isolate 1 endophytic actinomycetes isolate (BAR1 shows good activity against all the isolates. Based on the above characteristics the potential isolate BAR1 is identified as Streptomyces sp.

Gayathri

2013-11-01

325

ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE  

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Full Text Available Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL and semi-pilot (25 L reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140ºC for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%; 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9% and 150ºC for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%. These conditions were also used for hydrolysis in a semi-pilot reactor, and the highest xylose recovery yield (83.3% was obtained at 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm

PESSOA JR. A.

1997-01-01

326

Field performance of transgenic sugarcane produced using Agrobacterium and biolistics methods.  

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Future genetic improvement of sugarcane depends, in part, on the ability to produce high-yielding transgenic cultivars with improved traits such as herbicide and insect resistance. Here, transgenic sugarcane plants generated by different transformation methods were assessed for field performance over 3 years. Agrobacterium-mediated (Agro) transgenic events (35) were produced using four different Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, while biolistic (Biol) transgenic events (48) were produced using either minimal linearized DNA (LDNA) transgene cassettes with 5', 3' or blunt ends or whole circular plasmid (PDNA) vectors containing the same transgenes. A combined analysis showed a reduction in growth and cane yield in Biol, Agro as well as untransformed tissue culture (TC) events, compared with the parent clone (PC) Q117 (no transformation or tissue culture) in the plant, first ratoon and second ratoon crops. However, when individual events were analysed separately, yields of some transgenic events from both Agro and Biol were comparable to PC, suggesting that either transformation method can produce commercially suitable clones. Interestingly, a greater percentage of Biol transformants were similar to PC for growth and yield than Agro clones. Crop ratoonability and sugar yield components (Brix%, Pol%, and commercial cane sugar (CCS)) were unaffected by transformation or tissue culture. Transgene expression remained stable over different crop cycles and increased with plant maturity. Transgene copy number did not influence transgene expression, and both transformation methods produced low transgene copy number events. No consistent pattern of genetic changes was detected in the test population using three DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:24330327

Joyce, Priya; Hermann, Scott; O'Connell, Anthony; Dinh, Quang; Shumbe, Leonard; Lakshmanan, Prakash

2014-05-01

327

Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro-regions) from Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009); (ii) One index that indicates the degree of relative occurrence of vulnerable areas in relation to contamination risk of surface and groundwater by effluents from sugarcane agroindustry from a model made by Barbalho e Campos (2010); (iii) two indicators that evaluate the commitment degree of the available water to meet the demand of sugarcane potential expansion distinctly for dryland and irrigation system; (iv) two indicators that evaluate the attendance level of the sugarcane water demand considering the limits of available water from local water resource in terms of maximum area that the culture can expand in a sustainable way For the estimation of water supply was used a spatially distributed model of specific flow (FERRAZ, 2012). The results show that the indicators were able to characterize and distinguish the different territorial units of analysis and the spatial models used satisfactorily met, in terms of level of detail, the purposes explained. The Sudoeste de Goiás and Quirinópolis microregions exhibit higher favorability, from the point of view of water sustainability therefore have areas where culture can be grown in dry system and still rely on higher available water volumes to supply the demand of sugarcane cultivation in the areas of compulsory irrigation.

Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

2012-12-01

328

Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Sugarcane in Louisiana and Efficacy of Nematicides  

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A survey conducted from May 1995 through August 1998 revealed diverse nematode communities in Louisiana sugarcane fields. High populations of Mesocriconema, Paratrichodorus, Pratylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus were widespread in nine sugarcane production parishes. Comparisons of plant cane and ratoon sugarcane crops indicated that nematode community levels increase significantly in successive ratoon crops. Nematicide trials evaluated the efficacy of aldicarb, ethoprop, and phorate against indi...

Bond, J. P.; Mcgawley, E. C.; Hoy, J. W.

2000-01-01

329

Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Pythium oligandrum strain M1  

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Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Sweden, for the pesticide active substance Pythium oligandrum strain M1 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of Pythium oligandrum as a fungicide on oil seed rape. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

330

Radiation Induced In Vitro Mutagenesis, Selection for Salt Tolerance and Characterization in Sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salinity is one the major environmental stresses affecting plant productivity. Combined use of mutagenesis and tissue culture can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt-stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane damage (electrolyte leakage) was threefold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of better water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress, indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. In addition, plantlets regenerated form irradiated calli of sugarcane cv. CoC-671, Co 86032 and Co 94012 were field planted and agronomically desirable variants were identified for economic traits like cane yield and sucrose (Brix). The genetic stability of the variants is being evaluated at field level in M3 generation. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

2008-08-12

331

Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

Thiebaut Flávia

2012-07-01

332

Isolation of Aspergillus sulphureus, Penicillium islandicum and Paecilomyces variotii from Agricultural Soil and their Biological Activity Against Pythium spinosum, the Damping-Off Organism of Soybean  

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Full Text Available This research was undertaken to study the biological control of Pythium spinosum var. spinosum, the damping-off organism of soybean using three selected soil fungi of Aspergillus sulphureus, Penicillium islandicum and Paecilomyces variotii. Pythium spinosum var. spinosum was isolated from rhizosphere soil and rhizoplane of healthy and infected soybean roots cultivated in an agricultural field located in Shahean district, Minia city, Egypt in June of 2003 and 2009 using NARM (Nystatin Ampicillin Rifampcin Miconazole selective medium. Rhizosphere and rhizoplane mycoflora isolated from the same sites were tested for their antagonism against Pythium spinosum in agar plates. Among the isolated fungi, Aspergillus sulphureus, Penicillium islandicum and Paecilomyces variotii were proved to be potent biological agents in the plate assay. Their field effectiveness was evaluated in either autoclaved or nonsterilized soil. Coating soybean seeds and roots with spores and mycelia of these three antagonists gave germinating seeds and seedlings a very good protection from root-rot, pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by P. spinosum. Applying these biocontrol agents to autoclaved and nonsterilized soil infested with P. spinosum provided an excellent way of protection.

H.M.A. Abdelzaher

2010-01-01

333

Efecto del tratamiento de semilla con zinc y ácido giberélico sobre la emergencia y el crecimiento inicial de las plantas de caña de azúcar / EFFECT OF SEED TREATMENT WITH ZINC AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE EMERGENCY AND INITIAL GROWTH OF SUGARCANE PLANTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de comparar la aplicación de una suspensión concentrada a base de zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, con el uso de ácido giberélico (ÁG3) en el tratamiento de semilla y evaluar su efecto sobre emergencia y crecimiento inicial de plantas de caña de azúcar, Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, se co [...] ndujo un ensayo en la Fundación Azucarera para el Desarrollo, la productividad y la Investigación (FUNDAcAñA), ubicada en chivacoa, municipio Bruzual, estado Yaracuy. Para tal fin se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones, donde el primero de ellos correspondió al testigo sin aplicación (T0). los tratamientos T1, T2 y T3 consistieron en sumergir secciones de tallo de 5 cm de longitud con una yema viable (mini esquejes) por 10 min en soluciones de Teprosyn Zn® al 1%, 2% y 3%, respectivamente, mientras que en el último tratamiento (T4) la semilla se sometió a inmersión en una solución de 1 g Activol® 100 l agua-1 durante el mismo tiempo. la siembra se realizó en bolsas plásticas negras, utilizando un sustrato obtenido a través de una mezcla de suelo y compost de cachaza en una proporción 1:1. los datos fueron analizados con el programa Statistix 8. Los resultados indican que el tratamiento de semilla con Teprosyn Zn® promovió la emergencia, el crecimiento inicial de raíces, el peso aéreo seco y la producción de materia seca (MS) total de las plantas, favoreciendo el establecimiento del cultivo. la utilización de ÁG3 sólo afectó la longitud total de raíces Abstract in english In order to compare the application of a concentrated suspension based on zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, with the use of gibberellic acid (GA3) in the treatment of seed and evaluate its effect on emergence and early growth of sugarcane plants , Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, a trial was conducted in the [...] Sugar Development Foundation, productivity and Research (FUNDAcAñA), located in chivacoa, municipality Bruzual, Yaracuy. For this purpose was used a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications, the first one corresponded to the control application (T0). Treatments T1, T2 and T3 consisted in immersing stem sections 5 cm long with a viable bud (mini cuttings) for 10 min in solutions of Teprosyn Zn® 1%, 2% and 3% respectively, while in the last treatment (T4) seed was subjected to immersion in a solution of 1 g Activol®/ 100 l water during the same time. The sowing was performed in black plastic bags using a substrate obtained from a mixture of soil and filter cake compost in a 1:1 proportion. Data were analyzed with the program Statistix 8. The results indicate that seed treatment with Teprosyn Zn® promoted the emergence, initial growth of roots, the dry weight and dry matter production (MS) in whole plants, favoring the crop establishment. GA3 using only affected the total length of roots

Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

334

Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

Koga-Vicente, A.

2011-12-01

335

Cadmium Status of Soils Under Sugarcane in Khuzestan Province  

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Full Text Available The main sources of cadmium in soil-plant continuum in amounts that might present a hazard are liquid and solid wastes of sewage sludge, farm manures and fertilizers. In the southwest of Iran (Khuzestan Province over 50,000 ha of land is under sugarcane (Saccarum officinarum cultivation and more than 80,000 ha will be under sugarcane by the end of the year 2000. In these sugarcane fields, about 400 kg ha-1 diamonium phosphate (DAP and 400 kg ha-1 urea are applied annually. There is no data available to show the fertilizers impact on soil, water and plant contaminations in Iran with respect to cadmium. The objective of this research was to compare the extractable cadmium of virgin soils with that of soils under sugarcane. Four sugarcane growing stations viz. Haft-tapeh, Karoon, Shoeibieh and Ghazali with cultivation histories of 36, 20, 2 and 1 year, respectively, were selected. In each site, along a transect soil samples from 0-30 cm of both furrows and ridges of cultivated soils and of virgin soils were collected. Electrical conductivity (EC, pH, clay and organic carbon contents, CI and Cd of 101 soil samples were measured according to standard methods. Results showed that increasing either EC or CI increased Cd concentration with its maximum in virgin soils and its minimum in furrows. Results also indicated a slight decrease in the Cd content of cultivated soils.

A. Koochekzadeh

2001-07-01

336

Production of a His-tagged canecystatin in transgenic sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic plants have been widely used as expression systems of recombinant proteins in recent years because it can be an efficient alternative for the large-scale production of proteins. This is an area with great potential but is still not much explored. Indeed, this system can bring a breakthrough in the expression of any protein. The model used here as a protein factory was sugarcane, a crop of great global importance. This chapter describes the system that has been adopted in the routine production of transgenic sugarcane coupled with protein purification protocol. In this chapter, we describe production of transgenic sugarcane expressing a His-tagged cystatin under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. A transformed sugarcane plant presented high levels of protein expression and was selected for the purification of this protein through affinity chromatography in a nickel column. These studies demonstrate that sugarcane can be a viable expression system for recombinant protein production and that the His-tag purification strategy used to isolate the purified protein was effective. PMID:22351027

Henrique-Silva, Flavio; Soares-Costa, Andrea

2012-01-01

337

Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

Korndorfer, A.P.; Grisoto, E.; Vendramim, J.D., E-mail: korndorfer@hotmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

2011-05-15

338

Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

2011-01-01

339

Efecto de la aplicación de abonos orgánicos en la supresión de Pythium myriotylum en plantas de tiquisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los abonos orgánicos ejercen efecto supresivo sobre patógenos de planta; su capacidad supresora varía de acuerdo al tipo de abono y al sistema planta-patógeno. Se evaluó el efecto supresor de diferentes abonos orgánicos en el sistema tiquisque-Pythium myriotylum. Se determinó la madurez, estabilidad [...] , y actividad microbiana de los diferentes abonos, así como el efecto del tipo de compostaje (compost vs vermicompost), el material de origen (estiércol vs broza de café) y el grado de madurez, sobre la supresión del patógeno. El efecto supresivo sobre el desarrollo de la enfermedad en plantas de tiquisque se estableció por medio de una escala visual de síntomas a los 3, 6 y 9 días del transplante. Los abonos presentaron relaciones C/N entre 6 y 15 y ninguno afectó la germinación o la longitud de las raíces de plántulas de pepino. Los abonos maduros clasificaron como estables y los inmaduros, con excepción del compost de broza, como inestables. La menor incidencia de pudrición de raíces por P. myriotylum se obtuvo con el uso de vermicompost a base de estiércol maduro, mientras que la menor severidad de la enfermedad ocurrió cuando el suelo se enmendó con el compost y el vermicompost maduro a base de estiércol. En términos generales los abonos obtenidos a partir de estiércol fueron más supresivos, y presentaron una mayor actividad microbiana, que los producidos a base de broza de café. Se concluye que el tipo de compostaje, el origen y el grado de madurez tienen influencia sobre la capacidad supresora. Abstract in english Effect of the application of compost and vermicompost on the suppression of pythium myriotylum in cocoyam plants (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Organic amendments have been used as a substrate which is able to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens. Since these effects vary depending on the type of compos [...] t and the plant-pathogen system, the aim of this work was to evaluate the suppressive effect of different organic fertilizers against cocoyam root rot disease, caused by Pythium myriotylum. For this purpose, the effect of the composting process (compost vs. vermicompost), origin (animal manure vs. coffee fruit-peel pulp) and degree of maturity were tested. Stability and microbial activity of the organic amendment were also determined. The suppressive effect over disease development on cocoyam was established by using a visual severity-scale on days 3, 6, and 9after transplant. The organic fertilizers presented C/N ratios between 6 and 15. Neither affected the germination or root-length of cucumber seedlings. The mature organic fertilizers classified as stable; and the immature ones, with the exception of the coffee-pulp compost, as unstable. The treatment with the best result in reducing root rot disease incidence was the mature, vermicomposted animal manure. The lowest disease severity was obtained when the soil was amended with the mature, composted or vermicomposted, animal manure. In general, the organic amendments based on animal manure were more suppressive than the ones based on coffee pulp. These results indicate that the type of composting, original material and maturity influence the suppressivity of the organic amendments.

Artavia, Silvia; Uribe, Lidieth; Saborío, Francisco; Arauz, Luis Felipe; Castro, Leida.

340

Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Influence of Rind Hardness on Sugarcane Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar recovery in a factory depends upon regular crushing and quality of varieties besides various other working parameters. Strategies for increased productivity and sugar recovery, varietal improvement can bring out through selection of parents to get maximum gains. These are governed by sugar content, fiber, rind hardness and cane yield. In order to assess the breeding value of different traits including rind hardness, study was undertaken at Sugarcane Research Institute, Shahjahanpur, during 2011-2012. Phenotypic difference and correlations among agronomic characters, basic quality characters and rind hardness in 120 segregating genotypes derived from contrast bi-parental cross (UP9530 × Co86011 of sugarcane cultivar were studied in this experiment. All the traits observed were found statistically significant among the mapping populations. The mean value of rind hardness was 5.91 with a range from 2.08 to 12.10 among 120 segregating population including their parents. Rind hardness (RHD showed significant positive genotypic correlation with sugar yield-related traits viz; cane weight (CW, r = 0.325, cane yield (CYLD, r = 0.380 and sugar yield (SUYLD, r = 0.248. Significant negative correlation was observed for rind hardness with commercial cane sugar percent (CCS%, r = -0.388, number of millable cane (NMC, r = -0.216, hand refractometer brix %-October (HBR, r = -0.154, Brix% in juice (BR, r = -0.119 and Sucrose% in juice (SUC, r = -0.080. The simple correlation analysis showed that RHD, CW, CYLD and SUYLD showed significant positive correlation for agronomic characters, but for basic quality characters had negative correlations. Result indicated that rind hardness was found to have economically important trait due to showing significant positive and negative correlation with sugar yield and sugar content, respectively. The study also revealed that with the reduction in rind hardness, sugar recovery may increase. Present findings indicated that the rind hardness could play as a key role in the selection of elite genotypes in breeding program to develop high sugar, high yielding, erect, non-lodging, disease and insect resistant varieties. The details of the study were discussed in the manuscript.

Sujeet Pratap Singh

2013-08-01

342

Diversity of 16S rRNA genes from bacteria of sugarcane rhizosphere soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane is an important agricultural product of Brazil, with a total production of more than 500 million tons. Knowledge of the bacterial community associated with agricultural crops and the soil status is a decisive step towards understanding how microorganisms influence crop productivity. However, most studies aim to isolate endophytic or rhizosphere bacteria associated with the plant by culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent approaches allow a more comprehensive view of entire bacterial communities in the environment. In the present study, we have used this approach to assess the bacterial community in the rhizosphere soil of sugarcane at different times and under different nitrogen fertilization conditions. At the high taxonomic level, few differences between samples were observed, with the phylum Proteobacteria (29.6%) predominating, followed by Acidobacteria (23.4%), Bacteroidetes (12.1%), Firmicutes (10.2%), and Actinobacteria (5.6%). The exception was the Verrucomicrobia phylum whose prevalence in N-fertilized soils was approximately 0.7% and increased to 5.2% in the non-fertilized soil, suggesting that this group may be an indicator of nitrogen availability in soils. However, at low taxonomic levels a higher diversity was found associated with plants receiving nitrogen fertilizer. Bacillus was the most predominant genus, accounting for 19.7% of all genera observed. Classically reported nitrogen-fixing and/or plant growth-promoting bacterial genera, such as Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Burkholderia were also found although at a lower prevalence. PMID:22042267

Pisa, G; Magnani, G S; Weber, H; Souza, E M; Faoro, H; Monteiro, R A; Daros, E; Baura, V; Bespalhok, J P; Pedrosa, F O; Cruz, L M

2011-12-01

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Rhamnolipid biosurfactant against Fusarium sacchari-the causal organism of pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane caused by the fungus Fusarium sacchari results considerable damage to the crop leading to top rot, the most serious and advanced stage of pokkah boeng, where the growing point is killed and the entire top of the plant dies. In the present study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant as an antifungal agent against F. sacchari to control pokkah boeng disease was investigated. On the basis of surface tension reduction, 12 bacterial isolates were selected as potent biosurfactant producers and eight of them showed antagonistic effect against F. sacchari. Among the eight, the isolate DS9 was found as the effective inhibitor of the fungus in vitro which was further evaluated using its biosurfactant present in whole culture, cell-free culture supernatant and crude biosurfactant at various concentrations. Reductions of fungal growths were found more with crude biosurfactant. By sequencing 16S rRNA, DS9 was identified as P. aeruginosa and the produced biosurfactant was characterized as rhamnolipid by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant inhibits phytopathogenic fungi F. sacchari and therefore seems to be a good biocontrol agent to control pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane. PMID:23687052

Goswami, Debahuti; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Deka, Suresh

2014-06-01

344

Diversity of 16S rRNA genes from bacteria of sugarcane rhizosphere soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important agricultural product of Brazil, with a total production of more than 500 million tons. Knowledge of the bacterial community associated with agricultural crops and the soil status is a decisive step towards understanding how microorganisms influence crop productivity. However, most studies aim to isolate endophytic or rhizosphere bacteria associated with the plant by culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent approaches allow a more comprehensive view of entire bacterial communities in the environment. In the present study, we have used this approach to assess the bacterial community in the rhizosphere soil of sugarcane at different times and under different nitrogen fertilization conditions. At the high taxonomic level, few differences between samples were observed, with the phylum Proteobacteria (29.6% predominating, followed by Acidobacteria (23.4%, Bacteroidetes (12.1%, Firmicutes (10.2%, and Actinobacteria (5.6%. The exception was the Verrucomicrobia phylum whose prevalence in N-fertilized soils was approximately 0.7% and increased to 5.2% in the non-fertilized soil, suggesting that this group may be an indicator of nitrogen availability in soils. However, at low taxonomic levels a higher diversity was found associated with plants receiving nitrogen fertilizer. Bacillus was the most predominant genus, accounting for 19.7% of all genera observed. Classically reported nitrogen-fixing and/or plant growth-promoting bacterial genera, such as Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Burkholderia were also found although at a lower prevalence.

G. Pisa

2011-12-01

345

Long-term decomposition of sugarcane harvest residues in Sao Paulo state, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crop residues returned to the soil are important to preserve fertility and sustainability. This research addressed the long-term decomposition of sugarcane post-harvest residues (trash) under reduced tillage, therefore field renewal was performed with herbicide followed by subsoiling and ratoons were deprived of interrow scarification. The trial was conducted in the northern Sao Paulo State, Brazil during four consecutive crops (2005–2008) where litter bags containing 15N-labeled trash were disposed in the field attempting to simulate two distinct situations: the previous crop trash (PCT) or residues incorporated in the field after tillage, and post-harvest trash (PHT) or the remains of plant-cane harvest. Decomposition rates regarding dry matter (DM), carbon (C), root growth, plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S), lignin (LIG) cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) contents were assessed for PCT (2005 ndash;2008) and for PHT (2006–2008). There were significant reductions on DM and C:N ratio due to C losses and root growth within the litter bags over time. The DM from PCT and PHT decreased 96% and 73% after four and three crops, respectively, and the higher nutrients release were found for K, Ca and N. The LIG, CEL and HCEL concentrations in PCT decreased 60%, 29%, 70% after four crops and 47%, 35%, 70% from PHT after three crops, respectively. Trash decomposition was driven mainly by residues biochemical composition, root growth within the trash blanket and the climatic conditions during the crop cycles. -- Highlights: ? Degradation of sugarcane previous or post-harvest trash (PCT or PHT) was evaluated. ? Dry matter and C decreased due to microbial and root growth within trash blankets. ? C:N ratio of PCT linearly decreased 23% per year during four consecutive crops. ? Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose concentration averagely declined 54, 41 and 70%. ? PCT and PHT are long-term sources of C, K, Ca and N to the soil-plant system.

2012-07-01

346