WorldWideScience
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Herbicide Effects on Sugarcane Growth, Pythium Root Rot, and Pythium arrhenomanes.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Six herbicides were evaluated for their effects on Pythium root rot and growth of sugarcane in greenhouse experiments and on in vitro mycelial growth rate of Pythium arrhenomanes. Pendimethalin and atrazine were most inhibitory to mycelial growth, but neither reduced root rot severity. Asulam, atrazine, and metribuzin were not phytotoxic to sugarcane and did not affect root rot symptom severity in clay loam or silt loam field soils. Atrazine and metribuzin increased shoot number, and atrazine increased total shoot weight for treated plants in silt loam soil. Glyphosate, pendimethalin, and terbacil were phytotoxic to sugarcane. These herbicides increased root rot severity, but the extent to which growth reductions resulted from increased disease severity or from direct herbicide injury was not clear. Adverse effects on plant growth and root rot severity were greater in clay loam than in silt loam soil. The results suggest that sugarcane injury from some herbicides is compounded by increased severity of root rot. PMID:18944905

Dissanayake, N; Hoy, J W; Griffin, J L

1998-06-01

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Two Widely Accessible Media for Growth and Reproduction of Phytophthora and Pythium Species †  

OpenAIRE

Tomato agar and soybean agar were found to be comparable to or in some cases better than the popular V8 vegetable juice agar in supporting linear growth of Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora capsici, Phytophthora parasitica, Pythium aphanidermatum, and Pythium splendens; sporangium production of P. capsici, P. palmivora, and Pythium splendens; and oospore formation of P. cactorum, P. parasitica, Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium splendens. These two media with readily accessible ingredients...

Guo, L. Y.; Ko, W. H.

1993-01-01

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In vitro paradoxical growth of Pythium insidiosum in the presence of caspofungin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic organism which causes pythiosis in humans and animals. This study aimed to report the paradoxical growth of Brazilian P. insidiosum strains when submitted to in vitro susceptibility tests with caspofungin. The growth at concentrations above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 16 to 128 ?g/ml and it was observed in 50% of the isolates tested. This paradoxical growth in the presence of caspofungin has been observed with Candida and Aspergillus strains, however, the phenomenon involving oomycetes was described here for the first time. PMID:20447776

Argenta, Juliana S; Alves, Sydney H; Silveira, Flávio; Maboni, Grazieli; Pereira, Daniela I B; Spanamberg, Andreia; Santurio, Janio M; Ferreiro, Laerte

2010-10-26

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Effect of temperature on growth of the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum causes a potentially life-threatening infectious disease called pythiosis. An early, accurate diagnosis is important, since prompt treatment leads to a better prognosis. Unsuccessful attempts to isolate the organism have been associated with specimens subjected to lower temperatures. We analyzed growth of P. insidiosum at various temperatures. Culture at low (8 degrees C) and high (42 degrees C) temperatures resulted in death or inhibited growth of the organism. Culture under optimal temperatures (28 and 32 degrees C) was important for successful isolation of P. insidiosum. PMID:21329324

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn; Angkananukul, Kanong; Brandhorst, Tristan T

2010-11-01

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Glyphosate Effects on Sugarcane Metabolism and Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world. In sugarcane, it is used as a herbicide when applied at its field rate, but it is also used as ripener when applied as low doses. However, the effects of glyphosate on plant metabolism and sugarcane growth are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic changes and the effects on sugarcane plant growth caused by the application of different doses of glyphosate. Sugarcane plants were grown in a greenhouse and subjected to glyphosate applications at doses of 7.2; 18; 36; 72; 180; 360 and 720 g a.e. ha-1. Plants grown without an herbicide application were used as a control. Plants from each treatment were collected at 2, 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment (DAT application to quantify the levels of shikimic acid, quinic acid, shikimate-3-phosphate, glyphosate, ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were performed at the same time as the collection of plants, and the quantification of their shoot dry biomass was performed at 21 DAT. At doses of glyphosate greater than 72 g a.e. ha-1, increases in the levels of shikimic acid, quinic acid, and shikimate-3-phosphate occurred and AMPA was detected in the plants. Initially, glyphosate caused increases in the plant levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine at doses of 72 and 180 g a.e. ha-1, although a decrease in the levels of aromatic amino acids subsequently occurred at and above the doses of 72 or 180 g a.e. ha-1. The doses ranging from 7.2 to 36 g a.e. ha-1 promoted an increase in plant shoot biomass, and doses greater than 72 g a.e. ha-1 caused significant reductions in dry mass.

Caio Antonio Carbonari

2014-11-01

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Effect of Microbial Antagonists on in vitro Growth of Pythium aphanidermatum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty-one isolates of 38 species of fungi and 24 isolates of 8 species of bacteria were tested in dual culture plates. Penicillium sp., 2 unidentified bacteria and a sterile fungus were found to inhibit the growth of Pythium aphanidermatum producing zones of inhibitions of 7, 11,4 and 6 mm respectively, around the colony of the pathogen. One strain each of Rhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa initially producing zones of inhibition of 15, 20 and 2 mm respectively, but later the pathogen grew and colonies met each other. Similarly, G. , virens initially produced a zone of inhibition of 20 mm but later on the pathogen over grew the zone of inhibition and colonies intermingled. A strain of P. aeruginosa also inhibited the growth of P. aphanidermatum without producing zone of inhibition.

Imran Ali Siddiqui

2001-01-01

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Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reducing Pythium root rot development. To test this hypothesis a fully factorial experiment was performed with AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, G. mosseae, G. claroideum or nonmycorrhizal), Pythium (± P. aphanidermatum) and harvest (7 and 14 days after pathogen inoculation (dapi)) as the main factors. Two weeks after AM fungi inoculation, roots were challenged with P. aphanidermatum. Variables evaluated at each harvest were root colonization levels of the interacting fungi, plant growth responses, and expression of a plant pathogenesis related protein gene (PR-1). All of the tested AM fungi caused marked growth suppressions, but did not affect PR-1 gene expression or the phosphorous concentration in the host plant. Plants singly inoculated with P. aphanidermatum had an increased PR-1 expression and phosphorous concentration. Among the AM fungi included in the study only G. intraradices reduced the pathogen root infection level, measured both in terms of Pythium ELISA and by recovery on selective media and only at the first harvest. Likewise, P. aphanidermatum root infection reduced colonization levels of G. intraradices, but not that of the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, plant growth suppressive AM fungi may offer plant beneficial traits in terms of biocontrol of root cortical pathogens.

Larsen, John; Graham, James H.

2012-01-01

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Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce  

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Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3, cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5 e quatro ao grupo T (T1 a T4 de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia.Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3, whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5 and four to group T (T1-T4 of Pythium. The identification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40 to 40.7ºC, respectively. The optimum temperature ranged from 24 to 37ºC for P. helicoides, from 25 to 35ºC for isolate F4 and 21 to 30ºC for the remaining isolates. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the isolates were evaluated by the inoculation of lettuce seeds plated in water-agar, at 21 and 30ºC. At 30ºC, P. helicoides isolates were clearly the most aggressives, determining 100 % seed mortality soon after germination. At 21ºC, all isolates reduced seedling growth, associated or not with root tissue necrosis. This is the first report of P. helicoides in Brazil and the first world reference of this species in hydroponic systems.

Liliane De Diana Teixeira

2006-09-01

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The Selection of Sugarcane Families That Display Better Associations with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria  

OpenAIRE

The capacity of the sugarcane plant to respond to Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) is associated with both the efficiency of the bacterial strain and the capacity of the plant to respond to inoculation. For this reason, the appropriate selection of both the bacterial strain and the sugarcane genotype is required for generating optimal results from PGPR inoculations. To address this issue, this study sought to evaluate the response of 54 sugarcane families to inoculation with ...

Fabio Vieira Rodrigues; Luiza Maria de Araujo; Bespalhok-filho, Joao C.; Valeria Rosa Lopes; Edelclaiton Daros; Ricardo Augusto Oliveira

2012-01-01

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Sugarcane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to increase crop water use efficiency, a field study in northern Ivory Coast on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou. The can crop tested was Co 449, an early-maturing genotype of Indian origin. This experiment was conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop (from November, 1991 to December, 1992) first ratoon crop (from December, 1992 to January, 1994) and as second ratoon crop (from January, 1994 to January, 1995). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of plots 54 m2. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratton crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugarcane growth and yield decline owing to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to that during tillering. As a result, the sugarcane crop tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering (assuming that the crop is successfully established) for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency. (author). 15 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

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Influence of Early Post Emergence Sulfonylurea Herbicides on Growth, Yield Parameters, Yield and Weed Control Efficiency in Sugarcane  

OpenAIRE

Sugarcane is a slow growing long duration crop. Inefficient weed control is the major and important threat to sugarcane productivity. Weed control at early stage is important to increase the yield of the crop. Hence, the field study was conducted from October 2011 to August 2012 in sugarcane at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to find out the influence of early post emergence Sulfonylurea herbicides on growth, yield parameters, yield and weed control efficiency in Sugarcan...

Chinnusamy, C.; Muthukrishnan, P.; Suganthi, M.

2013-01-01

12

Population dynamics of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane cultivars and its effect on plant growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different experiments have estimated that the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is largely variable among sugarcane cultivars. Which bacteria are the most important in sugarcane-associated BNF is unknown. However, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been suggested as a strong candidate responsible for the BNF observed. In the present study, bacteria-free micropropagated plantlets of five sugarcane cultivars were inoculated with three G. diazotrophicus strains belonging to different genotypes. Bacterial colonization was monitored under different nitrogen fertilization levels and at different stages of plant growth. Analysis of the population dynamics of G. diazotrophicus strains in the different sugarcane varieties showed that the bacterial populations decreased drastically in relation to plant age, regardless of the nitrogen fertilization level, bacterial genotype or sugarcane cultivars. However, the persistence of the three strains was significantly longer in some cultivars (e.g., MEX 57-473) than in others (e.g., MY 55-14). In addition, some strains (e.g., PAl 5(T)) persisted for longer periods in higher numbers than other strains (e.g., PAl 3) inside plants of all the cultivars tested. Indeed, the study showed that the inoculation of G. diazotrophicus may be beneficial for sugarcane plant growth, but this response is dependent both on the G. diazotrophicus genotype and the sugarcane variety. The most positive response to inoculation was observed with the combination of strain PAl 5(T) and the variety MEX 57-473. Although the positive effect on sugarcane growth apparently occurred by mechanisms other than nitrogen fixation, the results show the importance of the sugarcane variety for the persistence of the plant-bacteria interaction, and it could explain the different rates of BNF estimated among sugarcane cultivars. PMID:14722690

Muñoz-Rojas, J; Caballero-Mellado, J

2003-11-01

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Quantitative relationships of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to Pythium root rot and growth in hydroponic peppers / Relações quantitativas de Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 com a podridão radicular causada por Pythium e ao crescimento de pimentão hidropônico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A supressão da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum) e a promoção de crescimento de pimentão hidropônico por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 foram avaliadas em plantas predispostas ou não ao patógeno. O bioagente foi introduzido na solução nutritiva 10 dias antes das raízes serem inoculadas com o [...] patógeno. A zona radicular foi mantida a 23ºC, exceto nos três dias antes da inoculação quando as plantas foram expostas a 33ºC. Na temperatura de 23ºC (sem predisposição), P. chlororaphis na concentração de 10(7) UFC mL-1, aplicada na solução nutritiva, atrasou o aparecimento dos sintomas da doença. As concentrações de 10(6), 10(7) e 10(8) UFC mL-1 do bioagente foram mais eficientes em controlar a doença nas plantas inoculadas com o patógeno. A densidade do bioagente nas raízes, nos dois regimes de temperatura, variou de 5,88 a 6,45 log da UFC g-1 de raiz fresca, do sétimo ao 19º dia após a aplicação de 10(7) UFC mL-1 Nas plantas inoculadas ou não, o bioagente atrasou o aparecimento do escurecimento radicular, remediou a predisposição a doença e incrementou o desenvolvimento das plantas. A expansão foliar foi um indicador adequado para a podridão de raiz e a remediação com P. chlororaphis. Conclui-se que P. chlororaphis 63-28 tem potencial para o manejo da podridão da raiz em sistemas hidropônicos, independentemente da predisposição. Abstract in english The ability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to suppress Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) and promote plant growth was investigated in hydroponic peppers that were predisposed or not predisposed to the disease. The biocontrol agent was introduced into the nutrient solution 10 days before t [...] he roots were inoculated with the pathogen. The root zone was maintained at 23ºC except when roots were exposed to 33ºC for three days before inoculation to induce predisposition to root rot. At constant 23ºC (no predisposition) application of P. chlororaphis at 10(7) CFU mL-1 nutrient solution delayed root browning more effectively than did higher or lower densities. In predisposed plants, densities of 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) CFU mL-1 were equally superior. When applied at 10(7) CFU mL-1, the density of P. chlororaphis on roots of the two temperature regimes ranged from log10 5.88 to 6.45 CFU g-1 fresh roots at seven to 19 days after application. The agent delayed root browning, re-mediated predisposition to root rot, and increased growth of inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Leaf expansion was a sensitive marker of root rot and remediation by P. chlororaphis. We conclude that P. chlororaphis 63-28 has substantial potential for managing the disease regardless of predisposition.

Coralie R., Sopher; John C., Sutton.

2011-08-01

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Quantitative relationships of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to Pythium root rot and growth in hydroponic peppers Relações quantitativas de Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 com a podridão radicular causada por Pythium e ao crescimento de pimentão hidropônico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to suppress Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum and promote plant growth was investigated in hydroponic peppers that were predisposed or not predisposed to the disease. The biocontrol agent was introduced into the nutrient solution 10 days before the roots were inoculated with the pathogen. The root zone was maintained at 23ºC except when roots were exposed to 33ºC for three days before inoculation to induce predisposition to root rot. At constant 23ºC (no predisposition application of P. chlororaphis at 10(7 CFU mL-1 nutrient solution delayed root browning more effectively than did higher or lower densities. In predisposed plants, densities of 10(6, 10(7 and 10(8 CFU mL-1 were equally superior. When applied at 10(7 CFU mL-1, the density of P. chlororaphis on roots of the two temperature regimes ranged from log10 5.88 to 6.45 CFU g-1 fresh roots at seven to 19 days after application. The agent delayed root browning, re-mediated predisposition to root rot, and increased growth of inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Leaf expansion was a sensitive marker of root rot and remediation by P. chlororaphis. We conclude that P. chlororaphis 63-28 has substantial potential for managing the disease regardless of predisposition.A supressão da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento de pimentão hidropônico por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 foram avaliadas em plantas predispostas ou não ao patógeno. O bioagente foi introduzido na solução nutritiva 10 dias antes das raízes serem inoculadas com o patógeno. A zona radicular foi mantida a 23ºC, exceto nos três dias antes da inoculação quando as plantas foram expostas a 33ºC. Na temperatura de 23ºC (sem predisposição, P. chlororaphis na concentração de 10(7 UFC mL-1, aplicada na solução nutritiva, atrasou o aparecimento dos sintomas da doença. As concentrações de 10(6, 10(7 e 10(8 UFC mL-1 do bioagente foram mais eficientes em controlar a doença nas plantas inoculadas com o patógeno. A densidade do bioagente nas raízes, nos dois regimes de temperatura, variou de 5,88 a 6,45 log da UFC g-1 de raiz fresca, do sétimo ao 19º dia após a aplicação de 10(7 UFC mL-1 Nas plantas inoculadas ou não, o bioagente atrasou o aparecimento do escurecimento radicular, remediou a predisposição a doença e incrementou o desenvolvimento das plantas. A expansão foliar foi um indicador adequado para a podridão de raiz e a remediação com P. chlororaphis. Conclui-se que P. chlororaphis 63-28 tem potencial para o manejo da podridão da raiz em sistemas hidropônicos, independentemente da predisposição.

Coralie R. Sopher

2011-08-01

15

[Growth-promoting effect of inoculating klebsiella variicola DX120E on different sugarcane cultivars].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the growth promoting effect of inoculating Klebsiella variicola DX120E, a bacterial strain with high activity of associative nitrogen fixation, on sugarcane, the strain was inoculated through roots into the pathogen free micropropagated seedlings of two sugarcane cultivars B8 and GT21. The bacterial numbers colonized in sugarcane plants, the activities of the key enzymes for nitrogen metabolism, the nitrate concentration and nutrient uptake were analyzed. The results indicated that the DX120E strain could live, propagate and colonize in the roots and aerial parts of sugarcane seedlings. The DX120E inoculation could effectively promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake, significantly improve the nitrate reductase (NR) activities, and increase the glutamine synthetase (GS) activities and nitrate concentration in certain degree in the leaves, compared with the uninoculated seedlings. It was suggested that Klebsiella variicola DX120E possesses a significant growth promoting effect on sugarcane plants which has a great application potential in developing biological nitrogen fixation fertilizer for sugarcane. PMID:25345062

Wei, Chun-Yan; Xing, Yong-Xiu; Lin, Li; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yang-Rui; Hu, Chun-Jin

2014-07-01

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Sugarcane Response to Water-Deficit Stress during Early Growth on Organic and Sand Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is grown on sand soils in south Florida, USA. Sugarcane yields in the region linearly increased in last 33 years on organic (muck soils, but not on sand soils. Water deficit during the formative growth phase on sand soils probably limits sugarcane yields. Approach: A greenhouse study was conducted in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the physiological and growth responses of sugarcane to water-deficit stress during formative growth. Treatments included organic (muck and sand soils and two water regimes Well Watered (WW and Water-Deficit Stress (WS. Sugarcane cultivar CP 80-1743 was planted in pots and fertilized with N, P and K based on soil analyses. All pots were well watered until 58 days after planting, when water was withheld from the WS pots. During the WS treatment, plant growth rate, leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, proline content and photosynthesis components were measured. Final tillers, Green Leaf Area (GLA and shoot biomass were determined 27 (in 2009 or 22 (in 2010 days after initiating the WS treatment. Results: Stress symptoms of sugarcane plants appeared 7-10 days earlier on sand soil than on muck soil. Water stress reduced stomatal conductance (gs, Photosystem II Photochemical Efficiency (FPSII, leaf Photosynthesis rate (Pn, the number of tillers and GLA, resulting in reduced shoot biomass, especially on sand soil. Neither leaf RWC nor proline content was a sensitive WS indicator. Conclusion: Nondestructive measurements of physiological traits of gs, FPSII and Pn during the formative stage may be useful for early detection of water stress in sugarcane.

Duli Zhao

2010-01-01

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Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2013-05-01

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Nutrient composition of spent wash and its impact on sugarcane growth and biochemical attributes  

OpenAIRE

Nutrient composition of crude and digested spent wash and effect of their application on sugarcane growth and biochemical attributes were studied. Higher concentrations of essential nutrients (P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) were present in crude spent wash (CSW) as compared to the digested spent wash (DSW); sulphur content was the highest (765 ?g ml?1 in DSW and 1,609 ?g ml?1 in CSW) among all nutrients analyzed. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid cultivar ...

Jain, Radha; Srivastava, S.

2011-01-01

19

Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum) e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica / Biocontrol of root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) and growth promotion with Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 and Bacillus subtilis GB03 in hydroponic lettuce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológic [...] o da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%), no número de folhas (4% a 7%) e no teor de clorofila (3%) das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica. Abstract in english Root rot caused by Pythium species is a major problem in hydroponically-grown crops. Symptoms of canopy stunting are noticed in plants colonized by the pathogen and many times they are not diagnosed by the grower. The aim of this work was to evaluate biological control and plant growth promotion by [...] Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 and Bacillus subtilis GB03, known biocontrol agents of plant diseases. Inoculation of plants with P. aphanidermatum decreased lettuce mass by 20%. The introduction of the biocontrol agents to the nutrient solution was beneficial for plant growth increasing the plant mass (6% to 13%), the number of leaves (4% to 7%) and the chlorophyll content (3%) of the lettuce plants. Further studies are needed, however, to improve the effectiveness of disease control and growth promotion by the biological agents in hydroponic lettuce.

Élida Barbosa, Corrêa; Wagner, Bettiol; John Clifford, Sutton.

2010-12-01

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The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and yield of irrigated sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A layer of harvest residues from the previous crop can reduce wasteful evaporation from the soil surface and thereby increase the efficiency of use of limited water resources for agricultural production. The practice of harvesting sugarcane green and leaving crop residues in the field, as opposed to [...] burning the residue, has been re-adopted in many sugarcane industries worldwide. However, a better understanding of the dynamic impacts of residue layers on various aspects of the cropping system is required to (1) enable the formulation of sets of best management practices for specific production scenarios, and (2) promote the use of residue layers in areas where it is desirable and has not been adopted, such as irrigated sugarcane production in South Africa. The objective of this study, therefore, was to quantify the effect of 2 different types of residue layers on crop growth, cane yield and evapotranspiration of fully irrigated sugarcane. A layer of cane tops and dead leaves (Trash) and a layer of green tops (Tops) were applied to the soil surface of sugarcane crops (plant crop and first ratoon crop of variety N14) grown on lysimeters at Pongola, South Africa. Observations of crop growth (stalk population, stalk height, canopy cover), cane yield and evapotranspiration for these treatments were compared to that of a bare soil treatment. The data were also used to derive values of crop evaporation coefficients for different development phases and these were compared to FAO56 recommendations. Initial stalk population in the plant crop and radiation capture in the plant and ratoon crop were affected negatively by crop residue layers, but without significantly reducing final stalk population and cane yield. Peak stalk population occurred later in crops grown in residue layers, but peak and final stalk populations were unaffected. Evapotranspiration was reduced by both residue layers, mainly due to a slower developing canopy (reduced transpiration) and reduced evaporation from the soil, during the pre-canopy phases. Increased drainage was observed under residue layers, emphasising the importance of accurate irrigation scheduling to avoid water logging. The FAO56 methodology for calculating crop evaporation coefficient values for the initial, development and late season phases are supported by the results obtained here. Crop evaporation coefficient values were significantly reduced by residue layers. It is important that irrigation scheduling practices be adjusted to realise the potential water savings of sugarcane production systems that make use of residue layers. This study provides the information required to do that. The information could also be used to improve the ability of the crop models to accurately simulate crop growth and evapotranspiration in a residue layer cropping system.

FC, Olivier; A, Singels.

2012-01-01

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Initial Growth of Peanut Cultivars at Presence of Different Sugarcane Straw Quantities  

OpenAIRE

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of sugarcane straw on plants emergence and some characteristics of initial growth of peanut plants in boxes with soil as substrate. The treatments constituted by straw quantities of: 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 t ha-1 and the five cultivars tested were IAC 213, IAC 503, IAC 505, IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, in a factorial arrangement of 6 x 5 with four replications. At 30 days after sowing w...

Micheli Satomi Yamauti; Arthur Arrobas Martins Barroso; Paulo Roberto Fidelis Giancotti; Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

2012-01-01

22

Pythium insidiosum: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete pathogenic in mammals. The infection occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, particularly in horses, dogs and humans. Infection is acquired through small wounds via contact with water that contains motile zoospores or other propagules (zoospores or hyphae). The disease, though described as emerging has in fact already been described since 1884. Depending on the site of entry, infection can lead to different forms of pythiosis i.e. a cutaneous, vascular, ocular, gastrointestinal and a systemic form, which is rarely seen. The infection is not contagious; no animal-animal or animal-human transmission has been reported so far. Therapy includes radical surgery, antifungal drugs, immunotherapy or a combination of these therapies. The prevention to contract the disease in endemic areas is difficult. Avoiding stagnant waters could be of help, although the presence of P. insidiosum on grass and soil in enzootic areas renders this practice useless. PMID:20800978

Gaastra, Wim; Lipman, Len J A; De Cock, Arthur W A M; Exel, Tim K; Pegge, Raymond B G; Scheurwater, Josje; Vilela, Raquel; Mendoza, Leonel

2010-11-20

23

Effect of Recurrent Selection for Sucrose on Growth and Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane Internodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial sugarcane cultivars are complex, polyploid, interspecific hybrids, primarily of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum. Most breeding programs need about twelve years to develop a new cultivar. Since the 1920’s, Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used modified recurrent selection...

24

Effect of Growth Regulators on the Regeneration Potential of Two Sugarcane Cultivars SPF-213 and CPF-237  

OpenAIRE

The study was conducted to optimize in vitro plantlets production from callus in two sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum cv. SPF-213, CPF-237) embryogenic calli were induced from young leaves cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/l NAA. Three concentrations of two different growth regulators (6, benzylaminopurine and kinetin) were tested with and without NAA to compare their ability to induce regeneration from embryogenic calli. After 4 week...

Farheen Niaz; Azra Quraishi

2002-01-01

25

Comparative Growth and Yield Performance of Different Cultivars of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth and yield performance of different varieties of sugarcane viz., L-118, BF-166, CO-1321, CP-57-614, HF-152, HF-150, HF-147, BF-162, CO-975 and CP-75-300 was evaluated under field conditions. The growth characteristics like millable canes, cane length, cane diameter and weight per cane varied significantly among the cultivars. The cultivar CP-57-614 produced significantly higher cane yield (110 t ha 1 than all other varieties. The lowest cane yield (51 t ha 1 was obtained from CP-75-300. BF-162 gave the highest sucrose content (19.78% and commercial cane sugar (13.64%. Keeping in view quality and yield the variety CP-57-614 proved better than rest of the varieties.

M. Ayub

2001-01-01

26

Effect of feeding by larvae of Inopus rubriceps (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) on development and growth of sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pot experiments were used to investigate the effect of root-feeding larvae of the soldier fly Inopus rubriceps (Macquart) on shoot production from sugarcane planting pieces (setts) and on growth and ratooning of sugarcane plants. Shoot elongation was inhibited while setts were exposed to larvae, and it resumed when larvae were removed. Infested setts produced a greater weight of roots than uninfested setts. Similar symptoms were induced by mechanical root pruning, suggesting that the effect of soldier fly larvae on setts may be a redirection of growth from the shoot to roots due to root damage. Larvae had a greater effect on shoot production at lower temperature, particularly in cultivar 'Q151', which had a higher temperature threshold than 'CP44-101'. Temperature and cultivar may influence the harmful effect of soldier fly larvae on sett germination by changing the differential rates of plant growth and larval feeding. When growing plants were exposed to larvae, the infested plants were slightly smaller at harvest and subsequently produced many fewer ratoon shoots from underground buds than uninfested plants. Shoot elongation from buds was also inhibited in setts cut from the above-ground stalks of infested plants. Analysis of nutrient levels in plants did not indicate the mechanism for ratooning inhibition, because levels of time 10 elements analyzed were at least as high or higher in infested plants. Infestation was associated with an increased level of sucrose and a reduced level of fructose in stalks. The inhibitory effect of larval feeding on ratooning was not reversed when larvae were removed from pots 10 wk before harvest. However, new stubble produced from infested plants then ratooned normally after a second harvest, provided the new roots were not attacked. The symptoms of larval feeding in growing plants are unexplained, but may be caused by the prolonged withdrawal of sap from roots or the injection of some inhibitory substance by larvae. PMID:11681671

Samson, R I

2001-10-01

27

Complex Interaction of Deferasirox and Pythium insidiosum: Iron-Dependent Attenuation of Growth In Vitro and Immunotherapy-Like Enhancement of Immune Responses In Vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum iron acquisition mechanisms are unknown. We previously showed that the iron chelator deferasirox had weak activity in vitro and in rabbits with experimental pythiosis. Here we show that deferasirox causes damage to P. insidiosum hyphae in vitro, but that activity is diminished in the presence of exogenous iron. The tissue activity of the proinflammatory enzyme adenosine deaminase and the histological pattern observed in pythiosis lesions of rabbits treated with deferasirox were similar to the ones in animals treated with immunotherapy. PMID:25738758

Zanette, Régis A; Bitencourt, Paula E R; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Fighera, Rafael A; Flores, Mariana M; Kommers, Glaucia D; Silva, Priscila S; Ludwig, Aline; Moretto, Maria B; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M

2015-01-01

28

Complex Interaction of Deferasirox and Pythium insidiosum: Iron-Dependent Attenuation of Growth In Vitro and Immunotherapy-Like Enhancement of Immune Responses In Vivo  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum iron acquisition mechanisms are unknown. We previously showed that the iron chelator deferasirox had weak activity in vitro and in rabbits with experimental pythiosis. Here we show that deferasirox causes damage to P. insidiosum hyphae in vitro, but that activity is diminished in the presence of exogenous iron. The tissue activity of the proinflammatory enzyme adenosine deaminase and the histological pattern observed in pythiosis lesions of rabbits treated with deferasirox were similar to the ones in animals treated with immunotherapy. PMID:25738758

Zanette, Régis A.; Bitencourt, Paula E. R.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Fighera, Rafael A.; Flores, Mariana M.; Kommers, Glaucia D.; Silva, Priscila S.; Ludwig, Aline; Moretto, Maria B.; Alves, Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

2015-01-01

29

Initial Growth of Peanut Cultivars at Presence of Different Sugarcane Straw Quantities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of sugarcane straw on plants emergence and some characteristics of initial growth of peanut plants in boxes with soil as substrate. The treatments constituted by straw quantities of: 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 t ha-1 and the five cultivars tested were IAC 213, IAC 503, IAC 505, IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, in a factorial arrangement of 6 x 5 with four replications. At 30 days after sowing were evaluated chlorophyll content, height, emergence of plants, number of leaves, total foliar area, foliar area per plant, leaf, stem, aerial part total and per plant dry mass. Data obtained were submitted to F in variance analysis test and means were compared with Tukey at p>0.05. The same data were padronized and analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis utilizing as the similarity coefficient the simple Euclidian distance and as linkage method the Ward Method. The straw did not affect the cultivars growth studied and the straight cultivar IAC Tatu ST had the major initial growth if compared to the other.

Micheli Satomi Yamauti

2012-05-01

30

Growth indices ans productivity in sugarcane / Indicadores de crescimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O conhecimento do desenvolvimento temporal de variáveis agronômicas da cultura da cana-de-açúcar é um aspecto preponderante, e ainda pouco explorado, para o desenvolvimento de modelos de entendimento e predição da produção em estudos de sensoriamento remoto. O presente descreve a análise da evolução [...] temporal de variáveis agronômicas da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT), produtividade (TCH), índice de área foliar (IAF) e número de plantas por metro (NPM). Durante duas safras um talhão comercial em Araras/SP cultivado com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes foi acompanhado em oito campanhas de campo para a coleta de dados. O IAF, o NPM, a TCH e a BMT foram coletados em 18 amostras de 2 m em três linhas de cana-de-açúcar. Análise de regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise do crescimento da cultura e para o estudo da correlação e ajuste de modelos entre as variáveis agronômicas e a BMT e a TCH. O modelo Gompertz, de curva sigmoidal, foi o modelo que melhor se ajustou para a curva de BMT e para a TCH com r² = 0,8987 e r² = 0,9682, respectivamente. A BMT e o IAF tiveram melhores ajustes com curvas exponencial cúbica e exponencial quadrática, respectivamente. A BMT e a TCH foram bem relacionadas com o IAF nas duas primeiras fases do ciclo, ajustando-se regressões lineares. Para a fase de maturação, a BMT e a TCH foram mais relacionadas com o NPM que com o IAF e as curvas obtiveram valores menores de que r² que as demais fases do ciclo. Abstract in english A knowledge about the temporal development of agronomic variables in sugarcane is a very important aspect for the development of crop yield prediction models using remote sensing, and further studies are still needed. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugarcane biophysical parameters, s [...] uch as total biomass, leaf area index, number of plants per meter, and productivity. During two seasons, a commercial field in Araras/SP, planted with variety SP80-1842, on the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored on eight different dates, and data were obtained for 2 m of sugarcane in three crop rows at 18 sampling points. Linear and multiple regression analyses were used to study growth analysis and to correlate agronomic variables (leaf area index and number of plants per meter) with biomass and productivity. Gompertz model, a sigmoidal curve, was the best adjustment curve for total biomass and yield in relation to days after cutting (r² = 0.8987 and r² = 0.9682, respectively); number of plants and leaf area index showed best fit with a cubic exponential model and a quadratic exponential model, respectively. Total biomass and cane productivity were well correlated with LAI in the first two stages of the sugarcane cycle using linear regression. At the end of the cycle, total biomass and cane productivity were more related to number of plants, and lower r² values than in other stages were obtained by the models.

Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

2005-01-01

31

Weed-crop competition effects on growth and yield of sugarcane planted using two methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check (full season weed-crop competition) were randomized in sub-plots. Sugarcane sown by trench method exhibited more leaf area index (LAI), average crop growth rate (ACGR) and yield contributing attributes. Trench sowing by yielding 72.22 and 75.08 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields, significantly showed superiority over the flat sowing, which gave 64.13 and 66.04 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields in 2005-06 and 2006- 07, respectively. Generally, there was an increase in weed population and biomass but decrease in leaf area index, crop growth rate and yield components with an increase in weed-crop competition period. A decrease of 10.06, 17.90, 22.42, 28.65, 37.64 and 56.89% in stripped cane yield was observed for weed-crop competition periods of 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 DAS and weedy check as compared with zero competition in 2005-06, respectiwith zero competition in 2005-06, respectively. In 2006-07, the respective decrease in stripped cane yield was 9.84, 18.76, 22.92, 27.98, 38.75, and 54.98%. Trench sowing at 1.2 m row spacing proved better sowing technique and 45 DAS was the critical period of weed-crop competition. (author)

32

Effect of Growth Regulators on the Regeneration Potential of Two Sugarcane Cultivars SPF-213 and CPF-237  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to optimize in vitro plantlets production from callus in two sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum cv. SPF-213, CPF-237 embryogenic calli were induced from young leaves cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/l NAA. Three concentrations of two different growth regulators (6, benzylaminopurine and kinetin were tested with and without NAA to compare their ability to induce regeneration from embryogenic calli. After 4 weeks of culture, the percentage of shoot induction was evaluated while after 6 weeks, the total number of shoots produced was checked. Medium containing BA @1.0 mg performed better than Kinetin with the highest percentage of shoot induction.

Farheen Niaz

2002-01-01

33

Comparative Growth and Yield Performance of Different Cultivars of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)  

OpenAIRE

Growth and yield performance of different varieties of sugarcane viz., L-118, BF-166, CO-1321, CP-57-614, HF-152, HF-150, HF-147, BF-162, CO-975 and CP-75-300 was evaluated under field conditions. The growth characteristics like millable canes, cane length, cane diameter and weight per cane varied significantly among the cultivars. The cultivar CP-57-614 produced significantly higher cane yield (110 t ha 1) than all other varieties. The lowest cane yield (51 t ha 1) was obtained from CP-75-30...

Ayub, M.; Tanveer, A.; Adil Choudhry, M.; Khalid, M. R.

2001-01-01

34

Efficacy of bio-K fertilizer on the growth and sugar content of sugarcane plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bio-K- fertilizer has been used as a source of potassium to enhance the concentration of sugar in sugarcane and prevent loss of resources and environmental damage. Potassium sul phate and murate of Potash are K fertilizers. The field experiments were done during 2009-2010 to see the increase of sugar contents in sugarcane by using K- fertilizer. The use of bio-K-fertilizer has been found effective which resulted better yield in terms of both quantity and quality of sugarcane and found an increase in concentration of sucrose in sugarcane up to 28% calculated as 3-7% sugar content increase as a whole. The increase in crop production as whole was recorded as 74% due to Bio-K-fertilizer as compared to control plots. No chemical fertilizer was used during this experiment. (author)

35

Carbon Isotope Discrimination, Gas Exchange, and Growth of Sugarcane Cultivars under Salinity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiological features associated with differential resistance to salinity were evaluated in two sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) cultivars over an 8-week period during which greenhouse-grown plants were drip-irrigated with water or with NaCI solutions of 2, 4, 8, or 12 decisiemens (dS) m-1 electrical conductivity (EC). The CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (g), and shoot growth rate (SGR) began to decline as EC of the irrigation solution increased above 2 dS m-1. A, g, and SGR of a salinity-resistant cultivar (H69-8235) were consistently higher than those of a salinity-susceptible cultivar (H65-7052) at all levels of salinity and declined less sharply with increasing salinity. Carbon isotope discrimination ([delta]) in tissue obtained from the uppermost fully expanded leaf increased with salinity and with time elapsed from the beginning of the experiment, but [delta] was consistently lower in the resistant than in the susceptible cultivar at all levels of salinity. Gas-exchange measurements suggested that variation in [delta] was attributable largely to variation in bundle sheath leakiness to CO2 ([phi]). Salinity-induced increases in [phi] appeared to be caused by a reduction in C3 pathway activity relative to C4 pathway activity rather than by physical changes in the permeability of the bundle sheath to CO2. A strong correlation between [delta] and A, g, and SGR permitted these to be predicted from [delta] regardless of the cultivar and salinity level. [delta] thus provided an integrated measure of several components of physiological performance and response. PMID:12232101

Meinzer, F. C.; Plaut, Z.; Saliendra, N. Z.

1994-02-01

36

Growth and Xylose consumption of Candida guilliermondii in the submerse fermentation using sugarcane bagasse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The xylitol has been seen as a product with a great commercial value for the food and pharmaceutical industries as well the odontological sector for its notable characteristics like its sweet taste and prevention of caries, while is recommended to the obese and is tolerated by the diabetics. The xylitol may be obtained through chemical and biotechnological reactions. According to the literature the chemical production of xylitol involves an expensive and unproductive process in response to its purification. On the other hand the biotechnological has become an excellent alternative for its production, using submerse fermentative processes made by microorganisms. In the present research was studied the use of the biotechnological reaction, using the yeast Candida guilliermondii and sugarcane bagasse, a low cost agroindustrial residue used for xilose fermentation, as the substrate. Tests were made in duplicate and it was verified the fermentative capacity of three lineages of the C. guilliermondii at the times of 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. For the conversion of the xylana into xylose it was made an acid hydrolysis. Then it was used activated coal for the purification of the hydrolysate and supplementation of the fermentation medium with ammonium sulphate and rice bran. The fermentative process occurred in the shaker at 150rpm at 30ºC. This study intends to estimate through the yeast growth and the xylose consumption the best fermentative parameters to xylitol production. Among the lineages used the best one results were obtained by the LBP018, where it was obtained the highest biomass and faster xylose consumption..

Mário César Jucoski Bier et al.

2007-01-01

37

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND RATES OF NITROGEN AND SUPRA OPTIMAL LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY SUGARCANE GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of our pervious studies indicated that application of potassium @150 kg K2O ha-1 is effective in achieving economical sugarcane yield and optimum nutrient uptake under saline conditions. Keeping in view these findings, experiments were conducted on salt-affected soils at three sites of Punjab, Pakistan to select a suitable source and rate of N for obtaining optimum sugarcane yield and nutrient uptake from salt-affected soils. The experiments were conducted with two sugarcane varieties, salt tolerant (SPSG-26 and sensitive (CP-77400 using supra optimal level of K (150 kg K2O ha-1 as sulphate of potash SOP, P @ 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 as DAP (diammonium phosphate and N @100 and 200 kg N ha-1 as urea or calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN. The results showed that cane length and diameter, number of tillers per plant, cane yield and sugar recovery increased with the application of N in both the sugarcane varieties under normal or saline conditions. Sugarcane growth and yield increased with increasing N rate from 100 to 200 kg N ha-1 in case of both urea and CAN. However, CAN as N source was more effective in enhancing sugarcane growth and yield than urea. The concentration of Na+ increased in both the sugarcane varieties due to salinity, however, application of K and N decreased its concentration. The combined application of NPK also significantly reduced Na+ uptake in leaves, however, the best combination observed was DAP+SOP+CAN. It was also observed that salt tolerant variety (SPSG-26 had lesser accumulation of Na+ than that of sensitive one (CP-77400. Application of N fertilizers significantly enhanced the nutrient (K, P, and N uptake in both the varieties at both N rates (100 and 200 kg N ha-1 under normal as well as saline conditions. However, maximum uptake of nutrients was recorded at the highest dose (200 kg N ha-1 but CAN treated plants performed better than that of urea. On the basis of above results, the application of K as SOP and N as CAN was recommended for salt-affected soils to enhance the sugarcane yield. The salt tolerant variety for higher yield in salt-affected soil is also necessary for improving the cost benefit ratio. The results revealed that if salinity level of soil would exceed 10 dS m-1, considerable reduction in sugarcane yield could occur.

MARCUSS ROSS

2008-08-01

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Evaluation of Salt Tolerance of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Genotypes Based on the Ability to Regulate Ion Uptake and Transport at Early Stage of Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Sugarcane is one of the most important sugar crops in the world. Because of semi-arid climate and salinity of its cultivation area in our country, increasing salt tolerance of sugarcane is signifying. To achieve this goal determining salt tolerant cultivars and understanding salinity mechanisms in sugarcane are very important. This study was conducted to evaluate 8 commercial and promising sugarcane cultivars at early stage of growth. A complete randomized design with three replicates and four salinity treatments (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 % NaCl was used in a hydroponics system. The effect of salinity on absorption, transport and accumulation of Na+, Cl- , K+ and Ca2+ ions in shoot and root was determined. At high level salt concentration, Cl- content in shoot and root increased. Result showed that sodium accumulation in sugarcane plants was more than potassium. By increasing salinity level, sodium uptake and its translocation to shoots increased reducing growth and dry matter yield of plants. With rising salt concentration from medium (0.5% to high (0.75%, content of chloride in shoot and root of NCO-310 was constant showed that this cultivar had genetic ability to avoid Cl- uptake. CP82-1592 with lowest ratio of shoot / root chloride had minimum transport of Cl- to shoots. Also this cultivar had high content of Ca2+ in shoot and low Na+/Ca2+ ratio at all salinity levels. CP48-103 had low sodium in shoot and relatively low sodium in root. Thus it probably has genetic potential to avoid sodium uptake. At last, exclusion of Na+ and Cl- to older leaves and tillers was seen in CP82-1592 and CP72-2086 cultivars. According to results, to avoid once of absorption and transport, and exclusion of harmful Na+ and Cl- ions were mechanisms that could be used in salinity tolerance of sugarcane.

A. Arzani

2008-01-01

39

Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

40

Effects of purified piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from the venom of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta on Pythium ultimum growth in vitro and on cucumber damping-off in the greenhouse  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium ultimum Trow is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical seed treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, the venom alkaloids from red imported fire ant were tested against P. ultimum in vitro and to ...

41

Process-based simple model for simulating sugarcane growth and production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Dynamic simulation models can increase research efficiency and improve risk management of agriculture. Crop models are still little used for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) because the lack of understanding of their capabilities and limitations, lack of experience in calibrating them, difficulties in eva [...] luating and using models, and a general lack of model credibility. This paper describes the biophysics and shows a statistical evaluation of a simple sugarcane processbased model coupled with a routine for model calibration. Classical crop model approaches were used as a framework for this model, and fitted algorithms for simulating sucrose accumulation and leaf development driven by a source-sink approach were proposed. The model was evaluated using data from five growing seasons at four locations in Brazil, where crops received adequate nutrients and good weed control. Thirteen of the 27 parameters were optimized using a Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation algorithm using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Model predictions were evaluated using measured data of leaf area index, stalk and aerial dry mass, and sucrose content, using bias, root mean squared error, modeling efficiency, correlation coefficient and agreement index. The model well simulated the sugarcane crop in Southern Brazil, using the parameterization reported here. Predictions were best for stalk dry mass, followed by leaf area index and then sucrose content in stalk fresh mass.

Fábio R., Marin; James W., Jones.

2014-02-01

42

The distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to reach high yield and to increase longevity of plants. The SDI allows improving the water use efficiency, due to the application of water and nutrients in the root zone plants. It is necessary knowledge of soil and plant parameters, such as root system to improve irrigation system use efficiency. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system. The mentioned equipment enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars root system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars. The irrigation was performed by subsurface drip system and the soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. Three access tubes with 1.05 m-length were used for each cultivar. The images were caught with Root Scanner CI-600™ in two dates, 38 and 58 days after harvest (DAH) of cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon) in five depths and were analyzed by the software RootSnap! ™. The results show that, except for cultivar IACSP94-2094, more than 80% of root length was found in the first 0.40 m of soil profile. Until 38 DAH the root growth of cultivar IACSP94-2101 were approximately fourfold higher than other three ones in the 0 to 0.20 m layer, sevenfold higher to 0.20 to 0.40 m layer and threefold to 0.40 to 0.60 m soil profile layer. However, between 38 and 58 DAH the cultivar SP79-1011 presented higher growth taxes, being almost twofold higher than IACSP94-2101 at 0 to 0.20 m soil profile layer, although its growth rate for the other soil profile layers were between 38 and 57% of IACSP94-2101 rate. Compared to IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011, the other two cultivars presented fivefold and sixfold lower growth rates in root length between 38 and 58 DAH in the first two layers, respectively. The higher root length in minirhizotron surface was with 0.64 cm cm-2, found in the 20-40 cm layer of IACSP94-2101, while the overall average was 0.15 cm cm-2. The percentage of root length in deeper layers increased between the first and second analyses.

Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Barros de Oliveira Silva, André Luiz; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

2013-04-01

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Antigenic relationship between the animal and human pathogen Pythium insidiosum and nonpathogenic Pythium species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of the newly named pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum and its differentiation from other Pythium species by morphologic criteria alone can be difficult and time-consuming. Antigenic analysis by fluorescent-antibody and immunodiffusion precipitin techniques demonstrated that the P. insidiosum isolates that cause pythiosis in dogs, horses, and humans are identical and that they were distinguishable from other Pythium species by these means. The immunologic data agreed with the morphologic data. This indicated that the animal and human isolates belonged to a single species, P. insidiosum. Fluorescent-antibody and immunodiffusion reagents were developed for the specific identification of P. insidiosum. PMID:3121666

Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Standard, P

1987-01-01

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Growth of Chlorella vulgaris on sugarcane vinasse: the effect of anaerobic digestion pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae farming has been identified as the most eco-sustainable solution for producing biodiesel. However, the operation of full-scale plants is still limited by costs and the utilization of industrial and/or domestic wastes can significantly improve economic profits. Several waste effluents are valuable sources of nutrients for the cultivation of microalgae. Ethanol production from sugarcane, for instance, generates significant amounts of organically rich effluent, the vinasse. After anaerobic digestion treatment, nutrient remaining in such an effluent can be used to grow microalgae. This research aimed to testing the potential of the anaerobic treated vinasse as an alternative source of nutrients for culturing microalgae with the goal of supplying the biodiesel industrial chain with algal biomass and oil. The anaerobic process treating vinasse reached a steady state at about 17 batch cycles of 24 h producing about 0.116 m(3)CH4 kgCODvinasse (-1). The highest productivity of Chlorella vulgaris biomass (70 mg l(-1) day(-1)) was observed when using medium prepared with the anaerobic digester effluent. Lipid productivity varied from 0.5 to 17 mg l(-1) day(-1). Thus, the results show that it is possible to integrate the culturing of microalgae with the sugarcane industry by means of anaerobic digestion of the vinasse. There is also the advantageous possibility of using by-products of the anaerobic digestion such as methane and CO2 for sustaining the system with energy and carbon source, respectively. PMID:24013860

Marques, Sheyla Santa Isabel; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Chinalia, Fábio Alexandre

2013-12-01

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Effect of temperature on the population growth of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of temperature on the developmental time, survival, and reproduction of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) reared on sugarcane was studied at seven constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, and 40 degrees C). The developmental threshold temperatures and effective accumulated temperatures for the whole generation were 17.41 degrees C and 1,590.72 DD, respectively. One generation had the highest survival rate (26.67%) at 28 degrees C. The egg failed to survive at 16 and 40 degrees C. The population trend index (I = 38.22) and net reproductive rate (R(o) = 38.3) were highest at 28 degrees C. The net reproductive rate (R(o) = 3.36), intrinsic rate of increase (r(m) = 0.0028), and finite capacity of increase (lambda = 1.0028) were lowest at 20 degrees C. The mean generation time (T(o) = 85.82) was shortest at 36 degrees C. The population double time (PDT = 27.08) was shortest at 32 degrees C. Based on these studies, we concluded that the temperatures from 28 to 32 degrees C were the most suitable temperatures for the development of R. ferrugineus. PMID:20550815

Li, Lei; Qin, Wei-Quan; Ma, Zi-Long; Yan, Wei; Huang, Shan-Chun; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

2010-06-01

46

Use of Brassicaceous seed meals to improve seedling emergence of tomato and pepper in Pythium ultimum infested soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth room studies were conducted to determine the impact of Brassicaceae seed meals on the emergence of tomato and pepper seedlings in Pythium ultimum infested soils. Pasteurised Burch sandy loam soils were amended with intact and denatured seed meal of rape seed and mustard. Brassica juncea or Br...

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Soil physical properties and sugarcane root growth in a red oxiso / Propriedades físicas de solo e crescimento radicular de cana-de-açúcar em um latossolo vermelho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar é, na atualidade, uma das culturas de maior importância no agronegócio brasileiro, a qual envolve o uso de máquinas agrícolas em todas as fases do cultivo - do preparo do solo até a colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os atributos físicos e o crescimento de raízes em Lat [...] ossolo Vermelho eutroférrico cultivado com cana-de-açúcar por diferentes períodos de tempo. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área de produção de cana-de-açúcar em Rolândia, Paraná, com diferentes tratamentos (número de cortes: 1, 3, 8, 10 e 16); a colheita foi realizada com cana queimada e corte manual, determinando-se: densidade, macro e microporosidade, resistência do solo à penetração, densidade do solo, densidade de comprimento e área de raízes. Conclui-se que as práticas de manejo na cultura da cana-de-açúcar promovem alterações na resistência, densidade e porosidade do solo, em comparação com a mata nativa; essas alterações nos atributos físicos foram impeditivas ao pleno desenvolvimento radicular da cana-de-açúcar além de 10 cm de profundidade, em todos os períodos de cultivo analisados. Abstract in english Sugarcane, which involves the use of agricultural machinery in all crop stages, from soil preparation to harvest, is currently one of the most relevant crops for agribusiness in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to investigate soil physical properties and root growth in a eutroferric red Oxisol [...] (Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico) after different periods under sugarcane. The study was carried out in a cane plantation in Rolândia, Paraná State, where treatments consisted of a number of cuts (1, 3, 8, 10 and 16), harvested as green and burned sugarcane, at which soil bulk density, macro and microporosity, penetration resistance, as well as root length, density and area were determined. Results showed that sugarcane management practices lead to alterations in soil penetration resistance, bulk density and porosity, compared to native forest soil. These alterations in soil physical characteristics impede the full growth of the sugarcane root system beneath 10 cm, in all growing seasons analyzed.

José Euripides, Baquero; Ricardo, Ralisch; Cristiane de Conti, Medina; João, Tavares Filho; Maria de Fátima, Guimarães.

2012-02-01

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Seasonal Variation of the Canopy Structure Parameters and Its Correlation with Yield-Related Traits in Sugarcane  

OpenAIRE

Population structure determines sugarcane yield, of which canopy structure is a key component. To fully understand the relations between sugarcane yield and parameters of the canopy structure, 17 sugarcane varieties were investigated at five growth stages. The results indicated that there were significant differences between characterized parameters among sugarcane populations at different growth stages. During sugarcane growth after planting, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf distribution (LD) ...

Jun Luo; Youxiong Que; Hua Zhang; Liping Xu

2013-01-01

49

Increasing P-Availability and P-Uptake Using Sugarcane Filter Cake and Rice Husk Ash to Improve Chinesse Cabbage (Brassica Sp) Growth in Andisol, East Java  

OpenAIRE

The production potential in Andisols is limited by the high P-retention capacity. Farmers commonly use organic matter. Sugarcane filter cake (blothong, Indonesian, SFC) and rice husk ash (RHA) are locally available in Coban Rondo, Malang, East Java and hence potentially used for soil amendment. To study the effects of SFC and RHA on P availability, P uptake and plant growth (Brassica sp.), soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth, incubated with SFC (21.37 Mg.ha-1) and RHA (44.64 Mg.ha-1). ...

Utami, S. R.; Kurniawan, S.; Situmorang, B.; Rositasari, N. D.

2012-01-01

50

Growth at elevated CO2 delays the adverse effects of drought stress on leaf photosynthesis of the C4 sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane was grown in sunlit greenhouses at 360 and 720 ppm CO2, and drought was imposed for 13 days on 4-month old plants. Leaf CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activity of Rubisco were marginally affected by high CO2 but were reduced by drought, whereas activity of PEP carboxylase was reduced by high ...

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Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

Katya da Silva Patekoski

2010-08-01

52

Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma / Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de [...] alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1) e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings o [...] f Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1), and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

Katya da Silva, Patekoski; Carmen Lidia Amorim, Pires-Zottarelli.

2010-08-01

53

Girassol: emergência e crescimento inicial de plantas sob resíduos de cana-de-açúcar Sunflower: emergence and initial plant growth under sugarcane residues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da palha residual da colheita da cana-de-açúcar e da adição de vinhaça sobre o solo na emergência e no crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (5 x 2 x 3, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, combinando-se cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20t ha-1 com aplicação ou não de 150m³ ha-1 de vinhaça residual da indústria sulcroalcooleira, utilizando-se três cultivares de girassol ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio 358". Foram determinadas a velocidade e a porcentagem final de emergência de plântulas, além do comprimento e da biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da palha de cana-de-açúcar e da vinhaça, em quantidade equivalente a 150m³ ha-1, em ação conjunta ou isolada, reduz a emergência de plântulas e o crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Entretanto, essa redução não compromete drasticamente o desempenho das cultivares ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio-358", que não diferiram entre si.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of soil cover with sugarcane mulch residue combined with vinasse application on seedling emergence and initial growth of sunflower cultivars. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in pots with soil, in randomized complete blocks, with four replications. The treatments, arranged in a 5 x 2 x 3 factorial, consisted of the combination of five quantities of sugarcane mulch residue cover (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20t ha-1 followed by application or not of 150m³ ha-1 of vinasse, on soil planted to the sunflower cultivars 'IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio 358'. The variables studied were seedling emergence speed, final emergence, as well as plant height and dry weight of above ground plant biomass. It is concluded that, under greenhouse conditions, the presence of sugarcane mulch residue in any of the quantities studied, and of vinasse in the quantity of 150m³ ha-1, either isolated or in combination, reduce seedling emergence and hamper the initial growth of sunflower, but this effect is not so drastic to endanger the cultivars development ('IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio-358', that do not differ between them.

Nilza Patrícia Ramos

2009-02-01

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Girassol: emergência e crescimento inicial de plantas sob resíduos de cana-de-açúcar / Sunflower: emergence and initial plant growth under sugarcane residues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da palha residual da colheita da cana-de-açúcar e da adição de vinhaça sobre o solo na emergência e no crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (5 x 2 x 3), em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, [...] combinando-se cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20t ha-1) com aplicação ou não de 150m³ ha-1 de vinhaça residual da indústria sulcroalcooleira, utilizando-se três cultivares de girassol ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio 358"). Foram determinadas a velocidade e a porcentagem final de emergência de plântulas, além do comprimento e da biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da palha de cana-de-açúcar e da vinhaça, em quantidade equivalente a 150m³ ha-1, em ação conjunta ou isolada, reduz a emergência de plântulas e o crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Entretanto, essa redução não compromete drasticamente o desempenho das cultivares ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio-358"), que não diferiram entre si. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of soil cover with sugarcane mulch residue combined with vinasse application on seedling emergence and initial growth of sunflower cultivars. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in pots with soil, in randomized complete block [...] s, with four replications. The treatments, arranged in a 5 x 2 x 3 factorial, consisted of the combination of five quantities of sugarcane mulch residue cover (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20t ha-1) followed by application or not of 150m³ ha-1 of vinasse, on soil planted to the sunflower cultivars 'IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio 358'. The variables studied were seedling emergence speed, final emergence, as well as plant height and dry weight of above ground plant biomass. It is concluded that, under greenhouse conditions, the presence of sugarcane mulch residue in any of the quantities studied, and of vinasse in the quantity of 150m³ ha-1, either isolated or in combination, reduce seedling emergence and hamper the initial growth of sunflower, but this effect is not so drastic to endanger the cultivars development ('IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio-358'), that do not differ between them.

Nilza Patrícia, Ramos; Maria do Carmo de Salvo Soares, Novo; Antônio Augusto, Lago; Maria Regina Gonçalves, Ungaro.

2009-02-01

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New lignan esters from Alyxia schlechteri and antifungal activity against Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new lignan esters, alyterinates A-C (1-3), as well as 10 known compounds were isolated from the roots of Alyxia schlechteri. Antifungal activity against Pythium insidiosum of all lignan derivatives was evaluated using disk diffusion assay. P. insidiosum is not a true fungus since its cell walls do not contain ergosterol as usual fungi, so the antifungals available now are not effective. From activity testing, it was found that compounds 3, 4 and 5 could inhibit the mycelia growth of P. insidiosum. PMID:23994626

Sriphana, Uraiwan; Thongsri, Yordhathai; Ardwichai, Pispong; Poopasit, Kitisak; Prariyachatigul, Chularut; Simasathiansophon, Sontaya; Yenjai, Chavi

2013-12-01

56

Pythium oligandrum in the control of Fusarium rot on some bulbous plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium oligandrum was applied as tulip bulbs or gladiolus corms soak prior or after inoculation with formae speciales Fusarium oxysporum. The mycoparasite used before inoculation with pathogen suppressed the development of Fusarium rot. This effect was not observed, however, when P. oligandrum was used 24 hr after bulb inoculation. Soaking of forced tulip bulbs in oospore suspension of P. oligandrum may reduce Fusarium rot spread and increase number of flowers, but at conc. 2.5 x 10(3)-10(4)/cm3 caused inhibition of tulip root growth. PMID:12425035

Skrzypczak, C

2001-01-01

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Dynamic distribution of potassium in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the distribution of potassium in sugarcane has been studied during its growth. The soil was prepared with natural fertilizers prepared with sugarcane bagasse. For the measurement of potassium concentration in each part of the plant, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure gamma-rays emitted from the radioisotope 40K. The concentrations of potassium in roots, stems and leaves were measured every two to three months beginning about five months after planting the sugarcane. The results show a higher concentration of potassium at the beginning of plant development and over time, there is an oscillatory behavior in this concentration in each part of the plant, reaching a lower concentration in the adult plant. To describe the evolution of potassium distribution in sugarcane we proposed a phenomenological model assuming that the potassium incorporation rate is proportional to the difference between the element concentration in the plant and a very long term equilibrium value and it is coupled to a resource-limited growth model. The proposed model succeeded in interpreting the results for the potassium distribution in stems and leaves during the sugarcane growth. -- Highlights: • Sugar-cane. • Distribution of potassium from root to aerial parts of the plant. • Gamma-ray spectrometry. • Phenomenological model to describe potassium distribution

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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND RATES OF NITROGEN AND SUPRA OPTIMAL LEVEL OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY SUGARCANE GROWN UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS  

OpenAIRE

The results of our pervious studies indicated that application of potassium @150 kg K2O ha-1 is effective in achieving economical sugarcane yield and optimum nutrient uptake under saline conditions. Keeping in view these findings, experiments were conducted on salt-affected soils at three sites of Punjab, Pakistan to select a suitable source and rate of N for obtaining optimum sugarcane yield and nutrient uptake from salt-affected soils. The experiments were conducted with two sugarcane varie...

MARCUSS ROSS; ATTIYA GUL; JAVED1 AKHTAR; FAQIR HUSSAIN; Yasin Ashraf, M.; GEORG EBERT

2008-01-01

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Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas / Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB) é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT) e a es [...] timativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA) interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT). A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto) foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados. Abstract in english Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP) is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint) and the estimated accumulative G [...] P. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR) was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART), which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August) was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

Ricardo A., Ferreira Junior; José L. de, Souza; Gustavo B., Lyra; Iêdo, Teodoro; Marcos A. dos, Santos; Anthony C. S., Porfirio.

1229-12-01

60

Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT e a estimativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT. A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados.Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint and the estimated accumulative GP. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART, which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

Ricardo A. Ferreira Junior

2012-11-01

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Exploiting sugarcane for energy  

Science.gov (United States)

Energycane can be described as sugarcane varieties with fiber content that is higher than the level seen in sugarcane varieties used for commercial sugar production. This fiber content is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Approximately 70 percent of the dry weight of sugarcane is cel...

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Increasing P-Availability and P-Uptake Using Sugarcane Filter Cake and Rice Husk Ash to Improve Chinesse Cabbage (Brassica Sp Growth in Andisol, East Java  

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Full Text Available The production potential in Andisols is limited by the high P-retention capacity. Farmers commonly use organic matter. Sugarcane filter cake (blothong, Indonesian, SFC and rice husk ash (RHA are locally available in Coban Rondo, Malang, East Java and hence potentially used for soil amendment. To study the effects of SFC and RHA on P availability, P uptake and plant growth (Brassica sp., soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth, incubated with SFC (21.37 Mg.ha-1 and RHA (44.64 Mg.ha-1. Total P, P-available, pH, organic carbon, exchangeable cations (K, Na, Ca, Mg, and P retention curve were determined at 0, 15, 30, and 45 days after incubation. Crop parameters (height, number of leaves, total dry weight and P-uptake were also measured at 2, 4, 6 weeks after planting. The results showed that RHA was more effective than SFC to decrease P retention and increase P availability (120% on RHA; and 78% on SFC. Soils having higher organic matter tended to have higher P availability. As a consequence, RHA and SFC increased P-uptake respectively 3 and 2 times in soil rich in organic matter, and 1.9 and 2.7 times in soil low in organic matter compared to untreated soil. Increasing P-uptake was followed by plant growth improvement. RHA was more effective than SFC in soil rich in organic matter, but not soil low in organic matter.

S. R. Utami

2012-08-01

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Zoosporogênese in vitro entre isolados do oomiceto Pythium insidiosum / In vitro zoosporogenesis among oomycetes Pythium insidiosum isolates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto aquático, responsável pela etiologia da pitiose, uma enfermidade crônica, observada freqüentemente em eqüinos. A produção de zoósporos móveis por este microrganismo se constitui no fator determinante da ocorrência da enfermidade. Este estudo avaliou a zoosporogênese [...] e quantificou a produção de zoósporos de 32 amostras de Pythium insidiosum isoladas de eqüinos naturalmente infectados. Pythium insidiosum foi cultivado em meio Corn Meal Agar acrescido de fragmentos de grama, durante 5 dias, a 37°C. Posteriormente, os fragmentos de grama parasitados foram incubados em Meio de Indução a 37°C, por 24 horas. Observou-se que 16 amostras (50%) produziram 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, 12 isolados (37,5%) produziram acima de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, enquanto quatro amostras (12,5%) produziram menos de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1. O período de maior produção de zoósporos foi entre 6 e 8 horas de incubação. O protocolo utilizado na indução da zoosporogênese mostrou-se eficiente e representa uma importante ferramenta, tanto para a identificação do Pythium insidiosum, como para a obtenção de zoósporos em quantidades suficientes para a inoculação em animais experimentais e aplicação no desenvolvimento de testes de suscetibilidade. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete and the etiology of a chronic disease called pythiosis, commonly found in the skin of horses. The production of mobile zoospores by this microorganism is the determinant factor of this disease. This study evaluated the zoosporogenesis and quantification of z [...] oospores in 32 samples of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses with pythiosis. The assay used culture of the Pythium insidiosum in Corn Meal Agar plus grass blades for 5 days at 37°C. The grass blades were incubated in Induction Medium at 37°C for 24 hours. The findings showed 16 samples (50%) yielded 20,000 zoospores mL-1, 12 (37.5%) samples yielded over 20,000 zoospores mL-1 and 4 samples (12.5%) yielded less than 20,000 zoospores mL-1. The zoospores production was higher between 6 and 8 hours of incubation. The protocol used in the zoosporogenesis induction was efficient and represents an important tool for Pythium insidiosum identification and the attainment of zoospores in adequate amounts for inoculation in experimental animals and application in the development of susceptibility tests.

Daniela Isabel Brayer, Pereira; Janio Morais, Santurio; Sydney Hartz, Alves; Juliana Siqueira, Argenta; Ayrton Sydnei, Cavalheiro; Laerte, Ferreiro.

2008-02-01

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Zoosporogênese in vitro entre isolados do oomiceto Pythium insidiosum In vitro zoosporogenesis among oomycetes Pythium insidiosum isolates  

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Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto aquático, responsável pela etiologia da pitiose, uma enfermidade crônica, observada freqüentemente em eqüinos. A produção de zoósporos móveis por este microrganismo se constitui no fator determinante da ocorrência da enfermidade. Este estudo avaliou a zoosporogênese e quantificou a produção de zoósporos de 32 amostras de Pythium insidiosum isoladas de eqüinos naturalmente infectados. Pythium insidiosum foi cultivado em meio Corn Meal Agar acrescido de fragmentos de grama, durante 5 dias, a 37°C. Posteriormente, os fragmentos de grama parasitados foram incubados em Meio de Indução a 37°C, por 24 horas. Observou-se que 16 amostras (50% produziram 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, 12 isolados (37,5% produziram acima de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, enquanto quatro amostras (12,5% produziram menos de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1. O período de maior produção de zoósporos foi entre 6 e 8 horas de incubação. O protocolo utilizado na indução da zoosporogênese mostrou-se eficiente e representa uma importante ferramenta, tanto para a identificação do Pythium insidiosum, como para a obtenção de zoósporos em quantidades suficientes para a inoculação em animais experimentais e aplicação no desenvolvimento de testes de suscetibilidade.Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete and the etiology of a chronic disease called pythiosis, commonly found in the skin of horses. The production of mobile zoospores by this microorganism is the determinant factor of this disease. This study evaluated the zoosporogenesis and quantification of zoospores in 32 samples of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses with pythiosis. The assay used culture of the Pythium insidiosum in Corn Meal Agar plus grass blades for 5 days at 37°C. The grass blades were incubated in Induction Medium at 37°C for 24 hours. The findings showed 16 samples (50% yielded 20,000 zoospores mL-1, 12 (37.5% samples yielded over 20,000 zoospores mL-1 and 4 samples (12.5% yielded less than 20,000 zoospores mL-1. The zoospores production was higher between 6 and 8 hours of incubation. The protocol used in the zoosporogenesis induction was efficient and represents an important tool for Pythium insidiosum identification and the attainment of zoospores in adequate amounts for inoculation in experimental animals and application in the development of susceptibility tests.

Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira

2008-02-01

65

Rhizosphere persistence of three Pythium oligandrum strains in tomato soilless culture assessed by DNA macroarray and real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

In tomato soilless culture, plant-disease optimal control and growth promotion are achieved when the rhizosphere is heavily colonized by the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum. Discrepancies in performance are generally attributed to the poor persistence of P. oligandrum on roots. In this study, three selected strains of P. oligandrum were introduced into the rhizosphere of greenhouse-grown tomato plants, and their persistence was assessed by DNA macroarray hybridization and real-time PCR. The experimental data from DNA detection and plate counting were compared. PCR-based methods detected P. oligandrum throughout the 6-month growing season, whereas plate counting indicated its presence only over the first 3 months. Moreover, the DNA array method provided information about the various Pythium species present in the rhizosphere: P. dissotocum was frequently detected on roots of plants, without distinction between plants inoculated or not inoculated with the antagonist. The detection of other Pythium species was noticed sporadically (P. ultimum, P. sylvaticum and P. intermedium), independent of the treatment. Even though the yield enhancement is not significant throughout the entire growing season, data obtained from epidemiological studies demonstrate an enhancement of P. oligandrum persistence on the rhizosphere of plants and less use of mycoparasitism. PMID:17627780

Le Floch, Gaetan; Tambong, James; Vallance, Jessica; Tirilly, Yves; Lévesque, André; Rey, Patrice

2007-08-01

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Species of Phytophthora and Pythium as Nematode-destroying Fungi  

OpenAIRE

Pythium monospermum,, P. aphanidermatum, and Phytophthora palmivora were found to be capable of destroying certain nonstylet-bearing nematodes through endozoic parasitism by hyphae from ingested zoospores. Hyphae of P. monospermum parasitized nematode eggs but could not capture or otherwise prey upon living nematodes. We suggest that endoparasitism of free-living nematodes may be common among Oomycetes in nature.

Tzean, S. S.; Estey, R. H.

1981-01-01

67

Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications  

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Full Text Available Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1, respectively. Sucrose contents and commercial cane sugar were not affected significantly by fertilizer application. However, variety SPSG-26 gave significantly higher sucrose contents (18.82 % and commercial cane sugar (12.89 % than SPSG-394 and BL-4. The fertilizer application @ 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 was found to be optimum level for achieving maximum cane yield.

M. Ayub

1999-01-01

68

Sensitivity of Pythium irregulare, P. sylvaticum, and P. ultimum from forest nurseries to mefenoxam and fosetyl-al, and control of Pythium damping-off  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungicides are often used to supplement soilborne disease control in Pacific Northwest forest nurseries. Mefenoxam and fosetyl-Al are the most commonly used fungicides to suppress Pythium damping-off of tree seedlings. However, it is not known whether fungicide resistant Pythium isolates are present...

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Reguladores vegetais e qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em meio de safra Growth regulators and technological quality of sugarcane in the middle of the cropping season  

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Full Text Available A maturação da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. refere-se a um dos aspectos fundamentais para o sistema de produção da indústria sucroalcooleira. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos da aplicação de quatro maturadores da classe dos retardantes de crescimento (Ethefon, Etil-trinexapac, KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. A eficiência agronômica dos maturadores foi influenciada pela época de aplicação, pela condição climática e pela característica genética da variedade. A aplicação dos maturadores em 10/05/2004 permitiu explorar de forma significativa o potencial genético da variedade quanto ao acúmulo de sacarose nos colmos, implicando em melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. A adoção dessa prática em 04/08/2005, de modo geral, pouco afetou os parâmetros tecnológicos, exceto a aplicação de Etil-trinexapac, o qual induziu melhoria significativa na qualidade da matéria-prima. A produtividade de açúcar refletiu-se de forma direta na margem de contribuição agrícola, sendo constatado maior retorno econômico para as plantas tratadas com KNO3 na safra 2004.The ripening of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is the most important aspect in the production system for sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the technological quality of sugarcane as a function of plant regulators application in the middle of the cropping season. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators application of the class of growth retainers (Ethephon, Ethyl.trinexapac, Potassium nitrate and Potassium nitrate + Boron and a control (natural ripening. The agricultural efficiency of maturators was affected by time application, weather condition and genetic characteristic of variety. The maturation application on 10/05/2004 allowed to explore of a significant form the genetic potential of variety as to sucrose storage in stems implicating in improvement technological quality of raw material. The maturation application on 04/08/2005 little affected technological parameters, except for Ethyl-trinexapac application, that induced significant improvement in technological quality of raw material. The sugar productivity reflected direct agricultural contribution and provided greater economical return with Potassium nitrate treatment in 2004.

Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

2008-12-01

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Influencia del hábito de crecimiento en la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la caña de azúcar / The influence of the growth habit on the velocity of sugarcane manual harvesting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. híbrido) es un cultivo de gran trascendencia en Venezuela. Si bien la cosecha de este rubro tiende a mecanizarse, el corte manual es aún muy importante ya que una significativa proporción del cultivo es cosechado de esa manera. El objetivo de este estudio fue conoce [...] r la influencia del hábito de crecimiento de la planta en la velocidad con que se realiza el corte manual de tallos al momento de la cosecha. El ensayo se realizó en los ciclos de planta y soca, y en cada uno se emplearon cinco trabajadores para cosechar cinco cultivares de caña de azúcar cuyos hábitos variaban desde cañas acamadas hasta cañas erectas. Se empleó un diseño en cuadrado latino 5 x 5 para evaluar el tiempo en que cada trabajador cortaba cada uno de los cultivares y los datos fueron convertidos en tiempo necesario para cosechar una tonelada de caña. Adicionalmente, se midió la dureza del tallo de los diferentes cultivares para tratar de establecer el posible efecto de ese factor en la cosecha manual. Los resultados indicaron que el hábito de crecimiento de la caña de azúcar influye en la velocidad del corte de tallos, es decir, cañas acamadas o con tendencia al acame afectan negativamente la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la planta. No se encontró evidencia de que la dureza del tallo de estos cultivares tenga efecto en la velocidad del corte manual. Abstract in english Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) is a main crop in Venezuela. Even thought there is a trend toward mechanization, manual harvesting remains important due to the fact that a significant proportion of the sugarcane produced is harvested that way. The objective of this study was to determine the exten [...] t in which sugarcane growth habit influences the velocity in which manual harvesting is done. The trial was performed during plant and ratoon cycles, and in each of them, five workers were employed to harvest five sugarcane cultivars whose habits ranged from erect to recumbent. A 5 by 5 Latin Square design was used, and time was recorded for each worker as they cut each of the five cultivars. Data were converted in time needed to harvest a ton of cane. The effect of stalk hardness was also considered. Results indicated that the growth habit of the cultivar influenced the speed in which sugarcane stalks are harvested, so lodged and non-erect stalks are features that negatively affected the velocity of manual harvesting. There was no evidence showing that stalk hardness had any effect on the labor speed.

Orlando, De Sousa-Vieira; Rosaura, Briceño Cárdenas; Ramón, Rea; Alida, Díaz; José, George.

2014-08-01

71

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.

Vincentz Michel GA

2009-03-01

72

MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches. PMID:25755657

Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I; Mattos, Raphael S; Ferreira, Thaís H; Menossi, Marcelo

2015-01-01

73

Supplementation of sugarcane bagasse with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for shiitake (Lentinula edodes spawn production  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the myceliation rate, mycelial vigor and "estimated biomass" of Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler, grown on a sugarcane bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for spawn production. The proportions of rice bran used were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse and the sugarcane molasses concentrations tested were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran. The myceliation rate was decreased by the addition of the higher quantities of rice bran. The 25 and 30% rice bran proportions induced the highest stimulation of mycelial vigor. The addition of sugarcane molasses did not change myceliation rate or mycelial vigor. The "estimated biomass" values were similar when intermediate rice bran proportions were used and for all sugarcane molasses concentrations. Based on response surface obtained for the "estimated biomass" data, higher values were obtained with substrates containing 20 to 25% rice bran combined with 10 to 30 g sugarcane molasses, although the latter supplement was not considered to stimulate L. edodes growth.

Rossi Ivan Henrique

2003-01-01

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Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (?g) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ? underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2014-01-01

75

Weather variables, water balance, growth, and agro industrial yield of sugarcane / Variáveis meteorológicas, balanço hídrico, crescimento e produtividade agroindustrial da cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as variáveis meteorológicas, a deficiência hídrica, o crescimento e a produtividade agroindustrial das variedades de cana-de-açúcar: RB72454, RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003, RB951541 e RB971755, em cultivo de sequeiro, em duas safras, na região d [...] e Rio Largo - AL. As variáveis meteorológicas foram obtidas em uma estação automática, e o balanço hídrico foi feito pelo método de Thornthwaite & Mather. No período da pesquisa, a temperatura do ar variou de 16,6 a 35,9º C. No primeiro ciclo de produção, choveu 1.806 mm, e a cultura evapotranspirou 1.775 mm, e, no segundo ciclo, a precipitação pluvial somou 1.632 mm, e a evapotranspiração da cultura foi 1.290 mm. O excesso hídrico médio dos dois ciclos de produção foi 689 mm; e o déficit hídrico, 665 mm. Ou seja, mesmo resultando em uma precipitação pluvial superior à evapotranspiração da cultura, devido à má distribuição das chuvas, houve deficiência hídrica. A temperatura do ar não foi limitante para o crescimento da cana-de-açúcar. A produtividade agrícola média da cana-planta foi 86,8 t ha-1, em cana-soca foi 75,2 t ha-1, e o rendimento agroindustrial médio foi 12,9 e 10,9 toneladas de açúcar por hectare em cana-planta e cana-soca, respectivamente. As variedades mais produtivas foram a RB93509, a RB92579 e a RB863129. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the meteorological variables, water deficiency, growth, and agro-industrial yield of sugarcane varieties: RB72454, RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003, RB951541, and RB971755, in rainfed crop in two harvests in the Rio Largo-AL region. The meteo [...] rological variables were obtained in an automatic station and water balance was done by Thornthwaite & Mather method. During the study period, the air temperature ranged from 16.6 to 35.9 ºC. In the first production cycle rained 1,806 mm and the crop evapotranspiration was 1,775 mm. In the second cycle, the rainfall totaled 1,632 mm and the crop evapotranspiration was 1,290 mm. The average water excess of two production cycles was 689 mm and the water deficit totaled 665 mm. The average agricultural productivity in the plant was 86.8 t ha-1, in the first ratoon was 75.2 t ha-1 and the agro-industrial yield average was 12.9 and 10.9 tons of sugar per hectare in the plant and first ratoon, respectively. The air temperature was not limiting to the growth of sugarcane and the rainfall was higher than the crop evapotranspiration, but due to poor distribution of the rains there was water deficit. The most productive varieties were RB93509, RB92579, and RB863129.

IÊDO, TEODORO; JOSÉ, DANTAS NETO; LUCAS A. DE, HOLANDA; GIVALDO D., SAMPAIO NETO; JOSÉ L. DE, SOUZA; GERALDO V. DE S., BARBOSA; GUILHERME B., LYRA.

2015-02-01

76

New insights into the in vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have determined the in vitro activity of several antibacterial and antifungal drugs against Pythium insidiosum using broth microdilution (BMD), disk diffusion, and Etest methods. The largest zones of inhibition (disk diffusion) and the lowest BMD and Etest MICs were observed for azithromycin, clarithromycin, linezolid, mupirocin, doxycycline, minocycline, and tigecycline. The in vitro activities observed suggest that antibacterials, which act by inhibiting protein synthesis, are promising candidate therapies for the treatment of pythiosis. PMID:25223997

Loreto, Erico S; Tondolo, Juliana S M; Pilotto, Maiara B; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M

2014-12-01

77

Toll-deficient Drosophila is susceptible to Pythium insidiosum infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a paucity of animal models of pythiosis, a life-threatening disease of humans and animals, the immunopathogenesis of which is poorly understood. A pythiosis model was developed by injecting Toll (Tl)-deficient Drosophila melanogaster flies with Pythium insidiosum zoospores. The infected Tl mutant flies had significantly lower survival rates (73.7%) than did control flies. This study reveals the important role of Tl pathway activation in fly immune response to pythiosis. PMID:23865688

Zanette, Régis A; Santurio, Janio M; Loreto, Érico S; Alves, Sydney H; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2013-10-01

78

Pythium recalcitrans sp. nov. revealed by multigene phylogenetic analysis  

OpenAIRE

A new species of Pythium collected from grapevine roots (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and roots of common beet (Beta vulgaris) in Majorca, Spain, is described. The phylogenetic position of the new species was investigated by multigene sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the rDNA region, as well as three other nuclear and three mitochondrial coding genes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA and concatenated ?-tubulin and cytrochro...

Moralejo, Eduardo; Clemente, Antonio; Descals, Enric; Belbahri, Lassaad; Calmin, Gautier; Lefort, Franc?ois; Spies, Chris F. J.; Mcleod, Adele

2008-01-01

79

Short-term cover crop decomposition inorganic and conventional soils : Soil microbial and nutrient cycling indicator variables associated with different levels of soil suppressiveness to Pythium aphanidermatum  

OpenAIRE

Stages of oat–vetch cover crop decomposition were characterized over time in terms of carbon and nitrogen cycling, microbial activity and community dynamics in organically and conventionally managed soils in a field experiment and a laboratory incubation experiment. We subsequently determined which variables describing soil microbial community dynamics, C and N cycling could be used as predictors of Pythium aphanidermatum damping-off incidence and relative growth. Disease incidence and rela...

Gru?nwald, N. J.; Hu, S.; Bruggen, A. H. C.

2000-01-01

80

Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production = Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be thebest substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 timesgreater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass andphycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas emrelação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinaspodendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.

Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

2007-01-01

81

Pythium and Fusarium Species Associated with Production of Douglas-Fir Seedlings  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl bromide has long been used to control Pythium and Fusarium spp. in conifer nurseries in the Pacific Northwest. However, alternative fumigants are now necessary as methyl bromide is an ozone-depleting agent. The efficacy of metam sodium, dimethyl disulfide, and methyl iodide against Pythium ...

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Modelagem do crescimento de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar no período de formação da cultura / Modeling of growth of sugarcane cultivars during the crop formation period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo ajustar modelos de crescimento ao acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea da cana-de-açúcar durante o período de formação da cultura, para as cultivares RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 e RB855453. Dados de matéria seca foram obtidos durante a execução de experimento em cond [...] ições de campo entre 26/08/11 e 18/05/12. Os dados experimentais foram coletados a partir dos 45 dias após o plantio, em intervalos de uma ou duas semanas, totalizando 17 datas de amostragem. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear para determinação dos parâmetros dos modelos expolinear, logístico e Gompertz. Todos os modelos avaliados foram capazes de simular adequadamente o acúmulo de matéria seca pelas cultivares ao longo do período estudado, com valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados (R²aj) acima de 0,9245. Com base no modelo de crescimento expolinear, constatou-se que, ao final do período experimental, a massa seca foi ligeiramente maior para a cultivar RB855453 em comparação à RB867515, as quais se destacaram em relação às cultivares RB928064 e RB92579. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to adjust growth models to the above-ground accumulated sugarcane dry matter, during the crop formation period, for cultivars RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 and RB855453. Dry matter data were obtained during the execution of experiment under field conditions from [...] October 26, 2011 to May 18, 2012. Experimental data were collected from 45 days after planting, in one or two week time intervals, totalizing 17 sampling dates. The obtained values were subjected to nonlinear regression analysis in order to determine the parameters of the expolinear, logistic and Gompertz models. All evaluated models were capable of adequately simulating the dry matter accumulation by the cultivars during the studied period, with values of the adjusted determination coefficient above 0.9245. Based on the expolinear growth model, it was observed, at the end of the experimental period, that the accumulated dry mass was stightly superior for the cultivar RB855453 as compared to the RB867515, which outperformed the cultivars RB928064 and RB92579.

Evandro L. da S., Batista; Sérgio, Zolnier; Aristides, Ribeiro; Gustavo B., Lyra; Thieres G. F. da, Silva; Davi, Boehringer.

1080-10-01

83

Stem juice production of the C4 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)is enhanced by growth at double-ambient CO2 and high temperature  

Science.gov (United States)

Four sugarcane cultivars were grown for three months in sunlit greenhouses under [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720(doubled) ppm and at temperatures (T) of 1.5 (near ambient) and 6.0C higher than outside ambient T. Leaf area, stem juice, plant biomass, leaf CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activities of PEP ...

84

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids).  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic transformation of sugarcane has a tremendous potential to complement traditional breeding in crop improvement and will likely transform sugarcane into a bio-factory for value-added products. We describe here Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sugarcane. Embryogenic callus induced from immature leaf whorls was used as target for transformation with the hypervirulent Agrobacterium strain AGL1 carrying a constitutive nptII expression cassette in vector pPZP200. Selection with 30 mg/L geneticin during the callus phase and 30 mg/L paromomycin during regeneration of shoots and roots effectively suppressed the development of non-transgenic plants. This protocol was successful with a commercially important sugarcane cultivar, CP-88-1762, at a transformation efficiency of two independent transgenic plants per g of callus. PMID:25416267

Wu, Hao; Altpeter, Fredy

2015-01-01

85

Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization Amido de cana-de-açúcar: determinação quantitativa e caracterização  

OpenAIRE

Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and co...

Joelise de Alencar Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann Carvalho; Hélia Harumi Sato

2011-01-01

86

Sugarcane response to bermudagrass interference  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was conducted with the objectives of determining differences in the competitiveness of three phenotypically different sugarcane cultivars, ‘CP 70-321’, ‘HoCP 85-845’, and ‘LCP 85-384’, with bermudagrass, and the effects of bermudagrass interference on sugarcane. Sugarcane was planted at tw...

87

Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

At the start of the sugarcane harvest season in Louisiana, late-September or early-October, sucrose content in sugarcane is relatively low compared to late in the harvest season. In order for early-harvested sugarcane to be profitable, chemicals, primarily herbicides, have been evaluated for their e...

88

Biological nitrogen fixation is not a m ajor contributor to the nitrogen demand of a commercially growth South African sugarcane cultivar  

OpenAIRE

It has previously been reported that endophytic diazotrophic bacteria contribute significantly to the nitrogen budgets of some graminaceous species. In this study the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to the N-budget of a South African sugarcane cultivar was evaluated using 15N natural abundance, acetylene reduction and 15N incorporation. Plants were also screened for the presence of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria using acetylene reduction and nifH-gene targeted PCR with the pure...

Hoefsloot, G.; Termorshuizen, A. J.; Watt, D. A.; Cramer, M. D.

2005-01-01

89

BERMUDAGRASS (CYNODON DACTYLON) INTERFERENCE IN A THREE-YEAR SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM SPP.) PRODUCTION CYCLE  

Science.gov (United States)

Three sugarcane varieties having different spring emergence patterns and stalk populations at harvest were planted into a dense infestation of bermudagrass to determine the effects of season-long interference on sugarcane growth and yield as the varieties progress through a normal plant-cane, first-...

90

Pythium insidiosum: morphological and molecular identification of Brazilian isolates / Pythium insidiosum: identificação morfológica e molecular de isolados brasileiros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto pertencente ao Reino Stramenopila e agente etiológico da pitiose, uma doença infecciosa com riscos de morte. A pitiose é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento de lesões crônicas sobre os tecidos cutâneos, subcutâneas, intestinal e ósseo em humanos e muitas espécies de a [...] nimais. A identificação de P. insidiosum é importante, a fim de se obter um diagnóstico rápido e definitivo, bem como um tratamento eficaz. Este estudo relata a identificação de 54 isolados de P. insidiosum de cavalos, cães e ovelhas que apresentavam lesões compatíveis e suspeita clínicas de pitiose, provenientes de diferentes regiões do Brasil, através de métodos morfológicos e moleculares. Através da PCR foi possível confirmar a identidade de todos os isolados brasileiros como sendo P. insidiosum. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete belonging to the kingdom Stramenipila and it is the etiologic agent of pythiosis. Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease characterized by the development of chronic lesions on cutaneous and subcutaneous, intestinal, and bone tissues in humans and many sp [...] ecies of animals. The identification of P. insidiosum is important in order to implement a rapid and definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment. This study reports the identification of 54 isolates of P. insidiosum of horses, dogs and sheep that presented suspicious clinical lesions of pythiosis from different regions in Brazil, by using morphological and molecular assays. Throughout the PCR it was possible to confirm the identity of all Brazilian isolates as being P. insidiosum.

Maria Isabel de, Azevedo; Daniela I.B., Pereira; Sônia A., Botton; Mateus M. da, Costa; Camila D., Mahl; Sydney H., Alves; Janio M., Santurio.

2012-07-01

91

Pythium insidiosum: morphological and molecular identification of Brazilian isolates Pythium insidiosum: identificação morfológica e molecular de isolados brasileiros  

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Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete belonging to the kingdom Stramenipila and it is the etiologic agent of pythiosis. Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease characterized by the development of chronic lesions on cutaneous and subcutaneous, intestinal, and bone tissues in humans and many species of animals. The identification of P. insidiosum is important in order to implement a rapid and definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment. This study reports the identification of 54 isolates of P. insidiosum of horses, dogs and sheep that presented suspicious clinical lesions of pythiosis from different regions in Brazil, by using morphological and molecular assays. Throughout the PCR it was possible to confirm the identity of all Brazilian isolates as being P. insidiosum.Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto pertencente ao Reino Stramenopila e agente etiológico da pitiose, uma doença infecciosa com riscos de morte. A pitiose é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento de lesões crônicas sobre os tecidos cutâneos, subcutâneas, intestinal e ósseo em humanos e muitas espécies de animais. A identificação de P. insidiosum é importante, a fim de se obter um diagnóstico rápido e definitivo, bem como um tratamento eficaz. Este estudo relata a identificação de 54 isolados de P. insidiosum de cavalos, cães e ovelhas que apresentavam lesões compatíveis e suspeita clínicas de pitiose, provenientes de diferentes regiões do Brasil, através de métodos morfológicos e moleculares. Através da PCR foi possível confirmar a identidade de todos os isolados brasileiros como sendo P. insidiosum.

Maria Isabel de Azevedo

2012-07-01

92

Sugarcane micropropagation using light emitting diodes and adjustment in growth-medium sucrose concentration / Micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar com diodos emissores de luz e ajuste da concentração de sacarose do meio de cultivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de diodos emissores de luz (LEDs) em substituição a lâmpadas fluorescentes brancas e adequar a concentração de sacarose na micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.). Brotações da variedade RB 872552 foram avaliadas nas fases de multiplic [...] ação e enraizamento, utilizando as fontes de luz LEDs azuis, LEDs vermelhos, LEDs verdes, lâmpadas Growlux e lâmpadas fluorescentes brancas, e as concentrações de sacarose de 0, 15, 30 e 45g L-1, fixando-se a intensidade luminosa em 20µmol m-2 s-1. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em fatorial 5x4 (fontes de luz x concentrações de sacarose). O desenvolvimento das brotações foi satisfatório sob os três tipos de LEDs estudados. A presença de sacarose no meio de cultivo foi indispensável para multiplicação e enraizamento das brotações, sendo necessário ajuste da concentração para cada fonte de luz. Os LEDs vermelhos não proporcionaram a maior taxa de multiplicação, porém esta foi bastante alta (8,5 brotos por subcultivo, com adição de 34,9g L-1 de sacarose), com maior comprimento dos brotos (33,3mm) e maior eficiência de aclimatização das plantas. Concluiu-se que os LEDs podem ser utilizados como substitutos das lâmpadas fluorescentes em laboratórios de micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) instead of white fluorescent lamps as light source and adequate growth-medium sucrose concentration for sugarcane micropropagation (Saccharum officinarum L.). Sugarcane (RB 872552 variety) bud explants were evaluated du [...] ring the multiplication and rooting phases under controlled growth-room conditions. Different light sources (blue, red and green LEDs; Growlux and white fluorescent lamps) and different medium sucrose concentrations (0; 15; 30 and 45g L-1) were used, maintaining constant light intensity (20µmol m-2 s-1), photoperiod (16h) and temperature (25+2°C). The experiment was a completely randomized design, and treatments were arranged in a 5x4 factorial (five light sources and four medium sucrose concentrations) with six replications. Sugarcane bud growth was satisfactory under the three LED types studied. The presence of sucrose in growth media was essential for bud multiplication and rooting. Nevertheless, each light source requires the respective medium sucrose concentration adjustment for best results. Red LEDs provided a significantly high multiplication rate (although not the highest) with 8.5 buds per sub-culture and 34.9g L-1 of sucrose; also, the highest bud length (33.3mm) and the best plantlet acclimatization. Therefore, LED sources can advantageously substitute fluorescent lamps in laboratories of sugarcane micropropagation.

Paulo Sérgio Gomes da, Rocha; Roberto Pedroso de, Oliveira; Walkyria Bueno, Scivittaro.

1168-11-01

93

Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland  

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Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Bia?e (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pa?acowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

Bazyli Czeczuga

2001-03-01

94

Crescimento e acúmulo de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em solo coberto com palhada / Growth and accumulation of nitrogen by sugarcane cultivated in soil covered with cane trash  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do nitrogênio da uréia e a influência da palhada na produtividade de soqueira de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi instalado no campo, num solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo no Município de Piracicaba, SP, com dois tratamentos: mistura de vinhaça e [...] uréia aplicada em toda a área sobre o solo coberto com palhada; uréia enterrada em sulcos nos dois lados das linhas da cana-de-açúcar, com prévia aplicação de vinhaça sobre o solo sem palhada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas comparações de produtividade da cultura, do acúmulo de N pela parte aérea, da utilização do N da uréia pela cultura ao final do ciclo. O desenvolvimento vegetal foi representado por curvas de acúmulo de massa de material seco e pelos índices fisiológicos de taxa de produção de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento relativo, que foram semelhantes nas condições, com ou sem a presença da palhada de cana-de-açúcar. Do N total acumulado na parte aérea da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar, 10 a 16% foram absorvidos do fertilizante. A eficiência de utilização do N da uréia pela soqueira de cana foi em média de 17%, e não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of nitrogen from urea and the influence of the cane trash in the productivity of sugarcane ratoon. It was a field experiment, in a ustalfs soil, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, in October 1997, with two treatments: application of a vinasse-urea mixture i [...] n the total area of a soil covered with cane trash; and urea buried in furrows in both sides of the cane rows, with previous application of vinasse in a soil without cane trash. A randomized block design with four replications was used. Parameters of crop productivity accumulation of N by the top and use of urea N by the crop were evaluated in each treatment. Plant development was represented by a dry matter mass accumulation and by physiological indexes of dry matter production rate and relative growth rate, which were similar in both conditions, with and without cane trash. From the total N accumulated in the top of the sugarcane ratoon, 10-16% was absorbed from the fertilizer. The mean efficiency of the use of urea N by the sugarcane ratoon was 17%.

Glauber José de Castro, Gava; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin; Mauro Wagner de, Oliveira; Claudimir Pedro, Penatti.

1347-13-01

95

Crescimento e acúmulo de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em solo coberto com palhada Growth and accumulation of nitrogen by sugarcane cultivated in soil covered with cane trash  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do nitrogênio da uréia e a influência da palhada na produtividade de soqueira de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi instalado no campo, num solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo no Município de Piracicaba, SP, com dois tratamentos: mistura de vinhaça e uréia aplicada em toda a área sobre o solo coberto com palhada; uréia enterrada em sulcos nos dois lados das linhas da cana-de-açúcar, com prévia aplicação de vinhaça sobre o solo sem palhada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas comparações de produtividade da cultura, do acúmulo de N pela parte aérea, da utilização do N da uréia pela cultura ao final do ciclo. O desenvolvimento vegetal foi representado por curvas de acúmulo de massa de material seco e pelos índices fisiológicos de taxa de produção de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento relativo, que foram semelhantes nas condições, com ou sem a presença da palhada de cana-de-açúcar. Do N total acumulado na parte aérea da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar, 10 a 16% foram absorvidos do fertilizante. A eficiência de utilização do N da uréia pela soqueira de cana foi em média de 17%, e não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of nitrogen from urea and the influence of the cane trash in the productivity of sugarcane ratoon. It was a field experiment, in a ustalfs soil, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, in October 1997, with two treatments: application of a vinasse-urea mixture in the total area of a soil covered with cane trash; and urea buried in furrows in both sides of the cane rows, with previous application of vinasse in a soil without cane trash. A randomized block design with four replications was used. Parameters of crop productivity accumulation of N by the top and use of urea N by the crop were evaluated in each treatment. Plant development was represented by a dry matter mass accumulation and by physiological indexes of dry matter production rate and relative growth rate, which were similar in both conditions, with and without cane trash. From the total N accumulated in the top of the sugarcane ratoon, 10-16% was absorbed from the fertilizer. The mean efficiency of the use of urea N by the sugarcane ratoon was 17%.

Glauber José de Castro Gava

2001-11-01

96

Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

2012-07-01

97

Seasonal variation of the canopy structure parameters and its correlation with yield-related traits in sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Population structure determines sugarcane yield, of which canopy structure is a key component. To fully understand the relations between sugarcane yield and parameters of the canopy structure, 17 sugarcane varieties were investigated at five growth stages. The results indicated that there were significant differences between characterized parameters among sugarcane populations at different growth stages. During sugarcane growth after planting, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf distribution (LD) increased, while transmission coefficient for diffuse radiation (TD), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), and extinction coefficient (K) decreased. Significant negative correlations were found between sugarcane yield and MFIA, TD, TR, and K at the early elongation stage, while a significant positive correlation between sugarcane yield and LD was found at the same stage. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 10%, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = 2380.12 + 46.25 × LD - 491.82 × LAI + 1.36 × MFIA + 614.91 × TD - 1908.05 × TR - 182.53 × K + 1281.75 × LD - 1.35 × MFIA + 831.2 × TR - 407.8 × K + 8.21 × MFIA - 834.50 × TD - 1695.49 × K (R (2) = 0.94**). PMID:24453909

Luo, Jun; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Liping

2013-01-01

98

In Vitro Susceptibility of Brazilian Pythium insidiosum Isolates to Essential Oils of Some Lamiaceae Family Species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial action of Origanum vulgare, Origanum majorana, Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis on Pythium insidiosum oomycete zoospores. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 documentation adapted to phytopharmaceuticals. Twenty-two P. insidiosum isolates were evaluated, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined at 100 % growth inhibition. All P. insidiosum isolates evaluated showed a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.05 to 1.75 mg/mL when O. vulgare oil was used and from 0.11 to 3.5 mg/mL for O. majorana, M. piperita and R. officinalis oils. The results obtained indicate that the essential oils tested showed antimicrobial activity on P. insidiosum, with O. vulgare essential oil showing the best performance. These findings emphasize the potential use of plant essential oils as control agents in P. insidiosum infections; further research, however, is needed so as the in vivo activity of these oils can also be evaluated. PMID:25431090

Fonseca, A O S; Pereira, D I B; Jacob, R G; Maia Filho, F S; Oliveira, D H; Maroneze, B P; Valente, J S S; Osório, L G; Botton, S A; Meireles, M C A

2015-04-01

99

Antagonistic Potential of Iranian Native Streptomyces Strains in Biocontrol of Pythium aphanidermatum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pythium aphanidermatum, the major phytopathogen induce damping off, root and stem rots, blights of grasses and fruit and in greenhouse cucurbits growing all areas of the world. Soil Actinomycetes including 178 isolates were assayed for assessing antagonistic activity against P.aphanidermatum. From tested isolates, 43 isolates were effective but 2 isolates strains 311 and 321 showed high anti-fungal activity revealed by bioassays in agar disk and well diffusion methods. For further biological characterizations, the active strains were grown in submerged cultures to determine growth curve and prepare crude extracts. Preliminary greenhouse studies indicated that amending soil with these strains, 311 and 321; reduce crop losses due to the pathogen. Antifungal activities of both antagonists were of fungicidal type on pathogen with complete inhibitory effects.

2007-01-01

100

Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications  

OpenAIRE

Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1, respectively. Sucrose contents ...

Ayub, M.; Ahmad, R.; Tanveer, A.; Ahmad, Hafiz Z.; Sharar, M. S.

1999-01-01

101

Sugarcane Response to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flooding  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help redu...

102

Produtividade e qualidade tecnológica da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar submetida à aplicação de biorregulador e fertilizantes líquidos Productivity and technological quality of sugarcane ratoon subject to the application of plant growth regulator and liquid fertilizers  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a aplicação de biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos, na rebrota e na produtividade da soqueira de cinco genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Município de Jaú, São Paulo (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x5, constituído por cinco genótipos (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 e IACSP93-6006 e cinco tratamentos com biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos (Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1 + Cellerate® a 0,5L ha-1; Etefon a 3,0L ha-1 e Testemunha, com quatro repetições. A aplicação dos produtos ocorreu 70 dias após a quarta colheita. Foram avaliados: perfilhamento, produtividade de colmos industrializáveis e de açúcar, fibra, pol % cana e açúcar total recuperável. O etefon proporcionou melhor perfilhamento, mas a resposta foi dependente do genótipo. O maior número de perfilhos promovido pelo etefon não refletiu em maior produtividade. A aplicação de Stimulate® e fertilizantes líquidos não proporcionou efeitos na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar. Houve aumento da produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, independente do genótipo, com o emprego do biorregulador Stimulate®, com ou sem complementação de fertilizante líquido, indicando a possibilidade do aumento da longevidade da cana-de-açúcar.The present work aimed to evaluate the application of plant growth regulators, associate or not to liquid fertilizers, on the ratoon sprouting and productivity of sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú city (SP, in a Eutroferric Red Latosol. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with factorial treatment structure 5x5, constituted by five genotypes (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 and IACSP93-6006 and five plant growth regulators treatments associated or not to liquid fertilizers (Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1, + Cellerate®, 0,5L ha-1; Ethephon, 3,0L ha-1, and control, with four replicates. The application of the products occurred at 70 days after the fourth crop harvest. The attributes tillering, stalk productivity, sugar productivity, fiber, pol % cane and total sugar recoverable were evaluated. Ethephon provided better tillering, but this response was dependent of the genotype. The highest tiller number caused by Ethephon did not mean the highest productivity. The application of Stimulate® and liquid fertilizers did not provide effects on the sugarcane technological quality. There was increase of cane productivity and sugar productivity with the use of plant growth regulator Stimulate® for all genotypes, with or without supplementation of liquid fertilizer, being an indicative for increasing the sugarcane longevity.

Marcelo de Almeida Silva

2010-04-01

103

Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield / Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT), produtividade (TSS), índice de área foliar (LAI) e número de plantas [...] por metro (NPM) por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma área comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronômicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados médios do talhão (DMt). Regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de índices de vegetação. As correlações e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variáveis agronômicas não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Os modelos quadráticos e cúbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variáveis espectrais, em função dos dias após o corte e apresentaram significância com os índices de vegetação da razão e por diferença normalizada (NDVI). As correlações entre os dados espectrais médios do talhão e as variáveis agronômicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados médios do talhão (DMt), para primeira safra (1ªS), para a segunda safra (2ªS) e ambas juntas geraram regressões múltiplas, com coeficientes determinação (r²) variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT), yield (TSS), leaf area index (LAI), and number of plants per line [...] ar meter (NPM) correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2) window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS). No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3) was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.

Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

2009-08-01

104

Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

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Full Text Available Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT, yield (TSS, leaf area index (LAI, and number of plants per linear meter (NPM correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2 window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS. No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3 was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT, produtividade (TSS, índice de área foliar (LAI e número de plantas por metro (NPM por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma área comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronômicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados médios do talhão (DMt. Regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de índices de vegetação. As correlações e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variáveis agronômicas não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Os modelos quadráticos e cúbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variáveis espectrais, em função dos dias após o corte e apresentaram significância com os índices de vegetação da razão e por diferença normalizada (NDVI. As correlações entre os dados espectrais médios do talhão e as variáveis agronômicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados médios do talhão (DMt, para primeira safra (1ªS, para a segunda safra (2ªS e ambas juntas geraram regressões múltiplas, com coeficientes determinação (r² variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar.

Maurício dos Santos Simões

2009-08-01

105

Long-term follow-up after successful treatment of Pythium insidiosum keratitis in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project is to report a case of severe Pythium insidiosum keratitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and its long-term cure after therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. A 24-year-old woman with a history of contact lens wear and exposure to swimming pool water presented with a severe corneal abscess. She was treated with intensive fortified topical antibiotics and natamycin with limited response. Initial cultures suggested the presence of a septate mold, unclearly identified; therefore, both topical and intravenous voriconazole were administered. Despite the above treatment, there was worsening of the clinical picture. PCR assay revealed homology to Pythium insidiosum. Promptly, the patient underwent a large therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. After five years of follow-up, the graft exhibits neither signs of rejection nor any recurrence of infection. We conclude that prompt identification of Pythium insidiosum keratitis and aggressive treatment by therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty may offer a cure to this disease. PMID:23627654

Barequet, Irina S; Lavinsky, Fabio; Rosner, Mordechai

2013-07-01

106

Desenvolvimento da cana-de-açúcar cultivar na 56-79 proveniente da propagação de colmos tratados com ethephon / Growth of sugarcane cultivar na 56-79 originated from stalks treated with ethephon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Aplicou-se ethephon nas dosagens de 0,2 e 3 l/ha em cana-de-açúcar NA 56-79, 31 dias antes da colheita. Dos colmos colhidos foram efetuadas avaliações referentes a: infestação da broca da cana; gemas danificadas,entumescidas e brotadas; altura dos colmos; comprimento do ápice; número total de gemas [...] e por último, análises tecnológicas para Pol, Brix, pureza e teor de fibras. Os toletes obtidos desses colmos foram plantados combinando-se as três dosagens de ethephon com três densidades de plantio: colmos simples, cruzados e duplos. Foram coletados dados semanais e posteriormente mensais de brotação e dados mensais de altura dos colmos. Dados de produção e número de colmos produzidos foram tomados por ocasião do 1º, 2º e 3º cortes da cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados revelaram que a aplicação de ethephon 2 l/ha, no estágio que antecede a colheita, promoveu um aumento do número de gemas e na altura dos colmos, e a dosagem 3 l/ha reduziu o teor de fibras na região apical da cana-de-açúcar em relação ao controle. Observou-se um aumento na velocidade de emergência de gemas obtidas de colmos tratados com o produto na dosagem 2 l/ha, antes do início do perfilhamento. Quanto à densidade de plantio, colmos duplos possibilitaram maior velocidade de emergência, seguidos de colmos cruzados, com relação a colmos simples. O crescimento, perfilhamento e produção de três anos consecutivos da cana-de-açúcar proveniente de toletes obtidos de plantas tratadas com ethephon não diferiram do controle. Notou-se um maior número de colmos produzidos no 1º ano, na densidade de plantio colmos duplos, quando comparados a colmos simples, sem, contudo, haver um aumento correspondente na produção. Abstract in english Ethephon was applied on the dosages 0, 2 e 3 liters per hectare on sugarcane cultivar NA 56-79, 3l days before harvesting. At harvesting time, the following parameters were evaluated: infestation by the Diatraea saccharalis; damaged, swelled and emerged buds; stalks lenght, top lenght; number of bud [...] s per stalk and the cane quality. The setts obtained from the stalks were planted at three differents densities: normal, crossed and doubles setts. Initially, the number of sprouts was collected weekly and later monthly. The other parameter, stalk lenght, was obtained under monthly intervals. The stalks number and the production were taken at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year's growth. The results showed that the ethephon's application on 2 l/ha, before harvesting, increased the number of buds and the stalks lenght. The dosage 3 l/ha reduced the amount of fibers on the apical region of the sugarcane. Increasing of the bud emergency velocity was observed on the dosage 21/ha, before tillering. With reference to planting density, doubles setts showed emergency velocity greater than crossed setts. In turn, the crossed setts proved emergency velocidy greater than normal setts. The growth, tillering and the three years productions of the sugarcane coming from setts of the stalks treated or not with ethephon showed no significative differences.

Eunice, Melotto; Paulo R.C., Castro; Oswaldo P., Godoy; Gil M.S., Câmara; José P., Stupiello; Antonio F., Iemma.

107

Comparación del efecto de osmorreguladores e inhibidores del crecimiento en la conservación in vitro de caña de azúcar / Comparison of effect of osmoregulators and growth inhibitors on in vitro conservation of sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los sistemas de conservación in vitro son una alternativa para preservar el germoplasma de la caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp.) y el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de los osmorreguladores manitol y sorbitol (0, 15, 30 y 45 g L-1) y los inhibidores del crecimiento vegetal ácido abscísic [...] o (ABA) y paclobutrazol (PAC) (0, 1, 2 y 3 mg L-1) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de caña de azúcar. Para ello se usaron brotes in vitro de 2 cm de altura de la variedad Mex-69-290 obtenidos en fase de multiplicación y en todos los casos se empleó el medio MS (Murashige y Skoog). El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con 10 explantes por tratamiento, con los datos se realizó un análisis de varianza (ANDEVA) y una comparación de medias con la prueba de Tukey (p?0.05). A los 180 d de cultivo se evaluó el porcentaje de supervivencia, el número y longitud de los brotes, número de hojas, número y longitud de las raíces. El análisis de los resultados mostró que el aumento en las concentraciones de los osmoreguladores causó una reducción dependiente de la concentración en todas las variables evaluadas. Para los inhibidores, los tratamientos con PAC mantuvieron 100 % de supervivencia, promoviendo el número de brotes por explante. Esto contrastó con los tratamientos con ABA donde disminuyeron las variables evaluadas. La reducción en altura y presencia de brotes axilares observada en los tratamientos con PAC sería de interés para la conservación in vitro, y se concluye que el uso de PAC puede ser una nueva alternativa para la conservación in vitro del germoplasma de esta especie. Abstract in english In vitro conservation systems are an option for preserving sugarcane germplasm (Saccharum sp.). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the osmoregulators manitol and sorbitol (0, 15, 30 and 45 g L-1) and the plant growth inhibitors abscisic acid (ABA) and paclobutrazol (PAC) (0, 1, [...] 2 and 3 mg L-1) on in vitro growth of sugarcane. The plants used were 2 cm tall in vitro shoots of the variety Mex-69-290 obtained in the multiplication phase. In all cases MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium was used. The experimental design was completely random with 10 explants per treatment. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were compared with the Tukey test (p? 0.05). After 180 d of culture, survival percentage, number and length of the shoots, number of leaves, and number and length of roots were assessed. Analysis of the results showed that an increase in concentrations of osmoregulators produced a decrease in all of the variables assessed. For the inhibitors, the PAC treatments maintained 100 % survival and promoted more shoots per explant. This contrasted with the ABA treatments in which the assessed variables decreased. Reduction in height and presence of axillary shoots observed in treatments with PAC may be of interest for in vitro conservation, and, it is concluded that the use of PAC would be a new option for in vitro conservation of sugarcane germplasm.

Jericó, Bello-Bello; Wilberth, Poot-Poot; Lourdes, Iglesias-Andreu; Humberto, Caamal-Velázquez; María, de la Cruz Diaz-Sanchez.

108

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

Goldman Gustavo H

2011-10-01

109

Status of the Pythiaceae (Straminipila) in Argentina: I. The GenusPythium / Status de la familia Pythiaceae (Reino Straminipila) en Argentina: I. El género Pythium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El género Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes-ex Oomycetes), Straminipila) incluye patógenos que afectan hospedantes de importancia económica, ocasionando damping off en pre y postemergencia de plántulas de almácigo y el declinamiento de plantas herbáceas y adultas por destrucción de las raíces [...] absorbentes. Con la finalidad de conocer el estado actual de la información disponible sobre este género en Argentina, se llevó a cabo una revisión desde los primeros reportes a fines del siglo XIX hasta octubre de 2009. Se consultaron fuentes primarias y secundarias de información escrita y electrónica: presentaciones en congresos nacionales e internacionales, publicaciones periódicas nacionales e internacionales, boletines de instituciones y universidades, libros y bases de datos. La información obtenida fue categorizada y analizada permitiendo conocer el número de especies de este género, su distribución geográfica y por tipo de cultivos, relaciones hospedante-patógeno involucradas y la sintomatología observada. Se encuentran citadas 18 especies que afectan a 247 hospedantes. Un elevado número de hospedantes fueron afectados por P. ultimum y P. debaryanum, seguidos por P. irregulare y P. aphanidermatum. La diversidad de especies de Pythium en el mundo sugiere que un mayor número de especies podrían estar presentes en el país, siendo necesario su relevamiento e identificación. Abstract in english The genus Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes - ex Oomycetes), Kingdom Straminipila) includes important pathogens, affecting a wide range of hosts of economic value, causing damping-off and decline of herbaceous and wooded plants due to rootlets rot. In order to acquire a more comprehensive visi [...] on of Pythium in Argentina, a review and an updated report of recent progress in this matter was carried out since the first reports in the late XIX century till October 2009. Information was taken from printed and on line primary and secondary sources such as Proceedings of national and international Scientific Meetings, Bulletins from National Institutions and Universities, periodical Journals, books and data bases. The information was analyzed and categorized, thus updating the number of species of this genus, their geographical distribution, hosts affected, and symptoms. So far 18 species have been cited affecting, 247 hosts. The greatest number of hosts is affected by P. ultimum and P. debaryanum, followed by P. irregulare and P. aphanidermatum. The diversity of Pythium species in the world suggests that perhaps a wider variety of species, still not cited, could be present in Argentina. Projects dedicated to surveying the presence and identification of Pythium spp are necessary.

Hemilse E, Palmucci; Silvia M, Wolcan; Pablo E, Grijalba.

2011-12-01

110

Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane / Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variá [...] veis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF), número de perfilhos por metro (NPM), produtividade (TCH) e biomassa total (BMT). Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talhão comercial, localizada no município de Araras/SP foi monitorado em nove campanhas de coleta de dados radiométricos e agronômicos. O comportamento temporal das variáveis espectrais acompanhou o comportamento das variáveis agronômicas. A banda 4 (B4), o índice de vegetação da razão simples (SR), o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI) e o índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo (SAVI) aumentaram seus valores até o fim da fase de crescimento vegetativo, aproximadamente até os 240 dias após o corte, a partir do qual os valores se estabilizaram e diminuíram em função da entrada da cultura na fase de maturação. A banda 3 (B3) e o índice de vegetação da razão (RVI) tiveram queda em seus valores desde o início do ciclo, com posterior estabilização e aumento em seus valores devido ao aumento da quantidade de palha e da queda da biomassa foliar. As variáveis espectrais B3, RVI, NDVI e SAVI tiveram correlações maiores que 0,79 com as variáveis IAF e BMT e de aproximadamente 0,50 com o NPM. Os melhores modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram os com RVI, IAF e NPM e explicaram 0,97 da variação da TCH e 0,99 da BMT. Abstract in english Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic para [...] meters such as leaf area index (LAI), number of stalks per meter (NPM), yield (TSS) and total biomass (BMT). A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4), Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC). After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3) and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79) with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.

Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

2005-06-01

111

Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic parameters such as leaf area index (LAI, number of stalks per meter (NPM, yield (TSS and total biomass (BMT. A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4, Simple Ratio (SR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC. After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3 and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79 with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variáveis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF, número de perfilhos por metro (NPM, produtividade (TCH e biomassa total (BMT. Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talhão comercial, localizada no município de Araras/SP foi monitorado em nove campanhas de coleta de dados radiométricos e agronômicos. O comportamento temporal das variáveis espectrais acompanhou o comportamento das variáveis agronômicas. A banda 4 (B4, o índice de vegetação da razão simples (SR, o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI e o índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo (SAVI aumentaram seus valores até o fim da fase de crescimento vegetativo, aproximadamente até os 240 dias após o corte, a partir do qual os valores se estabilizaram e diminuíram em função da entrada da cultura na fase de maturação. A banda 3 (B3 e o índice de vegetação da razão (RVI tiveram queda em seus valores desde o início do ciclo, com posterior estabilização e aumento em seus valores devido ao aumento da quantidade de palha e da queda da biomassa foliar. As variáveis espectrais B3, RVI, NDVI e SAVI tiveram correlações maiores que 0,79 com as variáveis IAF e BMT e de aproximadamente 0,50 com o NPM. Os melhores modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram os com RVI, IAF e NPM e explicaram 0,97 da variação da TCH e 0,99 da BMT.

Maurício dos Santos Simões

2005-06-01

112

Diphenyl diselenide in vitro and in vivo activity against the oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the in vitro activity of diphenyl diselenide against 19 Pythium insidiosum isolates and the in vivo therapeutic response of rabbits with experimentally induced pythiosis. In vitro: susceptibility tests were performed using the broth macrodilution method in accordance with the CLSI document M38-A2. The criteria for interpretation were as follows: MIC-1 and MIC-2 (inhibition of 90% and 100% of mycelium growth, respectively) and the minimum fungicide concentration (MIC-3). In vivo: twenty rabbits were divided into four groups with five animals each and treated for 40 consecutive days: groups 1 and 2 (experimentally induced pythiosis) were treated with diphenyl diselenide (10mg/kg/day) and canola oil (1 mL/kg/day), respectively; groups 3 and 4 (controls) were treated with canola oil (1 mL/kg/day) and diphenyl diselenide (10mg/kg/day), respectively. Toxicity was evaluated using biochemical and haematological parameters. In vitro susceptibility tests showed that 89.4% of isolates had a MIC-1 ? 0.5 ?g/mL, 84.2% of isolates had a MIC-2 ? 1.0 ?g/mL and 94.7% of isolates had a MIC-3 ? 2.0 ?g/mL. The in vivo assay suggested that this compound has a fungistatic activity, and the biochemical and haematological parameters indicated that there was no renal, hepatic or haematological toxicity. The comparison of the unsaturated iron binding capacity levels between animals with and without pythiosis suggested the involvement of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of pythiosis. This study demonstrated the absence of detectable toxicity caused by diphenyl diselenide and the in vitro fungicidal and in vivo fungistatic activities of this drug, which makes it an option for future therapeutic approaches in the treatment of pythiosis. PMID:22055205

Loreto, Erico Silva; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Zeni, Gilson

2012-04-23

113

Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...

114

Physiological Studies on Ratoonability of Sugarcane Varieties under Tropical Indian Condition  

OpenAIRE

The ratoon crop occupies approximately 40% of the total area of sugarcane crop in tropical India. The main reason for the lower average cane productivity is the yield decline in ratoon crops (40 - 50 t/ha) despite the release of the high yielding varieties and advanced cane production technology. The physiological factors associated with ratooning performance and the variation in growth and yield were studied in 11 sugarcane varieties in two cycles of one plant and two ratoon crops each. The ...

Polur Nagaraja Gururaja Rao; Palaniappan Rakkiyappan; Srinivasan Shiyamala; Babu Poojary Sundara; Raju Gomathi

2013-01-01

115

Cane Yield and Sugar Recovery of Sugarcane Variety Larkana-2001 under Different Fertilizer Sources  

OpenAIRE

A field trial was conducted to assess the effect of different sources of fertilizers on the growth, cane yield and sugar recovery of promising sugarcane variety Larkana-2001, at Sugarcane Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan. The treatments included four fertilization sources (225-112-168 NPK kg ha-1, effective microorganism (EM) material, 25 t ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM) and 25 t ha-1 press mud. The chemical source of fertilizer (NPK) at the rate of 225-112-168 ...

Mahar, G. M.; Buriro, U. A.; Oad, F. C.; Shaikh, S. A.

2008-01-01

116

Converting developing and mature sugarcane carbohydrates into ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were performed employing cane particles obtained from sugarcane at different growth stages until maturation measuring the amount of ethanol produced and the carbohydrate consumption in order to estimate the sugarcane growth stage where both parameters were optimized. Two non-flowering commercial cane varieties NA56 and PR752002 were cultivated and samples taken at different time intervals. Two Saccharomyces cerevisae strains were also compared in the trials. Sucrose was poorly consumed in young cane, which was an unexpected result. Fructose on the other hand was the hexose that remained in the medium at the end of the fermentations specially when using mature sugarcane. There was an increasing trend in ethanol production as a function of days after planting (DAP) as expected; however, a plateau was reached after 225 DAP and the maximum value obtained was between 300 and 325 DAP. When these figures were compared with the corresponding DAP used for sugar production, only 25 days less were needed in the field for maximum ethanol production. On the other hand, it was clear from the data that cane harvesting for ethanol production should not be done after the recommended DAP for commercial sugar production. If this is done, the excess fructose present will not be completely utilized by yeast. Finally, it was observed that the yeast with more affinity for sugarcane fibers showed better ethanol yields in all samples tested. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Rolz, Carlos; De Leon, Roberto [Biochemical Engineering Center, Research Institute, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (Guatemala)

2010-10-15

117

Efeitos do glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl no crescimento e na qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar / Effect of glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl on the growth and technological quality of sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os herbicidas, mesmo quando usados em doses reduzidas ou utilizados como maturadores, podem alterar a morfofisiologia da planta, o que pode levar a modificações qualitativas e quantitativas na produção. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência agronômica e os efeitos, durante o crescimento d [...] a cana-soca, da aplicação de glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl em baixas doses. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos herbicidas sulfometuron-methyl e glyphosate em diferentes doses e misturas e por uma testemunha (sem aplicação dos produtos). Uma linha de plantas de cana-de-açúcar foi destinada à aferição da qualidade tecnológica, sendo estabelecido 1 m aleatório a cada época de amostragem. Os colmos coletados foram submetidos ao desponte na altura da gema apical e à desfolha; em seguida, foram encaminhados para processamento segundo a metodologia do Sistema de Pagamento de Cana pelo Teor de Sacarose (SPCTS), sendo considerados os parâmetros tecnológicos: pol cana (PCC), pureza do caldo (PUI), açúcar total recuperável (ATR) e Brix. Nas soqueiras de cana-de-açúcar, realizaram-se análises de crescimento (altura e perfilhos). As avaliações foram realizadas na pré-colheita (30 dias após aplicação dos maturadores) e 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias após a colheita. Os herbicidas glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl propiciaram melhoria da qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima,com incrementos significativos na pureza do caldo e no Brix. A aplicação dos produtos não interferiu na produtividade e no teor de açúcar. Houve efeito estimulante no perfilhamento quando se usou glyphosate na dose de 400 mL ha-1 e redução em crescimento (altura) no início do desenvolvimento da cana, porém, com o tempo, o efeito não se manteve. Abstract in english Even when used at low doses, or used as growth regulators, herbicides can change the morphology and physiology of the plant, leading to qualitative and quantitative changes in production. This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic efficiency and the effects during sugarcane ratoon growth after apply [...] ing low doses of glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of application of two herbicides (glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl at various doses and mixtures) and a control (without herbicide application). One row of plants was used to measure technological quality, with a random 1 m being established for each sampling time. The stems collected were submitted to apical bud emergence and defoliation and were sent to be processed according to the methodology of the Cane Payment System based on Sucrose Content (CPSSC), considering the following technological parameters: pol cane (PCC), broth purity (BP), total recoverable sugar (TRS), and Brix. The stumps were analyzed for sugarcane growth (height and tillers). Evaluations were performed during pre-harvest (30 DAA), 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after harvest. The treatments with glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl provided improved technological quality of the raw material, with significant increases in broth purity and Brix. Herbicide application did not affect productivity and sugar content. There was a stimulating effect on tillering with glyphosate at a dose of 400 mL, and growth reduction (height) at the start of cane development, but such effect was not maintained along time.

D.K., Meschede; E.D., Velini; C.A., Carbonari.

1135-11-01

118

Molecular diagnosis of subcutaneous Pythium insidiosum infection by use of PCR screening and DNA sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is an emerging human pathogen classified among brown algae and diatoms that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in otherwise healthy individuals. Here we describe a pediatric patient with pythiosis acquired in the southern United States, diagnosed by molecular screening and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region 1. PMID:22205808

Salipante, Stephen J; Hoogestraat, Daniel R; SenGupta, Dhruba J; Murphey, Donald; Panayides, Kyriacos; Hamilton, Emma; Castañeda-Sánchez, Irene; Kennedy, Jason; Monsaas, Peter W; Mendoza, Leonel; Stephens, Karen; Dunn, James J; Cookson, Brad T

2012-04-01

119

Does immunotherapy protect equines from reinfection by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum?  

Science.gov (United States)

A cutaneous Pythium insidiosum reinfection was diagnosed in an equine in Brazil. Lesions with focal presentation appeared 2 years apart. The first infection and even immunotherapy were not likely to develop enough immune response to prevent reinfection. The use of adjuvants should be considered in the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:21715582

Santos, Carlos E P; Marques, Luiz C; Zanette, Régis A; Jesus, Francielli P K; Santurio, Janio M

2011-08-01

120

Does Immunotherapy Protect Equines from Reinfection by the Oomycete Pythium insidiosum??  

Science.gov (United States)

A cutaneous Pythium insidiosum reinfection was diagnosed in an equine in Brazil. Lesions with focal presentation appeared 2 years apart. The first infection and even immunotherapy were not likely to develop enough immune response to prevent reinfection. The use of adjuvants should be considered in the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:21715582

Santos, Carlos E. P.; Marques, Luiz C.; Zanette, Régis A.; Jesus, Francielli P. K.; Santurio, Janio M.

2011-01-01

121

Efficacy of Antifungal Metabolites of Bacillus spp. for Controlling Tomato Damping-off Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum  

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Full Text Available A total of 4 strains of bacteria were isolated from the leaf surface of the rambutan using a tissue transplanting technique. They were characterized, by a dual culture test, for their efficacy to inhibit mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of the damping-off on tomato. All 4 strains significantly inhibited mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA at room temperature (27 °C. B-NST-02 and B-NST-03 gave values of inhibition of 62.0 % and   57.5 %, respectively. All strains were identified as Bacillus spp. Antifungal metabolites extracted from all 4 strains were tested at 1,000 mg/l. Tomato seedlings treated in the laboratory with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 showed germination of 85.5 % and 82.0 %, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, seedling treated with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 provided seed germination rates were 92.5 % and 92.0 %, respectively, while the controls treated with either sterile water or 2 % methanol had only 28.0 % and 26.5 % seed germination rates, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from 4 strains of Bacillus spp. showed no visible growth, while the control with sterile water or 2 % methanol, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered the whole surface of the PDA in the Petri dish within 5 days.

Warin INTANA

2008-01-01

122

Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane in Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugarcane growth was about 257,000ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 70% were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugarcane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one (100%). In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn++, Cu++) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be largely used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

123

Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar: II. micronutrientes Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane: I. Micronutrients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar la dinámica de acumulación y distribución de micronutrientes en el cultivo de caña de azúcar variedad RB 85-5035, se condujo un estudio en Fundacaña, ubicada en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Se realizaron 10 muestreos de la parte aérea de la planta a través del ciclo de crecimiento. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas, tomadas al azar con una frecuencia mensual, en una superficie de 0,6 m²/cepa, a las cuales se les determinó la concentración de Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B y Mo en tallos y hojas. Las muestras de tejido fueron analizadas por los laboratorios Land Crop en York, Inglaterra. Se determinó que los períodos críticos de absorción de micronutrientes se ubican en la fase vegetativa y en la etapa de maduración del cultivo. Los micronutrientes Fe, Mn, B y Mo se almacenaron en mayor cantidad en el tejido foliar de la planta, mientras que Cu y Zn se acumularon de forma más pronunciada en los tallos a lo largo del ciclo. Los patrones de acumulación mostraron que los requerimientos de micronutrientes fueron: Fe=5241,5 g·ha-1, Cu=121,1 g·ha-1, Zn=875,6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142,4 g·ha-1, B=116,4 g·ha-1 y Mo=33,4 g·ha-1.With the purpose of determining the dynamics of micronutrient accumulation and partitioning of sugarcane var. RB 85-5035, a trial was conducted in Fundacaña, located in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ten samples of the aerial part of the plant were taken through the growing season, and each sample consisted of three stumps, taken at random on a monthly basis in an area of 0.6 m²·cepa-1. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B and Mo on stems and leaves were analyzed by Land Crop Laboratories in York, England. It was determined that the critical periods for micronutrient absorption are found in the vegetative phase and crop ripening. The micronutrients Fe, Mn, B and Mo were stored in greater amounts in the leaf tissue of the plant, while Cu and Zn accumulated more pronounced in the stems during the cycle. The accumulation patterns showed that the crop micronutrient requirements were: Fe=5241.5 g·ha-1, Cu=121.1 g·ha-1, Zn=875.6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142.4 g·ha-1, B=116.4 g·ha-1 and Mo=33.4 g·ha-1.

Marcos Rengel

2011-08-01

124

Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selec...

125

Registration of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

126

Registration of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

127

Biochemical and biophysical characterization of sugarcane proteins involved in thermal stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane has gained worldwide interest due to its potential to produce ethanol as an alternative energy source. 2 Therefore, it is of general interest to study the physiological and biochemical aspects of sugarcane, especially those involved in stress tolerance, which may be important to understand survival during exposure to high temperatures. In plants, sHsps rank among the most important heat shock proteins expressed during heat stress. They can accumulate up to 1% in leaves and are correlated with the acquisition of thermotolerance. In this context, the study of sHsps proteins may lead to strategies for increasing sugarcane survival and fitness, allowing for its growth in regions where sugarcane has not been produced before. (author)

128

Relationships between methods of variety adaptability and stability in sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification and recommendation of superior genotypes is crucial for the growth of industrial crops, and sugarcane breeding performs a vital role by developing more productive cultivars. The study of genotype x environment interaction has been an essential tool in this process. Thereby, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between methods of adaptability and stability in sugarcane. Data were collected from trials using a randomized block design with three repetitions and 15 clones of sugarcane in nine environments in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methodologies based on analysis of variance, linear regression, multivariate analysis, nonparametric statistics, and mixed model were used. The methods of Lin and Binns, Annicchiarico, and harmonic mean of relative performance of genotypic values (MHPRVG) were similar in their classification of genotypes. The additive main effect and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) and Wricke methods tended to select the most stable genotypes; however, genotypes were less productive, coinciding with the stability parameter of Eberhart and Russell. The MHPRVG method is preferred over the methods of Lin and Binns and Annicchiarico because it includes the concepts of productivity, adaptability, and stability, and it provide direct genetic values of individuals. The use of the MHPRVG and Eberhart and Russell methods is recommended because the combination of these methods is complementary and leads to greater accuracy in the identification of genotypes of sugarcane for different environments. PMID:25036165

Mendes de Paula, T O; Marinho, C D; Souza, V; Barbosa, M H P; Peternelli, L A; Kimbeng, C A; Zhou, M M

2014-01-01

129

In vitro antimicrobial activity of volatile organic compounds from Muscodor crispans against the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete capable of causing a life-threatening disease in humans, called pythiosis. Conventional antifungal drugs are ineffective against P. insidiosum infection. A synthetic mixture of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the endophytic fungus Muscodor crispans strain B23 demonstrates antimicrobial effects against a broad range of human and plant pathogens, including fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes. We studied the in vitro effects of B23 VOCs against 25 human, 1 animal, and 4 environmental isolates of P. insidiosum, compared with a no-drug control. The B23 synthetic mixture, at amounts as low as 2.5 microl, significantly reduced growth of all P. insidiosum isolates by at least 80%. The inhibitory effect of the B23 VOCs was dose-dependent. The growth of all isolates was completely inhibited by a dose of 10.0 microl of B23 VOCs, and all isolates were killed by a dose of 20.0 microl. Synthetic B23 VOCs of M. crispans had inhibitory and lethal effects against all P. insidiosum isolates tested. Further studies are needed to evaluate this mixture for treatment of pythiosis. PMID:23413712

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Fucharoen, Suthat; Strobel, Gary A

2012-11-01

130

Photodynamic Therapy in Pythium insidiosum – An In Vitro Study of the Correlation of Sensitizer Localization and Cell Death  

OpenAIRE

Pythiosis is an infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like organism. Due to the lack of ergosterol on its cell membrane, antibiotic therapy is ineffective. The conventional treatment is surgery, but lesion recurrence is frequent, requiring several resections or limb amputation. Photodynamic therapy uses photo-activation of drugs and has the potential to be an attractive alternative option. The in vitro PDT response on the growing of Pythium insidiosum culture was investiga...

Pires, Layla; Bosco, Sandra Moraes Gimenes; Baptista, Mauri?cio S.; Kurachi, Cristina

2014-01-01

131

Microbial Properties of Composts That Suppress Damping-Off and Root Rot of Creeping Bentgrass Caused by Pythium graminicola  

OpenAIRE

Composts prepared from a variety of feedstocks were tested for their ability to suppress seedling and root diseases of creeping bentgrass caused by Pythium graminicola. Among the most suppressive materials in laboratory experiments were different batches of a brewery sludge compost and a biosolids compost from Endicott, N.Y. Batches of these composts that were initially not suppressive to Pythium damping-off became more suppressive with increasing compost age. Leaf, yard waste, food, and spen...

Craft, C. M.; Nelson, E. B.

1996-01-01

132

Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia), capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens) e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.) influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool / Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia), brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as influenced by alcohol by-products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia), capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens) e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454), cultivadas simultan [...] eamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v) de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água) foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1) no solo dos vasos (22 L), contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura) e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações), e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia), brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), cultivated simultaneously under [...] greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v) of each by-product and the check treatment (water) were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1) to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height), and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations) and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and flegmass reduced B. decumbens emergence and growth and S. rhombifolia growth but did not affect sugarcane growth.

A.A.P.M., Azania; C.A.M., Azania; M.O., Marques; M.C.M.D., Pavani.

2004-09-01

133

Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. as influenced by alcohol by-products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454, cultivadas simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1 no solo dos vasos (22 L, contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações, e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar.This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp., cultivated simultaneously under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v of each by-product and the check treatment (water were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1 to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height, and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and flegmass reduced B. decumbens emergence and growth and S. rhombifolia growth but did not affect sugarcane growth.

A.A.P.M. Azania

2004-09-01

134

The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: {yields} The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. {yields} Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. {yields} Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. {yields} Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

Tosi Furtado, Andre, E-mail: furtado@ige.unicamp.b [Department of Science and Technology Policy-DPCT, Institute of Geosciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil); Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne, E-mail: mirnags31@globo.co [Bioethanol Science and Technology Center-CTBE, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto, E-mail: cortez@agr.com.b [School of Agriculture (FEAGRI), University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil)

2011-01-15

135

Crescimento e acúmulo de matéria seca em variedades de cana-de-açúcar cultivadas sob irrigação plena / Growth and dry matter production in sugarcane varieties grown under full irrigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A análise de crescimento é considerada o método padrão para medir a produtividade biológica em espécies vegetais. Neste contexto objetivou-se avaliar, em onze variedades de cana-de-açúcar (SP79-1011, RB813804, RB863129, RB872552, RB943365, RB72454, RB763710, SP78-4764, SP81-3250, RB867515, RB92579) [...] cultivadas sob irrigação plena, o crescimento e a produção de matéria seca no ciclo de cana planta. O experimento foi instalado em condições de campo no município de Carpina, PE. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A análise de crescimento correspondeu à quantificação dos números de perfilhos e à, na mensuração da altura e diâmetro dos colmos, avaliados mensalmente em onze períodos de cultivo, os quais se estenderam dos 60 aos 360 dias após o plantio (DAP). A produção de matéria seca foi quantificada a partir dos 120 DAP, com intervalos de amostragem a cada dois meses. Observou-se que as variedades RB92579 e SP81-3250 apresentaram o maior perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca e as variedades RB813804 e RB72454 às maiores médias de altura, enquanto as variedades RB867515 e RB72454 obtiveram os maiores diâmetros do colmo. Abstract in english Growth analysis is considered as a standard method for measuring the biological productivity of plant species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and dry matter production of eleven sugarcane varieties (SP79-1011, RB813804, RB863129, RB872552, RB943365, RB72454, RB763710, SP78 [...] -4764, SP81-3250, RB867515, RB92579), grown under full irrigation, in the planted cane cycle. The experiment was conducted in field conditions in the municipality of Carpina, PE. A randomized block design with four replications was used. The varieties' growth analysis was represented by the quantification of the tillers numbers, stalk height and diameter, measured monthly, in eleven periods of cultivation that extended from 60 to 360 days after planting (DAP). The dry matter production was measured from 120 DAP, with sampling intervals of every two months. It was observed that, at 360 DAP, the RB92579 and SP81-3250 varieties showed the highest tillering and dry matter production. The RB813804 and RB72454 varieties had the highest average for height, while the RB72454 and RB867515 varieties presented the largest stalk diameters.

Emídio C. A. de, Oliveira; Ruthanna I. de, Oliveira; Bruna M. T. de, Andrade; Fernando J., Freire; Mario A., Lira Júnior; Paulo R., Machado.

2010-09-01

136

Crescimento e acúmulo de matéria seca em variedades de cana-de-açúcar cultivadas sob irrigação plena Growth and dry matter production in sugarcane varieties grown under full irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A análise de crescimento é considerada o método padrão para medir a produtividade biológica em espécies vegetais. Neste contexto objetivou-se avaliar, em onze variedades de cana-de-açúcar (SP79-1011, RB813804, RB863129, RB872552, RB943365, RB72454, RB763710, SP78-4764, SP81-3250, RB867515, RB92579 cultivadas sob irrigação plena, o crescimento e a produção de matéria seca no ciclo de cana planta. O experimento foi instalado em condições de campo no município de Carpina, PE. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A análise de crescimento correspondeu à quantificação dos números de perfilhos e à, na mensuração da altura e diâmetro dos colmos, avaliados mensalmente em onze períodos de cultivo, os quais se estenderam dos 60 aos 360 dias após o plantio (DAP. A produção de matéria seca foi quantificada a partir dos 120 DAP, com intervalos de amostragem a cada dois meses. Observou-se que as variedades RB92579 e SP81-3250 apresentaram o maior perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca e as variedades RB813804 e RB72454 às maiores médias de altura, enquanto as variedades RB867515 e RB72454 obtiveram os maiores diâmetros do colmo.Growth analysis is considered as a standard method for measuring the biological productivity of plant species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and dry matter production of eleven sugarcane varieties (SP79-1011, RB813804, RB863129, RB872552, RB943365, RB72454, RB763710, SP78-4764, SP81-3250, RB867515, RB92579, grown under full irrigation, in the planted cane cycle. The experiment was conducted in field conditions in the municipality of Carpina, PE. A randomized block design with four replications was used. The varieties' growth analysis was represented by the quantification of the tillers numbers, stalk height and diameter, measured monthly, in eleven periods of cultivation that extended from 60 to 360 days after planting (DAP. The dry matter production was measured from 120 DAP, with sampling intervals of every two months. It was observed that, at 360 DAP, the RB92579 and SP81-3250 varieties showed the highest tillering and dry matter production. The RB813804 and RB72454 varieties had the highest average for height, while the RB72454 and RB867515 varieties presented the largest stalk diameters.

Emídio C. A. de Oliveira

2010-09-01

137

Biology of Azospirillum-Sugarcane Association: Enhancement of Nitrogenase Activity †  

OpenAIRE

Azospirillum brasilense was reisolated from associations with callus tissue cultures of sugarcane and compared with stock cultures of the inoculated bacterium and related strains. Although the reisolate had a growth rate similar to stock cultures, it exhibited a severalfold increase in maximum specific activity of nitrogenase. The reisolate and the parent culture had similar ultrastructure. The general ultrastructure of Azospirillum is described. The bacterium was capsulated when grown on nit...

Berg, R. Howard; Tyler, Max E.; Novick, Norman J.; Vasil, Vimla; Vasil, Indra K.

1980-01-01

138

Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean. Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58° and polarizations (HH, HV, VV were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°. Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm. This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired less than two or three months after the cut. The radar signal decreases about 5dB for images acquired some days after the cut and 3 dB for data acquired two month after the cut (VV-37°. The difference in radar signal becomes negligible (

Nicolas Baghdadi

2010-09-01

139

Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the potential to detect the impact of climatic effects, such as frost, on crop growth, which is relevant information to evaluate the negative impact on sugarcane production. Thus, the objective of the present study is to detect the impact of the frost occurred on 28 June 2011 in the sugarcane production region of São Paulo state, using MODIS images acquired on board of Terra and Aqua satellites before and after the frost event. Also, Landsat type images were used to map the harvested sugarcane fields up to the frost event based on a sugarcane crop map for year 2011. The remaining sugarcane fields available for harvest in 2011 were monitored with the MODIS images acquired on 17, 19, 27, 28 June and 8 and 9 July, to detect frost damage. Field work was conducted shortly after frost occurrence to identify sugarcane fields with frost damage for training and validation purposes. MODIS images transformed to vegetation indices and morphometric variables extracted from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data are being analyzed to detect and quantify the damage of the frost from 28 July 2011 on sugarcane crop.

Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

2011-12-01

140

Phycomycetes (Phytophthora spp. nov. and Pythium sp. nov. ) associated with degrading mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fungi of the genus Phytophthora were found to be associated with the initial stages of leaf litter decay of Rhizophora mangle L. and other Rhizophora species in estuarine and coastal marine waters. Phytophthora appears to be an important component of red-mangrove litter degradation systems throughout the tropics, which includes the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The distributions of Phytophthora vesicula Anastasiou et Churchland and four new species of Phytophthora are discussed, as well as their occurrence in other tropical marine allochthonous spermatophytic leaf litter. The descriptions of the new species and varieties, Phytophthora bahamensis, P. epistomium, P. mycoparasitica, P. spinosa var. spinosa, and P. spinosa var. lobata, are presented. Pythium was rarely observed in the mangrove litter system, although one species, Pythium grandisporangium sp. nov., is described. (auth)

Fell, J.W.; Master, I.M.

1975-12-15

141

Solarização do solo e incorporação de fontes de matéria orgânica no controle de Pythium spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da solarização do solo, associada à incorporação de lodo de esgoto, cama-de-frango e casca de Pinus, no controle de Pythium spp. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios, um em área cultivada comercialmente com crisântemo e outro em área artificialmente infestada com Pythium spp. em cultivo de pepino. A adição de cama-de-frango induziu a supressividade do solo ao patógeno, visto que resultou em maiores temperaturas no solo solarizado, aumento na condutividade elétrica e maior atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pela hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína e desprendimento de CO2. Por outro lado, o lodo de esgoto e a casca de Pinus não induziram a supressividade ao patógeno. A solarização não teve efeito no crescimento da parte aérea e no peso de matéria fresca de raízes de plantas de crisântemo, mas teve efeito significativo no controle do patógeno no ensaio conduzido com pepino.

Ghini Raquel

2002-01-01

142

Zoospore encystment and pathogenicity of Phytophthora and Pythium species on plant roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven plant species (lucerne, maize, oat, sugarbeet, sorghum, tomato, wheat) and 12 Pythium and Phytophthora species were used in a comparative study designed to investigate the effects of plant and oomycete inter-specific variation on zoospore encystment density and pathogenicity. Zoospores showed differential encystment behaviour and they encysted more on dicotyledonous than on monocotyledonous plants. Pythium aphanidermatum, P. deliense, and Phytophthora nicotianae were the most aggressive species. Sugarbeet was the most severely attacked plant species followed by tomato while oat plants were relatively unaffected. The relationship between zoospore encystment on roots and disease severity depended on the oomycete-plant combination. Correlation analysis between zoospore encystment density and disease severity indicated low and no significant levels (p.05) of association for most plant-oomycete combinations. PMID:16338584

Raftoyannis, Yannis; Dick, Michael W

2006-01-01

143

Influence of Pythium oligandrum Biocontrol on Fungal and Oomycete Population Dynamics in the Rhizosphere?  

OpenAIRE

Fungal and oomycete populations and their dynamics were investigated following the introduction of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum into the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in soilless culture. Three strains of P. oligandrum were selected on the basis of their ability to form oospores (resting structures) and to produce tryptamine (an auxin-like compound) and oligandrin (a glycoprotein elicitor). Real-time PCR and plate counting demonstrated the persistence of large amounts of the a...

Vallance, Jessica; Le Floch, Gae?tan; De?niel, Franck; Barbier, Georges; Le?vesque, C. Andre?; Rey, Patrice

2009-01-01

144

Utilisation of Carbon Sources by Pythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium Species as Determined by Biolog® Microplate Assay  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the metabolic activity of pure cultures of five root pathogens commonly found in closed hydroponic cultivation systems (Phytophthora cryptogea (PC), Phytophthora capsici (PCP), Pythium aphanidermatum (PA), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) and Fusarium solani (FS)) using sole carbon source utilisation in order to develop effective biocontrol strategies against these pathogens. Aliquots of 150 µL of the mycelial suspension were inoculated in each well of ...

Khalil, Sammar; Alsanius, Beatrix W.

2009-01-01

145

In Vitro Activity of Terbinafine Combined with Caspofungin and Azoles against Pythium insidiosum?  

OpenAIRE

In this text we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of terbinafine combined with caspofungin, miconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole against 17 Pythium insidiosum strains by using the microdilution checkerboard method. Synergistic interactions were observed with terbinafine combined with caspofungin (41.2% of the strains), fluconazole (41.2%), ketoconazole (29.4%), and miconazole (11.8%). No antagonistic effects were observed. The combination of terbinafine plus caspofungin or ter...

Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Maboni, Grazieli; Azevedo, Maria I.; Argenta, Juliana S.; Pereira, Daniela I. B.; Spader, Tatiana B.; Alves, Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

2009-01-01

146

Evaluation for the Clinical Diagnosis of Pythium insidiosum Using a Single-Tube Nested PCR  

OpenAIRE

Pythiosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, which typically occurs in tropical and subtropical regions. The high mortality rate may be in consequence of the lack of diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate reliability of a new single-tube nested PCR for detection of P. insidiosum DNA. A total of 78 clinical isolates of various fungi and bacteria, 106 clinical specimens and 80 simulated positive blood samples were tested. The developed primer pairs CPL6?...

Thongsri, Yordhathai; Wonglakorn, Lumyai; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Svobodova, Lucie; Hamal, Petr; Pakarasang, Maitree; Prariyachatigul, Chularut

2013-01-01

147

Comunicación corta. La marchitez del pepino invernal causada por Pythium irregulare en el sureste de España  

OpenAIRE

[ES] Pythium irregulare se aisló de plantas adultas de pepino con necrosis en la base del tallo, marchitez y, a menudo, muertas; síntomas que fueron particularmente observados en los cultivos de invierno de los invernaderos del sudeste de España. Los daños fueron frecuentemente importantes porque los síntomas se manifestaron durante la recolección de los frutos. A mediados de octubre se inocularon plantas de pepino del cv. Nevada, en estado de 4-7 hojas verdaderas, que habí...

Go?mez-va?zquez, Julio Mari?a; Serrano Alonso, Y.; Melero-vara, Jose? M.

2011-01-01

148

Cytological Effects of Cellulases in the Parasitism of Phytophthora parasitica by Pythium oligandrum  

OpenAIRE

The ubiquitous oomycete Pythium oligandrum is a potential biocontrol agent for use against a wide range of pathogenic fungi and an inducer of plant disease resistance. The ability of P. oligandrum to compete with root pathogens for saprophytic colonization of substrates may be critical for pathogen increase in soil, but other mechanisms, including antibiosis and enzyme production, also may play a role in the antagonistic process. We used transmission electron microscopy and gold cytochemistry...

Picard, Karine; Tirilly, Yves; Benhamou, Nicole

2000-01-01

149

Development of new formulations of Bacillus subtilis for management of tomato damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formulations of a strain of Bacillus subtilis AUBS-1 inhibitory to the growth of the damping-off pathogen, Pythium aphanidermatum, were developed for seed treatment. The formulations included a talc-based powder, lignite-based powder, lignite + fly ash-based powder, wettable powder, bentonite-paste, polyethylene glycol (PEG) paste and a water-dispersible tablet. Formulations were stored at room temperature for 2 years and frequently sampled to test their shelf life. Populations of bacteria in the formulations were stable for up to 2 years storage at room temperature (28{degree}C). Viability of propagules in lignite, lignite + fly ash, bentonite paste, wettable powder and water dispersible tablet formulations was 100% for up to 1 year. However, the viability of propagules was significantly reduced in talc, wettable powder, PEG paste and tablet formulations beyond 1 year of storage. Seed treatment of tomato with these formulations resulted in effective control of damping-off caused by P. aphanidermatum, and also enhanced plant biomass under glasshouse and field conditions. Active rhizosphere colonization by the bacterium was observed on tomato plants grown from seeds treated with the above formulations.

Jayaraj, J.; Radhakrishnan, N.V.; Kannan, R.; Sakthivel, K.; Suganya, D.; Venkatesan, S.; Velazhahan, R. [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B (Canada). Dept. of Biological Science

2005-02-15

150

Natural aflatoxin uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinaurum L.) and its persistence in jaggery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study focused on aflatoxin (AF) uptake by sugarcanes from contaminated soils, and its persistence in jaggery. Analysis of 25 agricultural soil samples from sugarcane growing fields revealed that 80 % were found contaminated with AF ranging from 0.5 to 22 ppb and all samples harbored aflatoxigenic fungi. Forty percent of the juices extracted from sugarcane grown in contaminated soil recorded AF ranging from 1.0 to 9.5 ppb. Conversely, jaggery prepared from those samples was almost free from AF. Further, greenhouse experiment confirms the AF uptake ability of sugarcane plants. Analysis of sugarcane juice and jaggery collected from local vendor showed 21 % (0.5 to 6.5 ppb) and 5.6 % (0.5-1.0 ppb) of AF contamination, respectively. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain was evaluated for their ability to grow and produce AF on jaggery medium. At 14th day after inoculation, decreased concentration of AF was recorded in jaggery medium ranging from 0 to 120 mg jaggery/ml, above which AF was absent though the fungal growth was noted. From the results, it could be concluded that sugarcane plants have the ability to uptake AF from contaminated soil, but AF was reduced during jaggery preparation. Also, higher concentration of jaggery was inhibitory to AF production. PMID:25408078

Hariprasad, P; Vipin, A V; Karuna, S; Raksha, R K; Venkateswaran, G

2015-04-01

151

Development of a Species-Specific Probe for Pythium insidiosum and the Diagnosis of Pythiosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum, the only species in the genus that infects mammals, is the etiological agent of pythiosis, a granulomatous disease characterized by cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and vascular diseases. Accurate diagnosis of pythiosis and identification of its causal agent are often inconsistent with current immunological diagnostic methods. A species-specific DNA probe was constructed by using a 530-bp HinfI fragment from the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer of P. insidiosum. When the probe was incubated with dot blots of genomic DNA from 104 Pythium species, it hybridized only to the DNA of P. insidiosum and P. destruens—two species that have been considered conspecific. The probe also hybridized to DNA from 22 P. insidiosum isolates in this study, regardless of their geographic origin or animal host. When tested against genomic DNA from other pathogenic organisms (Aspergillus fumigatus, Basidiobolus ranarum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Lagenidium giganteum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Prototheca wickerhamii), no cross-hybridization of the probe was detected. The specificity of the probe to hybridize to genomic DNA from all isolates of P. insidiosum and not cross-react with DNA from other Pythium species or pathogens that cause symptoms similar to pythiosis in their hosts makes it a powerful tool for the accurate diagnosis of pythiosis. In addition, the probe has the potential for pathological and environmental diagnostic applications. PMID:15184412

Schurko, Andrew M.; Mendoza, Leonel; de Cock, Arthur W. A. M.; Bedard, James E. J.; Klassen, Glen R.

2004-01-01

152

The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. (author)

Furtado, Andre Tosi [Department of Science and Technology Policy - DPCT, Institute of Geosciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil); Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne Gaya [Bioethanol Science and Technology Center - CTBE, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [School of Agriculture (FEAGRI), University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil)

2011-01-15

153

Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqüências de P. insidiosum depositadas no GenBank.Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism, Pythium insidiosum, pathogenic to men and animals. A patient with a phagedenic ulcer on the leg is reported. Histopathological examination was suggestive of zygomycosis, response to antifungal drugs was poor and cure was obtained by means of wide surgical excision. Etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing of colonies isolated in Sabouraud agar. After BLAST analysis, the sequence showed 100% identity with those of P. insidiosum deposited on the GenBank.

Silvio Alencar Marques

2006-10-01

154

Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil / Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio [...] de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqüências de P. insidiosum depositadas no GenBank. Abstract in english Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism, Pythium insidiosum, pathogenic to men and animals. A patient with a phagedenic ulcer on the leg is reported. Histopathological examination was suggestive of zygomycosis, response to antifungal drugs was poor and cure was obtained by means of wi [...] de surgical excision. Etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing of colonies isolated in Sabouraud agar. After BLAST analysis, the sequence showed 100% identity with those of P. insidiosum deposited on the GenBank.

Silvio Alencar, Marques; Eduardo, Bagagli; Sandra M. G., Bosco; Rosangela M. P., Camargo; Mariangela E. A., Marques.

2006-10-01

155

Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed over the past 30 years, but attempts to further increase crop yield have been limited due to the complexity of the sugarcane genome. An alternative to boost the crop yield is the introduction of genes encoding desirable traits in the elite sugarcane cultivars. Genetically modified sugarcane with increased yield and pest and disease resistance has already proven its value not only by the increased sugar content but also for the improvement of the crop performance. However, transgene stability is still a challenge since transgene silencing seems to occur in a large proportion of genetically modified sugarcane plants. In addition, regulatory issues associated with the crop propagation model will also be a challenge to the commercial approval of genetically modified sugarcane. PMID:22093808

Arruda, Paulo

2012-06-01

156

Performance of sugarcane somaclones under different irrigation and fertilizers doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vitro grown plantlets (somaclones) were regenerated through callus culture. Selected somaclone along with parent were tested under different fertilizer and irrigation levels for agronomic and qualitative traits of parent/clones. Maximum plant height, and internodes (plant-1) was observed in NIA-98 somaclone. The tillers (plant-1), weight plant-1, cane yield, sucrose and purity were greater in AEC82-1026 somaclone and maximum stem girth was obtained in BL4 somaclone from the combination of 150-80-100 NPK (kg ha-1) with 25 irrigations during the growing season. It was concluded that the application of 150-80-100 kg NPK ha-1 and 25 irrigations during the growth period of sugarcane were efficient for achieving better agronomic and qualitative traits of sugarcane somaclones. (author)

157

Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues  

OpenAIRE

Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest; biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduce risks of groundwater contamination, eutrophication of surface waters, soil pollution, and acidifi...

Hartemink, A. E.

2008-01-01

158

A search for markers of sugarcane evolution  

OpenAIRE

To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA) region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarc...

Bacci Jr, M.; Miranda, V. F. O.; Martins, V. G.; Figueira, A. V. O.; Lemos, M. V.; Pereira, J. O.; Marino, C. L.

2001-01-01

159

Sugarcane cropping and cattle husbandry integration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter approaches the Brazilian proposal to replace 5% of gasoline worldwide, mathematical programming and simulation of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, modeling scenario of sugar cane and beef production in Brazil, mathematical modelling of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production, modelling variables and constraints, objective function, optimized results of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, and further potential applications.

Taube-Netto, Miguel; Pinto, Luis Franco de Campos; Castaneda-Ayarza, Juan; Cortez, Luis Augusto B.

2012-07-01

160

Isolation of cellulolytic bacteria from the intestine of Diatraea saccharalis larvae and evaluation of their capacity to degrade sugarcane biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a strategy to find efficient lignocellulose degrading enzymes/microorganisms for sugarcane biomass pretreatment purposes, 118 culturable bacterial strains were isolated from intestines of sugarcane-fed larvae of the moth Diatraea saccharalis. All strains were tested for cellulolytic activity using soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degrading assays or by growing bacteria on sugarcane biomass as sole carbon sources. Out of the 118 strains isolated thirty eight were found to possess cellulose degrading activity and phylogenetic studies of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed that all cellulolytic strains belonged to the phyla ?-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Within the three phyla, species belonging to five different genera were identified (Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Microbacterium, Bacillus and Enterococcus). Bacterial growth on sugarcane biomass as well as extracellular endo-glucanase activity induced on soluble cellulose was found to be highest in species belonging to genera Bacillus and Klebsiella. Good cellulolytic activity correlated with high extracellular protein concentrations. In addition, scanning microscopy studies revealed attachment of cellulolytic strains to different sugarcane substrates. The results of this study indicate the possibility to find efficient cellulose degrading enzymes and microorganisms from intestines of insect larvae feeding on sugarcane and their possible application in industrial processing of sugarcane biomass such as second generation biofuel production. PMID:25852992

Dantur, Karina I; Enrique, Ramón; Welin, Björn; Castagnaro, Atilio P

2015-01-01

161

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

1981-08-01

162

Reguladores vegetais no enraizamento e desenvolvimento de gemas de cana-de-açúcar tratadas termicamente / Plant regulators on rooting and growth of sugarcane shoots treated with high temperature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve por finalidade estudar o efeito de reguladores vegetais sobre a emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de gemas de cana-de-açúcar 'IAC 52-150', submetidas ao tratamento térmico por via úmida. Para tanto, as gemas foram tratadas durante uma hora em soluções de ácido indolilacético (I [...] AA) e ácido naftalenacêtico (NAA), nas concentrações de 10, 25, 50 e 100 ppm, em ácido indolbutírico (IBA) nas concentrações de 10 e 25 ppm e em água pura (testemunha). Imediatamente após o tratamento, as gemas foram plantadas em germinadores de areia. IBA 10 ppm tendeu a favorecer a emergência e o enraizamento das gemas. IAA não afetou a emergência, enraizamento e peso da parte aérea da cana-de-açúcar. Aplicação de NAA 100 ppm reduziu a porcentagem de emergência e o peso da parte aérea do cultivar IAC 52-150. Abstract in english The effect of growth regulators on the germination and initial development of sugar cane shoots submitted to high temperature treatment by the moist method was studied. The shoots were treated during 1 hour with indoleacetic´acid (IAA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at the concentrations of 10, 25 [...] , 50 and 100 ppm, with indolebutyric acid (IBA) at the concentrations of 10 and 25 ppm and with pure water (control). Immediately after the treatment, the shoots were planted in sand germinators. The results showed that treatment with IBA 10 ppm promote a tendency to induce germination and roots development. The root system development was not affected by other treatments, but the development of the aerial portion was adversely affected by NAA 100 ppm. The results showed that, after 60 days, the number of emerged shoots was significantly lower than that of the control in the plots treated with 100 ppm of NAA.

A.R., Verri; R.A., Pitelli; A.A., Casagrande; P.R.C., Castro.

163

Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased leaves, percentage severity were measured. Growth and yield parameters such as stalk length, number of leaves, number of tillers and yield parameters such as fresh and dry shoot weights, percentage dry matter at harvest were also measured. Analysis of variance showed that percentage severity of sugarcane mosaic disease, increased in non-weeded plots compared with weeded plots. Twice weeding (52.1% and the weed free plots (53.7% had the significantly lowest severities. Varietal influence significantly influenced severity and variety NCO-270 produced the significantly lowest severity (45.8%.The interaction of weeding regime and variety indicated that variety CB36411 in the weed free plots, produced the lowest severity (33.5%.Yield parameters showed that significantly highest shoot weight was recorded in the weed free plot, while variety NCO-270 gave the highest fresh and dry shoot weights (254.8g and 50.2g respectively. The results indicate that variety NCO-270 was the most tolerant and that weeding at least once in six months is required to mitigate the effect of sugarcane mosaic disease, as witnessed in significantly increased growth and yield attributes of plants in the weeded plots.

Taiye Hussein Aliyu

2013-09-01

164

Micosis por Pythium Insidiosum primer caso con diagnóstico definitivo en Colombia / Mycoses for Pythium insidiosum. First case with definitive diagnosis in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Pythium insidiosum es un hongo distribuido globalmente causante de una micosis emergente llamada Pitiosis en personas y animales. El diagnóstico definitivo involucra correlación clínico epidemiológica, clínico patológica, histopatológica y molecular. En Colombia no existen antecedentes diagnósticos [...] de Pitiosis con estas correlaciones. Pitiosis fue demostrada dos equinos de zona rural en Puerto Boyacá, Departamento de Boyacá-Colombia. Los equinos presentaron en extremidades lesiones únicas, pruriginosas, ulceradas, granulomatosas, alternada de masas sólidas con secreción serosanguinolenta. De las biopsias los hallazgos anatomopatológicos demostraron masas sólidas de aspecto coralino, las cuales se procesaron histopatológicamente. Los resultados correlacionados de biogeografía, las lesiones halladas en los equinos y en ellas los patrones histopatológicos de Splendore-Hoeplii, con hallazgos de hifas raramente septadas con diámetro de 2,5 a 6,2 micras en ramificación angulada, junto a la secuenciación del DNA extraído y comparado con el depositado para P.insidiosum en el GenBank permitió demostrar en todas las muestras una homología del 100% conformándose por primera vez el diagnóstico definitivo de Pitiosis en Colombia. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is a globally distributed fungus that causes a fungal infection called Pythiosis is considered an emerging disease in humans and animals. A definitive diagnosis involves clinical, epidemiological, histopathological and molecular correlations. There are no reports of Pythiosis diag [...] nosis involving all these correlations in Colombia. In this study were confirmed Phytiosis in two horses in rural area of Puerto Boyaca (Boyaca, Colombia) presenting single,itching, ulcerated, granulomatous lesions on their limbs with serosanguineous suppuration. Biopsies were analyzed pathologically and histopathologically. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried out from DNA extracted of paraffin blocks. This study report the first definitive diagnosis of phytiosis in Colombia based on the correlation between biogeography area, the pathological and histopathological findings which included patterns like Splendore-Hoeplii and hyphae with rare septae (2.5 to 6.2 microns diameters of branching angled) along with sequenced DNA that showed 100% homology with the Pythium insidiosum sequence at the GenBank.

Edward Javier, Acero-Mondragón; Daniel Alfonso, Botero Rosas; María Inés, Maldonado Arango.

2013-01-01

165

Trimming and clustering sugarcane ESTs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O método de clustering adotado no Projeto SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project) tinha vários problemas (muitos clusters, presença de seqüências de ribossomo etc.) Nós assumimos a tarefa de reprojetar todo o processo de clustering, propondo uma "limpeza" inicial mais cuidadosa das seqüências. Neste artigo a [...] s estratégias de limpeza das seqüências e de clustering são descritas em detalhe, incluindo os números oficiais do projeto (237,954 ESTs e 43,141 clusters). Abstract in english The original clustering procedure adopted in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag project (SUCEST) had many problems, for instance too many clusters, the presence of ribosomal sequences, etc. We therefore redesigned the clustering procedure entirely, including a much more careful initial trimming of [...] the reads. In this paper the new trimming and clustering strategies are described in detail and we give the new official figures for the project, 237,954 expressed sequence tags and 43,141 clusters.

Guilherme P., Telles; Felipe R. da, Silva.

2001-12-01

166

Trimming and clustering sugarcane ESTs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The original clustering procedure adopted in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag project (SUCEST had many problems, for instance too many clusters, the presence of ribosomal sequences, etc. We therefore redesigned the clustering procedure entirely, including a much more careful initial trimming of the reads. In this paper the new trimming and clustering strategies are described in detail and we give the new official figures for the project, 237,954 expressed sequence tags and 43,141 clusters.

Telles Guilherme P.

2001-01-01

167

Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

168

Base excision repair in sugarcane  

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Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

2001-01-01

169

Obstrução intestinal por Pythium insidiosum em um cão: relato de caso / Intestinal obstruction by Pythium insidiosum in a dog: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de pitiose intestinal em um Husky Siberiano, de um ano de idade, macho atendido em um Hospital Veterinário Escola com sinais de obstrução intestinal. Ao exame físico, notou-se massa cilíndrica na região abdominal cranial, posteriormente confirmada por meio de radiografia e ultrasso [...] nografia. Durante a laparotomia exploratória, constatou-se massa extraluminal envolvendo o jejuno e alterações na parede do órgão. Realizou-se a ressecção da porção afetada do intestino e, posteriormente, anastomose. O exame histológico do tecido evidenciou inflamação piogranulomatosa acentuada. Na coloração de prata metenamina de Grocott, hifas septadas foram observadas. O diagnóstico de infecção por Pythium insidiosum foi confirmado por meio da imunoistoquímica. Após a cirurgia, o animal restabeleceu a defecação; no 30° dia pós-cirúrgico, foi relatada ainda presença de diarreia. O tratamento com itraconazol e terbinafina foi instituído durante 60 dias. Após dois anos do procedimento cirúrgico e do tratamento com antifúngicos orais, o cão não apresentou recidiva. Abstract in english A case of intestinal pythiosis in a one-year-old male Siberian Husky treated at a Veterinary School Hospital with signs of intestinal obstruction is reported. At physical examination, a cylindrical mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen, later confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography. During t [...] he exploratory laparotomy, it was evidenced an extraluminal mass involving the jejunum and alterations of the wall in the organ. After that, a resection of the affected portion of the intestine was made followed by anastomosis. The histologic examination evidenced accented pyogranulomatous inflammation. By the Grocott methenamine silver stain, branching hyphae were observed. The diagnosis of infection by Pythium insidiosum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The animal reestablished the defecation after the surgery; on the 30th postoperative day, it was also reported the presence of diarrhea. The treatment with itraconazol and terbinafina was instituted for 60 days. Two years after the surgical procedure and treatment with oral antifungals, the dog did not show recurrence.

P.S., Hunning; G., Rigon; C.S., Faraco; S.P., Pavarini; D., Sampaio; W., Beheregaray; D., Driemeier.

2010-08-01

170

Obstrução intestinal por Pythium insidiosum em um cão: relato de caso Intestinal obstruction by Pythium insidiosum in a dog: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de pitiose intestinal em um Husky Siberiano, de um ano de idade, macho atendido em um Hospital Veterinário Escola com sinais de obstrução intestinal. Ao exame físico, notou-se massa cilíndrica na região abdominal cranial, posteriormente confirmada por meio de radiografia e ultrassonografia. Durante a laparotomia exploratória, constatou-se massa extraluminal envolvendo o jejuno e alterações na parede do órgão. Realizou-se a ressecção da porção afetada do intestino e, posteriormente, anastomose. O exame histológico do tecido evidenciou inflamação piogranulomatosa acentuada. Na coloração de prata metenamina de Grocott, hifas septadas foram observadas. O diagnóstico de infecção por Pythium insidiosum foi confirmado por meio da imunoistoquímica. Após a cirurgia, o animal restabeleceu a defecação; no 30° dia pós-cirúrgico, foi relatada ainda presença de diarreia. O tratamento com itraconazol e terbinafina foi instituído durante 60 dias. Após dois anos do procedimento cirúrgico e do tratamento com antifúngicos orais, o cão não apresentou recidiva.A case of intestinal pythiosis in a one-year-old male Siberian Husky treated at a Veterinary School Hospital with signs of intestinal obstruction is reported. At physical examination, a cylindrical mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen, later confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography. During the exploratory laparotomy, it was evidenced an extraluminal mass involving the jejunum and alterations of the wall in the organ. After that, a resection of the affected portion of the intestine was made followed by anastomosis. The histologic examination evidenced accented pyogranulomatous inflammation. By the Grocott methenamine silver stain, branching hyphae were observed. The diagnosis of infection by Pythium insidiosum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The animal reestablished the defecation after the surgery; on the 30th postoperative day, it was also reported the presence of diarrhea. The treatment with itraconazol and terbinafina was instituted for 60 days. Two years after the surgical procedure and treatment with oral antifungals, the dog did not show recurrence.

P.S. Hunning

2010-08-01

171

Registration of ‘CPCL 99-4455’ Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The objectives of this research were t...

172

Registration of 'CP 98-1029' Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

173

Registration of 'CP 94-1100' Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

174

Registration of ‘CP 01-1372’ Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purposes of this research were to ...

175

Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

176

Biofiltration kinetics of ethylacetate and xylene using sugarcane bagasse based biofilter  

OpenAIRE

Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and xylene in a sugarcane bagasse biofilter were investigated. Microbial growth rate, biochemical reaction rate and kinetic analysis were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of xylene in the inlet concentration range of 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and ...

saravanan Viswanathan; Rajasimman Manivasagam; Rajamohan Natarajan

2010-01-01

177

In Vitro Activity of Terbinafine Combined with Caspofungin and Azoles against Pythium insidiosum?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this text we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of terbinafine combined with caspofungin, miconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole against 17 Pythium insidiosum strains by using the microdilution checkerboard method. Synergistic interactions were observed with terbinafine combined with caspofungin (41.2% of the strains), fluconazole (41.2%), ketoconazole (29.4%), and miconazole (11.8%). No antagonistic effects were observed. The combination of terbinafine plus caspofungin or terbinafine plus fluconazole may have significant therapeutic potential for treatment of pythiosis. PMID:19289531

Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Maboni, Grazieli; de Azevedo, Maria I.; Argenta, Juliana S.; Pereira, Daniela I. B.; Spader, Tatiana B.; Alves, Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

2009-01-01

178

In Vitro activity of terbinafine combined with caspofungin and azoles against Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this text we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of terbinafine combined with caspofungin, miconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole against 17 Pythium insidiosum strains by using the microdilution checkerboard method. Synergistic interactions were observed with terbinafine combined with caspofungin (41.2% of the strains), fluconazole (41.2%), ketoconazole (29.4%), and miconazole (11.8%). No antagonistic effects were observed. The combination of terbinafine plus caspofungin or terbinafine plus fluconazole may have significant therapeutic potential for treatment of pythiosis. PMID:19289531

Cavalheiro, Ayrton S; Maboni, Grazieli; de Azevedo, Maria I; Argenta, Juliana S; Pereira, Daniela I B; Spader, Tatiana B; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M

2009-05-01

179

Biochemical and molecular characterisation of the bacterial endophytes from native sugarcane varieties of Himalayan region  

OpenAIRE

Seven endophytic bacterial isolates were finally recovered from native sugarcane varieties at hilly areas namely Berinag, Champawat and Didihat of Uttarakhand state in northern Himalayan region. New isolates and two standard cultures—Azospirillum brasilense and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, were evaluated for their morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Morphologically all were rod shaped, Gram-negative bacteria. Their plant growth promotory properties were also asses...

Singh, Digar; Sharma, Anita; Saini, Gurvinder Kaur

2012-01-01

180

Control of Chinese-kale damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum by antifungal metabolites of Trichoderma virens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven strains of Trichoderma virens were isolated from Chinese-kale planting soil in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Efficacy of those isolates to inhibit mycelial growth and overgrow on mycelia ofPythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of damping-off on Chinese-kale, were determined by a dual culture test. All strains significantly inhibited growth and overgrew on mycelia of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA as compared with the control. Strains T-NST-01, T-NST-05 and T-NST-07 gave high values of inhibition by 85.5, 82.5 and 78.5%, respectively. For efficacy to overgrow on mycelia of pathogen test, strains T-NST-05, T-NST-07 and T-NST-01 provided 48.3, 47.0 and 46.1% of mycelial overgrowth, respectively. Antifungal metabolites were extracted from three promising strains and tested against mycelial growth and sporangium production of P. aphanidermatum. The results showed that 1,000 mg/L of all metabolites completely inhibited mycelial growth and sporangium production. Under laboratory condition, all metabolites (1,000 mg/L significantly increased the number of Chinese-kale seedling germination, especially the metabolites from T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 provided germination of 92.5 and 87.5%, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, Chinese-kale seedlings treated with 1,000 mg/L of metabolites from strains T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 survived by 90.5 and 87.5%, respectively, while the control 1 (sterile water and control 2 (2% methanol had 19.0 and 18.5% of survived seedlings, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from three strains of T. virens showed no visible growth, while the control with 2% methanol or sterile water, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered whole surface of PDA in of the Petri dish within 4 days.

Chiradej Chamswarng

2007-07-01

181

Interação de imazapic no sistema integrado palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida e vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca / Interaction of imazapic in the integrated system using sugarcane mulch residue, herbicide and vinasse on purple nutsedge growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da interação palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida imazapic e diferentes meios de aplicação de vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e em vasos dispostos em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, sendo [...] avaliados os tratamentos: controle; apenas palha; apenas vinhaça; apenas o herbicida imazapic; palha + vinhaça; palha + herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; e palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura. O imazapic foi aplicado na dose de 122,5 g ha-1 e, no tratamento onde a vinhaça foi aplicada em mistura com o herbicida, este foi diluído com água até ¼ do volume necessário e completado com vinhaça. O imazapic foi eficiente no controle da tiririca quando comparado com a testemunha. A aplicação isolada da vinhaça ou a adição de apenas a palha ao solo estimularam o crescimento da tiririca embora tenha reduzido a viabilidade dos tubérculos. Nos tratamentos sem palha, não houve diferença no crescimento da tiririca, quando a aplicação de vinhaça foi realizada antes ou depois do imazapic, sendo observado controle da espécie. Entretanto, quando em mistura com a vinhaça, o produto não controlou a tiririca. A presença da palha no tratamento onde foi aplicada vinhaça antes do herbicida reduziu a ação do imazapic, em comparação com aquele sem palha. O número de brotações e a altura média de plantas de tiririca foram maiores nos tratamentos com palha quando foi aplicado imazapic depois ou mesmo junto com a vinhaça. Sob palha, a aplicação de vinhaça após o herbicida ou em mistura com imazapic aumentou apenas o número de brotações. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to evaluate sugarcane mulch residue, imazapic and vinasse application interaction on the initial development of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). A greenhouse experiment was set up using pots filled with soil, arranged in a randomized complete blocks design, with [...] four replications, with the following treatments: check; straw alone; vinasse alone; imazapic alone; straw + vinasse; straw + herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied before the herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied together; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; and straw + herbicide + vinasse applied together. Imazapic was applied at the rate of 122.5 g ha-1 and in the treatment in which vinasse was applied mixed with the herbicide, this compound was diluted in water until ¼ of the volume needed, the remaining volume being completed with vinasse. Imazapic was efficient for purple nutsedge control when compared to the check. Application of vinasse alone or straw alone stimulated the growth of this weed, though tuber viability was reduced. In the treatments without straw there was no difference in purple nutsedge development when vinasse was applied before or after imazapic, though control of this weed species was attained. However, when mixed with vinasse, the herbicide did not control the weed. The presence of straw in the treatment in which vinasse was applied before imazapic reduced the action of this weed killer when compared with the treatment without straw. The number of sprouts and height of the purple nutsedge plants were enhanced by the treatments with straw when imazapic was applied after or even mixed with vinasse. Only the number of sprouts increased when vinasse was applied after or mixed with the herbicide in soil covered with straw.

M.C.S.S., Novo; R., Victoria Filho; F.M., Langbeck; A.A., Lago; R., Deuber; G.S., Rolim.

2008-06-01

182

Interação de imazapic no sistema integrado palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida e vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca Interaction of imazapic in the integrated system using sugarcane mulch residue, herbicide and vinasse on purple nutsedge growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da interação palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida imazapic e diferentes meios de aplicação de vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e em vasos dispostos em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, sendo avaliados os tratamentos: controle; apenas palha; apenas vinhaça; apenas o herbicida imazapic; palha + vinhaça; palha + herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; e palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura. O imazapic foi aplicado na dose de 122,5 g ha-1 e, no tratamento onde a vinhaça foi aplicada em mistura com o herbicida, este foi diluído com água até ¼ do volume necessário e completado com vinhaça. O imazapic foi eficiente no controle da tiririca quando comparado com a testemunha. A aplicação isolada da vinhaça ou a adição de apenas a palha ao solo estimularam o crescimento da tiririca embora tenha reduzido a viabilidade dos tubérculos. Nos tratamentos sem palha, não houve diferença no crescimento da tiririca, quando a aplicação de vinhaça foi realizada antes ou depois do imazapic, sendo observado controle da espécie. Entretanto, quando em mistura com a vinhaça, o produto não controlou a tiririca. A presença da palha no tratamento onde foi aplicada vinhaça antes do herbicida reduziu a ação do imazapic, em comparação com aquele sem palha. O número de brotações e a altura média de plantas de tiririca foram maiores nos tratamentos com palha quando foi aplicado imazapic depois ou mesmo junto com a vinhaça. Sob palha, a aplicação de vinhaça após o herbicida ou em mistura com imazapic aumentou apenas o número de brotações.The objective of this paper was to evaluate sugarcane mulch residue, imazapic and vinasse application interaction on the initial development of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.. A greenhouse experiment was set up using pots filled with soil, arranged in a randomized complete blocks design, with four replications, with the following treatments: check; straw alone; vinasse alone; imazapic alone; straw + vinasse; straw + herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied before the herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied together; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; and straw + herbicide + vinasse applied together. Imazapic was applied at the rate of 122.5 g ha-1 and in the treatment in which vinasse was applied mixed with the herbicide, this compound was diluted in water until ¼ of the volume needed, the remaining volume being completed with vinasse. Imazapic was efficient for purple nutsedge control when compared to the check. Application of vinasse alone or straw alone stimulated the growth of this weed, though tuber viability was reduced. In the treatments without straw there was no difference in purple nutsedge development when vinasse was applied before or after imazapic, though control of this weed species was attained. However, when mixed with vinasse, the herbicide did not control the weed. The presence of straw in the treatment in which vinasse was applied before imazapic reduced the action of this weed killer when compared with the treatment without straw. The number of sprouts and height of the purple nutsedge plants were enhanced by the treatments with straw when imazapic was applied after or even mixed with vinasse. Only the number of sprouts increased when vinasse was applied after or mixed with the herbicide in soil covered with straw.

M.C.S.S. Novo

2008-06-01

183

Influence of Pythium oligandrum biocontrol on fungal and oomycete population dynamics in the rhizosphere.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal and oomycete populations and their dynamics were investigated following the introduction of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum into the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in soilless culture. Three strains of P. oligandrum were selected on the basis of their ability to form oospores (resting structures) and to produce tryptamine (an auxin-like compound) and oligandrin (a glycoprotein elicitor). Real-time PCR and plate counting demonstrated the persistence of large amounts of the antagonistic oomycete in the rhizosphere throughout the cropping season (April to September). Inter-simple-sequence-repeat analysis of the P. oligandrum strains collected from root samples at the end of the cropping season showed that among the three strains used for inoculation, the one producing the smallest amount of oospores was detected at 90%. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis revealed increases in the number of members and the complexity of the fungal community over time. There were no significant differences between the microbial ecosystems inoculated with P. oligandrum and those that were not treated, except for a reduction of Pythium dissotocum (ubiquitous tomato root minor pathogen) populations in inoculated systems during the last 3 months of culture. These findings raise interesting issues concerning the use of P. oligandrum strains producing elicitor and auxin molecules for plant protection and the development of biocontrol. PMID:19447961

Vallance, Jessica; Le Floch, Gaétan; Déniel, Franck; Barbier, Georges; Lévesque, C André; Rey, Patrice

2009-07-01

184

Mapping of Pythium insidiosum hyphal antigens and ultrastructural features using TEM.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum, the aetiological agent of pythiosis, has been reported to cause disease in mammals. Although several aspects of this pathogen have been extensively investigated, its ultra-structural features and the location and characterization of the antigens expressed during infection have yet to be examined. During this study the ultrastructural characteristics and the mapping of P. insidiosum hyphal antigens from in vitro cultures were investigated. The ultrastructural study showed similarities between the hyphal features of this mammalian pathogen and other Pythium spp. Using immuno-electron microscopy and protein-A colloidal gold (PACG)-labelling, anti-P. insidiosum antibodies from the sera of infected hosts (bovine, canine, equine, feline, and human), were found to bind specifically to several cytoplasmic and cell wall antigens within the hyphae of P. insidiosum. The anti-P. insidiosum antibodies present in the sera from an infected feline showed only 85% gold binding, whereas the PACG particles failed to bind to the canine antibodies. The mapping of the hyphal antigens of P. insidiosum could be of importance for the specific selection of these antigens and their future molecular characterization. In addition, the antigens of P. insidiosum detected by sera from infected hosts could be used as purified antigens in the diagnosis and the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:18023165

Garcia, Ricky B; Pastor, Alicia; Mendoza, Leonel

2007-11-01

185

Transcriptome analysis reveals pathogenicity and evolutionary history of the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oomycetes form a unique group of microorganisms that share hyphal morphology with fungi. Most of pathogenic oomycetes infect plants, while some species are capable of infecting animals. Pythium insidiosum is the only oomycete that can infect both humans and animals, and causes a life-threatening infectious disease, called 'pythiosis'. Controlling an infection caused by P. insidiosum is problematic because effective antimicrobial drugs are not available. Information on the biology and pathogenesis of P. insidiosum is limited. We generated a P. insidiosum transcriptome of 26 735 unigenes, using the 454 sequencing platform. As adaptations to increased temperature inside human hosts are required for a successful pathogen, we generated P. insidiosum transcriptomes at 28 °C and 37 °C and identified 625 up-regulated and 449 down-regulated genes at 37 °C. Comparing the proteomes of oomycetes, fungi, and parasites provided clues on the evolutionary history of P. insidiosum. Potential virulence factors of P. insidiosum, including putative effectors, were identified. Pythium insidiosum harbored an extensive repertoire of ? 300 elicitin domain-containing proteins. The transcriptome, presented herein, provides an invaluable resource for exploring P. insidiosum's biology, pathogenesis, and evolution. PMID:25088078

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Garg, Gagan; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sullivan, Thomas D

2014-07-01

186

Random amplified polymorphic DNA typing and phylogeny of Pythium insidiosum clinical isolates in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-three Pythium insidiosum clinical isolates recovered from human pythiosis cases in Thailand were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Three random oligonucleotide primers, OPW11, OPW12 and OPX13 generated 39, 34 and 35 DNA patterns with high value of typeability (100%), reproducibility (98.5, 88.8 and 93.3%) and discriminatory power (0.83, 0.82 and 0.77), respectively. Using GelCompar software based on band similarity, the 43 clinical isolates of P. insidiosum could be arranged into 9, 13 and 11 clades using OPW11, OPW12 and OPX13, respectively and the combination of all three primers revealed 36 RAPD patterns. Members in each RAPD pattern varied in both clinical forms and/or geographical locations. RAPD pattern 15 was found in 6 isolates, half of which were found in central region of Thailand. Isolates MCC15 and MCC16 isolated from different patients exhibited identical pattern with all three primers. Our results revealed high genetic heterogeneity among Pythium insidiosum isolates in Thailand. RAPD method should be appropriate for future epidemiological studies of P. insidiosum strains from patients and from natural habitats. PMID:17539291

Pannanusorn, Srisuda; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Prariyachatigul, Chularut; Krajaejun, Theerapong; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Chindamporn, Ariya; Wanachiwanawin, Wanchai; Satapatayavong, Boonmee

2007-03-01

187

Molecular detection of Pythium insidiosum from soil in Thai agricultural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic fungus-like organism in the kingdom Stramenopila that causes pythiosis in both humans and animals. Human pythiosis occurs in ocular, localized granulomatous subcutaneous and systemic or vascular forms. Individuals whose occupations involve exposure to aquatic habitats have an elevated risk of contracting pythiosis. Previously, we reported the first successful isolation of Pythium insidiosum from aquatic environmental samples by culture including confirmation using molecular methods. In this study, we show that P. insidiosum inhabitats moist soil environments in agricultural areas. A total of 303 soil samples were collected from 25 irrigation sources in the areas nearby the recorded home addresses of pythiosis patients residing in northern provinces of Thailand. P. insidiosum DNA was identified directly from each soil extract by using a nested PCR assay and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal intragenic spacer region. P. insidiosum DNA could be detected from 16 of the 25 soil sources (64%). Conventional culture methods were also performed, however all samples exhibited negative culture results. We conclude that both irrigation water and soil are the natural reservoirs of P. insidiosum. In endemic areas, the exposure to these environmental reservoirs should be considered a risk factor for hosts susceptible to pythiosis. PMID:24444720

Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Szekely, Jidapa; Khanthawong, Sophit; Sawutdeechaikul, Pritsana; Vanittanakom, Pramote; Fisher, Matthew C

2014-05-01

188

Characterization of Pythium oligandrum populations that colonize the rhizosphere of vines from the Bordeaux region.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focused on one oomycete, Pythium oligandrum, well-known for its plant protection abilities, which thrives in microbial environment where bacteria and fungal communities are also present. The genetic structures and dynamics of fungal and bacterial communities were studied in three Bordeaux subregions with various types of soil, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. The structure of the fungal communities colonizing the rhizosphere of vines planted in sandy-stony soils was markedly different from that those planted in silty and sandy soils; such differences were not observed for bacteria. In our 2-year experiment, the roots of all the vine samples were also colonized by echinulated oospore Pythium species, with P. oligandrum predominating. Cytochrome oxidase I and tubulin gene sequencings showed that P. oligandrum strains clustered into three groups. Based on elicitin-like genes coding for proteins able to induce plant resistance, six populations were identified. However, none of these groups was assigned to a particular subregion of Bordeaux vineyards, suggesting that these factors do not shape the genetic structure of P. oligandrum populations. Results showed that different types of rootstock and weeding management both influence root colonization by P. oligandrum. These results should prove particularly useful in improving the management of potentially plant-protective microorganisms. PMID:25041717

Gerbore, Jonathan; Vallance, Jessica; Yacoub, Amira; Delmotte, François; Grizard, Damien; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Rey, Patrice

2014-10-01

189

Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

190

In Vitro Activities of Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Terbinafine Alone or in Combination against Pythium insidiosum Isolates from Brazil?  

OpenAIRE

We evaluated the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine against 30 clinical isolates of Pythium insidiosum using a checkerboard macrodilution method. The combined activity of terbinafine plus itraconazole or plus voriconazole was synergic against 17% of the strains. Antagonism was not observed.

Argenta, Juliana S.; Santurio, Janio M.; Alves, Sydney H.; Pereira, Daniela I. B.; Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Spanamberg, Andre?ia; Ferreiro, Laerte

2007-01-01

191

Yield and quality of induced mutants in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-one near-normal and 4 drastic mutants isolated from mutagen-treated (X-rays, gamma rays and chemical mutagens) sugarcane variety 'Co 419' were tested for yield and juice quality. Mutants '368. and '419/1' had higher yield of cane and higher commercial cane sugar than 'Co 419'. Several mutants, especially the drastic mutants, had higher percentage of sucrose than 'Co 419'. The types with higher percentage of sucrose occurred much more frequently than the higher-yielding ones, indicating more frequent occurrence of disturbances in growth, resulting in diversion of more sucrose to storage than to the apical meristem. (auth.)

192

An-Overview on invertase in sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saccharum officinarum is one of the most cultivated hybrid varieties among the sugarcane varieties. In sugarcane plant sucrose is the major carbohydrate which can be stored and transported. Different physiological and biochemical studies on this crop report that invertase activity and sucrose concentration some how are key limiting step in the process of sucrose accumulation. Significant efforts have been made in relation to the sucrose cycle by altering the sucrose phosphate synthetase, sucrose synthetase and invertase. In sugarcane two types of invertase enzymes have been reported on the basis of pH and cellular localization. Invertase breaks the sucrose into hexoses as a source of energy and carbon. It has also been reported that this enzyme is involved in the process of cell differentiation and plant development. Progress has been made for the understanding of invertase activity and its role in sugarcane plant. With the help of biotechnology it is possible to target the desired gene with genetic engineering approach to increase sucrose content by careful manipulation of invertase (enzyme) gene to increase the sucrose yield in sugarcane. Purpose of this mini review is to high-light the role of invertase in sugarcane and how to overcome sucrose recovery in sugarcane. PMID:23847400

Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Yadav, Ashok; Lal, Ramji

2013-01-01

193

Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

Adnan Nazir

2013-05-01

194

Physical Properties of Sugarcane Pertaining to the Design of a Whole Stalk Sugarcane Harvester  

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Full Text Available Sugarcane crop plays a vital role in nation’s economy, being one of the most commercialised crops in India. The production cost of sugarcane is increasing year after year which reduces the profit margin of sugarcane growers and sugar industry. Harvesting is one of the key operations responsible for increase in sugarcane production cost. Hence a tractor mounted whole stalk sugarcane harvester suitable for small and medium farmers is highly essential. The physical properties of sugarcane pertaining to de-topping, de-trashing and conveyance are studied for the designing of a whole stalk sugarcane harvester. The various physical parameters for the major varieties of sugarcane are measured in the farmers’ field. The farmers’ grow CO 86032 sugarcane at a row spacing of 75 to 100cm, and the spacing is increased to 150 and 200cm wherever harvesting is done by self propelled combine harvesters. The average number of cane per meter varied from 27 to 30. The length of the millable cane varies between 1200mm and 2700mm. The maximum and minimum diameters are 40 and 20mm respectively. The trash content at the time of harvesting was 38.56 percent where the regular de-trashing processes were completely skipped by farmers

Joby Bastian *

2014-11-01

195

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

2012-04-01

196

The influence of Aspergillus niger transcription factors AraR and XlnR in the gene expression during growth in D-xylose, L-arabinose and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interest in the conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels such as bioethanol has led to an increased investigation into the processes regulating biomass saccharification. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism capable of producing a wide variety of plant biomass degrading enzymes. In A. niger the transcriptional activator XlnR and its close homolog, AraR, controls the main (hemi-)cellulolytic system responsible for plant polysaccharide degradation. Sugarcane is used worldwide as a feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the lignocellulosic residual bagasse can be used in different industrial applications, including ethanol production. The use of pentose sugars from hemicelluloses represents an opportunity to further increase production efficiencies. In the present study, we describe a global gene expression analysis of A. niger XlnR- and AraR-deficient mutant strains, grown on a D-xylose/L-arabinose monosaccharide mixture and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse. Different gene sets of CAZy enzymes and sugar transporters were shown to be individually or dually regulated by XlnR and AraR, with XlnR appearing to be the major regulator on complex polysaccharides. Our study contributes to understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms responsible for plant polysaccharide-degrading gene expression, and opens new possibilities for the engineering of fungi able to produce more efficient enzymatic cocktails to be used in biofuel production. PMID:23892063

de Souza, Wagner Rodrigo; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; de Gouvêa, Paula Fagundes; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Battaglia, Evy; Goldman, Maria Helena S; de Vries, Ronald P; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-11-01

197

Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes / Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia c [...] om antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados com antígeno macerado de micélio (AMM) associado a três adjuvantes. Grupo I: hidróxido de alumínio; grupo II: adjuvante de Freund; grupo III: óleo mineral e grupo IV: água destilada -controle. Os tratamentos foram avaliados a diferentes intervalos, quanto à capacidade de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas específicas da classe G, através da técnica de ELISA. Na fase 1, os animais receberam três doses do imunógeno (dias zero, 14 e 28) e foram avaliados sorologicamente nos dias 14, 21, 28 e 35. Nessa fase, os adjuvantes oleosos (GII e III) induziram níveis de anticorpos estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos nos grupos I e IV. Durante a fase 2 (dias 42 a 120), cada grupo foi subdividido em dois; sendo um subgrupo mantido em tratamento (imunizações adicionais nos dias 42, 56, 68 e 82) e o outro tendo o tratamento interrompido após a 3ª dose (dia 28). Nos subgrupos mantidos em tratamento, os níveis de anticorpos dos grupos imunizados com adjuvantes foram estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos no grupo GIV (controle). Nos coelhos com tratamento interrompido, os grupos I, II e III apresentaram manutenção nos níveis de IgG e foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo controle, que apresentou declínio nos níveis de anticorpos. Os resultados demonstraram a capacidade dos adjuvantes testados em potencializar e prolongar a resposta humoral aos antígenos do P. insidiosum. O uso de adjuvantes associado aos atuais imunógenos pode aumentar os índices de cura em eqüinos submetidos à imunoterapia, assim como viabilizar sua utilização como preventivo. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic fungi living in flooded areas which can infect humans and animals. Natural infection in these species results in clinical pythiosis, a granulomatous disease of difficult treatment. Immunotherapy with antigens obtained from cultures of the agent is a promising altern [...] ative therapy. In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvants in the immunologic response to P. insidiosum antigens, 24 rabbits were assigned to four groups and immunized with mycelian mass antigen with each of there adjuvants. Group I: aluminum hydroxide; group II: Freund’s adjuvant; group III: mineral oil and group IV: distilled water-control. The effects of the adjavants were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-pythium imunoglobulin G (IgG) produced by the immunized rabbits at different time-points after immunization, using an ELISA test. During phase 1, the animals were immunized three times (days zero, 14 and 28) and serologically tested at days 14, 21, 28 and 35. The oil adjuvants (groups II and III) were statistically superior to groups I and IV. During phase 2 (from day 42 to 120) each group was subdivided in two, with one subgroup having additional immunizations at days 42, 56, 68 and 82 and the other having the treatment interrupted. Among the rabbits with continued immunizations, groups I, II and III (adjuvants) had statistically higher IgG levels than GIV. Among rabbits with interrupted treatment, GI, GII and presented stable IgG levels and were statistically superior to the control group, that presented decrease in the levels. These results demonstrated that the adjuvants were capable of inducing stronger and longer imunologic responses (IgG) to P. insidiosum antigens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants associated with P. insidiosum antigens may increase the recovery rates obtained through immunotherapy.

Alexandre Trindade, Leal; Janio Morais, Santurio; Adriana Bardemaker Monteiro, Leal; Alexandre Machado, Pinto; Josiane, Griebeler; Eduardo Furtado, Flores; Laerte, Ferreiro; João Batista, Catto.

1027-10-01

198

Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados com antígeno macerado de micélio (AMM associado a três adjuvantes. Grupo I: hidróxido de alumínio; grupo II: adjuvante de Freund; grupo III: óleo mineral e grupo IV: água destilada -controle. Os tratamentos foram avaliados a diferentes intervalos, quanto à capacidade de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas específicas da classe G, através da técnica de ELISA. Na fase 1, os animais receberam três doses do imunógeno (dias zero, 14 e 28 e foram avaliados sorologicamente nos dias 14, 21, 28 e 35. Nessa fase, os adjuvantes oleosos (GII e III induziram níveis de anticorpos estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos nos grupos I e IV. Durante a fase 2 (dias 42 a 120, cada grupo foi subdividido em dois; sendo um subgrupo mantido em tratamento (imunizações adicionais nos dias 42, 56, 68 e 82 e o outro tendo o tratamento interrompido após a 3ª dose (dia 28. Nos subgrupos mantidos em tratamento, os níveis de anticorpos dos grupos imunizados com adjuvantes foram estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos no grupo GIV (controle. Nos coelhos com tratamento interrompido, os grupos I, II e III apresentaram manutenção nos níveis de IgG e foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo controle, que apresentou declínio nos níveis de anticorpos. Os resultados demonstraram a capacidade dos adjuvantes testados em potencializar e prolongar a resposta humoral aos antígenos do P. insidiosum. O uso de adjuvantes associado aos atuais imunógenos pode aumentar os índices de cura em eqüinos submetidos à imunoterapia, assim como viabilizar sua utilização como preventivo.Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic fungi living in flooded areas which can infect humans and animals. Natural infection in these species results in clinical pythiosis, a granulomatous disease of difficult treatment. Immunotherapy with antigens obtained from cultures of the agent is a promising alternative therapy. In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvants in the immunologic response to P. insidiosum antigens, 24 rabbits were assigned to four groups and immunized with mycelian mass antigen with each of there adjuvants. Group I: aluminum hydroxide; group II: Freund’s adjuvant; group III: mineral oil and group IV: distilled water-control. The effects of the adjavants were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-pythium imunoglobulin G (IgG produced by the immunized rabbits at different time-points after immunization, using an ELISA test. During phase 1, the animals were immunized three times (days zero, 14 and 28 and serologically tested at days 14, 21, 28 and 35. The oil adjuvants (groups II and III were statistically superior to groups I and IV. During phase 2 (from day 42 to 120 each group was subdivided in two, with one subgroup having additional immunizations at days 42, 56, 68 and 82 and the other having the treatment interrupted. Among the rabbits with continued immunizations, groups I, II and III (adjuvants had statistically higher IgG levels than GIV. Among rabbits with interrupted treatment, GI, GII and presented stable IgG levels and were statistically superior to the control group, that presented decrease in the levels. These results demonstrated that the adjuvants were capable of inducing stronger and longer imunologic responses (IgG to P. insidiosum antigens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants associated with P. insidiosum antigens may increase the recovery rates obtained through immunotherapy.

Alexandre Trindade Leal

2002-12-01

199

Estructura y ultraestructura de Pythium insidiosum en la pitiosis gastrointestinal canina / Structure and ultrastructure of Pythium insidiosum in canine gastrointestinal pythiosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La pitiosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa que se presenta en humanos y en otros mamíferos, causada por Pythium insidiosum, un pseudohongo clasificado en el reino Straminipila. En Venezuela se han diagnosticado casos de pitiosis en perros con diarrea hemorrágica crónica, sin embargo, las caracterís [...] ticas estructurales y ultraestructurales de las lesiones han sido poco estudiadas. Se planteó como objetivo describir, a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido y de transmisión, la estructura y ultraestructura de P. insidiosum y las lesiones que produce en el tracto gastrointestinal de los perros. Se procesaron para microscopia electrónica muestras de tejido procedentes de caninos con diagnóstico de pitiosis gastrointestinal, referidos al Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado”. Las muestras examinadas mostraron tejido necrótico, trombosis vascular y numerosas hifas de P. insidiosum, caracterizadas por ser largas, onduladas, de paredes aplanadas, de 3 a 5 µm de diámetro, ramificadas en ángulo de 90° y externamente rodeadas por un material granular electrón denso en forma de incrustaciones, sugestivo del fenómeno de Splendore-Hoeppli. Se concluyó que la pitiosis en caninos cursa con lesiones granulomatosas y trombóticas, donde se observa que el agente etiológico mantiene su integridad, a pesar de estar íntimamente relacionado con células fagocíticas. Abstract in english Pythiosis is a granulomatous disease that occurs in humans and other mammals, produced by Pythium insidiosum, a pseudofungus classified in the Straminipila kingdom. In Venezuela, pythiosis cases have been diagnosed in dogs with chronic hemorrhagic diarrhea; nevertheless, the structural and ultrastru [...] ctural characteristics of the lesions have not been studied in depth. The objective set for this study was to describe, through scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the structure and ultrastructure of P. insidiosum, and the lesions it produces in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. Tissue samples from canines with a gastrointestinal pythiosis diagnosis, referred by the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado”, were processed for electron microscopy study. The samples examined showed necrotic tissue, vascular thrombosis and numerous P. insidiosum hyphae, characterized by being long, ondulating, with flattened walls, 3 to 5 µm in diameter, ramified in a 90º angle, and externally surrounded by an electron dense granular material in the form of inlays, suggestive of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. It was concluded that canine pythiosis evolves with granulomatous and thrombotic lesions, which show that the etiologic agent maintains its integrity, in spite of being intimately related with phagocytic cells.

Yaritza Josefina, Salas Araujo; Victoria del Rosario, Colmenares; Adelys Antonio, Márquez Alvarado; Juan Jesús Luis, León; Olivar, Castejón.

2009-12-01

200

EL ANÁLISIS DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES EN LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE SISTEMAS AGROECOLÓGICOS PARA EL MANEJO DE RIZOBACTERIAS PROMOTORAS DEL CRECIMIENTO VEGETAL PARA EL CULTIVO DE LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR MAIN COMPONENTS ANALYSIS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF AGROECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING RHIZOBACTERIA IN THE GROWTH OF SUGARCANE CULTIVARS  

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Full Text Available El Análisis de Componentes Principales constituye una herramienta estadística que tradicionalmente ha sido poco utilizada por los investigadores de la Rama Agrícola. En esta investigación se muestran las ventajas de su uso sobre otros métodos estadísticos y su utilidad en la interpretación de sistemas alternativos de nutrición de las plantas. Se experimentó sobre suelos Cambisoles en la cepa de retoños de caña de azúcar de más de tres cortes, evaluando el comportamiento de la planta ante diferentes formas de traslado al campo de las Rizobacterias Promotoras del Crecimiento Vegetal (líquido y sólidas. Las formas sólidas son soportadas en cachaza. Se obtuvo como resultados fundamentales que las variables longitud tallo, grosor del tallo, ancho de la hoja, no de hojas, área foliar entre otras, fueron las que más aportaron al sistema evaluado. Además se concluyó que las variables del tallo dentro de los sistemas biológicos como modo de nutrición de las plantas aportan mayor variabilidad a los indicadores productivos.The Main Component Analysis constitutes a statistical tool that has traditionally been little used by agricultural researchers. This study shows the advantages of its use over other statistical methods and its usefulness in the interpretation of alternative nutrition systems in sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on Cambisol soils in the strain of regrowths of more than three cuttings, evaluating the performance of the plant before different transference forms of the Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria to the field (liquid and solid. The solid forms are based on peat and sugarcane filtered mud. The main results obtained indicated that leaf length, stem width, leaf width, number of leaves, leaf area among others were the variables with the highest contribution to the evaluated system. It was also concluded that the biological systems for the nutrition of sugar cane contribute higher variability to the productive indicators.

Doris Torriente Díaz

2010-04-01

201

EL ANÁLISIS DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES EN LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE SISTEMAS AGROECOLÓGICOS PARA EL MANEJO DE RIZOBACTERIAS PROMOTORAS DEL CRECIMIENTO VEGETAL PARA EL CULTIVO DE LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR / MAIN COMPONENTS ANALYSIS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF AGROECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING RHIZOBACTERIA IN THE GROWTH OF SUGARCANE CULTIVARS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El Análisis de Componentes Principales constituye una herramienta estadística que tradicionalmente ha sido poco utilizada por los investigadores de la Rama Agrícola. En esta investigación se muestran las ventajas de su uso sobre otros métodos estadísticos y su utilidad en la interpretación de sistem [...] as alternativos de nutrición de las plantas. Se experimentó sobre suelos Cambisoles en la cepa de retoños de caña de azúcar de más de tres cortes, evaluando el comportamiento de la planta ante diferentes formas de traslado al campo de las Rizobacterias Promotoras del Crecimiento Vegetal (líquido y sólidas). Las formas sólidas son soportadas en cachaza. Se obtuvo como resultados fundamentales que las variables longitud tallo, grosor del tallo, ancho de la hoja, no de hojas, área foliar entre otras, fueron las que más aportaron al sistema evaluado. Además se concluyó que las variables del tallo dentro de los sistemas biológicos como modo de nutrición de las plantas aportan mayor variabilidad a los indicadores productivos. Abstract in english The Main Component Analysis constitutes a statistical tool that has traditionally been little used by agricultural researchers. This study shows the advantages of its use over other statistical methods and its usefulness in the interpretation of alternative nutrition systems in sugarcane. The experi [...] ment was carried out on Cambisol soils in the strain of regrowths of more than three cuttings, evaluating the performance of the plant before different transference forms of the Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria to the field (liquid and solid). The solid forms are based on peat and sugarcane filtered mud. The main results obtained indicated that leaf length, stem width, leaf width, number of leaves, leaf area among others were the variables with the highest contribution to the evaluated system. It was also concluded that the biological systems for the nutrition of sugar cane contribute higher variability to the productive indicators.

Doris, Torriente Díaz; Verena, Torres Cárdenas.

2010-04-01

202

Morphological Characters of Some Exotic Sugarcane Varieties  

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Full Text Available Six exotic varieties of sugarcane (CP84-1198, CP85-1491, CP88-1165, CP77-400, CP89-846, TCP86-3368 planted at the National Agricultural Research Centre during 1998-99 were described for their morphological characters. All the varieties greatly varied in different characters. Mean leaf length, number of green leaves and width of leaf lamina/blade was different in different varieties. These varieties also differed in leaf sheath colour, carriage, and other leaf characters. Shape of the dewlap, its size and colour, shape of ligule and ligular process or auricle was also different. All the varieties varied in diameter of the stalks, colour of the stalks, shape of internode, bud groove characters, width and colour of growth ring, width and colour of root zone and wax band characters. Ivory markings were present on stalks of all the varieties. All the varieties were similar in bud size, but different in shapes of the bud, some having flanges and some without flanges. Position of the germ pore on the bud was also different in all the varieties.

Maqbool Akhtar

2001-01-01

203

Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes agricultural and industrial activities, distribution, cogeneration of electricity and steam, ethanol use during car driving, and industrial by-products recycling to irrigate sugarcane fields. The use of sugarcane by the ethanol agribusiness is one of the foremost financial resources for the economy of the Brazilian rural area, which occupies extensive areas and provides far-reaching potentials for renewable fuel production. But, there are environmental impacts during the fuel ethanol lifecycle, which this paper intents to analyze, including addressing the main activities responsible for such impacts and indicating some suggestions to minimize the impacts. This study is classified as an applied quantitative research, and the technical procedure to achieve the exploratory goal is based on bibliographic revision, documental research, primary data collection, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The lifecycle impact assessment (LCIA) covers the following emission-related impact categories: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. The results of the fuel ethanol LCI demonstrate that even though alcohol is considered a renewable fuel because it comes from biomass (sugarcane), it uses a high quantity and diversity of nonrenewable resources over its lifecycle. The input of renewable resources is also high mainly because of the water consumption in the industrial phases, due to the sugarcane washing process. During the lifecycle of alcohol, there is a surplus of electric energy due to the cogeneration activity. Another focus point is the quantity of emissions to the atmosphere and the diversity of the substances emitted. Harvesting is the unit process that contributes most to global warming. For photochemical ozone formation, harvesting is also the activity with the strongest contributions due to the burning in harvesting and the emissions from using diesel fuel. The acidification impact potential is mostly due to the NOx emitted by the combustion of ethanol during use, on account of the sulfuric acid use in the industrial process and because of the NOx emitted by the burning in harvesting. The main consequence of the intensive use of fertilizers to the field is the high nutrient enrichment impact potential associated with this activity. The main contributions to the ecotoxicity impact potential come from chemical applications during crop growth. The activity that presents the highest impact potential for human toxicity (HT) via air and via soil is harvesting. Via water, HT potential is high in harvesting due to lubricant use on the machines. The normalization results indicate that nutrient enrichment, acidification, and human toxicity via air and via water are the most significant impact potentials for the lifecycle of fuel ethanol. The fuel ethanol lifecycle contributes negatively to all the impact potentials analyzed: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. Concerning energy consumption, it consumes less energy than its own production largely because of the electricity cogeneration system, but this process is highly dependent on water. The main causes for the biggest impact potential indicated by the normalization is the nutrient application, the burning in harvesting and the use of diesel fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agric

Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

2009-01-01

204

Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Metaloproteases exercem papéis importantes em muitos processos fisiológicos em mamíferos tais como migração celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas estão envolvidas também na pato-fisiologia de um grande número de doenças humanas como hipertensão e câ [...] ncer. Muitas bactérias patogênicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactérias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presença e a caracterização de metaloproteases em plantas estão pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi pesquisada a biblioteca de cDNA de etiquetas de seqüências expressas da cana-de-açúcar (SUCEST) para identificar, por homologia com seqüências depositadas em outros bancos de dados, famílias gênicas de metaloproteases expressas em diferentes condições. Foram utilizadas seqüências protéicas de Arabidopis thaliana e Glycine max e seqüências de nucleotídeos de Sorghum bicolor. Regiões conservadas correspondentes aos diferentes domínios e motivos de seqüência de metaloproteases foram identificadas nos cDNAs de cana-de-açúcar para caracterizar cada grupo de enzimas. Pelo menos quatro classes de metaloproteases foram identificadas na cana-deaçúcar, a saber, metaloproteases de matriz extracelular, zincinas, inverzincinas e metaloproteases dependentes de ATP. Cada uma destas classes foi analisada quanto a sua expressão nas diferentes condições e tecidos utilizados na construção das bibliotecas de cDNA. Abstract in english Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many b [...] acterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.

O.H.P., Ramos; H.S., Selistre-de-Araujo.

2001-12-01

205

Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many bacterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.Metaloproteases exercem papéis importantes em muitos processos fisiológicos em mamíferos tais como migração celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas estão envolvidas também na pato-fisiologia de um grande número de doenças humanas como hipertensão e câncer. Muitas bactérias patogênicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactérias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presença e a caracterização de metaloproteases em plantas estão pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi pesquisada a biblioteca de cDNA de etiquetas de seqüências expressas da cana-de-açúcar (SUCEST para identificar, por homologia com seqüências depositadas em outros bancos de dados, famílias gênicas de metaloproteases expressas em diferentes condições. Foram utilizadas seqüências protéicas de Arabidopis thaliana e Glycine max e seqüências de nucleotídeos de Sorghum bicolor. Regiões conservadas correspondentes aos diferentes domínios e motivos de seqüência de metaloproteases foram identificadas nos cDNAs de cana-de-açúcar para caracterizar cada grupo de enzimas. Pelo menos quatro classes de metaloproteases foram identificadas na cana-deaçúcar, a saber, metaloproteases de matriz extracelular, zincinas, inverzincinas e metaloproteases dependentes de ATP. Cada uma destas classes foi analisada quanto a sua expressão nas diferentes condições e tecidos utilizados na construção das bibliotecas de cDNA.

O.H.P. Ramos

2001-12-01

206

Photosynthetic and Canopy Characteristics of Different Varieties at the Early Elongation Stage and Their Relationships with the Cane Yield in Sugarcane  

OpenAIRE

During sugarcane growth, the Early Elongation stage is critical to cane yield formation. In this study, parameters of 17 sugarcane varieties were determined at the Early Elongation stage using CI-301 photosynthesis measuring system and CI-100 digital plant canopy imager. The data analysis showed highly significant differences in leaf area index (LAI), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for diffused light penetration (TD), transmission coefficient for solar beam ra...

Jun Luo; Yong-Bao Pan; Liping Xu; Yuye Zhang; Hua Zhang; Rukai Chen; Youxiong Que

2014-01-01

207

Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species  

OpenAIRE

This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

2003-01-01

208

Compost-Induced Suppression of Pythium Damping-Off Is Mediated by Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Seed-Colonizing Microbial Communities  

OpenAIRE

Leaf composts were studied for their suppressive effects on Pythium ultimum sporangium germination, cottonseed colonization, and the severity of Pythium damping-off of cotton. A focus of the work was to assess the role of fatty-acid-metabolizing microbial communities in disease suppression. Suppressiveness was expressed within the first few hours of seed germination as revealed by reduced P. ultimum sporangium germination, reduced seed colonization, and reduced damping-off in transplant exper...

Mckellar, Mary E.; Nelson, Eric B.

2003-01-01

209

Influence of siderurgical slag about gaseous changes and production of biomass of sugarcane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was installed in greenhouse, using one of the most representative soils of the state of Ceará, Brazil, for sugarcane crop, a Red-Yellow Argissoil. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of silicon in the gas exchange and production of biomass of sugarcane cultivars in sandy loam soil. It was used a completely randomized in 5x2 factorial scheme with five silicon doses: 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0 and 15.0 g per pot-1 of siderurgical slag, two cultivars of sugarcane and four repetitions. The siderurgical slag (calcium and magnesium silicato used containing 11% of soluble SiO2. It was evaluated the silicon level in the leaf, the production of dry matter of the aerial part, the relative growth rate of the plant, the water use efficiency, transpiration and conductance of the leaf. The results showed increase in concentration of Si in leaf with the application of the silicon; practically no influence in growth and physiological characteristics of the plants.Key-words: Argissoil, calcium, greenhouse, sugarcane.

Lúcio Bastos Madeiros

2009-08-01

210

An-Overview on invertase in sugarcane  

OpenAIRE

Saccharum officinarum is one of the most cultivated hybrid varieties among the sugarcane varieties. In sugarcane plant sucrose is the major carbohydrate which can be stored and transported. Different physiological and biochemical studies on this crop report that invertase activity and sucrose concentration some how are key limiting step in the process of sucrose accumulation. Significant efforts have been made in relation to the sucrose cycle by altering the sucrose phosphate synthet...

Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Yadav, Ashok; Lal, Ramji

2013-01-01

211

The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India  

OpenAIRE

Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years...

Sinha, R.; Mishra, A. K.; Singh, H. K.

2014-01-01

212

Photosynthetic and canopy characteristics of different varieties at the early elongation stage and their relationships with the cane yield in sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

During sugarcane growth, the Early Elongation stage is critical to cane yield formation. In this study, parameters of 17 sugarcane varieties were determined at the Early Elongation stage using CI-301 photosynthesis measuring system and CI-100 digital plant canopy imager. The data analysis showed highly significant differences in leaf area index (LAI), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for diffused light penetration (TD), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), leaf distribution (LD), net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (GS) among sugarcane varieties. Based on the photosynthetic or canopy parameters, the 17 sugarcane varieties were classified into four categories. Through the factor analysis, nine parameters were represented by three principal factors, of which the cumulative rate of variance contributions reached 85.77%. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 0.05, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = -27.19 - 1.69 × PN + 0.17 × E + 90.43 × LAI - 408.81 × LD + 0.0015 × NSH + 101.38 × D (R(2) = 0.928**). This study helps provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the screening of new sugarcane varieties with high net photosynthetic rate and ideal canopy structure. PMID:25045742

Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Yuye; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Rukai; Que, Youxiong

2014-01-01

213

Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)  

KAUST Repository

Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70. kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. © 2014 The Authors.

Khan, Mohammad Suhail

2014-06-09

214

Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

215

Sugarcane improvement: how far can we go?  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, efforts to improve sugarcane have focused on the development of biotechnology for this crop. It has become clear that sugarcane lacks tools for the biotechnological route of improvement and that the initial efforts in sequencing ESTs had limited impact for breeding. Until recently, the models used by breeders in statistical genetics approaches have been developed for diploid organisms, which are not ideal for a polyploid genome such as that of sugarcane. Breeding programs are dealing with decreasing yield gains. The contribution of multiple alleles to complex traits such as yield is a basic question underlining the breeding efforts that could only be addressed by the development of specific tools for this grass. However, functional genomics has progressed and gene expression profiling is leading to the definition of gene networks. The sequencing of the sugarcane genome, which is underway, will greatly contribute to numerous aspects of research on grasses. We expect that both the transgenic and the marker-assisted route for sugarcane improvement will contribute to increased sugar, stress tolerance, and higher yield and that the industry for years to come will be able to rely on sugarcane as the most productive energy crop. PMID:21983270

Dal-Bianco, Maximiller; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Chapola, Roberto Giacomini; Hoffmann, Hermann Paulo; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

2012-04-01

216

Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2013-12-01

217

ASSOCIATION OF SUGARCANE PITH, RIND HARDNESS, AND FIBER WITH RESISTANCE TO THE SUGARCANE BORER  

Science.gov (United States)

Planting sugarcane varieties with natural resistance to the sugarcane borer is an attractive alternative to pesticides for controlling damaging infestations of this important insect pest. Unfortunately some of the plant traits (i.e. plant stalk fiber) that have been identified as conferring resistan...

218

Florida's sugarcane industry and the role of the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Florida’s sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) industry of 420,000 acres produces 1.9 million tons of sugar annually, approximately 20 percent of the yearly sugar consumption in the United States. Canal Point sugarcane cultivars produced by the cooperative program of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, a...

219

Seasonal timing of glyphosate ripener application affects sugarcane’s response in Louisiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is applied as a ripener to ratoon sugarcane in Louisiana to increase theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) in harvested sugarcane. While glyphosate is applied as a ripener throughout the harvest season, recommendations for these applications have been based primarily on the response of s...

220

In vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum isolates to aminoglycoside antibiotics and tigecycline.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the in vitro activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics and tigecycline against Pythium insidiosum. The susceptibility tests were carried out using the broth microdilution method in accordance with the CLSI document M38-A2. MIC values for gentamicin, neomycin, paromomycin, and streptomycin ranged from 32 to 64 mg/liter, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranged from 32 to 128 mg/liter, which are incompatible with safe concentrations of these drugs in plasma in vivo. Tigecycline showed the lowest MIC (0.25 to 2 mg/liter) and MFC (1 to 8 mg/liter) range values. The in vitro susceptibility observed to tigecycline makes this drug a good option in future tests in vitro and in vivo for the management of pythiosis. PMID:22508303

Mahl, Deise Luiza; de Jesus, Francielli Pantella Kunz; Loreto, Érico Silva; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Ferreiro, Laerte; Pilotto, Maiara Ben; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2012-07-01

221

In vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the in vitro activity of macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics against Pythium insidiosum. The MICs were determined according to CLSI procedures (visual MIC) and by a colorimetric method [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. The lowest geometric mean (GM) MIC (MICs in ?g/ml) (0.39 and 0.7 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively) and MIC ranges (0.125 to 2.0) were obtained for minocycline, while the highest MICs were shown for erythromycin (GM of 7.58 and 12.25 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively, and MIC ranged from 2 to 32). This significant in vitro activity makes these classes of antibiotics good candidates for experimental treatment of pythiosis. PMID:21537028

Loreto, Erico Silva; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2011-07-01

222

In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Macrolides and Tetracycline Antibiotics ?  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the in vitro activity of macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics against Pythium insidiosum. The MICs were determined according to CLSI procedures (visual MIC) and by a colorimetric method [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. The lowest geometric mean (GM) MIC (MICs in ?g/ml) (0.39 and 0.7 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively) and MIC ranges (0.125 to 2.0) were obtained for minocycline, while the highest MICs were shown for erythromycin (GM of 7.58 and 12.25 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively, and MIC ranged from 2 to 32). This significant in vitro activity makes these classes of antibiotics good candidates for experimental treatment of pythiosis. PMID:21537028

Loreto, Érico Silva; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2011-01-01

223

Characterization and evaluation of coconut aroma produced by Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 in solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Background Sugarcane bagasse was shown to be an adequate substrate for the growth and aroma production by Trichoderma species. In the present work the ability of Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 to produce high yield of coconut aroma in solid state fermentation (SSF) by using sugarcane bagasse as solid s [...] ubstrate was evaluated. The produced aroma was characterized. Results Total carbohydrates comprised the highest content (43.9% w/w) compared with the other constituents in sugarcane bagasse. The sensory and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the highest odor intensity and maximum yield of volatiles were perceived at the 5th d of induction period. The unsaturated lactone, 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), was the major identified volatile compound. Saturated lactones, ?-octalactone, ?-nonalactone, ?-undecalactone, ?-dodecalactone and ?-dodecalactone, were also identified in the coconut aroma produced during the induction period (12 d). A quite correlation was found between the composition and odor profile of the produced aroma. The effect of varying the concentration of sugarcane bagasse on 6-PP production and biomass growth was evaluated. The results revealed high 6-PP production at 4.5 g sugarcane bagasse whereas the biomass showed significant (P

Hoda Hanem Mohamed, Fadel; Manal Gomaa, Mahmoud; Mohsen Mohamed Selim, Asker; Shereen Nazeh, Lotfy.

2015-01-01

224

CRICISE BEFORE SUGARCANE GROWERS: DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM –SOME REMEDIAL MEASURES  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out to study the constraints faced by the Sugarcane growers and to suggest some remedial measures for use of Drip Irrigation System. Drip Irrigation may help to solve the most important problem of irrigation to sugarcane- water scarcityandrising electricity bills. Majority of sugarcane growers faced the constraints i.e. the higher initial costs for installation of drip irrigation unit and clogging and cracking of emitters.Mostly the sugarcane grow...

Jagtap, Anil Barbole And B. B.

2012-01-01

225

Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous productigar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed

226

Cryopreservation of sugarcane somatic embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we compared three vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques, viz. vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification for cryopreserving sugarcane somatic embryos. Viability of somatic embryos was evaluated by measuring electrolyte leakage and by regrowth on recovery medium. Droplet-vitrification was the most efficient technique. Optimal conditions included loading with a solution containing 1.5 M glycerol and 0.3 M sucrose for 30 min at 25 degree C, treatment with the PVS2 solution for 20-40 min at 0 degree C followed by rapid immersion in liquid nitrogen of clumps of somatic embryos placed in microdroplets of cryoprotectant solution. Under such conditions, viability of cryopreserved somatic embryos reached 55 percent. PMID:18754063

Martinez-Montero, Marcos; Martinez, Julia; Engelmann, Florent

2008-01-01

227

N-glycosylation in sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A N-glicosilação é uma das principais modificações pós-traducionais, sendo responsável por alterações na conformação, estabilidade e conseqüentemente na funcionalidade de proteínas em eucariotos. Com a finalidade de melhor compreender a via de N-glicosilação em plantas foi realizada uma prospecção n [...] o banco de seqüências expressas do projeto genoma da cana de açúcar (SUCEST). Foram identificadas noventa seqüências cujos produtos gênicos apresentam alto grau de similaridade com enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese e processamento de N-glicanos. Dos vinte e três genes da via de N-glicosilação previamente descritos em diferentes espécies, vinte e um foram detectados em cana de açúcar. Abstract in english The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mam [...] mals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

Ivan G., Maia; Adilson, Leite.

2001-12-01

228

SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION  

Science.gov (United States)

When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

229

International Testing for Genetic Variability of Sugarcane Smut  

Science.gov (United States)

A cooperative project was conducted to determine the genetic variability among populations of the Ustilago scitaminea, the pathogen of sugarcane smut, from different sugarcane growing regions of the world. A common set of 11 sugarcane cultivars with different reported reactions to smut was distribu...

230

Physiological Responses of Sugarcane to Orange Rust Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is a relatively new disease in the United States that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane cultivars in Florida. The objective of this study was to determine physiological responses of sugarcane to orange rust infection by quantifyi...

231

Bactérias promotoras de crescimento e adubação nitrogenada no crescimento inicial de cana-de-açúcar proveniente de mudas pré-brotadas / Plant growth-promoting bacteria and nitrogen fertilization effect on the initial growth of sugarcane from pre-sprouted seedlings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento sobre a formação de mudas pré-brotadas de cana-de-açúcar, oriundas de gemas individualizadas, e quantificar o crescimento inicial dessas mudas, em associação à aplicação de nitrogênio, em solo de ba [...] ixa fertilidade. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos: um em casa de vegetação, com duração de 50 dias, e o outro, em vasos no campo, com duração de 180 dias. Em ambos os experimentos, utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2x3, no primeiro experimento - com ou sem inoculante, e com três quantidades de reserva nas gemas -, e 2x2x4, no segundo - com ou sem inoculante, com ou sem nitrogênio, avaliados em quatro épocas: aos 45, 90, 135 e 180 dias. O inoculante produziu efeito na fase inicial de crescimento das mudas pré-brotadas, com aumento na velocidade de brotação e no acúmulo da matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea, independentemente da quantidade de reserva da gema. No segundo experimento, o inoculante promoveu ganhos no crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, até os 180 dias após o transplantio, com aumento em altura, perfilhamento, diâmetro do colmo, produção da matéria seca de colmos e de palha e do comprimento radicular, independentemente da aplicação de nitrogênio. O inoculante tem efeito fisiológico positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria on the formation of sugarcane pre-sprouted seedlings, originated from individual buds, and to quantify the initial growth of these seedlings in association with nitrogen application, in a l [...] ow fertility soil. Two experiments were carried out: one in greenhouse conditions, with a time span of 50 days, and the other in vases under field conditions, with a time span of 180 days. In both experiments, a randomized complete block design was used with a factorial arrangement of 2x3, in the first experiment - with or without inoculation, and with three quantities of bud reserve -, and of 2x2x4, in the second one - with or without inoculation, with or without nitrogen, evaluated in four times: at 45, 90, 135, and 180 days. The inoculant had effect on the initial growth of the pre-sprouted seedlings, increasing sprouting speed and dry matter accumulation on roots and shoots, regardless of the bud reserve amount. In the second experiment, the inoculant increased the initial growth of shoots and root system up to 180 days after transplantation, increasing height, tillering, stalk diameter, dry matter production of stalks and straw, and root length, regardless of nitrogen application. The inoculant has a positive physiological effect on plant growth.

Lucas Augusto da Silva, Gírio; Fábio Luis Ferreira, Dias; Veronica Massena, Reis; Segundo, Urquiaga; Nivaldo, Schultz; Denizart, Bolonhezi; Miguel Angelo, Mutton.

2015-01-01

232

Biochemical and physiological responses of sugarcane cultivars to soil water deficiencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crops, the effects of an environmental stress, especially water deficiency, may cause severe productivity reduction, inferring negatively in the sugarcane industry. The tolerance of two sugarcane cultivars to a lack of water was made by analyzing the levels of the osmoprotectors, trehalose and free proline, and the biometrical variables of their initial growth. Biochemical and physiological responses of the cultivars, when subjected to water stress, were assayed to determine how these plants tolerate drought. The study was conducted in an acclimatized greenhouse (29.7 ± 4.3ºC and 75.0 ± 10.1% relative humidity during 100 days and was divided into random blocks using a factorial 2 × 3 × 2 design (sugarcane cultivars × water availability × time periods with four replicates. Forty days after germination, sugarcane was planted in pots (12 dm³ containing topsoil material taken from a medium textured Rhodic Ferralsol, submitted to three levels of water availability (WAS: 55% (control, 40% (moderate stress and 25% (severe stress, for 60 days. The effect of the WAS on the accumulation of trehalose and free proline was detected in both cultivars, although it was found to be more distinctive for the cv. IAC91-5155. Trehalose and free proline are biochemical and physiological indicators of water deficiency. The cv. IAC91-5155 had altered growth and allocation of biomass when subjected to severe water stress conditions. The univariate and the multivariate analysis of the biochemical and physiological responses, presented by the IAC91-5155 cultivar, indicate relative tolerance to drought conditions.

Rafaela Josemara Barbosa Queiroz

2011-08-01

233

Biochemical and physiological responses of sugarcane cultivars to soil water deficiencies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available For sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops, the effects of an environmental stress, especially water deficiency, may cause severe productivity reduction, inferring negatively in the sugarcane industry. The tolerance of two sugarcane cultivars to a lack of water was made by analyzing the levels of the osmo [...] protectors, trehalose and free proline, and the biometrical variables of their initial growth. Biochemical and physiological responses of the cultivars, when subjected to water stress, were assayed to determine how these plants tolerate drought. The study was conducted in an acclimatized greenhouse (29.7 ± 4.3ºC and 75.0 ± 10.1% relative humidity) during 100 days and was divided into random blocks using a factorial 2 × 3 × 2 design (sugarcane cultivars × water availability × time periods) with four replicates. Forty days after germination, sugarcane was planted in pots (12 dm³) containing topsoil material taken from a medium textured Rhodic Ferralsol, submitted to three levels of water availability (WAS): 55% (control), 40% (moderate stress) and 25% (severe stress), for 60 days. The effect of the WAS on the accumulation of trehalose and free proline was detected in both cultivars, although it was found to be more distinctive for the cv. IAC91-5155. Trehalose and free proline are biochemical and physiological indicators of water deficiency. The cv. IAC91-5155 had altered growth and allocation of biomass when subjected to severe water stress conditions. The univariate and the multivariate analysis of the biochemical and physiological responses, presented by the IAC91-5155 cultivar, indicate relative tolerance to drought conditions.

Rafaela Josemara Barbosa, Queiroz; Durvalina Maria Mathias dos, Santos; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo; Samira Domingues, Carlin; Marcelo de Almeida, Silva.

2011-08-01

234

In vitro synergism observed with azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline, or tigecycline in association with antifungal agents against Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe here the in vitro activities of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline, or tigecycline alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, or micafungin against 30 isolates of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The assays were based on the CLSI M38-A2 technique and the checkerboard microdilution method. The main synergisms observed were through the combination of minocycline with amphotericin B (73.33%), itraconazole (70%), and micafungin (70%) and of clarithromycin with micafungin (73.33%). PMID:25001300

Jesus, Francielli P K; Ferreiro, Laerte; Loreto, Érico S; Pilotto, Maiara B; Ludwig, Aline; Bizzi, Karine; Tondolo, Juliana S M; Zanette, Régis A; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M

2014-09-01

235

Characterization of the microbial community involved in the suppression of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown on rockwool  

OpenAIRE

The root pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum induced lower levels of disease in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants on unsterilized, re-used rockwool slabs than on heat-sterilized, re-used rockwool. Several recolonization treatments of the sterilized rockwool enhanced the suppressiveness of the rockwool. Microbial community structures in the different rockwool treatments were investigated by plate counts on selective media. Disease suppressiveness in the different rockwool treatments showed the hig...

Postma, J.; Geraats, B. P. J.; Pastoor, R.; Elsas, J. D.

2005-01-01

236

Germination of hyphal bodies of Pythium spiculum isolated from declining cork oaks at Doñana National Park (Spain)  

OpenAIRE

Pythium spiculum, a recently described new taxon, has been isolated from declining cork oaks (Quercus suber L.) at Doñana National Park (south-western Spain). The microorganism can infect and cause root disease in Quercus, but currently it is unknown whether its hyphal bodies can germinate and infect host trees. These hyphal bodies, regardless of shape, have been shown to be able to germinate, producing long germ tubes, sometimes ramified. Zoospore production was not recorded, bu...

Vita, Paolo; Serrano, Mari?a S.; Belbahri, Lassaad; Garci?a, Luis V.; Ramo, Cristina; Sa?nchez Herna?ndez, Mª Esperanza

2011-01-01

237

Development of cassava plants and its mycorrhizal association in soil supplemented with sugarcane agroindustrial residue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of organic agroindustrial residues on agriculture can be one way to improve the development and chemical composition of plants, reducing the cost with chemical fertilizers and impacts generated by the excessive use of them. Sugarcane agroindustrial residue has been generated in high quantity in Brazilian semiarid region and can be applied to cassava crop to improve its growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of sugarcane agroindustrial residue on the vegetative development, chemical composition and mycorrhizal association of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta var. Engana ladrão. It was performed an experiment in greenhouse with completely randomized design with four treatments of addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue (0, 5, 10 and 15% with nine replicates. The addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue increased fresh dry root biomass, leaf area, crude protein and mineral matter, without reducing the mycorrhizal colonization and glomerospores number. This type of residue can be one alternative to improve the nutritional value of these fodder.

Jorge Messias Leal Nascimento

2014-02-01

238

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

Neves Anna

2009-09-01

239

Photodynamic therapy in Pythium insidiosum - an in vitro study of the correlation of sensitizer localization and cell death.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythiosis is an infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like organism. Due to the lack of ergosterol on its cell membrane, antibiotic therapy is ineffective. The conventional treatment is surgery, but lesion recurrence is frequent, requiring several resections or limb amputation. Photodynamic therapy uses photo-activation of drugs and has the potential to be an attractive alternative option. The in vitro PDT response on the growing of Pythium insidiosum culture was investigated using three distinct photosensitizers: methylene blue, Photogem, and Photodithazine. The photosensitizer distribution in cell structures and the PDT response for incubation times of 30, 60, and 120 minutes were evaluated. Methylene blue did not penetrate in the pathogen's cell and consequently there was no PDT inactivation. Photogem showed heterogenous distribution in the hyphal structure with small concentration inside the cells. Porphyrin-PDT response was heterogenous, death and live cells were observed in the treated culture. After 48 hours, hyphae regrowth was observed. Photodithazine showed more homogenous distribution inside the cell and with the specific intracellular localization dependent on incubation time. Photodithazine first accumulates in intracellular vacuoles, and at incubation times of one hour, it is located at all cell membranes. Higher inhibition of the growing rates was achieved with Photodithazine -PDT, over 98%. Our results showed that the photosensitizers that cross more efficiently the Pythium insidiosum membranes are able to cause extensive damage to the organism under illumination and therefore, are the best options for clinical treatment. PMID:24465559

Pires, Layla; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Baptista, Maurício S; Kurachi, Cristina

2014-01-01

240

Photodynamic Therapy in Pythium insidiosum – An In Vitro Study of the Correlation of Sensitizer Localization and Cell Death  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythiosis is an infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like organism. Due to the lack of ergosterol on its cell membrane, antibiotic therapy is ineffective. The conventional treatment is surgery, but lesion recurrence is frequent, requiring several resections or limb amputation. Photodynamic therapy uses photo-activation of drugs and has the potential to be an attractive alternative option. The in vitro PDT response on the growing of Pythium insidiosum culture was investigated using three distinct photosensitizers: methylene blue, Photogem, and Photodithazine. The photosensitizer distribution in cell structures and the PDT response for incubation times of 30, 60, and 120 minutes were evaluated. Methylene blue did not penetrate in the pathogen's cell and consequently there was no PDT inactivation. Photogem showed heterogenous distribution in the hyphal structure with small concentration inside the cells. Porphyrin-PDT response was heterogenous, death and live cells were observed in the treated culture. After 48 hours, hyphae regrowth was observed. Photodithazine showed more homogenous distribution inside the cell and with the specific intracellular localization dependent on incubation time. Photodithazine first accumulates in intracellular vacuoles, and at incubation times of one hour, it is located at all cell membranes. Higher inhibition of the growing rates was achieved with Photodithazine -PDT, over 98%. Our results showed that the photosensitizers that cross more efficiently the Pythium insidiosum membranes are able to cause extensive damage to the organism under illumination and therefore, are the best options for clinical treatment. PMID:24465559

Pires, Layla; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Baptista, Maurício S.; Kurachi, Cristina

2014-01-01

241

Gliotoxin-Producing Endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale Found Antagonistic to Soft Rot Pathogen Pythium myriotylum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M?+?H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus. PMID:25820297

Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

2015-04-01

242

EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum) / EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum) / EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese 0 uso de microrganismos como fertilizante, tem sido demonstrado gue têm efeitos benéficos no crescimento das plantas e são considerados uma alternativa ao uso de fertilizantes guímicos, no entanto, cada microrganismo possui diferentes efeitos benéficos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da aplicaçã [...] o de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum e Trichoderma lignorum no crescimento de cana-de-açucar da variedade CC 934418 plantadas em vasos. 0 crescimento das plantas foi medido em termos do diâmetro do caule, comprimento de caule e da raiz e número de folhas e raízes nos dias 15, 30 e 45 após a semeadura. 0 crescimento da planta mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal. Abstract in spanish El uso de microorganismos como fertilizante, ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos sobre el crecimiento de plantas y son una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes guímicos, sin embargo, cada microorganismo difiere en sus efectos benéficos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de microo [...] rganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum y Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento en maceta de plantas de caña de azúcar variedad CC 934418. El crecimiento de las plantas se midió en términos de diámetro del tallo, longitud de tallo y raíces, y número de hojas y raíces a los 15, 30 y 45 días de la siembra. El crecimiento de las plantas mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. Los microorganismos fertilizantes mostraron efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de caña de azúcar, siendo Azospirillum brasilense y Trichoderma lignorum los microorganismos gue ejercieron mayor efecto sobre el diámetro del tallo y los sistemas radical y foliar de la planta. Se observaron los efectos beneficiosos de Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento de la hoja. Este es un nuevo aporte científico, ya que esta especie no ha sido reportada como promotora de crecimiento vegetal. Abstract in english The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azo [...] tobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

LILIANA, SERNA-COCK; CAMILO, ARIAS-GARCÍA; LEIDY JOHANA, VALENCIA HERNANDEZ.

2011-12-01

243

EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El uso de microorganismos como fertilizante, ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos sobre el crecimiento de plantas y son una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes guímicos, sin embargo, cada microorganismo difiere en sus efectos benéficos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum y Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento en maceta de plantas de caña de azúcar variedad CC 934418. El crecimiento de las plantas se midió en términos de diámetro del tallo, longitud de tallo y raíces, y número de hojas y raíces a los 15, 30 y 45 días de la siembra. El crecimiento de las plantas mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. Los microorganismos fertilizantes mostraron efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de caña de azúcar, siendo Azospirillum brasilense y Trichoderma lignorum los microorganismos gue ejercieron mayor efecto sobre el diámetro del tallo y los sistemas radical y foliar de la planta. Se observaron los efectos beneficiosos de Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento de la hoja. Este es un nuevo aporte científico, ya que esta especie no ha sido reportada como promotora de crecimiento vegetal.0 uso de microrganismos como fertilizante, tem sido demonstrado gue têm efeitos benéficos no crescimento das plantas e são considerados uma alternativa ao uso de fertilizantes guímicos, no entanto, cada microrganismo possui diferentes efeitos benéficos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da aplicação de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum e Trichoderma lignorum no crescimento de cana-de-açucar da variedade CC 934418 plantadas em vasos. 0 crescimento das plantas foi medido em termos do diâmetro do caule, comprimento de caule e da raiz e número de folhas e raízes nos dias 15, 30 e 45 após a semeadura. 0 crescimento da planta mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal.The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

LILIANA SERNA-COCK

2011-12-01

244

Supplementation of sugarcane bagasse with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) spawn production  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to assess the myceliation rate, mycelial vigor and "estimated biomass" of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, grown on a sugarcane bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for spawn production. The proportions of rice bran used were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse) and the sugarcane molasses concentrations tested were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran). The mycel...

Rossi Ivan Henrique; Monteiro Antonio Carlos; Machado José Octavio; Barbosa José Carlos

2003-01-01

245

Induction and isolation of mutants in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the progress made on the induction of mutations in sugarcane at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, is presented. A description of some of the mutants is given. A few disease-resistant mutants have been obtained. Yield of C.C.S./ha of some of the mutants has surpassed the parent variety. Selection based on individual canes has increased the mutation rate and stability of mutants. Different techniques such as decapitation, closer planting and growing vM1 generation at different N levels have been observed to be promising methods to increase mutation rate. Raising of plants from mutated tissues by in vitro culture seems to be a potential tool in induced mutagenesis in sugarcane. (author)

246

Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

Schultz, Colin

2013-04-01

247

Micropropagation of Two Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Varieties from Callus Culture  

OpenAIRE

Protocol for induction of callus and regeneration response of two sugarcane varieties (Isd-16, Isd-28) was established through callus culture using leaf sheath. Multiple shoot regeneration at various frequencies was observed using different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. The highest percentage of callus induction was observed in the medium containing 3.0 mg l -1 2,4-D with 10% coconut water (CM). The best response in terms of multiple shoot format...

Karim, M. Z.; Amin, M. N.; Hossain, M. A.; Islam, S.; Faruk Hossin; Alam, R.

2002-01-01

248

Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane  

OpenAIRE

A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model...

Potgieter, L.; Jh, Vuuren; DE Conlong

2012-01-01

249

A bacterial artificial chromosome library for sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern cultivated sugarcane is a complex aneuploid polyploid with an estimated genome size of 3000 Mb. Although most traits in sugarcane show complex inheritance, a rust locus showing monogenic inheritance has been documented. In order to facilitate cloning of the rust locus, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the cultivar R570. The library contains 103,296 clones providing 4.5 sugarcane genome equivalents. A random sampling of 240 clones indicated an average insert size of 130 kb allowing a 98% probability of recovering any specific sequence of interest. High-density filters were gridded robotically using a Genetix Q-BOT in a 4 × 4 double-spotted array on 22.5-cm(2) filters. Each set of five filters provides a genome coverage of 4x with 18,432 clones represented per filter. Screening of the library with three different barley chloroplast gene probes indicated an exceptionally low chloroplast DNA content of less than 1%. To demonstrate the library's potential for map-based cloning, single-copy RFLP sugarcane mapping probes anchored to nine different linkage groups and three different gene probes were used to screen the library. The number of positive hybridization signals resulting from each probe ranged from 8 to 60. After determining addresses of the signals, clones were evaluated for insert size and HindIII-fingerprinted. The fingerprints were then used to determine clone relationships and assemble contigs. For comparison with other monocot genomes, sugarcane RFLP probes were also used to screen a Sorghum bicolor BAC library and two rice BAC libraries. The rice and sorghum BAC clones were characterized for insert size and fingerprinted, and the results compared to sugarcane. The library was screened with a rust resistance RFLP marker and candidate BAC clones were subjected to RFLP fragment matching to identify those corresponding to the same genomic region as the rust gene. PMID:22665173

Tomkins, J P; Yu, Y; Miller-Smith, H; Frisch, D A; Woo, S S; Wing, R A

1999-08-01

250

Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

2014-01-01

251

Variability induced through vegetative mutagenesis in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both physical and chemical mutagens were found to be effective in inducing genetic variations in sugarcane. Among the mutagens employed EMS(ethyl methane sulphonate) and gamma rays significantly reduced the germination of buds at all levels tested with LD 50 at 0.8% and 6 Kr., respectively. By repeated clonal selection, mutants for various morphological characters were isolated in pure form. An induced mutant combining red rot disease resistance alongwith improved leaf characters has shown commercial potential. The significance of induced mutations in basic genetic studies and improvement of sugarcane are discussed. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

252

Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and cristobalite in bagasse ash is significant as the ash is recycled onto the fields where erosion and/or mechanical disturbance could break down the deposits and re-suspend respirable-sized particulate. Appropriate methods for treatment and disposal of bagasse ash must, therefore, be employed and adequate protection given to workers exposed to these dusts. PMID:20520870

Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

2010-07-01

253

Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization / Amido de cana-de-açúcar: determinação quantitativa e caracterização  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O amido é encontrado na cana-de-açúcar como um polissacarídeo de reserva. A quantidade depende de diversos fatores. Este trabalho visou a determinação do conteúdo de amido em diferentes variedades de cana-de-açúcar durante o período de Maio a Novembro de 2007; e determinação de algumas característic [...] as do amido de cana-de-açúcar como: estrutura e tamanho dos grânulos de amido; determinação da temperatura de gelificação; determinação da filtrabilidade da solução de amido de cana-de-açúcar; susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar às enzimas glicoamilase, pululanase, -amilases bacterianas e fúngica comerciais. Foi testado também a susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar à enzima amilolítica desramificante isoamilase de Flavobacterium sp. O amido de cana-de-açúcar apresentou forma esférica e diâmetro entre 1-3 µm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar complexado com iodo apresentou maior absorção na faixa de 540 a 620 nm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar in natura mostrou maior susceptibilidade à enzima glicoamilase em relação aos outros amidos testados. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade à enzima amilolítica desramificante pululanase de modo similar ao amido de arroz ceroso. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade às ?-amilases de Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis e Aspergillus oryzae de modo similar aos outros amidos testados produzindo glicose; maltose; maltotriose; maltotetraose e ?- dextrinas limite. Abstract in english Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, [...] and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal ?-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit ?- dextrin.

Joelise de Alencar, Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann, Carvalho; Hélia Harumi, Sato.

2011-09-01

254

Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization Amido de cana-de-açúcar: determinação quantitativa e caracterização  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal ?-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit ?- dextrin.O amido é encontrado na cana-de-açúcar como um polissacarídeo de reserva. A quantidade depende de diversos fatores. Este trabalho visou a determinação do conteúdo de amido em diferentes variedades de cana-de-açúcar durante o período de Maio a Novembro de 2007; e determinação de algumas características do amido de cana-de-açúcar como: estrutura e tamanho dos grânulos de amido; determinação da temperatura de gelificação; determinação da filtrabilidade da solução de amido de cana-de-açúcar; susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar às enzimas glicoamilase, pululanase, -amilases bacterianas e fúngica comerciais. Foi testado também a susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar à enzima amilolítica desramificante isoamilase de Flavobacterium sp. O amido de cana-de-açúcar apresentou forma esférica e diâmetro entre 1-3 µm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar complexado com iodo apresentou maior absorção na faixa de 540 a 620 nm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar in natura mostrou maior susceptibilidade à enzima glicoamilase em relação aos outros amidos testados. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade à enzima amilolítica desramificante pululanase de modo similar ao amido de arroz ceroso. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade às ?-amilases de Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis e Aspergillus oryzae de modo similar aos outros amidos testados produzindo glicose; maltose; maltotriose; maltotetraose e ?- dextrinas limite.

Joelise de Alencar Figueira

2011-09-01

255

Frecuencia de presentación de Pythiosis Cutánea Bovina (Pythium insidiosum) en tres explotaciones ganaderas de Córdoba, Colombia / Frequency of presentation of bovine cutaneous pythiosis (Pythium insidiosum) in three cattle farms in Córdoba, Colombia / Freqüência de apresentação da Pitose Cutânea Bovina (Pythium insidiosum) em 3 fazendas em Córdoba, Colômbia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A pitiose cutânea é uma doença granulomatosa crônica, muitas vezes pruriginosa e rapidamente progressiva, causada por Pythium insidiosum. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a freqüência de ocorrência de pitiose cutânea bovina (Pythium insidiosum) em três fazendas no departamento de Córdoba, Colô [...] mbia. Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo em animais a conveniência, entre Maio e Agosto de 2011. Foram avaliados clínica, epidemiológica e histopatologicamente 72 bovinos com lesões cutâneas granulomatosas compatíveis com pitiose, a partir de 187 bovinos pertencentes a 3 fazendas localizadas em zonas inundáveis, no departamento de Córdoba, Colômbia. A freqüência de ocorrência de pitiose cutânea bovina em 3 fazendas no departamento de Córdoba, Colômbia foi de 38,5%. Concluímos que as manifestações clínicas e epidemiológicas, características macroscópicas das lesões de pele e achados patológicos, relatou uma presença mediana de pitiose bovina cutânea em 3 fazendas localizadas em zonas inundáveis no departamento de Córdoba, na Colômbia. Abstract in spanish La Pythiosis cutánea es una enfermedad crónica, granulomatosa, a menudo pruriginosa y rápidamente progresiva, causada por el Pythium insidiosum. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de presentación de pythiosis cutánea bovina en tres explotaciones ganaderas del departamento [...] de Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo en animales a conveniencia, entre los meses de mayo y agosto de 2011. Fueron evaluados clínica, epidemiológica e histopatológicamente 72 bovinos con lesiones cutáneas granulomatosas compatibles con Pythiosis, a partir de 187 bovinos pertenecientes a tres explotaciones ganaderas ubicadas en zonas inundables del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. La frecuencia de la enfermedad fue de 38.5%. Se concluye que por las manifestaciones clínico-epidemiológicas, las características macroscópicas de las lesiones cutáneas y los hallazgos histopatológicos, se informa una mediana presencia de pythiosis cutánea en bovinos de tres explotaciones ganaderas ubicadas en zonas inundables del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Abstract in english The skin pythiosis is a chronic granulomatous, often pruriginous, rapidly progressive illness, caused by Pythium insidiosum. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of bovine cutaneous pythiosis (Pythium insidiosum) in three farms in the department of Córdoba, Colomb [...] ia. A prospective study in animáis was performed, for convenience, between May and August 2011. 72 cattle with granulomatous skin lesions compatible with Pythiosis were evaluated clinical, epidemiological and histopathologically, from 187 cows belonging to three farms located in flood zones in the department of Córdoba, Colombia. The frequency of occurrence of bovine cutaneous Pythiosis in 3 cattle farms in Córdoba department, Colombia was 38,5%. It was concluded that clinical and epidemiological manifestations, macroscopic characteristics of the skin lesions and pathological findings, reported a median pythiosis presence of bovine dermal three farms located in flood zones of the department of Córdoba, Colombia.

José A, Cardona Álvarez; Marlene, Vargas Viloria; Sandra C, Perdomo A.

2012-07-01

256

Lipase Production in Tray-Bioreactor via Solid State Fermentation under Desired Growth Conditions  

OpenAIRE

Lipase was produced under desired growth conditions in a novel tray bioreactor using the fungus strain of Rhizopus oryzae. Several agricultural residues/products including sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, corn meal, barely bran and equal mixtures of sugarcane bagasse with agricultural residues were applied as solid substrate. Lipase produced from the pure sugarcane bagasse showed higher activities than other substrates; which resulted enzyme activities of 155.76 and 138.37 U/gds for the top and...

Zahra Vaseghi; Najafpour, Ghasem D.; Samaneh Mohseni; Soleiman Mahjoub; Hosseinpour, Maryam N.

2012-01-01

257

Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura  

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Full Text Available Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500°C, in presence of air. Sugarcane in natura was also pyrolysed as a model for comparison, in order to determine the viability of processing different sources of raw biomass. The physicochemical characterization of the biomass precursors as well as of the bio-oils was also carried out, which points both biomass feedstocks as suitable for bio-oil production in terms of viscosity, surface tension, density and acidity. The bio-oil obtained from sugarcane in natura presented higher carbon and hydrogen content as well as lower oxygen content. On the other hand, the metal content is higher in the bio-oil obtained from sugarcane straw, in special the iron and potassium contents were 807 ppm and 123 ppm against 27 ppm and 1 ppm in the bio-oil from sugarcane in natura. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds as well as carbohydrates scaffolds were identified as the main components of the bio-oil. GC-MS analyses showed aromatic products from lignine fragmentation and free sugars and sugar derivatives.

Josilaine A. C. Durange

2013-04-01

258

Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus.

Rokhsar Daniel S

2010-04-01

259

Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes. PMID:25012031

Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

2015-01-01

260

Insights into the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in Pythium insidiosum infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum causes life-threatening disease in mammals. Animals with pythiosis usually develop anemia, and most human patients are reported to have thalassemia and the major consequence of thalassemia, iron overload. Therefore, this study evaluated the iron metabolism in rabbits experimentally infected with P. insidiosum. Ten infected rabbits were divided into two groups: one groups received a placebo, and the other was treated with immunotherapy. Five rabbits were used as negative controls. The hematological and biochemical parameters, including the iron profile, were evaluated. Microcytic hypochromic anemia was observed in the infected animals, and this condition was more accentuated in the untreated group. The serum iron level was decreased, whereas the transferrin level was increased, resulting in low saturation. The level of stainable iron in hepatocytes was markedly decreased in the untreated group. A high correlation was observed between the total iron binding capacity and the lesion size, and this correlation likely confirms the affinity of P. insidiosum for iron. The data from this study corroborate the previous implications of iron in the pathogenesis of pythiosis in humans and animals. PMID:23182911

Zanette, R A; Bitencourt, P E R; Alves, S H; Fighera, R A; Flores, M M; Wolkmer, P; Hecktheuer, P A; Thomas, L R; Pereira, P L; Loreto, E S; Santurio, J M

2013-03-23

261

Life cycle of the human and animal oomycete pathogen Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum, the etiologic agent of pythiosis insidiosii, causes life-threatening infections in humans and animals. Previous studies of the epidemiology of this disease hypothesized about the possible life cycle of this oomycete. Details, however, were not provided on the steps required to cause infection. We investigated the life cycle of P. insidiosum by inoculating pieces of equine skin and plant leaves and then studying the ensuing events with a scanning electron microscope. Our observations revealed that zoospores had a strong tropism for skin tissue, horse and human hair, and water lily and grass leaves and a weak attraction to a variety of other leaves. Encysted zoospores were observed on the favored leaves and skin. There they produced germ tubes and later abundant hyphal filaments that penetrated leaf tissues. Young sporangia had compact, thick walls. The sporangial wall was reduced to a fragile membrane when the sporangia had produced well-differentiated biflagellate zoospores. The encysted zoospores secreted an amorphous material that permitted the zoospores to adhere to skin and plant tissues. On the basis of these findings, a model to explain the life cycle of P. insidiosum is proposed. Images PMID:8263182

Mendoza, L; Hernandez, F; Ajello, L

1993-01-01

262

Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Pythium insidiosum in horses with pythiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactions to Pythium insidiosum by sera from horses with active pythiosis were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Five strains of P. insidiosum were grown in nutrient broth and then sonicated. After centrifugation, supernatant antigens were separated by SDS-PAGE. An exoantigen of Conidiobolus coronatus was also tested. Bands with molecular weights between 97,000 and 14,000 were identified by Coomassie blue and silver staining. After being transferred to nitrocellulose, the antigens were reacted against sera from six horses with pythiosis, sera from four horses cured a year earlier by vaccination, and sera from five healthy horses. The sera from horses with pythiosis recognized at least 20 antigens in all strains. Three antigens with molecular weights of 32,000, 30,000, and 28,000 appeared to be immunodominant and specific. Sera from horses cured by immunotherapy showed only five very weak bands, three of them the 32,000-molecular-weight (32K), 30K, and 28K antigens. No bands were observed with sera from healthy horses or sera from horses with a variety of other infections. Sera from horses with pythiosis cross-reacted with the 44K antigen of C. coronatus. The immunodominant antigens described here may be useful for diagnostic purposes and in immunotherapy for this oomycotic infection in horses. Images PMID:1452669

Mendoza, L; Nicholson, V; Prescott, J F

1992-01-01

263

Identification of Pythium insidiosum by nested PCR in cutaneous lesions of Brazilian horses and rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is a fungus-like organism present in subtropical and tropical areas, such as Brazil, known to infect humans and various animal species. P. insidiosum is the etiological agent of pythiosis, an emerging and granulomatous disease characterized mainly by cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions in horses, the principal species affected. Accurate diagnosis of pythiosis and identification of its causal agent by microbiological and serological tests can be often difficult and inconclusive principally for horses and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the previously described P. insidiosum-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to directly detect P. insidiosum DNA in clinical and experimental lesions. Universal fungal primers (ITS1 and ITS4) were used during the first-round of PCR to amplify ITS1, 5.8s, and ITS2. A second-round of PCR was conducted with P. insidiosum-specific primers (PI1 and PI2) to amplify a variable region within this ITS1. In this study, a total of 21 equine clinical samples (kunkers) and 28 specimens from experimentally infected rabbits were analyzed by nested PCR. The first-round of PCR generated 800-base pair products, and the second-round produced 105-base pair amplicons for each P. insidiosum-specific sample; no amplicons were generated in negative control samples. Our results suggest that nested PCR is an important and efficient tool for diagnosis of both endemic (horse samples) and experimental (rabbit samples) pythiosis. PMID:21188592

Botton, Sonia A; Pereira, Daniela I B; Costa, Mateus M; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Argenta, Juliana S; Jesus, Francielli P K; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2011-04-01

264

Evaluation for the clinical diagnosis of Pythium insidiosum using a single-tube nested PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythiosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, which typically occurs in tropical and subtropical regions. The high mortality rate may be in consequence of the lack of diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate reliability of a new single-tube nested PCR for detection of P. insidiosum DNA. A total of 78 clinical isolates of various fungi and bacteria, 106 clinical specimens and 80 simulated positive blood samples were tested. The developed primer pairs CPL6-CPR8 and YTL1-YTR1 are located on 18S subunit of the rRNA gene of P. insidiosum. The specificity, negative and positive predictive values were 100, 100 and 87.5 %, respectively, as compared with direct microscopy and cultivation. The detection limit of the single-tube nested PCR was 21 zoospores corresponding to 2.7 pg of the DNA. The results demonstrate that the new single-tube nested PCR offers a highly sensitive, specific and rapid genetic method for detecting P. insidiosum. PMID:23948967

Thongsri, Yordhathai; Wonglakorn, Lumyai; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Svobodova, Lucie; Hamal, Petr; Pakarasang, Maitree; Prariyachatigul, Chularut

2013-12-01

265

Oxidative stress response in sugarcane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias funções em plantas apesar do gene que codificaria para óxido nítrico sintetase nunca ter sido isolado. Este trabalho descreve os resultados de uma busca no banco de dados de seqüências expressas de cana de açúcar (SUCEST de genes envolvidos na resposta ao estresse oxidativo. Eu não encontrei genes similares a óxido nítrico no banco de dados do SUCEST, mas uma via alternativa para a produção deste radical livre pode ser proposta. Eu também encontrei vários genes envolvidos na defesa antioxidante, como quelantes de metais, antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular, enzimas antioxidantes e sistemas de reparo. Ascorbato (vitamina C é um importante antioxidante em plantas porque é encontrado em altas concentrações em células vegetais e porque é substrato de ascorbato peroxidase, uma enzima que eu encontrei em diferentes isoformas no banco de dados do SUCEST. Eu também encontrei várias enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese de antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular que podem ser alvos para manipulação genética. A obtenção de plantas modificadas geneticamente que sintetizariam vitaminas C e E em altos níveis poderiam melhorar o valor nutricional e a tolerância a estresses de cana de açúcar. Os diversos componentes do sistema de defesa antioxidante interagem entre si e as suas sínteses devem ser muito bem reguladas. Fatores de transcrição envolvidos na regulação da resposta ao estresse oxidativo de bactérias, leveduras e de humanos diferem consideravelmente entre si e quando foram utilizados para buscas no banco de dados do SUCEST, somente genes com similaridades fracas foram encontrados, sugerindo que estas proteínas não são muito conservadas. O envolvimento de espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio na defesa de plantas contra patógenos também é discutido neste trabalho.

Luis Eduardo Soares Netto

2001-12-01

266

Oxidative stress response in sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias funções em plantas apesar do gene que codificaria para óxido nítrico sintetase nunca ter sido isolado. Este trabalho descreve os resultados de u [...] ma busca no banco de dados de seqüências expressas de cana de açúcar (SUCEST) de genes envolvidos na resposta ao estresse oxidativo. Eu não encontrei genes similares a óxido nítrico no banco de dados do SUCEST, mas uma via alternativa para a produção deste radical livre pode ser proposta. Eu também encontrei vários genes envolvidos na defesa antioxidante, como quelantes de metais, antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular, enzimas antioxidantes e sistemas de reparo. Ascorbato (vitamina C) é um importante antioxidante em plantas porque é encontrado em altas concentrações em células vegetais e porque é substrato de ascorbato peroxidase, uma enzima que eu encontrei em diferentes isoformas no banco de dados do SUCEST. Eu também encontrei várias enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese de antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular que podem ser alvos para manipulação genética. A obtenção de plantas modificadas geneticamente que sintetizariam vitaminas C e E em altos níveis poderiam melhorar o valor nutricional e a tolerância a estresses de cana de açúcar. Os diversos componentes do sistema de defesa antioxidante interagem entre si e as suas sínteses devem ser muito bem reguladas. Fatores de transcrição envolvidos na regulação da resposta ao estresse oxidativo de bactérias, leveduras e de humanos diferem consideravelmente entre si e quando foram utilizados para buscas no banco de dados do SUCEST, somente genes com similaridades fracas foram encontrados, sugerindo que estas proteínas não são muito conservadas. O envolvimento de espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio na defesa de plantas contra patógenos também é discutido neste trabalho. Abstract in english Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the [...] results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.

Luis Eduardo, Soares Netto.

2001-12-01

267

Breeding commercial sugarcane varieties for the industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent literature suggests that sugarcane breeding in the United States has reached a sugar yield plateau. If so, this could have huge implications for the future of the industry and breeding per se because yield improvement might have to be achieved through secondary, non-sugar-related traits, or t...

268

CULTIVAR RELEASE - Sugarcane: cultivar RB937570  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available he sugarcane cultivar RB937570 is early to medium maturing. It should be grown preferably on medium texture soils with medium to high fertility. In central-southeastern Brazil, RB937570 should be harvested between May and August. It is tolerant to the major economically relevant crop diseases, has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting and high sucrose yields.

Luís Cláudio Inácio da Silveira

2012-01-01

269

CULTIVAR RELEASE - Sugarcane: cultivar RB937570  

OpenAIRE

he sugarcane cultivar RB937570 is early to medium maturing. It should be grown preferably on medium texture soils with medium to high fertility. In central-southeastern Brazil, RB937570 should be harvested between May and August. It is tolerant to the major economically relevant crop diseases, has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting and high sucrose yields.

Luís Cláudio Inácio da Silveira; Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa; Volmir Kist; Edelclaiton Daros; Luiz Alexandre Peternelli; Vicente Freitas Martins de Souza; Sebastião Nilson Niquini Ribeiro; Francisco Mauro Vilarinho

2012-01-01

270

SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM SPP.) RESPONSE TO FLUMIOXAZIN  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to determine response of the sugarcane cultivars HoCP 91-555, LCP 85-845, and LCP 85-384 to flumioxazin during the first (plant cane) and second (first ratoon) production years. In the plant cane crop, flumioxazin was applied in September or October [at planting preemerge...

271

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without causing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the isolation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using molecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cultivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for analysis. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was partially sequenced and used for molecular identification. Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and the API-20E system were used to characterize the isolates. The strains were divided into five groups, based on the 16S rRNA sequences. Group I comprised 14 representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae; group II was composed of Bacilli; group III contained one representative, Curtobacterium sp; group IV contained representatives of the Pseudomonadaceae family, and group V had one isolate with an uncultured bacterium. Four isolates were able to reduce acetylene to ethylene. Most of the bacteria isolated from the sugarcane stem and leaf tissues belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae, respectively, demonstrating niche specificity. Overall, we found the endophytic bacteria in sugarcane to be more diverse than previously reported. PMID:20198580

Magnani, G S; Didonet, C M; Cruz, L M; Picheth, C F; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

2010-01-01

272

Registration of ‘CP 06-2400’ Sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical Abstract: ‘CP 06-2400’ (Reg. No. ; PI 670018) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. and released to growers for organic (muck) soils in Fl...

273

Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome.

Singh Nagendra K

2010-11-01

274

Isolation and partial purification of toxin from colletotrichum falcatum: the causal agent of red rot in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum) spores were isolated from infected stalk pieces of sugarcane and grown on Czapek Dox agar medium to obtain pure culture. Spores were obtained from the pure culture and grown in Czapec Dox liquid medium for further studies. It was observed that the fresh and dry weights of fungal mycellial mat significantly increased with time. In addition, fungal growth resulted in a significant change in the pH of the Czapec Dox growth medium over a period of 35 days and gradually increased from 6.5 in the control medium to 8.4. The fungal toxin was extracted from the growth medium and used to treat cell suspension of a red rot resistant sugarcane cultivar HSF-240. The maximum toxin was produced after 28 days of fungal growth in the growth medium which was ascertained by the dry weight of residue obtained from the ethyl actate fractions, as well as percent mortality of sugarcane cells in suspension. The LD50 value (50% cell mortality) of toxin in ethyl acetate (ETA) fraction was 22.03 days while in water it was 30 days. The fungal toxin extracted in ETA fractions was more effective than the one extracted in water. It was mainly due to high solubility and potency of the toxin in ETA than in water. In general, the maximum toxicity was noted at the 4th week (28 days) which decreased at 5th and 6th week of mycelial growth. (author)

275

Phylogenetic relationships of Brazilian isolates of Pythium insidiosum based on ITS rDNA and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that is the causative agent of pythiosis. Advances in molecular methods have enabled increased accuracy in the diagnosis of pythiosis, and in studies of the phylogenetic relationships of this oomycete. To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil, and also regarding to other American and Thai isolates, in this study a total of thirty isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil was used and had their ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2 rDNA (ITS) region and the partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase II (COX II) gene sequenced and analyzed. The outgroup consisted of six isolates of other Pythium species and one of Lagenidium giganteum. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and COX II genes were conducted, both individually and in combination, using four different methods: Maximum parsimony (MP); Neighbor-joining (NJ); Maximum likelihood (ML); and Bayesian analysis (BA). Our data supported P. insidiosum as monophyletic in relation to the other Pythium species, and COX II showed that P. insidiosum appears to be subdivided into three major polytomous groups, whose arrangement provides the Thai isolates as paraphyletic in relation to the Brazilian ones. The molecular analyses performed in this study suggest an evolutionary proximity among all American isolates, including the Brazilian and the Central and North America isolates, which were grouped together in a single entirely polytomous clade. The COX II network results presented signals of a recent expansion for the American isolates, probably originated from an Asian invasion source. Here, COX II showed higher levels bias, although it was the source of higher levels of phylogenetic information when compared to ITS. Nevertheless, the two markers chosen for this study proved to be entirely congruent, at least with respect to phylogenetic relationships between different isolates of P. insidiosum. PMID:22483240

Azevedo, M I; Botton, S A; Pereira, D I B; Robe, L J; Jesus, F P K; Mahl, C D; Costa, M M; Alves, S H; Santurio, J M

2012-09-14

276

Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development  

OpenAIRE

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regul...

Souza, G. M.; -a Van-sluys, M.; Vincentz, M.; Silva-filho, M. C.; Menossi, M.

2007-01-01

277

Genetic diversity among sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) varieties using molecular markers  

OpenAIRE

The genetic base of today's sugarcane cultivars appears to be narrow and could be the reason for current slow progress in improving sugarcane crops. Sixty-three primer pairs (producing 263 polymorphic fragments) flanking simple sequence repeats or micro-satellites were used for assessing the genetic variability of five S. officinarum clones and 33 sugarcane cultivars used in CENICAÑA breeding projects, selected for their economic and agronomic im-portance in several Central and South-America...

Riascos, John J.; Victoria, Jorge I.; Fernando Angel

2007-01-01

278

De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties  

OpenAIRE

Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to...

Cardoso-silva, Claudio Benicio; Costa, Estela Araujo; Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

2014-01-01

279

Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment  

OpenAIRE

Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3). Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch e...

MUHADIONO; BAMBANG PRAMUDYA; RIZAL SYARIEF; Sutowo Latief, A.

2010-01-01

280

Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy  

OpenAIRE

The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transfo...

Marc Souris; Masahiko Nagai; Poonsak Miphokasap; Kiyoshi Honda; Chaichoke Vaiphasa

2012-01-01

281

Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between suga...

Rokhsar Daniel S; Van Sluys Marie-Anne; Bowers John; Wiley Graham; Najar Fares; Chen Cuixia; Tang Haibao; Murray Jan E; Yu Qingyi; Macmil Simone; Roe Bruce; Wang Jianping; Hudson Matthew E; Moose Stephen P; Paterson Andrew H

2010-01-01

282

Main trends on sustainability of sugarcane production systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter concerns with the development of sustainability concepts, bio fuels and sustainability, trends in the sustainability of sugarcane based production processes, cane production, and cane processing.

Macedo, Isaias C.

2012-07-01

283

Sugarcane Phenological Date Estimation Using Broad-Band Digital Cameras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the agricultural industry, precision farming is the most important task that attracts lots of attentions. The health of the plant depends mostly on the amount of water in its access that can be estimated through vegetation indices. These indices can be extracted from satellite images through Image processing algorithms. The objective of this research was to provide an equation for assessment of the quality of the phenological dates of the sugarcane in Degree-Day (DD which are usually derived using satellite data. Then these calibration equations can be used in the collection of some ground truth data applicable in remote sensing where ever the need arises. A simple way for implementing this task is to develop an algorithm (an equation with which we can (to a limited extent quantify the interaction of light (in the RGB region of spectrum with the plant foliage to have DDs as their outputs. To do this 63 digital photographs were taken in three field campaigns on Sep29, 2006 through Oct1, 2006 from Amirkabir and Dea`bal-Khazaie sugarcane sites located in the south-west of Iran. These photographs included 9 different stages of the sugarcane growth and bare soil. It was found that on the average, the effect of dust on the leaves is an increase in DN values of about 9, 8 and 13 for bands red, green and blue respectively. To find an algorithm for determination of plant phenological date four different methods were used. These were Rectangular Method (RM, Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM, Thresholding Method (TM and Hybrid Method (HM. To test the ability of different methods in the prediction of plants DDs, three photographs with known DDs and vegetation cover percentage were used. Entering these predicted DDs and true values in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the degree of significance level of the predicted value of each method was evaluated. As a result MLM with R2 of 0.987 and TM method with R2 of 0.989 both with significance level of 0.827 were the best methods for estimation of phenological date using broadband digital cameras.

Mobasheri M. Chahardoli

2008-01-01

284

Population dynamics of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown in closed systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foot and root rot in cucumber, caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., is an economically important disease in soilless culture systems. Nevertheless, very few data are available on the populations of this pathogen. Therefore, two detection methods, nested PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and plating on a selective medium after concentration of samples, were optimised and evaluated. With both methods very low concentrations of P. aphanidermatum could be detected; i.e. the detection limits were around 0.05 CFU/ml nutrient solution. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR using a Molecular Beacon probe was designed and tested. The potential and limitations of the different detection methods are discussed. With these different detection techniques, the population dynamics of P. aphanidermatum in a cucumber crop was followed. The impact of different disinfection treatments was studied in a greenhouse experiment with a cucumber crop growing on rockwool slabs in 12 independent closed systems. The nutrient solution was recirculated without disinfection (control), after UV-irradiation (250 mJ/cm2), or after slow sand filtration treatment. Part of the crop was inoculated with an isolate of P. aphanidermatum. The non-inoculated part could only become infected through the recirculated nutrient solution. Disease symptoms (stem rot, wilt, and root rot) and the yield loss were recorded in addition to the population dynamics of the pathogen. Very clear differences in the spread of the pathogen and in disease symptoms were measured between the systems with and without disinfection. UV-irradiation and slow sand filtration were both effective in removing the pathogen and protected the crop from disease symptoms. Correlation indices between the final yield and the different measurements during the experiment were calculated. PMID:12425020

Postma, J; Bonants, P J; Van Os, E A

2001-01-01

285

Identification of Emerging Human-Pathogenic Pythium insidiosum by Serological and Molecular Assay-Based Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is a pathogen that causes disease in both animals and humans. Human infection is rare; however, when it does occur, most patients, especially those having underlying hemoglobinopathy syndromes, such as thalassemia, exhibit a severe form. We identified four isolates of P. insidiosum. Two were recovered from tissue biopsy specimens from thalassemic and leukemic patients, one was derived from brain tissue from a thalassemic patient, and another was isolated from a corneal ulcer from a fourth patient. Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed with a serum sample derived from one thalassemic patient. The methods used to identify the P. insidiosum isolates were based on morphology, nucleic acid sequencing, and a PCR assay. To confirm the identification, portions of the 18S rRNA genes of these four isolates were sequenced. The sequences were shown to be homologous to previously described P. insidiosum DNA sequences. In addition, PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region specific for P. insidiosum was positive for all four isolates. The ELISA with the serum sample from the thalassemic patient gave a positive result from a serum dilution of 1:800. Finally, Western immunoblotting with this serum sample showed positive immunoglobulin G recognition for proteins of 110, 73, 56, 42 to 35, 30 to 28, 26, and 23 kDa. The results of this study show that both molecularly based diagnostic and serodiagnostic techniques are useful for the rapid identification of human pythiosis. The predominant antigens recognized by Western blotting may be useful in the development of a more sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for this disease. PMID:15364977

Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Supabandhu, Jitwadee; Khamwan, Chantana; Praparattanapan, Jutarut; Thirach, Sophit; Prasertwitayakij, Narawudt; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Chiewchanvit, Siri; Tananuvat, Napaporn

2004-01-01

286

Expressed sequence tags reveal genetic diversity and putative virulence factors of the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oomycetes are unique eukaryotic microorganisms that share a mycelial morphology with fungi. Many oomycetes are pathogenic to plants, and a more limited number are pathogenic to animals. Pythium insidiosum is the only oomycete that is capable of infecting both humans and animals, and causes a life-threatening infectious disease, called "pythiosis". In the majority of pythiosis patients life-long handicaps result from the inevitable radical excision of infected organs, and many die from advanced infection. Better understanding P. insidiosum pathogenesis at molecular levels could lead to new forms of treatment. Genetic and genomic information is lacking for P. insidiosum, so we have undertaken an expressed sequence tag (EST) study, and report on the first dataset of 486 ESTs, assembled into 217 unigenes. Of these, 144 had significant sequence similarity with known genes, including 47 with ribosomal protein homology. Potential virulence factors included genes involved in antioxidation, thermal adaptation, immunomodulation, and iron and sterol binding. Effectors resembling pathogenicity factors of plant-pathogenic oomycetes were also discovered, such as, a CBEL-like protein (possible involvement in host cell adhesion and hemagglutination), a putative RXLR effector (possibly involved in host cell modulation) and elicitin-like (ELL) proteins. Phylogenetic analysis mapped P. insidiosum ELLs to several novel clades of oomycete elicitins (ELIs), and homology modeling predicted that P. insidiosum ELLs should bind sterols. Most of the P. insidiosum ESTs showed homology to sequences in the genome or EST databases of other oomycetes, but one putative gene, with unknown function, was found to be unique to P. insidiosum. The EST dataset reported here represents the first steps in identifying genes of P. insidiosum and beginning transcriptome analysis. This genetic information will facilitate understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of this devastating pathogen. PMID:21724174

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Petchthong, Thanom; Yingyong, Wanta; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Smittipat, Nat; Juthayothin, Tada; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Sullivan, Thomas D

2011-07-01

287

Utilisation of Carbon Sources by Pythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium Species as Determined by Biolog® Microplate Assay  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the metabolic activity of pure cultures of five root pathogens commonly found in closed hydroponic cultivation systems (Phytophthora cryptogea (PC), Phytophthora capsici (PCP), Pythium aphanidermatum (PA), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) and Fusarium solani (FS)) using sole carbon source utilisation in order to develop effective biocontrol strategies against these pathogens. Aliquots of 150 µL of the mycelial suspension were inoculated in each well of GN2 microtitre plates. On the basis of average well colour development and number of positive wells, the pathogens were divided into two groups, (i) PA and FORL and (ii) PC, PCP and FS. Group (i) was characterised by a short lag-phase, a rapid exponential phase involving almost all carbon sources offered and a long stationary phase, while group (ii) had a more extended lag-phase and a slower utilisation rate of the carbon sources offered. The three isolates in group (ii) differed significantly during their exponential phase. The lowest utilisation rate of carbon sources and number of sources utilised was found for PCP. Of the major group of carbon sources, six carbohydrates, three carboxylic acids and four amino acids were rapidly used by all isolates tested at an early stage. The carbon sources gentibiose, ?-D-glucose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-proline persisted to the end of the exponential phase.Moreover, similarities between the metabolic profiles of the tested pathogen and the those of the resident microflora could also be found. These findings are of great importance as regards the role of the resident microflora in the biocontrol. PMID:19294012

Khalil, Sammar; Alsanius, Beatrix W

2009-01-01

288

Quantitative genetics of sugarcane : II. Correlation analysis of continuous characters in relation to hybrid sugarcane breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. A study has been made of the genetic, clonal and environmental correlations existing among commercially important characters in a sugarcane breeding population of interspecific hybrid origin. 2. In general, there is a close correspondence between genetic correlation coefficients measuring the extent of association at the level of family means, and clonal correlations measuring genotypic relationships at the level of clone means. Greater weight has therefore been given to the numerical estimates of the clonal correlations, in view of their greater accuracy, and the possibility that atypical family groups may unduly influence the genetic correlations. 3. Many significant environmental correlations, generally of a low order of magnitude, have been detected. These have been found to fall naturally into a pattern based on the operation of factors causing differences from plot-to-plot in either growth rate or the process of ripening. 4. A wide variety of genetic relationships cannot be explained in terms of these same two physiological processes. The signs of the clonal correlation coefficients for these particular associations fall very clearly into a pattern identical with that distinguishing the wild species from Saccharum officinarum. 5. The cytological basis for this partial retention of original parent species associations is almost certainly the segregation of whole chromosomes from the wild species as intact units, with little possibility of gene exchange or recombination with chromosomes from S. officinarum. 6. The magnitudes of the observed clonal correlations in general indicate ample scope for independent genetic manipulation of traits from wild and noble canes, provided selection pressure is maintained on all those of commercial importance. However, the interrelationships involving number of stalks per plot, stalk cross-sectional area and fibre percent fresh weight, are somewhat more restrictive. 7. Attention is drawn to the need for a more extensive sampling of the genetic variation available within the wild species S. spontaneum, S. robustum and S. sinense. PMID:24435213

Brown, A H; Daniels, J; Latter, B D

1969-01-01

289

Crescimento e produção de taro 'Chinês' influenciados por tipos de mudas e camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar / Plant growth and yield of 'Chinês' corms taro influenced by propagation methods and sugar-cane mulch  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos consecutivos, numa mesma área, em Viçosa (MG), de 19/11/1997 a 08/08/1998 (experimento I) e de 01/09/1998 a 06/06/1999 (experimento II), com o taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928). Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7 (tipos de [...] mudas x camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar), com três repetições. No experimento I avaliaram-se os efeitos de quatro tipos de mudas (rizoma-mãe e rizomas filhos grande, médio e pequeno, com 80; 55; 35 e 20 g de massa fresca média, respectivamente) e sete espessuras de camadas de bagaço em cobertura (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 cm). No experimento II avaliou-se o efeito residual das camadas de bagaço utilizadas no experimento I, mantendo-se os mesmos tipos de mudas, com massas semelhantes. Avaliaram-se o estande e altura de plantas, índice de área foliar (IAF) e produção final de classes de rizomas. Menores estandes foram obtidos no experimento I e para o tipo de muda filho pequeno, principalmente na ausência de bagaço. Mudas com maior massa e camadas intermediárias de bagaço proporcionaram plantas mais vigorosas e com maiores valores de IAF. Não houve interação entre camadas de bagaço e tipos de mudas, para produção de rizomas, em ambos experimentos. No experimento I verificou-se efeito significativo para ambos os fatores, isoladamente, com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis obtidas para o tipo de muda rizomas-mãe, seguido de filho grande, e camada de bagaço entre 16,4 a 17,4 cm de espessura. No experimento II houve efeito apenas de tipos de mudas com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis para as mudas tipos rizoma-mãe e filho grande. Abstract in english Two consecutive experiments were carried out, in the same area, from 11/19/1997 to 08/08/1998 (experiment I) and from 09/01/1998 to 06/06/1999 (experiment II), with taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928). The experiments consisted of 28 treatments, in a randomized complete block design, arranged in a factorial 4 [...] x 7 (types of seedlings x layers of sugar-cane mulch), with three repetitions. In experiment I the effect of four types of seedlings were evaluated (corm and comels large, medium and small, with 80; 55; 35 and 20 g of medium fresh mass, respectively) and seven thickness of mulch layers on covering (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 and 24 cm). In experiment II the residual effect of the mulch layers used in experiment I was evaluated, the same types of seedlings staying with similar masses. The stand and height of plants, leaf area index (LAI) and final corm yield and classes of cormels were evaluated. Smaller stands were obtained in experiment I and for the type of seedling graded as small cormel, mainly in the absence of mulch. Seedlings with larger masses and intermediate layers of mulch provided more vigorous plants and with higher values of LAI. There was no interaction between mulch layers x types of seedlings, for yield of corm and cormels, in both experiments. In experiment I significant effect was verified for both factors, separately, with larger yield of total and commercial cormels obtained for the type seedling corm (head), followed by large cormel, and mulch layer from 16.4 to 17.4 cm of thickness. In experiment II, an evident effect of types of seedlings with larger yield of total and commercial cormels for the seedlings types corm and large cormel was observed.

Mário, Puiatti; Francisco H.F., Pereira; Leonardo Angelo, Aquino.

2004-12-01

290

Solar UV-B Radiation Inhibits the Growth of Antarctic Terrestrial Fungi  

OpenAIRE

We tested the effects of solar radiation, and UV-B in particular, on the growth of Antarctic terrestrial fungi. The growth responses to solar radiation of five fungi, Geomyces pannorum, Phoma herbarum, Pythium sp., Verticillium sp., and Mortierella parvispora, each isolated from Antarctic terrestrial habitats, were examined on an agar medium in the natural Antarctic environment. A 3-h exposure to solar radiation of >287 nm reduced the hyphal extension rates of all species relative to controls...

Hughes, Kevin A.; Lawley, Blair; Newsham, Kevin K.

2003-01-01

291

TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

2012-06-01

292

Contribución al conocimiento de la relación biológica entre Pythium sp. y raíces y nódulos radicales de Alnus acuminata H.B.K  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En los alrededores del embalse del Neusa (Cundinamarcal, se encontró un hongo del género Pythium asociado frecuentemente a los nódulos radicales del Aliso (Alnus acuminata, especie nativa de gran importancia en programas de reforestación, protección de cuencas y sistemas silviculturales, debido a su rápido crecimiento y al efecto mejorado que ejerce sobre las caracter ísticas nutricionales del suelo. La presente investigación tuvo por objeto conocer algunos aspectos de la relación biológica de Pythium sp, asociado a las raíces y nódulos radicales de Alnus acuminata. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar,
con tres repeticiones. Para evaluar la relación se inocularon
plántulas de Aliso con una combinación de cuatro dosis del hongo Pvthium y cuatro dosis del Actinornvcete. La respuesta a los tratamientos fue registrada a los 20, 30, 40 y 60 días de inoculadas, mediante la determinación de peso seco, altura, número de hojas e infección radical de Alnus acuminata.
Los resultados mostraron que el hongo asociado a los nódulos de Pythium silveticum y que las dosis altas de este inóculo
causaron la muerte de las plántulas y las dosis menores disminuyeron peso seco, altura y número de hojas por planta. En la interacción del Actinomycete y el hongo, la presencia del primero disminuyó el efecto patogénico de Pythium silvaticum.

Moncada María Amelia

1987-12-01

293

MUTATION OF A DEGS HOMOLOG IN ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE DECREASES SEED AND ROOT COLONIZATION BUT DOES NOT AFFECT BIOCONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF CAUSED BY PYTHIUM ULTIMUM ON CUCUMBER  

Science.gov (United States)

Strains of Enterobacter cloacae show promise as biocontrol agents for Pythium ultimum-induced damping-off on cucumber and other crops. E. cloacae strain C10 is a mini-Tn5 Km transposon mutant of strain 501R3. Strain C10 was reduced in colonization of cucumber, sunflower, and pea seeds, but unaffecte...

294

Evaluation of seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum on cucumber seeds against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated on cucumber seeds to control pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum in greenhouse studies. Results showed that coating formulation H reduced the disease incidence significantly, and had the potential for commer...

295

Development of SCAR markers and PCR assays for single or simultaneous species-specific detection of Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides in ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides are important water-borne oomycete pathogens of irrigated ornamentals particularly ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe in Japan. We developed novel PCR-based sequence characterized amplified region markers and assays for rapid identification and species-specific detection of both pathogens in separate PCR reactions or simultaneously in a duplex PCR. PMID:20826191

Ahonsi, Monday O; Ling, Yin; Kageyama, Koji

2010-11-01

296

Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community  

OpenAIRE

Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indo...

Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang; Iván David Trujillo Cerón; Yaremis Felipe Bringas

2007-01-01

297

Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sugarcane  

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Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis was studied in sugarcane cultivars CPF-237 and SPF-213. Explants used were leaves, lateral buds and pith. MS medium along with NAA and 2,4-D in various concentrations were used and it was observed that 1.0 mg NAA and 3-mg/l 2,4-D was optimal for embryogenesis. Leaf portion showed maximum embryogenesis and proved a better explant source than pith.

Farheen Niaz

2002-01-01

298

Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sugarcane  

OpenAIRE

Somatic embryogenesis was studied in sugarcane cultivars CPF-237 and SPF-213. Explants used were leaves, lateral buds and pith. MS medium along with NAA and 2,4-D in various concentrations were used and it was observed that 1.0 mg NAA and 3-mg/l 2,4-D was optimal for embryogenesis. Leaf portion showed maximum embryogenesis and proved a better explant source than pith.

Farheen Niaz; Azra Quraishi

2002-01-01

299

Development of salt tolerant potato and sugarcane through in vitro techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improvement of sugarcane and potato in Pakistan is hampered by their intricate flowering behavior under natural day-length conditions. The improvement of these crops for their salt tolerance can be carried out by tissue culture mediated techniques. To induce variation in sugarcane, five-week old white yellow nodular embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5, 20, 40 and 60 Gy gamma rays. After one month, the calli were cultured on regeneration media, and plant hardening procedures were optimized. Irradiated and non-irradiated calli were subjected to various levels of salt stress and plant regeneration was investigated. Although growth of sugarcane calli was observed at 200 mM NaCl, regeneration was inhibited even at 50 mM NaCl in the medium. The regenerants from gamma irradiated material are under field evaluation. Variation was detected in both irradiated and salt treated calli by DNA fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In potato, 6-7 weeks old in vitro grown plants with single shoots having 8-10 buds were irradiated with 20 Gy gamma rays. Shoot formation was successful only from 50% of the axillary buds. The cultures were subjected to four levels of salinity (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM Nacl). Shoot-tip necrosis was observed along with significant reduction in shoot height. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

300

Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island  

Science.gov (United States)

Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

2006-01-01

301

In vitro generation of somaclonal variant plants of sugarcane for tolerance to Fusarium sacchari.  

Science.gov (United States)

KEY MESSAGE : A combination of in vitro culture and mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) followed by culture filtrate-mediated selection produced variant sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to Fusarium sacchari. Eldana saccharina is a destructive pest of the sugarcane crop in South Africa. Fusarium sacchari PNG40 (a fungal strain harmful to E. saccharina) has the potential to be an endophytic biological control agent of the stalk borer. However, the fungus causes Fusarium stalk rot in sugarcane. In the current study, sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to F. sacchari PNG40 were produced by exposing embryogenic calli to the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), followed by in vitro selection during somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration on media containing F. sacchari culture filtrates (CF). The incorporation of 100 ppm CF in the culture media at the embryo maturation stage, at germination, or at both, resulted in callus necrosis and consequent reduced plantlet yield. Subsequent trimming of the roots of regenerated plants and their exposure to 1,500 ppm CF served as a further selection treatment. Plants produced from EMS-treated calli displayed improved root re-growth in the presence of CF pressure compared with those from non-treated calli. The tolerance of CF-selected plants was confirmed in greenhouse tests by inoculation with F. sacchari PNG40, re-isolation of Fusarium spp. from undamaged tissue of asymptomatic plants and establishment of the identity of fungal isolates as PNG40 using molecular analysis. The restriction of PNG40 presence to the inoculation lesion in some plants suggested their resistance to the fungus. Genotypes exhibiting symptomless endophytic colonization by PNG40 were identified and will be utilised for testing biological control strategies against E. saccharina. PMID:23090725

Mahlanza, Tendekai; Rutherford, R Stuart; Snyman, Sandy J; Watt, M Paula

2013-02-01

302

New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioproce [...] sses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.

Debora Danielle Virginio da, Silva; Elisangela de Jesus, Cândido; Priscila Vaz de, Arruda; Silvio Silvério da, Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida, Felipe.

1469-14-01

303

Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes ?-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control) or with L. buchneri at a theoretical ap [...] plication rate of 5 × 10(4) cfu/g, 1 × 10(5) cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5) cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo) and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 Charolais × Nellore) were housed in 20 collective pens and fed diets comprising (dry matter [DM] basis) 458 g/kg sugarcane silage and 542 g/kg concentrates for an 84-d period. Treated silages had higher concentrations of acetic acid and lower concentrations of ethanol. Total mixed rations (TMR) containing inoculated silages exhibited significantly lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and, consequently, higher in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD). Thus, animals fed TMR containing treated silages spent less time chewing per day and per kilogram of DM intake (DMI), even at higher DMI levels. Nonetheless, the intake of NDF was similar across treatments (0.77 to 0.79 kg/100 kg BW) but markedly lower than the value reported for traditional forages. Average daily gain was significantly greater for animals fed TMR based on inoculated silages due to the higher DMI (14% on average) and the higher energy content of the diets, as indicated by the higher feed efficiency (12% on average). The dose of inoculants used and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes had no significant effects on silage parameters or animal performance. Therefore, inoculation of L. buchneri during sugarcane ensilage can alter the fermentation pattern by increasing acetic acid yield, reducing silage nutrient losses, and improving feed efficiency by bulls.

Patrick, Schmidt; Luiz Gustavo, Nussio; Oscar Cézar Müller, Queiroz; Mateus Castilho, Santos; Maity, Zopollatto; Sérgio Gil de, Toledo Filho; João Luiz Pratti, Daniel.

2014-01-01

304

Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties  

Science.gov (United States)

Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties Currently, there is a shift world-wide from the harvesting of burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane. With increased pressure from public and environmental agencies to further restrict or curtail burning in the U.S. and many ...

305

Seeking Traits that Identify Productive Sugarcane Varieties for Sand Soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical Abstract: Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objective of this study is to determine if there are easily measured traits of sugarcane that can help determine if a genotype will be productive on...

306

HOW MUCH HAS RECURRENT SELECTION INCREASED SUCROSE YIELD IN SUGARCANE?  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial sugarcane cultivars are complex, polyploid, interspecific hybrids, primarily of S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Most breeding programs need about twelve years to develop a new cultivar. Since the 1920's, Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used recurrent selection to improve sucr...

307

Independently segregating simple sequence repeats (SSR) alleles in polyploid sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex nuclear genomic and flower structures of sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum hybrids spp., 2n = 10x = 100 – 130) render sugarcane a difficult subject for genetics research. Using a capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-labeling-based SSR genotyping platform, the segregation of a multi-a...

308

Morphological responses of sugarcane to long-term flooding  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to intense summer rainfall or tropical storm events. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adapta...

309

DIVERSITY AMONG MAINLAND USA SUGARCANE CULTIVARS EXAMINED BY SSR GENOTYPING  

Science.gov (United States)

SSR’s have been effective in examining diversity to improve plant breeding strategies however, the identification of useful SSR’s is critical and can be difficult especially in the complex sugarcane genome. Diversity among the cultivars grown and used for the sugarcane breeding programs of Florida, ...

310

Sugarcane yield and morphological responses to long-term flooding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane in south Florida is often subjected to flooding in the summer months or following hurricanes. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adaptation and yield response to l...

311

Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

312

Repeatability of Sugarcane Selection on Sand and Organic Soils  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canal Point (CP) Sugarcane Cultivar Development Program (a cooperative program between the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida and the Florida Sugarcane League) has been more successful at breeding for cultivars adapted to organic soils (muck) than for those adapted to sand soils. Currently, onl...

313

Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood  

Science.gov (United States)

Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

314

DNA profiling of sugarcane genotypes using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA profiles of 40 sugarcane genotypes were constructed with 30 RAPD markers. Sugarcane genotypes of both Saccharum officinarum and S. barberi were included in this study. Multiple alleles were detected from each RAPD; there was a high level of polymorphism. On average, 7.93 alleles were produced per primer, giving a total of 238 alleles. The genetic distances between these genotypes were assessed with the POPGENE DNA sequence analysis software. A dendrogram was constructed from these data; cultivated species of sugarcane formed clusters with S. barberi genotypes. The 40 genotypes were clustered into two main groups; genetic distances ranged from 20.29 to 64.66%. These RAPD fingerprints will help sugarcane breeders to evaluate the efficiency of current conventional breeding methods and will help characterize the genetic pedigree of commercial sugarcane varieties. These data will also be valuable for conservation and utilization of the genetic resources in germplasm collections. PMID:20391332

Tabasum, S; Khan, F A; Nawaz, S; Iqbal, M Z; Saeed, A

2010-01-01

315

Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism  

OpenAIRE

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information conten...

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

316

Sugarcane (Saccharum X officinarum): A Reference Study for the Regulation of Genetically Modified Cultivars in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Global interest in sugarcane has increased significantly in recent years due to its economic impact on sustainable energy production. Sugarcane breeding and better agronomic practices have contributed to a huge increase in sugarcane yield in the last 30 years. Additional increases in sugarcane yield are expected to result from the use of biotechnology tools in the near future. Genetically modified (GM) sugarcane that incorporates genes to increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses co...

Cheavegatti-gianotto, Adriana; Abreu, Hellen Mari?lia Couto; Arruda, Paulo; Bespalhok Filho, Joa?o Carlos; Burnquist, William Lee; Creste, Silvana; Di Ciero, Luciana; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Oliveira Figueira, Anto?nio Vargas; Sousa Filgueiras, Tarciso; Grossi-de-sa?, Ma?ria Fa?tima; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Hoffmann, Hermann Paulo; Andrade Landell, Marcos Guimara?es; Macedo, Newton

2011-01-01

317

Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse  

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Full Text Available Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II. The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4, 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comprising of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI. All the four strains grew best at pH 7 and 37°C. Aeration was not required for these bacterial strains. 5% inocula sizes were found optimum for the bacterial isolates except strain No. 23, which yielded best growth with 10% inoculum. After 2nd day of incubation in M-IV medium the bacteria liberated upto 8033 mg/100 mL of total sugar content, which showed reduction in subsequent sampling periods. On the other hand glucose content showed variable response to incubation periods. The strain 11a expressed 1411 mg/100 mL of glucose at 10th day while isolate No. 23 yielded 808 mg/100 mL glucose at 18th day of incubation. Fermentation by ethanologenic yeast of culture fluids saccharification by the isolate 194 and 23 expressed about 0.2 and 1.2% ethanol on 3rd and 7th days, respectively. The bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus cereus based upon their chemical characterization. These isolates appear potential candidates for saccharifying the sugarcane bagasse and production of ethanol employing ethanologenic yeast.

Naureen Chaudhary

2006-01-01

318

A search for markers of sugarcane evolution  

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Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres informativos para parcimônia e à homoplasia presentes na região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, não foi possível determinar com segurança a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e alguns dos demais membros da tribo Saccharine. Como alternativa para esta baixa resolução, dezessete regiões gênicas nucleares, cloroplasmáticas ou mitocondriais foram selecionadas a partir do banco de dados SUCEST com o objetivo de encontrar marcadores mais apropriados para a reconstrução da filogenia da cana-de-açúcar. Entre elas, aquelas correspondentes à alfa-tubulina, rpl16, e rpoC2 apresentaram baixa incidência de polimorfismo e taxas de evolução equivalentes ou mesmo maiores do que a observada para a região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2. Estes marcadores são propostos como preferenciais para estudos filogenéticos da subtribo Saccharinae.

M. Bacci Jr.

2001-12-01

319

Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane  

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Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes relacionados ao metabolismo secundário da cana de açúcar e investigar o padrão de expressão gênica de enzimas chaves reguladoras das principais vias biossintéticas ativas nos diferentes tipos de tecidos e situações de estresse físico-químico e biológico a que estão submetidas plantas cultivadas em casas de vegetação, campo ou in vitro. A estratégia de mineração dos dados da database de sequências expressas de cana de açúcar, SUCEST, usando ferramentas de bioinformática, focalizou classes de compostos como isoprenóides e fenilpropanóides que comprovadamente desempenham um papel na resposta de plantas a variações ambientais. Foram identificados e caracterizados genes que codificam enzimas chaves para a síntese de terpenóides, como a sesquiterpeno ciclase (SC; (CHS para síntese de flavonóides; isoflavona sintase (IFS envolvida na biossíntese de isoflavonóides que desempenharm importante papel na defesa de plantas e nodulação de raízes; isoflavona redutases (IFR enzimas chaves para a síntese de fenilpropanóide fitoalexinas, bem como enzimas relacionadas à síntese de precursores de lignina, como a enzima ácido caféico- O- metiltransferase. O efeito do estresse causado por bactérias como Herbaspirillum rubri e Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans também foi avaliado tendo sido constatada a indução da expressão de chalcona sintase (CHS em plântulas infectadas com esses agentes, sugerindo a ativação da via de flavonóides em resposta a este estresse biológico. Esses resultados apontam para o fato de que as vias do metabolismo de isopropanóides e de fenilpropanóides em cana de açúcar são ativadas de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento, especificidade de tecidos e em resposta a situações de estresse. Essas observações deverão ser confirmadas por meio de experimentação genética e bioquímica.

S.C. França

2001-12-01

320

Genetic diversity analysis of sugarcane ( Saccharum sp. clones using simple sequence repeat markers of sugarcane and rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Molecular markers are powerful tools, which help in differentiating plant varieties at the DNA level and have been widelyused for genetic diversity studies in a number of crop species'. Understanding the genetic diversity of available clones of S.officinarum and S. spontaneum will be helpful in breeding programs. In the present study, a set of 48 sugarcane clones fromNational Hybridization Garden, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore was subjected to genetic diversity analysisinvolving 40 SSR markers of sugarcane and rice. SSR analysis involving a set of 20 sugarcane and 20 rice primer pairsgenerated 147 and 114 markers with average polymorphism information content (PIC value of 0.665 and 0.532respectively. Cluster analysis using rice marker across 48 genotypes revealed two major clusters with ISH 23 remaining adeviant from the rest of the cultivars. Cluster analysis based on sugarcane SSR markers were found to be more or lesssimilar to that based on rice SSR markers showing minor difference in grouping. Hence, similar results obtained forcharacterizing the sugarcane clones by using SSR markers from sugarcane and rice reveal that markers with betterdiscriminating power from other cereals can bring out better characterization of sugarcane clones.

G.Banumathi , V.Krishnasamy, M.Maheswaran, R.Samiyappan, P.Govindaraj and N.Kumaravadivel

2010-07-01

321

The latest progress in sugarcane molecular genetics research at the USDA-ARS, Sugarcane Research Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2005, two sugar molecular genetics tools were developed in the USDA-ARS, Southeast Area, Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, LA. One is the high throughput fluorescence- and capillary electrophoregrams (CE)-based SSR genotyping tool and the other is single pollen collection and SSR genotyping...

322

The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane  

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Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.

Souza Glaucia Mendes

2001-01-01

323

Characterization and genetic diversity of sugarcane streak mosaic virus causing mosaic in sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-three sugarcane leaf samples were collected from fifty-eight sugarcane varieties, evolved from eleven major sugarcane growing states in India, Australia, South Africa and USA. In RT-PCR, using gene specific primers for sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV)-CP, 58 of 63 sugarcane samples were found positive to the virus infection and rest of the five samples were negative. Partial CP gene sequences of 42 SCSMV isolates including an isolate from aphid colony (Melanaphis indosacchari) infested on sugarcane variety from this study were characterized after cloning and sequencing for selective isolates represented by at least one isolate from each location. The new sequences identified in the study were named as SCSMV-CB isolates. Fifty two sequences including the 10 database sequences (complete CP cds) deposited earlier from this institute were compared with each other as well as GenBank database sequences of Potyviridae members viz., Rymovirus, Potyvirus, Ipomovirus, Tritimovirus and eight sequences of SCSMV reported from elsewhere. Among the SCSMV-CB isolates sequenced in the study, 85.7-100% (nucleotide) and 89.9-100% (amino acid) sequence identities were observed and with the other data base sequences of SCSMV, the respective identities were 82.2-97.5 and 89.7-98.6%. Grouping of the isolates by the maximum likelihood with molecular clock model, distributed 60 SCSMV sequences including the eight database sequences deposited by other SCSMV working groups from India and USA in 16 different phylogenetic groups. Although the isolates of SCSMV were relatively close to Ipomovirus and Tritimovirus, they were sandwiched between Rymovirus and Ipomovirus. The sequence comparison and phylogenetic studies revealed that the relatedness of SCSMV with the potyviral related genera was comparatively low to consider it as a member of earlier described potyviral genera, hence the genus "Susmovirus" (sugarcane streak mosaic virus) has been proposed, with SCSMV as the sole species to be included. The 52 SCSMV-CB isolates from this institute were distributed in 14 phylogenetic groups and the grouping pattern revealed that the virus isolates could not be grouped based on geographical origin of the host varieties or longevity of the host variety. PMID:18427969

Viswanathan, R; Balamuralikrishnan, M; Karuppaiah, R

2008-06-01

324

Cross-Polarized Magic-Angle Spinning (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Relative to Culturable Bacterial Species Composition and Sustained Biological Control of Pythium Root Rot  

OpenAIRE

We report the use of a model system that examines the dynamics of biological energy availability in organic matter in a sphagnum peat potting mix critical to sustenance of microorganism-mediated biological control of pythium root rot, a soilborne plant disease caused by Pythium ultimum. The concentration of readily degradable carbohydrate in the peat, mostly present as cellulose, was characterized by cross-polarized magic-angle spinning (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A decr...

Boehm, M. J.; Wu, T.; Stone, A. G.; Kraakman, B.; Iannotti, D. A.; Wilson, G. E.; Madden, L. V.; Hoitink, H.

1997-01-01

325

Genetic improvement of sugarcane for drought and salinity stress tolerance using Arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane plant is a glycophyte, hence its growth and sucrose contents are severely affected by drought and salinity stresses. Bioengineering approaches offer a plausible and rapid solution to mitigate these losses. Therefore for genetic improvement of sugarcane against these stresses, the present study was conceived to transform Arabidopsis Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene--confers tolerance against drought and salinity--into sugarcane through Agrobacterium. For this purpose, highly regenerable apical buds of sugarcane variety CP77-400 were used as explants. EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium harboring pGreen0029 vector containing AVP1 gene driven under 35SCaMV promoter was employed for transformation. The key factors studied include application of acetosyringone, cefotaxime, kanamycin, and co-cultivation period for successful transformation. Maximum regeneration frequency of 77.5 % was achieved on MS media containing 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l Kn, 1 mg/l GA?, 0.25 mg/l NAA, 50 ?M acetosyringone, 500 mg/l cefotaxime, and 150 mg/l kanamycin on 3 days of co-cultivation. The results revealed that apical buds are distinctive viable tissues for sugarcane transformation and regeneration to produce a large number of CP77-400 transgenic plants in shorter period of time without intervening mosaics and chimeras. The AVP1 transcripts expression in transgenic lines at various levels was detected by RT-PCR. Longer and profuse root system was observed in transgenic plants in comparison with control plants. Concomitantly, only transgenic plants were able to withstand higher NaCl salt stress as well as scarcity of water thus, showing tolerance against salinity and drought stresses. PMID:24002911

Kumar, Tanweer; Uzma; Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Abbas, Zaheer; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad

2014-03-01

326

Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased l...

Taiye Hussein Aliyu; Olusegun Samuel Balogun

2013-01-01

327

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane  

OpenAIRE

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, o...

Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

328

A search for markers of sugarcane evolution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S), com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarca [...] ne Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST). Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres informativos para parcimônia e à homoplasia presentes na região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, não foi possível determinar com segurança a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e alguns dos demais membros da tribo Saccharine. Como alternativa para esta baixa resolução, dezessete regiões gênicas nucleares, cloroplasmáticas ou mitocondriais foram selecionadas a partir do banco de dados SUCEST com o objetivo de encontrar marcadores mais apropriados para a reconstrução da filogenia da cana-de-açúcar. Entre elas, aquelas correspondentes à alfa-tubulina, rpl16, e rpoC2 apresentaram baixa incidência de polimorfismo e taxas de evolução equivalentes ou mesmo maiores do que a observada para a região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2. Estes marcadores são propostos como preferenciais para estudos filogenéticos da subtribo Saccharinae. Abstract in english To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA) region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag ( [...] SUCEST) genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial) from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16) and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2) were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.

M., Bacci Jr.; V.F.O., Miranda; V.G., Martins; A.V.O., Figueira; M.V., Lemos; J.O., Pereira; C.L., Marino.

2001-12-01

329

Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

2013-01-01

330

Characterisation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in sugarcane ESTs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are both polyploid and aneuploid with chromosome numbers in excess of 100; these chromosomes can be assigned to 8 homology groups. To determine the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a means of improving our understanding of the complex sugarcane genome, we developed markers to a suite of SNPs identified in a list of sugarcane ESTs. Analysis of 69 EST contigs showed a median of 9 SNPs per EST and an average of 1 SNP per 50 bp of coding sequence. The quantitative presence of each base at 58 SNP loci within 19 contiguous sequence sets was accurately and reliably determined for 9 sugarcane genotypes, including both commercial cultivars and ancestral species, through the use of quantitative light emission technology in pyrophosphate sequencing. Across the 9 genotypes tested, 47 SNP loci were polymorphic and 11 monomorphic. Base frequency at individual SNP loci was found to vary approximately twofold between Australian sugarcane cultivars and more widely between cultivars and wild species. Base quantity was shown to segregate as expected in the IJ76-514 x Q165 sugarcane mapping population, indicating that SNPs that occur on one or two sugarcane chromosomes have the potential to be mapped. The use of SNP base frequencies from five of the developed markers was able to clearly distinguish all genotypes in the population. The use of SNP base frequencies from a further six markers within an EST contig was able to help establish the likely copy number of the locus in two genotypes tested. This is the first instance of a technology that has been able to provide an insight into the copy number of a specific gene locus in hybrid sugarcane. The identification of specific and numerous haplotypes/alleles present in a genotype by pyrophosphate sequencing or alternative techniques ultimately will provide the basis for identifying associations between specific alleles and phenotype and between allele dosage and phenotype in sugarcane. PMID:16791699

Cordeiro, Giovanni M; Eliott, Frances; McIntyre, C Lynne; Casu, Rosanne E; Henry, Robert J

2006-07-01

331

Morphological Characters of Some Exotic Sugarcane Varieties  

OpenAIRE

Six exotic varieties of sugarcane (CP84-1198, CP85-1491, CP88-1165, CP77-400, CP89-846, TCP86-3368) planted at the National Agricultural Research Centre during 1998-99 were described for their morphological characters. All the varieties greatly varied in different characters. Mean leaf length, number of green leaves and width of leaf lamina/blade was different in different varieties. These varieties also differed in leaf sheath colour, carriage, and other leaf characters. Shape of the dewlap,...

Maqbool Akhtar; Nosheen Noor Elahi; Ashraf, M.

2001-01-01

332

The Elicitin-Like Glycoprotein, ELI025, Is Secreted by the Pathogenic Oomycete Pythium insidiosum and Evades Host Antibody Responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is a unique oomycete that can infect humans and animals. Patients with a P. insidiosum infection (pythiosis) have high rates of morbidity and mortality. The pathogen resists conventional antifungal drugs. Information on the biology and pathogenesis of P. insidiosum is limited. Many pathogens secrete proteins, known as effectors, which can affect the host response and promote the infection process. Elicitins are secretory proteins and are found only in the oomycetes, primarily in Phytophthora and Pythium species. In plant-pathogenic oomycetes, elicitins function as pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules, sterol carriers, and plant defense stimulators. Recently, we reported a number of elicitin-encoding genes from the P. insidiosum transcriptome. The function of elicitins during human infections is unknown. One of the P. insidiosum elicitin-encoding genes, ELI025, is highly expressed and up-regulated at body temperature. This study aims to characterize the biochemical, immunological, and genetic properties of the elicitin protein, ELI025. A 12.4-kDa recombinant ELI025 protein (rELI025) was expressed in Escherichia coli. Rabbit anti-rELI025 antibodies reacted strongly with the native ELI025 in P. insidiosum's culture medium. The detected ELI025 had two isoforms: glycosylated and non-glycosylated. ELI025 was not immunoreactive with sera from pythiosis patients. The region near the transcriptional start site of ELI025 contained conserved oomycete core promoter elements. In conclusion, ELI025 is a small, abundant, secreted glycoprotein that evades host antibody responses. ELI025 is a promising candidate for development of diagnostic and therapeutic targets for pythiosis. PMID:25793767

Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Lohnoo, Tassanee; Inkomlue, Ruchuros; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Yingyong, Wanta; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Phaonakrop, Narumon; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Sullivan, Thomas D; Krajaejun, Theerapong

2015-01-01

333

Energy balance optimization of sugarcane crop residual biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents a mathematical model for helping mills choose sugarcane varieties for planting. It maximizes crop residual biomass energy balance by considering the difference between generated and consumed energy in the process of transferring this biomass from the field to the processing center; it takes into account enterprise demand restrictions and cane planting area. For this full zero-one linear programming techniques were proposed. The model is viable for choosing sugarcane varieties that would benefit sugarcane production and industrial systems, by reducing crop residue and increasing final energy production. (author)

Sartori, Maria Marcia Pereira [Department of Production' s Engineer, UNESP, Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Florentino, Helenice de Oliveira [UNESP, Rubiao Junior, Botucatu, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Department of Bio-statistics, Institute of Bio-Sciences

2007-09-15

334

Effects of Every-Other Furrow Irrigation on Water Use Efficiency and Sugarcane Characteristics in Southern Ahvaz Sugarcane Fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugarcane has been cultivated in an extensive area in Khuzestan and irrigated by hydro-flume or siphon and furrow. In a field experiment during 2005-6 at Amir Kabir Agro-Industry, Khuzestan, the effect of every other-furrow irrigation method was studied on sugarcane in regard to irrigation water volume, water use efficiency and quality and quantity of sugarcane. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three irrigation treatments, including conventional method (blank, variable every other furrow(alternative furrow and fixed every other furrow. This experiment was conducted by cv. Cp69-1062 sugarcane. The results showed that water use efficiency rates were 0.41, 0.58 and 0.7 kg/m3 for conventional, fixing furrow and alternative, respectively. However, water use efficiency rates were not significantly different in treatments. It had minimum amount of water use efficiency in every other furrow treatments. Maximum water use efficiency, quality and quantity of sugarcane were obtained every other irrigation. Maximum irrigation water was used in conventional treatment and resulted in minimum irrigation, quality sugarcane and water use efficiency. It produced 14.5 ton/ha sugar for 20604 m3/ha application of irrigation. Sugarcane quality and quantity characteristics in variable treatments, except for length number per hectare, were not significant.

H.A Kashkuli

2009-10-01

335

Root system stabilization of sugarcane fertigated by subsurface drip using a minirhizotron  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the efficiency of water use in irrigation practices and to provide information for modeling the knowledge of plants root system becomes necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies about the root system of sugarcane were performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system, which enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the time required for stabilization of the root system growth of sugarcane cultivar IACSP-5000 around the access tube in which images were captured. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The fertigation was applied by a subsurface drip system.. The soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution were monitored through solution extractor. Two access tubes with 1.05 m length were used, with 7 days difference between installations. The images were captured at 110, 128, 136, 143 and 151 days after harvest cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon), with the Root Scanner CI-600 ™ and were analyzed the number of roots and root length in each layer in different depths in the soil profile by software RootSnap! ™. The results show that the highest rates of increase in the number and length of roots were observed in the first 27 days. Absolute growth rates of up to 81 mm day-1 and 38 mm day-1 were presented in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer respectively. The number of roots stabilized from 27 days after installation of the tube, while the length of the root system stabilized between 30 and 40 days. Root growth was more intense in the first two layers (0 to 0.4 m depth) of soil profile, which presented more than 80% of the total root length after the stabilization.

Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andre Luiz; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

2013-04-01

336

Physical and biological soil attributes due to soil management on sugarcane  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of different crops can improve the physical and biological soil attributes, reducing soil and environmental degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different land uses on the glomalin fractions, total external mycelium and soil aggregation. The experiment was carried out in Brazil (21°14'05'' S and 48°17'09'' W) in eutroferric Red Oxisol (clay content = 700 g kg-1) and acric Oxisol (clay content = 450 g kg-1). The soil was submitted to two soybean growing seasons, with different crops (millet and sunnhemp) between them, during two sugarcane growth interval periods. The experimental design was a randomized block with five replications and four treatments, characterized by different land uses during the interval between two sugarcane growth periods. The land uses were the crops of: soybean, soybean/millet/soybean, soybean/sunnhemp/soybean and soybean/fallow/soybean. Soil samples were taken at the 0 - 0.10 m depth after the first sugarcane harvest. On both soils the glomalin fractions were not influenced by the different land uses. On the eutroferric Red Oxisol, the use soybean/millet/soybean promoted the higher amount of total external mycelium and on the acric Oxisol soybean/fallow/soybean promoted the lower amount. The aggregate stability indexes on both soils types were not affected by the land uses. On the eutroferric Red Oxisol, the aggregate mean weight diameter was not influenced by the different land uses, but on the acric Oxisol, the uses soybean and soybean/millet/soybean promoted the higher values. The results indicated that the effects of plants on amount of total external mycelium and aggregate mean weight diameter of Oxisol are different depend upon the soil texture and soil fertility.

Fernandes, Carolina; Viviane Truber, Priscila; Corá, José Eduardo

2013-04-01

337

Irrigation Water Productivity and Water use Efficiency of Sugarcane Plants under Drought Conditions (Case Study in Farabi Agro-Industry Lands)  

OpenAIRE

This study was aimed to evaluate the productivity and performance indexes of sugarcane biomass` irrigation water use, at its growth different ages in 2009-2010 cropping year, in Farabi agro-industry farms. During this study, based on the age, four farms were selected for each plant. These farms had the highest performance among different ones. Performance rate, plant evapotranspiration, and total quantity of irrigation water were determined during the plant growth period and, based on their a...

Leila Joudi; Shadman Veysi; Faramarz Judy

2011-01-01

338

Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indol acetic (IAA production was detected by Dot-Immunobinding and Salkowski's method. These results show that 19 strains and isolates had nitrogenase activity, values ranging from 100 to SOOO/zg/mL; 6 of them produced IAA (values ranging from 1,7 to 2,5 //g/mL: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl-5, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 1-05, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 4-02,17,30 and 305. It was demonstrated that culture medium nutrient sources and pH affected the nitrogenase activity of the strains representing the endophytic community. Key words: endophytic community, sugarcane, nitrogenase activity, indolacetic acid.

Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang

2007-02-01

339

In vitro Propagation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in order to micropropagate sugarcane cultivars through shoot tip and auxilliary bud culture. Rinsing of four cultivars of sugarcane, namely CP-48-103, CP-57-614, CP-69-1062, and NCO-310 in 75% alcohol for 60 seconds and their subsequent disinfection with sodium and calcium hypochloride (1.5% active material for 15 minutes decreased a significant amount of infection of explants in the medium. The use of the Murashing and Skoog (MS solid and liquid medium with 1 mg/l Indole Butyric Acid (IBA, 1 mg/l Kinetin, 100 mg/l mio-inositol, 1 mg/l Thiamin HCl, and 2% sucrose had significant superiority (P<0.05 to 1/2 MS solid medium. Also, to increase the multiplication in a sterile medium (In vitro, two kinds of solid and liquid MS medium, with a hormone combination of 1 mg/l IBA, 2 mg/l Kinetin and 1 mg/l 6-(benzylamino-9-(2-tetrahydropyranyl-9H-purine (BAP were applied which yielded the highest amount of proliferation. The plants formed roots in Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH medium with a hormone combination of 5 mg/l IBA and 1 mg/l Kinetin. When activate charcoal was used in the medium, a higher percentage of the plants became rooted and a larger number of adventitious roots were produced than in the dark-light or light treatments.

A. A. Ramin

2003-10-01

340

Preservation of Sugarcane Juice Using Hurdle Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugarcane juice was subjected following treatmentsviz.pasteurizationat80ºCfor10 min + chemicaltreatm ents(KMS @ 150 ppm and citric acid @0.05%;pasteurizationat80ºCfor10 min + chemicaltreatments (KMS @ 150 ppm and citric acid @ 0.05% + sterilization at 80ºC for 20 min. All the samples were packed in glass bottles, polyethylene Tetrapthelate (PET bottles and low density polyethylene pouches (LDPE and then irradiated at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy and stored for 90 days at room and low temperature. On treatment moisture content, ascorbic acid, viable bacterial count and viable yeast and mold count were decreased significantly (P > 0.05 where as no significant effect was observed on reducing and total sugars in cane juice. Among the three packaging material used glass and PET was found to be at par in increasing the shelf life of sugarcane juice in comparison to LDPE pouches. On storage, ascorbic acid and total sugars were decreased significantly (P > 0.05.

Kanishk Rawat

2014-12-01

341

Bioinformatics of the sugarcane EST project  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O projeto SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project) produziu 291.904 ESTs de cana-de-açúcar. Nesse projeto, o Laboratório de Bioinformática criou o web site que foi o "ponto de encontro" dos 74 laboratórios de sequenciamento e data mining que fizeram parte do consórcio para o projeto. O Laboratório de Bioinfor [...] mática (LBI) recebeu, processou, analisou e disponibilizou ferramentas para a exploração dos dados. Neste artigo os dados, serviços e programas implementados pelo LBI para o projeto são descritos, incluindo o procedimento de clustering que gerou 43.141 clusters. Abstract in english The Sugarcane EST project (SUCEST) produced 291,904 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in a consortium that involved 74 sequencing and data mining laboratories. We created a web site for this project that served as a ‘meeting point’ for receiving, processing, analyzing, and providing services to help ex [...] plore the sequence data. In this paper we describe the information pathway that we implemented to support this project and a brief explanation of the clustering procedure, which resulted in 43,141 clusters.

Guilherme P., Telles; Marília D.V., Braga; Zanoni, Dias; Lin, Tzy-Li; José A.A., Quitzau; Felipe R. da, Silva; João, Meidanis.

2001-12-01

342

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

2013-10-28

343

Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica by antagonistic and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria*  

OpenAIRE

Four rhizobacteria selected out of over 500 isolates from rhizosphere of the vegetables in China were further studied for suppression of the root-knot nematode and soil-borne fungal pathogens in laboratory and greenhouse in Belgium. They were identified as Brevibacillus brevis or Bacillus subtilis by Biolog test and partial 16s rDNA sequence comparison. They not only inhibited the radial growth of the root-infecting fungi Rhizoctonia solani SX-6, Pythium aphanidermatum ZJP-1 and Fusarium oxys...

Li, Bin; Xie, Guan-lin; Soad, A.; Coosemans, J.

2005-01-01

344

Effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation in sugarcane by 15N isotope dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

15N stable-isotope dilution technique was used to study effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in sugarcane varieties B8 and ROC22. The results showed that there were significant differences of % Ndfa (Nitrogen-fixing percentage) at different development stages between B8 and ROC22. The % Ndfa of B8 was obviously higher than that of ROC22 at young shoot stage, tillering stage and early elongation stage, and the highest % Ndfa of B8 reached 31.28% Ndfa. BNF was found in root, stem and leaf but the maximum BNF was in leaf at 60d. Inoculation with L03 could increase total nitrogen content in both B8 and ROC22. The leaf of ROC22 and the stem of B8 were found benefited most from the inoculation. BNF varied significantly in different varieties, organs and growth stages of sugarcane. (authors)

345

The 74-Kilodalton Immunodominant Antigen of the Pathogenic Oomycete Pythium insidiosum Is a Putative Exo-1,3-ß-Glucanase?  

OpenAIRE

The oomycetous, fungus-like, aquatic organism Pythium insidiosum is the causative agent of pythiosis, a life-threatening infectious disease of humans and animals living in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Common sites of infection are the arteries, eyes, cutaneous/subcutaneous tissues, and gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis of pythiosis is time-consuming and difficult. Radical excision of the infected organs is the main treatment for pythiosis because conventional antifungal drugs ...

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Keeratijarut, Angsana; Sriwanichrak, Kanchana; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Petchthong, Thanom; Yingyong, Wanta; Kalambaheti, Thareerat; Smittipat, Nat; Juthayothin, Tada; Sullivan, Thomas D.

2010-01-01

346

Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

2006-06-01

347

Site Specific Nutrient Management for Sugarcane-potato And Sugarcane-onion in Intercropping Systems  

OpenAIRE

Four field experiments were conducted under different Agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Bangladesh at Ishurdi (AEZ 11), Jamalpur (AEZ 9), Rajshahi (AEZ 11) and Thakurgaon (AEZ 1) in 2001-2002 cropping season. The main aims of the studies were to determine the fertilizer requirements on productivity of cane and intercrops (potato and onion) and their economics under sugarcane based cropping systems. Cane yield was enhanced when it was intercropped with potato and onion for the residual effect of...

Bokhtiar, S. M.; Hossain, M. S.; Mahmud, K.; Paul, G. C.

2003-01-01

348

Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether), which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorg...

Wanida Norasethasopon

2010-01-01

349

Genetic divergence and parent selection of sugarcane clones  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic divergence of 140 sugarcane clones of the series RB97,in phase T3 of the Sugarcane Genetic Improvement Program of the Universidade Federal do Paraná, at three locations bymultivariate analysis, using the linear mixed model and grouping analysis by the Tocher procedure, based on Mahalanobis´generalized distance. The evaluated traits were number of stalks per plot, mass of ten stalks, Brix and Brix per plot in kg. Thenumber of groups var...

Valéria Rosa Lopes; João Carlos Bespalhok Filho; Ricardo Augusto Oliveira; Edson Perez Guerra; José Luís Camargo Zambon; Edelclaiton Daros

2008-01-01

350

Expression Analysis of Sugarcane Aquaporin Genes under Water Deficit  

OpenAIRE

The present work is a pioneer study specifically addressing the aquaporin transcripts in sugarcane transcriptomes. Representatives of the four aquaporin subfamilies (PIP, TIP, SIP, and NIP), already described for higher plants, were identified. Forty-two distinct aquaporin isoforms were expressed in four HT-SuperSAGE libraries from sugarcane roots of drought-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, respectively. At least 10 different potential aquaporin isoform targets and their respective unitags ...

Daniel Da Silva, Manass Xe S.; Roberta Lane de Oliveira Silva; José Ribamar Costa Ferreira Neto; Ana Carolina Ribeiro Guimarães; Daniela Truffi Veiga; Sabrina Moutinho Chabregas; William Lee Burnquist; Xfc Nter Kahl, G.; Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon; Ederson Akio Kido

2013-01-01

351

Conventional Sugarcane Breeding in South Africa: Progress and Future Prospects  

OpenAIRE

Initial sugarcane production in South Africa relied on imported varieties. When imported varieties succumbed to diseases, the industry established the South African Research Institute (SASRI) with the mandate to develop sugarcane varieties. The popular and highly successful varieties, NCo310 and NCo376 were selected from crosses imported from India. NCo310 and NCo376 were grown successfully in several countries across the world where they produced high yield and ratooning ability. Later, cros...

Marvellous Zhou

2013-01-01

352

Evaluation of Exotic Sugarcane Germplasm for Agronomic Characters and Productivity  

OpenAIRE

Six exotic sugarcane varieties were evaluated for their agronomic characters and productivity. All exotic sugarcane varieties had similar germination percentage except standard variety CP77-400 which had higher germination. Significant differences were found in number of tillers ha -1, stalk height, girth and total soluble solids. Minimum (102.3 thousands ha -1) number of millable canes were found in variety CP84-1198 and the maximum (160 thousands ha -1) in CP85-1491. Cane yield ranged from ...

Maqbool Akhtar; Nosheen Noor Elahi; Ashraf, M.

2001-01-01

353

Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US$1=R$2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. - Research highlights: ?The relative cost of ethanol produced in the US and imported from Brazil is shown to depend on currency exchange rate, feedstock costs, and co-product credits. ?In 2006-2008, the cost of corn ethanol is estimated to be 15% lower ththanol is estimated to be 15% lower than the cost of imported sugarcane ethanol at US ports. ?A carbon pricing policy could affect relative costs in favor of sugarcane ethanol, but only at a high carbon price.

354

Cloning, expression and characterization of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) transketolase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants. PMID:24132392

Kalhori, Nahid; Nulit, R; Go, Rusea

2013-10-01

355

Obtaining lactic acid through discontinuing fermentation using sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product meal, fructose and cassava starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lactic acid presents its larger application in the Food Industry. It is also used in the Textile, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Cosmetic and Packaging Industries. Due to this wide applicability, the acquisition of lactic acid through fermentation is a widely studied process, searching for alternatives for the increase in productivity and the decrease in the production costs. Therefore, this work has the purpose of evaluating the influence of different types of cultivation, proceeding from the agro-industry, regarding the production of lactic acid through fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei. In order to do that, it was used as the cultivation media, sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product crumbs, fructose and cassava starch, previously hydrolyzed when necessary and supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 2% peptone. Fermentations were performed at 37º for 48 hours under constant agitation. The fermentation processes were followed by analysis such as: lactic acid dosage; reductive sugar decrease; biomass; cellular viability and pH. When the results were analyzed it was noticed a larger decrease of the reductive sugar and a larger production of lactic acid when the sugarcane molasses were used as cultivation media. Therein it may be suggested that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presented itself more efficient in promoting the microorganism growth. Such result has also been observed by other authors in the researched literature and it can be explained by the fact that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presents in its composition, besides glucose and fructose, other nutrients able to favor the growth of the microorganism and, consequently, the production of the lactic acid when compared to other medias used in this work.

Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima

2011-06-01

356

Isolation and characterisation of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from sugarcane rhizosphere for the selection of strains with agriculture potentialities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen aerobic endospore forming strains were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere in N-free medium. A phenotypic description and analysis of the 5' end hypervariable region sequences of 16S rRNA revealed a high diversity of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified, and four genera were obtained: seven strains belonged to Bacillus (Bacillaceae family), four belonged to Paenibacillus, six belonged to Brevibacillus and one strain was identified as Cohnella (Paenibacillaceae family). Four Brevibacillus strains showed in vitro inhibitory activity against plant pathogens fungi Curvularia and Fusarium. Seventy-four percent of the isolated bacteria grew on pectin as the only carbon source, showing polygalacturonase activity. Pectate lyase activity was detected for the first time in a Brevibacillus genus strain. All isolates showed endoglucanase activity. Calcium phosphate solubilisation was positive in 83.3% of the isolates, with higher values than those reported for Bacillus inorganic phosphate solubilising strains. High ethylene plant hormone secretion in the culture medium was detected in 22% of the bacteria. This is the first report of ethylene secretion in Paenibacillaceae isolates. Indole-3-acetic acid production was found in a Brevibacillus genus isolate. It was reported for the first time the presence of Cohnella genus strain on sugarcane rhizosphere bearing plant growth promoting traits. The sugarcane isolate Brevibacillus B65 was identified as a plant growth inoculant because it showed wider spectra of plant stimulation capabilities, including an antifungal effect, extracellular hydrolases secretion, inorganic phosphate solubilisation and plant hormone liberation. In this work, sugarcane was shown to be a suitable niche for finding aerobic endospore forming 'Bacilli' with agriculture biotechnological purposes. PMID:22805941

de Los Milagros Orberá Ratón, Teresa; Yano, Ricardo; Rodríguez Gámez, Odalys; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Jesús Serrat Díaz, Manuel; Barbosa, Heloíza Ramos

2012-04-01

357

Genetic diversity among sugarcane (Saccharum spp. varieties using molecular markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetic base of today's sugarcane cultivars appears to be narrow and could be the reason for current slow progress in improving sugarcane crops. Sixty-three primer pairs (producing 263 polymorphic fragments flanking simple sequence repeats or micro-satellites were used for assessing the genetic variability of five S. officinarum clones and 33 sugarcane cultivars used in CENICAÑA breeding projects, selected for their economic and agronomic im-portance in several Central and South-American countries. NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analy-sis System and SAS (Statistical Analysis System statistical software was used to analyse data. The number of alleles recorded per marker ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 5. Cluster analysis showed a clear separation of cultivars from S. officinarum clones. The average of genetic similarity between sugarcane genotypes studied was 0.664, while genetic diversity analysis revealed a very different group (H: 0.973. An interesting results concerned CC 91-1880 distribu-tion very close to that of Q genotypes from Australia and also S. officinarum clones, suggesting that this cultivar would be a good candidate for further studies by breeders. The results obtained are useful for CENICAÑA's breed­ing program because, in spite of the genetic homogeneity present in today's sugarcane cultivars, it is clear that allelic variants are present in some of these cultivars and could be used in the new breeding projects. Key words: Sugarcane, genetic diversity, microsatellites, molecular markers, Saccharum officinarum.

John J. Riascos

2007-05-01

358

Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

359

Factors that Interfere in Dextran Production By Sugarcane Contaminating Microorganisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dextrans are polysaccharides produced by microorganisms, specially bacterias from the Leuconostoc genus. Dextrans have a high molecular weigh and most of the glycosidic bonds are a(1®6. For the sugar manufacture, dextran is a problem which changes the quality of sugar and the industry efficiency. Dextrans are synthesized when the sugarcane is spoiled before the harvest period, through the sugarcane fissures, which permit the penetration of microorganisms that deteriorate the sugarcane. This work aims at improving the sugar quality and the industry efficiency by isolating dextran producing microorganisms, comparing the time of burning with the infection index and the dextran concentration in the sugarcane juice. Dextran producing microorganisms were isolated from sugarcane juice during the 97/98; 99/00 and 2001 harvests. The isolated strains were maintained in MRS agar at the temperature of 4°C. The fermentation was carried out in MRS broth for 72 hours at 28°C with 180 rpm. Dextran was analyzed by spectrophotometry at 485 nm. Only three isolated strains showed good dextran production. The average of dextran production in MRS broth was 390 mg%. It was observed that a burning period above 72 hours increases the sugarcane contamination and causes high dextran production, and consequently the reduction of the industry efficiency of the sugar factory.

Maria Celia Oliveira Hauly

2002-01-01

360

Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

361

Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO{sub 2} is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

Crago, Christine L. [Energy Biosciences Institute, 1115 IGB Bldg., 1206 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Khanna, Madhu [Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 301A Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Barton, Jason [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Giuliani, Eduardo [Venture Partners do Brasil, Rua Iguatemi 354 82, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Weber [Av. Padua Dias 11 - CP 9, Forest Sciences Departament - ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, 13148-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

2010-11-15

362

BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glutamate decarboxylase [GAD (EC 4.1.1.15], a g-aminobutyric acid (GABA metabolizing enzyme is characterized in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Var. Co 86032. The sugarcane GAD was purified by 7.8 folds and SDS-PAGE analysis revealed presence of apparent 65 and 52 kD GAD isomers. Biochemical characterization of Sugarcane GAD revealed the Km values of 1.6 mM for L-glutamate, 2 µM for PLP, 3.5 µM for Ca+2 and 6.3 nM for CaM at a sharp optimum pH of 6.0. Ca+2/CaM induced sugarcane GAD by 360%, however Ca+2 alone was ineffective. In absence of Ca+2, CaM induced the activity by 150% at pH 6.0, but no such induction was found at neutral pH. Metal ion and inhibitor studies revealed that the sugarcane GAD gets induced by Co+2, 1-10 phenanthroline and requires -SH groups. Isolation of GAD gene through cDNA yielded 1481 bp stretch of sequence occupying distant position in the phylogram of plant GADs.  Further analysis confirmed the presence of a plant specific C-terminal extension of 30-amino acid lacking authentic CaM binding domain.  The results indicate the presence of at least two forms of GAD in sugarcane.

Gireesh Babu K* * and Naik GR

2013-06-01

363

Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

L Potgieter

2012-12-01

364

Efecto del tratamiento de semilla con zinc y ácido giberélico sobre la emergencia y el crecimiento inicial de las plantas de caña de azúcar / EFFECT OF SEED TREATMENT WITH ZINC AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE EMERGENCY AND INITIAL GROWTH OF SUGARCANE PLANTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de comparar la aplicación de una suspensión concentrada a base de zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, con el uso de ácido giberélico (ÁG3) en el tratamiento de semilla y evaluar su efecto sobre emergencia y crecimiento inicial de plantas de caña de azúcar, Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, se co [...] ndujo un ensayo en la Fundación Azucarera para el Desarrollo, la productividad y la Investigación (FUNDAcAñA), ubicada en chivacoa, municipio Bruzual, estado Yaracuy. Para tal fin se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones, donde el primero de ellos correspondió al testigo sin aplicación (T0). los tratamientos T1, T2 y T3 consistieron en sumergir secciones de tallo de 5 cm de longitud con una yema viable (mini esquejes) por 10 min en soluciones de Teprosyn Zn® al 1%, 2% y 3%, respectivamente, mientras que en el último tratamiento (T4) la semilla se sometió a inmersión en una solución de 1 g Activol® 100 l agua-1 durante el mismo tiempo. la siembra se realizó en bolsas plásticas negras, utilizando un sustrato obtenido a través de una mezcla de suelo y compost de cachaza en una proporción 1:1. los datos fueron analizados con el programa Statistix 8. Los resultados indican que el tratamiento de semilla con Teprosyn Zn® promovió la emergencia, el crecimiento inicial de raíces, el peso aéreo seco y la producción de materia seca (MS) total de las plantas, favoreciendo el establecimiento del cultivo. la utilización de ÁG3 sólo afectó la longitud total de raíces Abstract in english In order to compare the application of a concentrated suspension based on zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, with the use of gibberellic acid (GA3) in the treatment of seed and evaluate its effect on emergence and early growth of sugarcane plants , Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, a trial was conducted in the [...] Sugar Development Foundation, productivity and Research (FUNDAcAñA), located in chivacoa, municipality Bruzual, Yaracuy. For this purpose was used a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications, the first one corresponded to the control application (T0). Treatments T1, T2 and T3 consisted in immersing stem sections 5 cm long with a viable bud (mini cuttings) for 10 min in solutions of Teprosyn Zn® 1%, 2% and 3% respectively, while in the last treatment (T4) seed was subjected to immersion in a solution of 1 g Activol®/ 100 l water during the same time. The sowing was performed in black plastic bags using a substrate obtained from a mixture of soil and filter cake compost in a 1:1 proportion. Data were analyzed with the program Statistix 8. The results indicate that seed treatment with Teprosyn Zn® promoted the emergence, initial growth of roots, the dry weight and dry matter production (MS) in whole plants, favoring the crop establishment. GA3 using only affected the total length of roots

Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

2011-03-01

365

Genetic diversity analysis of sugarcane ( Saccharum sp.) clones using simple sequence repeat markers of sugarcane and rice  

OpenAIRE

Molecular markers are powerful tools, which help in differentiating plant varieties at the DNA level and have been widelyused for genetic diversity studies in a number of crop species'. Understanding the genetic diversity of available clones of S.officinarum and S. spontaneum will be helpful in breeding programs. In the present study, a set of 48 sugarcane clones fromNational Hybridization Garden, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore was subjected to genetic diversity analysisinvolving 40...

G Banumathi, V. Krishnasamy

2010-01-01

366

Simultaneous detection and identification of four sugarcane viruses by one-step RT-PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) caused by the Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) and sugarcane yellow leaf disease (SYLD) caused by the Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) are the two most prevalent and economically important viral diseases of sugarcane. In this study, a one-step quadruplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method that employed virus-specific primers was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of SCMV, SrMV, SCSMV and SCYLV. Several sets of primers for each target virus were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity by simplex and quadruplex RT-PCR. The optimum primer combinations and concentrations, RT temperature and time, and PCR annealing temperature and extension time were determined for the quadruplex RT-PCR. The assay was then validated using sugarcane samples affected with SMD and/or SYLD collected from sugarcane breeding fields and farmers' fields in southern China. PMID:19646484

Xie, Yujia; Wang, Mingqiang; Xu, Donglin; Li, Ruhui; Zhou, Guohui

2009-12-01

367

Preculture sugarcane tissue in sucrose-supplemented culture medium to induce desiccation tolerance  

OpenAIRE

Cryopreservation is a promising technique for long term conservation of sugarcane’s genetic resources whichcould be used in breeding programs. Preculture is a key step for success this technique. The purpose of this study was toevaluate the effect of sucrose concentrations and preculture period on dessication tolerance of sugarcane tissue dehydrated to30, 20 and 10 % moisture. Sugarcane shoot tips were encapsulated in sodium alginate and precultured in a liquid culturemedium with 0.3, 0.5, ...

Márcio Antônio Rocha Oliveira; Luiz Alexandre Peternelli; Marília Contin Ventrella; Marcone Vieira Sabino; Cristiane Gamarano Melo; Sérgio Yoshimitsu Motoike; Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa

2011-01-01

368

Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems  

OpenAIRE

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcan...

Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stu?rmer, Sidney Luiz; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

2014-01-01

369

Efecto de la aplicación de abonos orgánicos en la supresión de Pythium myriotylum en plantas de tiquisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los abonos orgánicos ejercen efecto supresivo sobre patógenos de planta; su capacidad supresora varía de acuerdo al tipo de abono y al sistema planta-patógeno. Se evaluó el efecto supresor de diferentes abonos orgánicos en el sistema tiquisque-Pythium myriotylum. Se determinó la madurez, estabilidad [...] , y actividad microbiana de los diferentes abonos, así como el efecto del tipo de compostaje (compost vs vermicompost), el material de origen (estiércol vs broza de café) y el grado de madurez, sobre la supresión del patógeno. El efecto supresivo sobre el desarrollo de la enfermedad en plantas de tiquisque se estableció por medio de una escala visual de síntomas a los 3, 6 y 9 días del transplante. Los abonos presentaron relaciones C/N entre 6 y 15 y ninguno afectó la germinación o la longitud de las raíces de plántulas de pepino. Los abonos maduros clasificaron como estables y los inmaduros, con excepción del compost de broza, como inestables. La menor incidencia de pudrición de raíces por P. myriotylum se obtuvo con el uso de vermicompost a base de estiércol maduro, mientras que la menor severidad de la enfermedad ocurrió cuando el suelo se enmendó con el compost y el vermicompost maduro a base de estiércol. En términos generales los abonos obtenidos a partir de estiércol fueron más supresivos, y presentaron una mayor actividad microbiana, que los producidos a base de broza de café. Se concluye que el tipo de compostaje, el origen y el grado de madurez tienen influencia sobre la capacidad supresora. Abstract in english Effect of the application of compost and vermicompost on the suppression of pythium myriotylum in cocoyam plants (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Organic amendments have been used as a substrate which is able to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens. Since these effects vary depending on the type of compos [...] t and the plant-pathogen system, the aim of this work was to evaluate the suppressive effect of different organic fertilizers against cocoyam root rot disease, caused by Pythium myriotylum. For this purpose, the effect of the composting process (compost vs. vermicompost), origin (animal manure vs. coffee fruit-peel pulp) and degree of maturity were tested. Stability and microbial activity of the organic amendment were also determined. The suppressive effect over disease development on cocoyam was established by using a visual severity-scale on days 3, 6, and 9after transplant. The organic fertilizers presented C/N ratios between 6 and 15. Neither affected the germination or root-length of cucumber seedlings. The mature organic fertilizers classified as stable; and the immature ones, with the exception of the coffee-pulp compost, as unstable. The treatment with the best result in reducing root rot disease incidence was the mature, vermicomposted animal manure. The lowest disease severity was obtained when the soil was amended with the mature, composted or vermicomposted, animal manure. In general, the organic amendments based on animal manure were more suppressive than the ones based on coffee pulp. These results indicate that the type of composting, original material and maturity influence the suppressivity of the organic amendments.

Silvia, Artavia; Lidieth, Uribe; Francisco, Saborío; Luis Felipe, Arauz; Leida, Castro.

2010-06-01

370

ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL and semi-pilot (25 L reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140ºC for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%; 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9% and 150ºC for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%. These conditions were also used for hydrolysis in a semi-pilot reactor, and the highest xylose recovery yield (83.3% was obtained at 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm

A. PESSOA JR.

1997-09-01

371

Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro-regions) from Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009); (ii) One index that indicates the degree of relative occurrence of vulnerable areas in relation to contamination risk of surface and groundwater by effluents from sugarcane agroindustry from a model made by Barbalho e Campos (2010); (iii) two indicators that evaluate the commitment degree of the available water to meet the demand of sugarcane potential expansion distinctly for dryland and irrigation system; (iv) two indicators that evaluate the attendance level of the sugarcane water demand considering the limits of available water from local water resource in terms of maximum area that the culture can expand in a sustainable way For the estimation of water supply was used a spatially distributed model of specific flow (FERRAZ, 2012). The results show that the indicators were able to characterize and distinguish the different territorial units of analysis and the spatial models used satisfactorily met, in terms of level of detail, the purposes explained. The Sudoeste de Goiás and Quirinópolis microregions exhibit higher favorability, from the point of view of water sustainability therefore have areas where culture can be grown in dry system and still rely on higher available water volumes to supply the demand of sugarcane cultivation in the areas of compulsory irrigation.

Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

2012-12-01

372

Radiation Induced In Vitro Mutagenesis, Selection for Salt Tolerance and Characterization in Sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salinity is one the major environmental stresses affecting plant productivity. Combined use of mutagenesis and tissue culture can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt-stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane damage (electrolyte leakage) was threefold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of better water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress, indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. Insalt tolerant lines and control plants. In addition, plantlets regenerated form irradiated calli of sugarcane cv. CoC-671, Co 86032 and Co 94012 were field planted and agronomically desirable variants were identified for economic traits like cane yield and sucrose (Brix). The genetic stability of the variants is being evaluated at field level in M3 generation. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

373

Embryogenic callus proliferation and regeneration conditions for genetic transformation of diverse sugarcane cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amenability to tissue culture stages required for gene transfer, selection and plant regeneration are the main determinants of genetic transformation efficiency via particle bombardment into sugarcane. The technique is moving from the experimental phase, where it is sufficient to work in a few amenable genotypes, to practical application in a diverse and changing set of elite cultivars. Therefore, we investigated the response to callus initiation, proliferation, regeneration and selection steps required for microprojectile-mediated transformation, in a diverse set of Australian sugarcane cultivars. 12 of 16 tested cultivars were sufficiently amenable to existing routine tissue-culture conditions for practical genetic transformation. Three cultivars required adjustments to 2,4-D levels during callus proliferation, geneticin concentration during selection, and/or light intensity during regeneration. One cultivar gave an extreme necrotic response in leaf spindle explants and produced no callus tissue under the tested culture conditions. It was helpful to obtain spindle explants for tissue culture from plants with good water supply for growth, especially for genotypes that were harder to culture. It was generally possible to obtain several independent transgenic plants per bombardment, with time in callus culture limited to 11-15 weeks. A caution with this efficient transformation system is that separate shoots arose from different primary transformed cells in more than half of tested calli after selection for geneticin resistance. The results across this diverse cultivar set are likely to be a useful guide to key variables for rapid optimisation of tissue culture conditions for efficient genetic transformation of other sugarcane cultivars. PMID:20978767

Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Moyle, Richard; Birch, Robert G

2011-03-01

374

A Review of Sugarcane Deterioration in the United States and South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of sugarcane deterioration that detrimentally affects processing in the United States (US) and South Africa (SA) is presented. Postharvest sugarcane deterioration products are dependent on sugarcane injury, environmental conditions, variety, cut-to-crush delays, and extent of adventitious i...

375

Evaluation of Sugarcane Orange Rust for first clonal stage of the CP Cultivar Development Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistent development of high-yielding sugarcane cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical to commercial sugarcane production in Florida. Currently, orange rust (caused by Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler) is a great challenge for the Florida sugarcane production...

376

First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon  

Science.gov (United States)

Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

377

ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has been ...

378

Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

Thiebaut Flávia

2012-07-01

379

Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon s [...] upply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes) were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM) production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1) and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1) of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

João Luís Nunes, Carvalho; Rafael, Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin.

2013-10-01

380

Growth Performance of the Red-Stripe Weevil Rhynchophorus schach Oliv. (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Meridic Diets  

OpenAIRE

Biology and growth performance of Red Stripe Weevil, Rhynchophorus schach Oliv. were studied using meridic diets. The diets consisted of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse, copra (Cocos nucifera L.) cake and sago (Metroxylon sagus Rottb.) flour as main ingredients. Larvae or locally known as sagoworm, in copra cake diet exhibited the fastest growth with maximum weight gain of 1609 mg in week 5, while those of sugarcane bagasse diet had slowest growth with peak weight gain of 1024 mg...

Bong, Choon-fah J.; Chin-Chin Er; Pang-Hung Yiu; Amartalingam Rajan

2008-01-01

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