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Protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicide effects on pythium root rot of sugarcane, pythium species, and the soil microbial community.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The effects of three protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor herbicides, azafenidin, flumioxazin, and sulfentrazone, on Pythium root rot of sugarcane and the soil microbial community were evaluated in greenhouse experiments. Herbicides were applied as foliar and soil treatments. There were no consistent effects on plant growth or disease parameters. However, some herbicide treatments affected the relative frequency of isolation of Pythium spp. from roots and reduced colonization by the pathogenic species Pythium arrhenomanes. A comparison of sole carbon source utilization profiles indicated that soil-applied herbicides altered the functional diversity of the soil microbial community, with some variation depending on herbicide used. All three herbicides inhibited the in vitro mycelial growth of P. arrhenomanes, P. aphanidermatum, and P. ultimum. Active ingredients were less inhibitory than formulated product for azafenidin and flumioxazin but not for sulfentrazone. PMID:18943113

Daugrois, J H; Hoy, J W; Griffin, J L

2005-03-01

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Exploitation of trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic effects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the T...

Muthukumar, A.; Eswaran, A.; Sanjeevkumas, K.

2011-01-01

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In vitro paradoxical growth of Pythium insidiosum in the presence of caspofungin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic organism which causes pythiosis in humans and animals. This study aimed to report the paradoxical growth of Brazilian P. insidiosum strains when submitted to in vitro susceptibility tests with caspofungin. The growth at concentrations above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 16 to 128 ?g/ml and it was observed in 50% of the isolates tested. This paradoxical growth in the presence of caspofungin has been observed with Candida and Aspergillus strains, however, the phenomenon involving oomycetes was described here for the first time. PMID:20447776

Argenta, Juliana S; Alves, Sydney H; Silveira, Flávio; Maboni, Grazieli; Pereira, Daniela I B; Spanamberg, Andreia; Santurio, Janio M; Ferreiro, Laerte

2010-10-26

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Effect of temperature on growth of the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum causes a potentially life-threatening infectious disease called pythiosis. An early, accurate diagnosis is important, since prompt treatment leads to a better prognosis. Unsuccessful attempts to isolate the organism have been associated with specimens subjected to lower temperatures. We analyzed growth of P. insidiosum at various temperatures. Culture at low (8 degrees C) and high (42 degrees C) temperatures resulted in death or inhibited growth of the organism. Culture under optimal temperatures (28 and 32 degrees C) was important for successful isolation of P. insidiosum. PMID:21329324

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn; Angkananukul, Kanong; Brandhorst, Tristan T

2010-11-01

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Controle biológico da podridão de raiz causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento de alface hidropônica com Clonostachys rosea Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum root rot and growth promotion of hydroponic lettuce by Clonostachys rosea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clonostachys rosea foi avaliado como promotor de crescimento e no controle da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum em sistemas de fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT e "floating". Na promoção de crescimento, Clonostachys (0, 10³, 10(4, 10(5, 10(6 e 10(7 conídios/mL foi introduzido na solução nutritiva (SN e avaliada a massa das plantas. O biocontrole, em sistema NFT, foi avaliado introduzindo Clonostachys na SN (10(6 conídios/mL i. um dia após o transplantio na ausência do patógeno; ii. três dias antes e no momento da infestação com Pythium e, iii. três dias antes, no momento e três dias após infestação com Pythium. Em sistema "floating", Clonostachys foi introduzido na SN (10(6 conídios/mL i. quatro dias antes e no momento da infestação com Pythium, e ii. quatro dias antes, no momento e quatro dias após a infestação com Pythium. Nesses experimentos foram determinadas as massas das plantas, e a recuperação do patógeno e antagonista. O antagonista não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, entretanto protegeu-as do subdesenvolvimento causado pelo patógeno no sistema NFT. Não foi observada proteção em sistema "floating". Clonostachys reduziu a incidência do patógeno nas raízes no sistema NFT em 28,6% e 42,8%, quando aplicado duas e três vezes, respectivamente.Clonostachys rosea was evaluated for growth promotion and control of root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum in hydroponic lettuce in NFT and floating systems. For growth promotion, Clonostachys (0, 10³, 10(4, 10(5, 10(6 and 10(7 conidia/mL was added in nutrient solution (NS and the mass of the plants was measured. To evaluate the control of the disease in NFT, Clonostachys was applied to the NS (10(6 conidia/mL i. one day after transplanting in the absence of Pythium; ii. three days before and simultaneously with Pythium infestation; and, iii. three days before, simultaneously and three days after Pythium infestation. To evaluate the control of root rot in floating system, Clonostachys was added in NS (10(6 conidia/mL i. four days before, and at the moment of pathogen infestation, and, ii. four days before, simultaneously, and four days after pathogen infestation. Plant mass and the recovery of pathogen and antagonist from the roots were evaluated. Clonostachys did not improve plant growth in the absence of Pythium. In the NFT system Clonostachys protected the plants from yield losses caused by Pythium, but not in the floating system. Pythium recovery from the roots was reduced by 28,6% and 42,8% when Clonostachys was applied two or three times, respectively.

Élida B Corrêa

2010-08-01

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Exploitation of trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic eff [...] ects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3) performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli.

A., Muthukumar; A., Eswaran; K., Sanjeevkumas.

1598-16-01

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Exploitation of Trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic effects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3) performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli. PMID:24031794

Muthukumar, A; Eswaran, A; Sanjeevkumas, K

2011-10-01

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Exploitation of trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic eff [...] ects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3) performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli.

A., Muthukumar; A., Eswaran; K., Sanjeevkumas.

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Exploitation of trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic effects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3 performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli.

A. Muthukumar

2011-12-01

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Controle biológico da podridão de raiz causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento de alface hidropônica com Clonostachys rosea / Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum root rot and growth promotion of hydroponic lettuce by Clonostachys rosea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Clonostachys rosea foi avaliado como promotor de crescimento e no controle da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum) em sistemas de fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT) e "floating". Na promoção de crescimento, Clonostachys (0, 10³, 10(4), 10(5), 10(6) e 10(7) conídios/mL) foi introduzido na solução [...] nutritiva (SN) e avaliada a massa das plantas. O biocontrole, em sistema NFT, foi avaliado introduzindo Clonostachys na SN (10(6) conídios/mL) i. um dia após o transplantio na ausência do patógeno; ii. três dias antes e no momento da infestação com Pythium e, iii. três dias antes, no momento e três dias após infestação com Pythium. Em sistema "floating", Clonostachys foi introduzido na SN (10(6) conídios/mL) i. quatro dias antes e no momento da infestação com Pythium, e ii. quatro dias antes, no momento e quatro dias após a infestação com Pythium. Nesses experimentos foram determinadas as massas das plantas, e a recuperação do patógeno e antagonista. O antagonista não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, entretanto protegeu-as do subdesenvolvimento causado pelo patógeno no sistema NFT. Não foi observada proteção em sistema "floating". Clonostachys reduziu a incidência do patógeno nas raízes no sistema NFT em 28,6% e 42,8%, quando aplicado duas e três vezes, respectivamente. Abstract in english Clonostachys rosea was evaluated for growth promotion and control of root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) in hydroponic lettuce in NFT and floating systems. For growth promotion, Clonostachys (0, 10³, 10(4), 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) conidia/mL) was added in nutrient solution (NS) and the mass of the plan [...] ts was measured. To evaluate the control of the disease in NFT, Clonostachys was applied to the NS (10(6) conidia/mL) i. one day after transplanting in the absence of Pythium; ii. three days before and simultaneously with Pythium infestation; and, iii. three days before, simultaneously and three days after Pythium infestation. To evaluate the control of root rot in floating system, Clonostachys was added in NS (10(6) conidia/mL) i. four days before, and at the moment of pathogen infestation, and, ii. four days before, simultaneously, and four days after pathogen infestation. Plant mass and the recovery of pathogen and antagonist from the roots were evaluated. Clonostachys did not improve plant growth in the absence of Pythium. In the NFT system Clonostachys protected the plants from yield losses caused by Pythium, but not in the floating system. Pythium recovery from the roots was reduced by 28,6% and 42,8% when Clonostachys was applied two or three times, respectively.

Élida B, Corrêa; Wagner, Bettiol; Marcelo A.B, Morandi.

2010-08-01

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Plant growth inhibitors isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) straw.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several compounds related with plant defense and pharmacological activities have been isolated from sugarcane. Straw phytotoxins and their possible mechanisms of growth inhibition are largely unknown. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the phytotoxic constituents leachated from a sugarcane straw led to the isolation of trans-ferulic (trans-FA), cis-ferulic (cis-FA), vanillic (VA) and syringic (SA) acids. The straw leachates and their identified constituents significantly inhibited root growth of lettuce and four weeds. VA was more phytotoxic to root elongation than FA and SA. The identified phenolic compounds significantly increased leakage of root cell constituents, inhibited dehydrogenase activity and reduced chlorophyll content in lettuce. VA and FA inhibited mitotic index while SA increased cell division. Additive (VA-FA and FA-SA) and synergistic (VA-SA) interactions on root growth were observed at the response level of EC(25). Although the isolated compounds differed in their relative phytotoxic activities, the observed physiological responses suggest that they have a common mode of action. HPLC analysis indicated that sugarcane straw can potentially release 1.43 (ratio 2:1, trans:cis), 1.14 and 0.14mmolkg(-1) (straw dry weight) of FA, VA and SA, respectively. As phenolic acids are often found spatially concentrated in the top soil layers under plant straws, further studies are needed to establish the impact of these compounds in natural settings. PMID:16777531

Sampietro, Diego Alejandro; Vattuone, Marta Amelia; Isla, María Ines

2006-07-01

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Modelling Sugarcane Growth in Response to Age, Insolation and Temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modelling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a non-linear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative values of insolation, maximum temperature and minimum temperature for 3, 6, 12, 18 months, or for each crop period derived from weather observations near the test plots. The low R-square values indicate that the selected predictor variables could not account for a substantial proportion of the variations of cane yield and the models have limited predictive values. The non-linear model is based on known functional relationships between growth and age, growth and insolation, and growth and maximum temperature. A mathematical expression that integrates the effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature is developed. The constant terms and coefficients of the equation are determined from the requirement that the model must produce results that are reasonable when compared with observed monthly elongation data. The non-linear model is validated and tested using another set of data. Following the successful validation of the model, simulated growth curves in response to age, insolation and maximum temperature are generated by computer. The three-dimensional presentation of the simulation curves provides a simple means for the analysis of the individual factors and their interactions on sugarcane growth. The proposed non-linear model may be useful in estimating potential growth and assessing growth performance. When combined with stalk population data, the model may be used to predict yields. The non-linear model shows that growth is not controlled by one factor alone, nor by a set of factors present in relative minima. Each factor has some definite influence on growth rate, depending upon the intensities of the other factors. However, only one limiting factor is required to cause the growth rate to be greatly reduced. Thus, when investigating sugarcane growth, the simultaneous effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature must be taken into consideration.

How, Karl Tiap Sen

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Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica / Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3), cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5) e quatro ao [...] grupo T (T1 a T4) de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC) sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia. Abstract in english Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3), whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5) and four to group T (T1-T4) of Pythium. The id [...] entification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC) on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40 to 40.7ºC, respectively. The optimum temperature ranged from 24 to 37ºC for P. helicoides, from 25 to 35ºC for isolate F4 and 21 to 30ºC for the remaining isolates. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the isolates were evaluated by the inoculation of lettuce seeds plated in water-agar, at 21 and 30ºC. At 30ºC, P. helicoides isolates were clearly the most aggressives, determining 100 % seed mortality soon after germination. At 21ºC, all isolates reduced seedling growth, associated or not with root tissue necrosis. This is the first report of P. helicoides in Brazil and the first world reference of this species in hydroponic systems.

Liliane De Diana, Teixeira; Carmen Lídia Amorim Pires, Zottarelli; Hiroshi, Kimati.

2006-09-01

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Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3, cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5 e quatro ao grupo T (T1 a T4 de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia.Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3, whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5 and four to group T (T1-T4 of Pythium. The identification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40 to 40.7ºC, respectively. The optimum temperature ranged from 24 to 37ºC for P. helicoides, from 25 to 35ºC for isolate F4 and 21 to 30ºC for the remaining isolates. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the isolates were evaluated by the inoculation of lettuce seeds plated in water-agar, at 21 and 30ºC. At 30ºC, P. helicoides isolates were clearly the most aggressives, determining 100 % seed mortality soon after germination. At 21ºC, all isolates reduced seedling growth, associated or not with root tissue necrosis. This is the first report of P. helicoides in Brazil and the first world reference of this species in hydroponic systems.

Liliane De Diana Teixeira

2006-09-01

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Pythium blight of turfgrass  

Science.gov (United States)

This plant disease lesson on Pythium blight of turfgrass (caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium ultimum) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Tom W. Allen (University of Georgia, Griffen Campus;); Alfredo Martinez (University of Georgia, Griffen Campus;); Lee L. Burpee (University of Georgia, Griffen Campus;)

2005-01-01

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Sugarcane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to increase crop water use efficiency, a field study in northern Ivory Coast on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou. The can crop tested was Co 449, an early-maturing genotype of Indian origin. This experiment was conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop (from November, 1991 to December, 1992) first ratoon crop (from December, 1992 to January, 1994) and as second ratoon crop (from January, 1994 to January, 1995). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of plots 54 m2. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratton crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugarcane growth and yield decline owing to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to that during tillering. As a result, the sugarcane crop tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering (assuming that the crop is successfully established) for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency. (author). 15 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

17

Pythium litorale sp. nov., a new species from the littoral of Lake Constance, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

A description is given of Pythium litorale sp. nov., a new species from reed stands in Germany. Pythium litorale was among the most abundant species when the oomycete community of littoral soils of Lake Constance was studied. It was consistently isolated from flooded as well as from drier reed sites. The species is characterized by subglobose, papillate and internally proliferating sporangia, globose hyphal swellings, the absence of oogonia in single culture and a high optimum growth temperature. It proved to be nonpathogenic to Phragmites australis, the predominating plant in the investigated sites. Molecular analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions placed Pythium litorale in a clade together with its closest relatives Pythium megacarpum, Pythium boreale, Pythium montanum and Pythium carbonicum. The generic status of this basal clade in Pythium is currently under discussion, as it possibly represents a separate genus that is distinct from Pythium, and shares several characteristics with Phytophthora. PMID:16436067

Nechwatal, Jan; Mendgen, Kurt

2006-02-01

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Correlation of Growth Traits and Yield of Sugarcane with Micronutrients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments on the correlation coefficient of growth and cane yield traits of sugarcane with micro nutrients like: Zn (1.50, 3.00 and 4.50 kg ha-1, Cu (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg ha-1, B (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 kg ha-1 and Mn (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kg ha-1 and control where conducted. The results revealed that all micro nutrients showed positive correlation with tillers, tope weight, cane length, internode number and length, stem diameter, hieght, millable cane and cane yield, except copper for tillers, zinc for top weight, boron for top weight and manganese responded significant response for stem diameter and millable canes, respectively. It is suggested that micro nutrients are essential elements for obtaining satisfactory yields for sugarcane. Application of excess amount of these elements reduces the yield by reducing the crop parameter values, but, adequate quantities produced boosted yield. Thus, it is recommended that micro nutrients may be applied after various soil tests and proper levels should be chalked-out.

F.C. Oad

2002-01-01

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Quantitative relationships of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to Pythium root rot and growth in hydroponic peppers / Relações quantitativas de Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 com a podridão radicular causada por Pythium e ao crescimento de pimentão hidropônico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A supressão da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum) e a promoção de crescimento de pimentão hidropônico por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 foram avaliadas em plantas predispostas ou não ao patógeno. O bioagente foi introduzido na solução nutritiva 10 dias antes das raízes serem inoculadas com o [...] patógeno. A zona radicular foi mantida a 23ºC, exceto nos três dias antes da inoculação quando as plantas foram expostas a 33ºC. Na temperatura de 23ºC (sem predisposição), P. chlororaphis na concentração de 10(7) UFC mL-1, aplicada na solução nutritiva, atrasou o aparecimento dos sintomas da doença. As concentrações de 10(6), 10(7) e 10(8) UFC mL-1 do bioagente foram mais eficientes em controlar a doença nas plantas inoculadas com o patógeno. A densidade do bioagente nas raízes, nos dois regimes de temperatura, variou de 5,88 a 6,45 log da UFC g-1 de raiz fresca, do sétimo ao 19º dia após a aplicação de 10(7) UFC mL-1 Nas plantas inoculadas ou não, o bioagente atrasou o aparecimento do escurecimento radicular, remediou a predisposição a doença e incrementou o desenvolvimento das plantas. A expansão foliar foi um indicador adequado para a podridão de raiz e a remediação com P. chlororaphis. Conclui-se que P. chlororaphis 63-28 tem potencial para o manejo da podridão da raiz em sistemas hidropônicos, independentemente da predisposição. Abstract in english The ability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to suppress Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) and promote plant growth was investigated in hydroponic peppers that were predisposed or not predisposed to the disease. The biocontrol agent was introduced into the nutrient solution 10 days before t [...] he roots were inoculated with the pathogen. The root zone was maintained at 23ºC except when roots were exposed to 33ºC for three days before inoculation to induce predisposition to root rot. At constant 23ºC (no predisposition) application of P. chlororaphis at 10(7) CFU mL-1 nutrient solution delayed root browning more effectively than did higher or lower densities. In predisposed plants, densities of 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) CFU mL-1 were equally superior. When applied at 10(7) CFU mL-1, the density of P. chlororaphis on roots of the two temperature regimes ranged from log10 5.88 to 6.45 CFU g-1 fresh roots at seven to 19 days after application. The agent delayed root browning, re-mediated predisposition to root rot, and increased growth of inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Leaf expansion was a sensitive marker of root rot and remediation by P. chlororaphis. We conclude that P. chlororaphis 63-28 has substantial potential for managing the disease regardless of predisposition.

Coralie R., Sopher; John C., Sutton.

2011-08-01

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Effects of Machine-Induced Soil Compaction on Growth and Yield of Sugarcane  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane is one of the main economic crops in Thailand. After planting, it can be harvested annually for several successive ratoon crops. Recently, soil compaction due to mechanization has been recognized as a serious problem in sugarcane production. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the effects of soil compaction on the growth and yield of sugarcane. Approach: The field experiments were conducted in loamy soil using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four treatments of soil compaction prepared by 0, 5, 15 and 20 numbers of wheel passages of a tractor. Results: The results showed that soil compaction had significant effects on both the growth and yield of sugarcane, with the exceptions of tillering and Brix. The greatest reduction in yield compared with the control field was 22.9%, which resulted from compacting with 15 tractor passages. The influence of block or furrow irrigation was indicated by the positive effect that higher watering had on minimizing the impact of soil compaction on the growth of sugarcane. Conclusion: Effects of soil compaction on growth and yield of sugarcane were clarified to some extent.

Prathuang Usaborisut

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1  

Science.gov (United States)

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A. A.

2012-01-01

22

Sugarcane growth promotion by the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

Quecine, M C; Araújo, W L; Rossetto, P B; Ferreira, A; Tsui, S; Lacava, P T; Mondin, M; Azevedo, J L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A A

2012-11-01

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Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2013-05-01

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Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1  

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The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and ae...

Quecine, M. C.; Arau?jo, W. L.; Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-kleiner, A. A.

2012-01-01

25

White-rot fungal growth on sugarcane lignocellulosic residue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid state culture on sugarcane chips previously fermented by yeast employing the EX-FERM process. The lignocellulosic sugarcane residue had 12.5% permanganate lignin and 81.3% holocellulose. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20/sup 0/C, all fungi produced a solid residue which had a lower in vitro dry matter enzymatic digestibility than the original bagasse, with the exception of Coriolus versicolor which showed a slight increase of 0.6 units. Four fungi produced a residue with higher soluble solids that the original sample. Lignin losses were rather similar for all fungi tested, an average value of 38.64% of the original value was obtained. About the same amount of hemicellulose was degreaded, 32.22%. Most fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose hydrolysis over cellulose degradation. The two fungi that showed greater cellulolytic activity were Sporotrichum pulverulentum and Dichomitus squalens. No appreciable dry matter losses were detected for Agrocybe aergerita and Flammulina velutipes.

Rolz, C.; Leon, R. de; Arriola, M.C. de; Cabrera, S. de

1987-03-01

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Controle biológico da podridão de raiz causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento de alface hidropônica com Clonostachys rosea Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum root rot and growth promotion of hydroponic lettuce by Clonostachys rosea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clonostachys rosea foi avaliado como promotor de crescimento e no controle da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum) em sistemas de fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT) e "floating". Na promoção de crescimento, Clonostachys (0, 10³, 10(4), 10(5), 10(6) e 10(7) conídios/mL) foi introduzido na solução nutritiva (SN) e avaliada a massa das plantas. O biocontrole, em sistema NFT, foi avaliado introduzindo Clonostachys na SN (10(6) conídios/mL) i. um dia após o transplantio na ausência d...

Corre?a, E?lida B.; Wagner Bettiol; Morandi, Marcelo A. B.

2010-01-01

27

The Selection of Sugarcane Families That Display Better Associations with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria  

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Full Text Available The capacity of the sugarcane plant to respond to Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR is associated with both the efficiency of the bacterial strain and the capacity of the plant to respond to inoculation. For this reason, the appropriate selection of both the bacterial strain and the sugarcane genotype is required for generating optimal results from PGPR inoculations. To address this issue, this study sought to evaluate the response of 54 sugarcane families to inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense strains. In particular, four months after germination, 54 families from crosses between clones of sugarcane were treated either with an inoculant named Triazo, which was composed of a mixture of the Abv5, Abv6 and Abv7 strains of A. brasilense, or with the IC26 strain of A. brasilense. The treated plants were then planted in fields. These plants were assessed 14 months after they had been planted on the basis of various productivity parameters. Significant differences among the inoculants were observed for stalk length, stalk diameter and Brix. Significant interactions between the families and bacteria occurred with respect to stalk diameter and Brix; the interaction coefficients could have either positive (0.7272 for Brix and 0.4061 for stalk diameter or negative (-0.5514 for Brix and -0.1858 for stalk diameter values, depending on the family and the inoculant that were considered. Therefore, the inoculation of the seedling in the first phase of selection is recommended for a sugarcane breeding program that seeks to select genotypes with better responses to PGPR inoculation.

Fabio Vieira Rodrigues

2012-01-01

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The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and yield of irrigated sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A layer of harvest residues from the previous crop can reduce wasteful evaporation from the soil surface and thereby increase the efficiency of use of limited water resources for agricultural production. The practice of harvesting sugarcane green and leaving crop residues in the field, as opposed to [...] burning the residue, has been re-adopted in many sugarcane industries worldwide. However, a better understanding of the dynamic impacts of residue layers on various aspects of the cropping system is required to (1) enable the formulation of sets of best management practices for specific production scenarios, and (2) promote the use of residue layers in areas where it is desirable and has not been adopted, such as irrigated sugarcane production in South Africa. The objective of this study, therefore, was to quantify the effect of 2 different types of residue layers on crop growth, cane yield and evapotranspiration of fully irrigated sugarcane. A layer of cane tops and dead leaves (Trash) and a layer of green tops (Tops) were applied to the soil surface of sugarcane crops (plant crop and first ratoon crop of variety N14) grown on lysimeters at Pongola, South Africa. Observations of crop growth (stalk population, stalk height, canopy cover), cane yield and evapotranspiration for these treatments were compared to that of a bare soil treatment. The data were also used to derive values of crop evaporation coefficients for different development phases and these were compared to FAO56 recommendations. Initial stalk population in the plant crop and radiation capture in the plant and ratoon crop were affected negatively by crop residue layers, but without significantly reducing final stalk population and cane yield. Peak stalk population occurred later in crops grown in residue layers, but peak and final stalk populations were unaffected. Evapotranspiration was reduced by both residue layers, mainly due to a slower developing canopy (reduced transpiration) and reduced evaporation from the soil, during the pre-canopy phases. Increased drainage was observed under residue layers, emphasising the importance of accurate irrigation scheduling to avoid water logging. The FAO56 methodology for calculating crop evaporation coefficient values for the initial, development and late season phases are supported by the results obtained here. Crop evaporation coefficient values were significantly reduced by residue layers. It is important that irrigation scheduling practices be adjusted to realise the potential water savings of sugarcane production systems that make use of residue layers. This study provides the information required to do that. The information could also be used to improve the ability of the crop models to accurately simulate crop growth and evapotranspiration in a residue layer cropping system.

FC, Olivier; A, Singels.

29

The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and yield of irrigated sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A layer of harvest residues from the previous crop can reduce wasteful evaporation from the soil surface and thereby increase the efficiency of use of limited water resources for agricultural production. The practice of harvesting sugarcane green and leaving crop residues in the field, as opposed to [...] burning the residue, has been re-adopted in many sugarcane industries worldwide. However, a better understanding of the dynamic impacts of residue layers on various aspects of the cropping system is required to (1) enable the formulation of sets of best management practices for specific production scenarios, and (2) promote the use of residue layers in areas where it is desirable and has not been adopted, such as irrigated sugarcane production in South Africa. The objective of this study, therefore, was to quantify the effect of 2 different types of residue layers on crop growth, cane yield and evapotranspiration of fully irrigated sugarcane. A layer of cane tops and dead leaves (Trash) and a layer of green tops (Tops) were applied to the soil surface of sugarcane crops (plant crop and first ratoon crop of variety N14) grown on lysimeters at Pongola, South Africa. Observations of crop growth (stalk population, stalk height, canopy cover), cane yield and evapotranspiration for these treatments were compared to that of a bare soil treatment. The data were also used to derive values of crop evaporation coefficients for different development phases and these were compared to FAO56 recommendations. Initial stalk population in the plant crop and radiation capture in the plant and ratoon crop were affected negatively by crop residue layers, but without significantly reducing final stalk population and cane yield. Peak stalk population occurred later in crops grown in residue layers, but peak and final stalk populations were unaffected. Evapotranspiration was reduced by both residue layers, mainly due to a slower developing canopy (reduced transpiration) and reduced evaporation from the soil, during the pre-canopy phases. Increased drainage was observed under residue layers, emphasising the importance of accurate irrigation scheduling to avoid water logging. The FAO56 methodology for calculating crop evaporation coefficient values for the initial, development and late season phases are supported by the results obtained here. Crop evaporation coefficient values were significantly reduced by residue layers. It is important that irrigation scheduling practices be adjusted to realise the potential water savings of sugarcane production systems that make use of residue layers. This study provides the information required to do that. The information could also be used to improve the ability of the crop models to accurately simulate crop growth and evapotranspiration in a residue layer cropping system.

FC, Olivier; A, Singels.

2012-01-01

30

Influence of Early Post Emergence Sulfonylurea Herbicides on Growth, Yield Parameters, Yield and Weed Control Efficiency in Sugarcane  

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Full Text Available Sugarcane is a slow growing long duration crop. Inefficient weed control is the major and important threat to sugarcane productivity. Weed control at early stage is important to increase the yield of the crop. Hence, the field study was conducted from October 2011 to August 2012 in sugarcane at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to find out the influence of early post emergence Sulfonylurea herbicides on growth, yield parameters, yield and weed control efficiency in Sugarcane. The study was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments included four doses of halosulfuron methyl (60, 90, 120, 180 g ha-1, chlorimuron ethyl (24, 36, 48 and 72 g ha-1 and combi (60, 90.120 and 180 g ha-1 compared with atrazine (2000 g ha-1 hand weeding and unweeded control. The results of the study showed that, post emergence application of combi at 120 and 180 g ha-1 and chlorimuron ethyl at 48 and 72 g ha-1 offered better weed control and resulted in increased plant growth and yield attributes which resulted in increased cane yield. This was comparable with recommended weed control methods of pre emergence application of atrazine at 2000 g ha-1 and two hand weedings. With regard to sedge control (Cyperus rotundus, halosulfuron at 90, 120 and 180 g ha-1 was found to be promising in sugarcane cultivation. The herbicides doses did not show any phytotoxicity effect on sugarcane.

C. Chinnusamy

2013-01-01

31

Avaliação patogênica in vitro de Pythium middletonii Sparrow e Pythium dissotocum Drechsler em alface / In vitro pathogenic evaluation of Pythium middletonii Sparrow and Pythium dissotocum Drechsler in lettuce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos de alface são frequentes e, na maior parte das vezes, causadas por espécies de Pythium, extremamente bem adaptadas ao ambiente aquático. Este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial patogênico in vitro de Pythium middletonii e P. dissotocum, em quatro cultiv [...] ares de alface: Elisa (lisa), Vera (crespa), Mimosa (mimosa) e Tainá (americana). Sementes de alface, de cada cultivar, foram desinfetadas superficialmente, pré-germinadas por 24 horas, e colocadas na superfície do meio ágar-água. Em seguida, um disco de micélio dos isolados de Pythium, foi disposto no centro de cada placa. Placas contendo apenas as sementes de alface serviram como controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma delas representada por uma placa de Petri. Avaliou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem das plântulas sobreviventes após dez dias de incubação. O experimento foi conduzido na temperatura ideal de crescimento da alface (20ºC), e nas ideais para o crescimento dos isolados, 23ºC para P. middletonii e 27ºC para P. dissotocum. A 20ºC, P. dissotocum foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii, reduzindo significativamente o comprimento dos hipocótilos e, principalmente, das radículas, de praticamente todas as cultivares. Na temperatura de 27ºC, P. dissotocum foi responsável pela mais baixa porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes entre as cultivares, sendo mais patogênico em Vera (54% de sobrevivência). Dentre as cultivares analisadas, a Mimosa mostrou tendência de menor suscetibilidade a este patógeno, apresentando a maior porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes e o maior comprimento das radículas em relação ao controle. P. dissotocum apresentou maior crescimento micelial e foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii em todos os experimentos realizados. Abstract in english Root infections in hydroponic lettuce are frequent and mostly caused by Pythium species, which are extremely well adapted to aquatic environments. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the pathogenic potential of Pythium middletonii and Pythium dissotocum in four cultivars of lettuce, Elisa ( [...] smooth), Vera (curly), Mimosa (mimosa) and Tainá (American). Lettuce seeds from each cultivar were superficially disinfected, pre-germinated for 24 hours and placed on the water agar medium surface. Then, a dish containing mycelium from Pythium isolates was placed in the center of each plate. Control consisted of plates containing lettuce seeds only. Experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates, each one represented by a Petri dish. Hypocotyl and radical length besides surviving seedlings percentage after ten days of incubation were evaluated. The experiment was carried out, at different temperatures, and the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated at the ideal temperature for the lettuce (20ºC), and at the ideal temperatures for the growth of the isolates, 23ºC for P. middletonii and 27ºC for P. dissotocum. At 20ºC, P. dissotocum had higher pathogenicity on lettuce cultivars than P. middletonii, significantly decreasing the length of hypocotyls, especially radicles, of most cultivars. For P. dissotocum, 27ºC was the most suitable temperature for the specimen growth; however, it led to the lowest percentage of surviving seedlings among all cultivars, with the lowest percentage (54%) detected for Vera. Among the cultivars, Mimosa presented higher percentage of survivor seedlings and higher length of radicles in relation to the control, and thus was considered less susceptible to the pathogen. P. dissotocum presented higher mycelium growth and was more pathogenic than P. middletonii in all experiments.

F.R., Baptista; C.L.A, Pires-Zottarelli; L.D., Teixeira; N.A., Santos Júnior.

2011-03-01

32

Avaliação patogênica in vitro de Pythium middletonii Sparrow e Pythium dissotocum Drechsler em alface / In vitro pathogenic evaluation of Pythium middletonii Sparrow and Pythium dissotocum Drechsler in lettuce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos de alface são frequentes e, na maior parte das vezes, causadas por espécies de Pythium, extremamente bem adaptadas ao ambiente aquático. Este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial patogênico in vitro de Pythium middletonii e P. dissotocum, em quatro cultiv [...] ares de alface: Elisa (lisa), Vera (crespa), Mimosa (mimosa) e Tainá (americana). Sementes de alface, de cada cultivar, foram desinfetadas superficialmente, pré-germinadas por 24 horas, e colocadas na superfície do meio ágar-água. Em seguida, um disco de micélio dos isolados de Pythium, foi disposto no centro de cada placa. Placas contendo apenas as sementes de alface serviram como controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma delas representada por uma placa de Petri. Avaliou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem das plântulas sobreviventes após dez dias de incubação. O experimento foi conduzido na temperatura ideal de crescimento da alface (20ºC), e nas ideais para o crescimento dos isolados, 23ºC para P. middletonii e 27ºC para P. dissotocum. A 20ºC, P. dissotocum foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii, reduzindo significativamente o comprimento dos hipocótilos e, principalmente, das radículas, de praticamente todas as cultivares. Na temperatura de 27ºC, P. dissotocum foi responsável pela mais baixa porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes entre as cultivares, sendo mais patogênico em Vera (54% de sobrevivência). Dentre as cultivares analisadas, a Mimosa mostrou tendência de menor suscetibilidade a este patógeno, apresentando a maior porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes e o maior comprimento das radículas em relação ao controle. P. dissotocum apresentou maior crescimento micelial e foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii em todos os experimentos realizados. Abstract in english Root infections in hydroponic lettuce are frequent and mostly caused by Pythium species, which are extremely well adapted to aquatic environments. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the pathogenic potential of Pythium middletonii and Pythium dissotocum in four cultivars of lettuce, Elisa ( [...] smooth), Vera (curly), Mimosa (mimosa) and Tainá (American). Lettuce seeds from each cultivar were superficially disinfected, pre-germinated for 24 hours and placed on the water agar medium surface. Then, a dish containing mycelium from Pythium isolates was placed in the center of each plate. Control consisted of plates containing lettuce seeds only. Experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates, each one represented by a Petri dish. Hypocotyl and radical length besides surviving seedlings percentage after ten days of incubation were evaluated. The experiment was carried out, at different temperatures, and the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated at the ideal temperature for the lettuce (20ºC), and at the ideal temperatures for the growth of the isolates, 23ºC for P. middletonii and 27ºC for P. dissotocum. At 20ºC, P. dissotocum had higher pathogenicity on lettuce cultivars than P. middletonii, significantly decreasing the length of hypocotyls, especially radicles, of most cultivars. For P. dissotocum, 27ºC was the most suitable temperature for the specimen growth; however, it led to the lowest percentage of surviving seedlings among all cultivars, with the lowest percentage (54%) detected for Vera. Among the cultivars, Mimosa presented higher percentage of survivor seedlings and higher length of radicles in relation to the control, and thus was considered less susceptible to the pathogen. P. dissotocum presented higher mycelium growth and was more pathogenic than P. middletonii in all experiments.

F.R., Baptista; C.L.A, Pires-Zottarelli; L.D., Teixeira; N.A., Santos Júnior.

33

Pythium insidiosum: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete pathogenic in mammals. The infection occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, particularly in horses, dogs and humans. Infection is acquired through small wounds via contact with water that contains motile zoospores or other propagules (zoospores or hyphae). The disease, though described as emerging has in fact already been described since 1884. Depending on the site of entry, infection can lead to different forms of pythiosis i.e. a cutaneous, vascular, ocular, gastrointestinal and a systemic form, which is rarely seen. The infection is not contagious; no animal-animal or animal-human transmission has been reported so far. Therapy includes radical surgery, antifungal drugs, immunotherapy or a combination of these therapies. The prevention to contract the disease in endemic areas is difficult. Avoiding stagnant waters could be of help, although the presence of P. insidiosum on grass and soil in enzootic areas renders this practice useless. PMID:20800978

Gaastra, Wim; Lipman, Len J A; De Cock, Arthur W A M; Exel, Tim K; Pegge, Raymond B G; Scheurwater, Josje; Vilela, Raquel; Mendoza, Leonel

2010-11-20

34

Unsteady-state transfer of impurities during crystal growth of sucrose in sugarcane solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we present growth rate data of sucrose crystals in the presence of impurities that can be used by both sugar technologists and crystal growth scientists. Growth rate curves measured in a pilot-scale evaporative crystallizer suggest a period of slow growth that follows the seeding of crystals into supersaturated technical solutions. The observed trend was enhanced by adding typical sugarcane impurities such as starch, fructose or dextran to the industrial syrups. Maximum growth rates of sucrose resulted at intermediate rather than high supersaturation levels in the presence of the additives. The effects of the additives on the sucrose solubility and sucrose mass transfer in solution were taken into account to explain the observed crystal growth kinetics. A novel mechanism was identified of unsteady-state adsorption of impurities at the crystal surface and their gradual replacement by the crystallizing solute towards the equilibrium occupation of the active sites for growth. Specifically designed crystallization experiments at controlled supersaturation confirmed this mechanism by showing increasing crystal growth rates with time until reaching a steady-state value for a given supersaturation level and impurity content.

Martins, P. M.; Ferreira, A.; Polanco, S.; Rocha, F.; Damas, A. M.; Rein, P.

2009-07-01

35

Effects of the level of sugarcane molasses on growth and carcass performance of Caribbean growing pigs reared under a ground sugarcane stalks feeding system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of the level of sugarcane (SC) molasses on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in Creole (CR) growing pigs fed with ground sugarcane stalks (GCS)-based diet was studied in a mixed farming system context. The aim of the study was to optimize the growth performance of CR pigs with SC-molasses as an energy source in this unconventional feeding. A total of 32 CR pigs were used from 30 to 60 kg of body weight (BW). The experimental dietary treatments consisted of four levels of inclusion of SC-molasses (200, 400, 600, and 800 g DM/d/pig) into a GCS diet, for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The GCS allowance was based on live BW (170 g/kg BW/d) and the diets were supplemented with a soya-bean meal supplement (350 g/d of a 49.2% CP and 16.6 MJ DE/kg). All the pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW. Increasing the level of molasses did not affect (p > 0.05) average BW gain (254 g/d), CP intake (154 g/d) and sugar extraction rate from the total ration (85%). A gradual inclusion of molasses in a GCS-based diet did not affect the carcass and meat quality of CR pigs. In conclusion, molasses supplementation does not allow the increase of growth performance in GCS fed pigs. PMID:19544006

Xandé, X; Archimède, H; Gourdine, J L; Anais, C; Renaudeau, D

2010-01-01

36

Effect of Maize Population (As Intercrop on the Growth of Ratoon Sugarcane and Maize Yield  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted on the effect of maize population on the growth of ratoon sugarcane and maize yield Data was recorded on different yield and yield components of maize. Maximum (164.4 cm and minimum (133.6 cm plant height of maize was attained with 30,000 plants ha-1. Maximum number of (10.73 leaves plant-1, cob length (19.2 cm and grains cob-1 (205.2 were recorded with 30,000 maize population ha-1. While maximum barrenness of 18.90 was observed in plots containing maximum maize population of 60,000 plants ha-1. Maximum grain weight (240 g, grain yield (2400 kg ha-1 and harvest index (15.45 were recorded with lowest maize population of 30,000 plants ha-1, while maximum (7.2 and minimum (4.5 kg biological yield unit area-1 were recorded in 30,000 and 60,000 plant population of maize ha-1 respectively, maximum number of shoots stump-1 were 8.91, 11.33 and 12.08 with 30,000 plant population of maize ha-1, while minimum 0.57 were observed in 30,000 maize population ha-1, respectively. Maximum of 68.88 and minimum of 59.02 cm sugarcane heights at maize harvest were recorded with 30,000 and 60,000 maize population ha-1, respectively.

Imran Haider Shamsi

2003-01-01

37

Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A etiologia e a epidemiologia da podridão radicular causada por Pythium spp. em cultivo hidropônico são revisadas com ênfase em conhecimentos e conceitos considerados importantes para o manejo de doenças em estufas comerciais. A podridão radicular causada por Pythium continuamente ameaça a produtivi [...] dade de diversas culturas em sistemas hidropônicos, incluindo pepino, tomate, pimentão, espinafre, alface, capuchinha, rúcula, rosa, e crisântemo. Os principais agentes causais incluem Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, espécies de Pythium do grupo F e Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. São apresentadas e discutidas as principais fontes do inóculo primário de Pythium spp. em sistemas hidropônicos, os processos de infecção e colonização de raízes pelos patógenos, o desenvolvimento de sintomas, a produção de inóculo em raízes, e a dispersão do inóculo na solução nutritiva. Descobertas recentes da existência de um elicitor produzido especificamente por P. aphanidermatum que pode provocar a necrose (descoloração) das raízes infectadas e a transição da infecção da fase biotrofica para necrotrofica são consideradas. Efeitos de fatores ligados ao hospedeiro (susceptibilidade à doença, estádio fenológico, exsudatos radiculares, compostos fenólicos), ao ambiente radicular (meio de enraizamento, concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e compostos fenólicos na solução nutritiva, comunidades microbianas e temperatura) e as interferências humanas (práticas de cultivo e medidas de controle) sobre as epidemias de podridão radicular causados por Pythium spp. são revistos. Resultados recentes que demostram um aumento da predisposição das raízes ao ataque de Pythium induzida por estresses ambientais são destacados. O impacto das medidas usadas para a desinfestação da solução nutritiva recirculando fora do cultivo sobre a epidemia da doença é comparada com o impacto de tratamentos que suprimem Pythium nas raízes e na zona radicular da cultura. Novas descobertas de que a infeção de raízes por P. aphanidermatum reduz o crescimento da área foliar e o acúmulo de carbono na planta inteira, sem alterar significativamente a eficiência da fotossíntese por unidade de área foliar, são destacadas. O conhecimento e entendimento da etiologia e epidemiologia da podridão radicular, e seus efeitos na fisiologia da planta, são dicutidos em relacão às novas perspectivas das pesquisas e ao desenvolvimento de melhores práticas para o manejo da doença em cultivo hidropônico. Ênfase é dada nos métodos e tecnologias para a detecção de Pythium tanto na solução nutritiva quanto nas raízes e no desenvolvimento, integração e otimização dos tratamentos para suprimir o patógeno na zona radicular e o progresso da podridão das raízes. Abstract in english The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydropon [...] ic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning) of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances), t

John Clifford, Sutton; Coralie Rachelle, Sopher; Tony Nathaniel, Owen-Going; Weizhong, Liu; Bernard, Grodzinski; John Christopher, Hall; Ruth Linda, Benchimol.

38

Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A etiologia e a epidemiologia da podridão radicular causada por Pythium spp. em cultivo hidropônico são revisadas com ênfase em conhecimentos e conceitos considerados importantes para o manejo de doenças em estufas comerciais. A podridão radicular causada por Pythium continuamente ameaça a produtivi [...] dade de diversas culturas em sistemas hidropônicos, incluindo pepino, tomate, pimentão, espinafre, alface, capuchinha, rúcula, rosa, e crisântemo. Os principais agentes causais incluem Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, espécies de Pythium do grupo F e Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. São apresentadas e discutidas as principais fontes do inóculo primário de Pythium spp. em sistemas hidropônicos, os processos de infecção e colonização de raízes pelos patógenos, o desenvolvimento de sintomas, a produção de inóculo em raízes, e a dispersão do inóculo na solução nutritiva. Descobertas recentes da existência de um elicitor produzido especificamente por P. aphanidermatum que pode provocar a necrose (descoloração) das raízes infectadas e a transição da infecção da fase biotrofica para necrotrofica são consideradas. Efeitos de fatores ligados ao hospedeiro (susceptibilidade à doença, estádio fenológico, exsudatos radiculares, compostos fenólicos), ao ambiente radicular (meio de enraizamento, concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e compostos fenólicos na solução nutritiva, comunidades microbianas e temperatura) e as interferências humanas (práticas de cultivo e medidas de controle) sobre as epidemias de podridão radicular causados por Pythium spp. são revistos. Resultados recentes que demostram um aumento da predisposição das raízes ao ataque de Pythium induzida por estresses ambientais são destacados. O impacto das medidas usadas para a desinfestação da solução nutritiva recirculando fora do cultivo sobre a epidemia da doença é comparada com o impacto de tratamentos que suprimem Pythium nas raízes e na zona radicular da cultura. Novas descobertas de que a infeção de raízes por P. aphanidermatum reduz o crescimento da área foliar e o acúmulo de carbono na planta inteira, sem alterar significativamente a eficiência da fotossíntese por unidade de área foliar, são destacadas. O conhecimento e entendimento da etiologia e epidemiologia da podridão radicular, e seus efeitos na fisiologia da planta, são dicutidos em relacão às novas perspectivas das pesquisas e ao desenvolvimento de melhores práticas para o manejo da doença em cultivo hidropônico. Ênfase é dada nos métodos e tecnologias para a detecção de Pythium tanto na solução nutritiva quanto nas raízes e no desenvolvimento, integração e otimização dos tratamentos para suprimir o patógeno na zona radicular e o progresso da podridão das raízes. Abstract in english The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydropon [...] ic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning) of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances), t

John Clifford, Sutton; Coralie Rachelle, Sopher; Tony Nathaniel, Owen-Going; Weizhong, Liu; Bernard, Grodzinski; John Christopher, Hall; Ruth Linda, Benchimol.

2006-09-01

39

Initial Growth of Peanut Cultivars at Presence of Different Sugarcane Straw Quantities  

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Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of sugarcane straw on plants emergence and some characteristics of initial growth of peanut plants in boxes with soil as substrate. The treatments constituted by straw quantities of: 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 t ha-1 and the five cultivars tested were IAC 213, IAC 503, IAC 505, IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, in a factorial arrangement of 6 x 5 with four replications. At 30 days after sowing were evaluated chlorophyll content, height, emergence of plants, number of leaves, total foliar area, foliar area per plant, leaf, stem, aerial part total and per plant dry mass. Data obtained were submitted to F in variance analysis test and means were compared with Tukey at p>0.05. The same data were padronized and analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis utilizing as the similarity coefficient the simple Euclidian distance and as linkage method the Ward Method. The straw did not affect the cultivars growth studied and the straight cultivar IAC Tatu ST had the major initial growth if compared to the other.

Micheli Satomi Yamauti

2012-05-01

40

Weed-crop competition effects on growth and yield of sugarcane planted using two methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check (full season weed-crop competition) were randomized in sub-plots. Sugarcane sown by trench method exhibited more leaf area index (LAI), average crop growth rate (ACGR) and yield contributing attributes. Trench sowing by yielding 72.22 and 75.08 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields, significantly showed superiority over the flat sowing, which gave 64.13 and 66.04 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields in 2005-06 and 2006- 07, respectively. Generally, there was an increase in weed population and biomass but decrease in leaf area index, crop growth rate and yield components with an increase in weed-crop competition period. A decrease of 10.06, 17.90, 22.42, 28.65, 37.64 and 56.89% in stripped cane yield was observed for weed-crop competition periods of 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 DAS and weedy check as compared with zero competition in 2005-06, respectiwith zero competition in 2005-06, respectively. In 2006-07, the respective decrease in stripped cane yield was 9.84, 18.76, 22.92, 27.98, 38.75, and 54.98%. Trench sowing at 1.2 m row spacing proved better sowing technique and 45 DAS was the critical period of weed-crop competition. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

Effect of Growth Regulators on the Regeneration Potential of Two Sugarcane Cultivars SPF-213 and CPF-237  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to optimize in vitro plantlets production from callus in two sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum cv. SPF-213, CPF-237 embryogenic calli were induced from young leaves cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/l NAA. Three concentrations of two different growth regulators (6, benzylaminopurine and kinetin were tested with and without NAA to compare their ability to induce regeneration from embryogenic calli. After 4 weeks of culture, the percentage of shoot induction was evaluated while after 6 weeks, the total number of shoots produced was checked. Medium containing BA @1.0 mg performed better than Kinetin with the highest percentage of shoot induction.

Farheen Niaz

2002-01-01

42

Efficacy of bio-K fertilizer on the growth and sugar content of sugarcane plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bio-K- fertilizer has been used as a source of potassium to enhance the concentration of sugar in sugarcane and prevent loss of resources and environmental damage. Potassium sul phate and murate of Potash are K fertilizers. The field experiments were done during 2009-2010 to see the increase of sugar contents in sugarcane by using K- fertilizer. The use of bio-K-fertilizer has been found effective which resulted better yield in terms of both quantity and quality of sugarcane and found an increase in concentration of sucrose in sugarcane up to 28% calculated as 3-7% sugar content increase as a whole. The increase in crop production as whole was recorded as 74% due to Bio-K-fertilizer as compared to control plots. No chemical fertilizer was used during this experiment. (author)

43

Pythium oligandrum: an example of opportunistic success.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium oligandrum, a non-pathogenic soil-inhabiting oomycete, colonizes the root ecosystem of many crop species. Whereas most members in the genus Pythium are plant pathogens, P. oligandrum distinguishes itself from the pathogenic species by its ability to protect plants from biotic stresses in addition to promoting plant growth. The success of P. oligandrum at controlling soilborne pathogens is partly associated with direct antagonism mediated by mycoparasitism and antimicrobial compounds. Interestingly, P. oligandrum has evolved with specific mechanisms to attack its prey even when these belong to closely related species. Of particular relevance is the question of how P. oligandrum distinguishes between self- and non-self cell wall degradation during the mycoparasitic process of pathogenic oomycete species. The ability of P. oligandrum to enter and colonize the root system before rapidly degenerating is one of the most striking features that differentiate it from all other known biocontrol fungal agents. In spite of this atypical behaviour, P. oligandrum sensitizes the plant to defend itself through the production of at least two types of microbe-associated molecular patterns, including oligandrin and cell wall protein fractions, which appear to be closely involved in the early events preceding activation of the jasmonic acid- and ethylene-dependent signalling pathways and subsequent localized and systemic induced resistance. The aim of this review is to highlight the expanding knowledge of the mechanisms by which P. oligandrum provides beneficial effects to plants and to explore the potential use of this oomycete or its metabolites as new disease management strategies. PMID:22977087

Benhamou, Nicole; le Floch, Gaêtan; Vallance, Jessica; Gerbore, Jonathan; Grizard, Damien; Rey, Patrice

2012-11-01

44

Growth and Xylose consumption of Candida guilliermondii in the submerse fermentation using sugarcane bagasse  

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Full Text Available The xylitol has been seen as a product with a great commercial value for the food and pharmaceutical industries as well the odontological sector for its notable characteristics like its sweet taste and prevention of caries, while is recommended to the obese and is tolerated by the diabetics. The xylitol may be obtained through chemical and biotechnological reactions. According to the literature the chemical production of xylitol involves an expensive and unproductive process in response to its purification. On the other hand the biotechnological has become an excellent alternative for its production, using submerse fermentative processes made by microorganisms. In the present research was studied the use of the biotechnological reaction, using the yeast Candida guilliermondii and sugarcane bagasse, a low cost agroindustrial residue used for xilose fermentation, as the substrate. Tests were made in duplicate and it was verified the fermentative capacity of three lineages of the C. guilliermondii at the times of 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. For the conversion of the xylana into xylose it was made an acid hydrolysis. Then it was used activated coal for the purification of the hydrolysate and supplementation of the fermentation medium with ammonium sulphate and rice bran. The fermentative process occurred in the shaker at 150rpm at 30ºC. This study intends to estimate through the yeast growth and the xylose consumption the best fermentative parameters to xylitol production. Among the lineages used the best one results were obtained by the LBP018, where it was obtained the highest biomass and faster xylose consumption..

Mário César Jucoski Bier et al.

2007-01-01

45

Soluble silicates and uv-B radiation effects on the growth, nutrient concentration, and yield of sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of several soluble silicates and supplemental uv-B irradiance on the growth and yield of sugarcane grown in an organic soil. Application of soluble silicates increased millable stalks, plant height, stalk diameter, chlorophyll content of the leaf, and cane and sugar yields in both plant and ratoon crops. The yield data tend to support the idea of the essentiality of Si, and point to its role in the production of more tillers, more efficient photosynthesis, and correction of leaf freckling. There were no differences in cane and sugar yields among the three materials in spite of their different Si contents

46

Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-7 [...] 76 (drought susceptible) and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant). Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit). At 0,30 and 60 days after the treatment, gas exchange variables were evaluated for their relationship with water use, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. The SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential and relative water content in the leaves were also analyzed. The genotype HoCP93-776 was more sensitive to drought treatment as indicated by the significantly lower values of SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential (?w) and relative water content (RWC) variables. The genotype TCP02-4587 had higher water potential, stomatal control efficiency, water use efficiency (WUE), intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEintr), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. The highest air vapor pressure deficit during the drought conditions could be due to the stomatal closing in the HoCP93-776, which contributed to its lower photosynthetic capacity.

Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; John Lonfover, Jifon; Claudiana Moura dos, Santos; Cleber Junior, Jadoski; Jorge Alberto Gonçalves da, Silva.

2013-10-01

47

Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-7 [...] 76 (drought susceptible) and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant). Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit). At 0,30 and 60 days after the treatment, gas exchange variables were evaluated for their relationship with water use, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. The SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential and relative water content in the leaves were also analyzed. The genotype HoCP93-776 was more sensitive to drought treatment as indicated by the significantly lower values of SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential (?w) and relative water content (RWC) variables. The genotype TCP02-4587 had higher water potential, stomatal control efficiency, water use efficiency (WUE), intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEintr), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. The highest air vapor pressure deficit during the drought conditions could be due to the stomatal closing in the HoCP93-776, which contributed to its lower photosynthetic capacity.

Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; John Lonfover, Jifon; Claudiana Moura dos, Santos; Cleber Junior, Jadoski; Jorge Alberto Gonçalves da, Silva.

48

Process-based simple model for simulating sugarcane growth and production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dynamic simulation models can increase research efficiency and improve risk management of agriculture. Crop models are still little used for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) because the lack of understanding of their capabilities and limitations, lack of experience in calibrating them, difficulties in eva [...] luating and using models, and a general lack of model credibility. This paper describes the biophysics and shows a statistical evaluation of a simple sugarcane processbased model coupled with a routine for model calibration. Classical crop model approaches were used as a framework for this model, and fitted algorithms for simulating sucrose accumulation and leaf development driven by a source-sink approach were proposed. The model was evaluated using data from five growing seasons at four locations in Brazil, where crops received adequate nutrients and good weed control. Thirteen of the 27 parameters were optimized using a Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation algorithm using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Model predictions were evaluated using measured data of leaf area index, stalk and aerial dry mass, and sucrose content, using bias, root mean squared error, modeling efficiency, correlation coefficient and agreement index. The model well simulated the sugarcane crop in Southern Brazil, using the parameterization reported here. Predictions were best for stalk dry mass, followed by leaf area index and then sucrose content in stalk fresh mass.

Fábio R., Marin; James W., Jones.

2014-02-01

49

Evaluation of Salt Tolerance of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Genotypes Based on the Ability to Regulate Ion Uptake and Transport at Early Stage of Growth  

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Full Text Available   Sugarcane is one of the most important sugar crops in the world. Because of semi-arid climate and salinity of its cultivation area in our country, increasing salt tolerance of sugarcane is signifying. To achieve this goal determining salt tolerant cultivars and understanding salinity mechanisms in sugarcane are very important. This study was conducted to evaluate 8 commercial and promising sugarcane cultivars at early stage of growth. A complete randomized design with three replicates and four salinity treatments (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 % NaCl was used in a hydroponics system. The effect of salinity on absorption, transport and accumulation of Na+, Cl- , K+ and Ca2+ ions in shoot and root was determined. At high level salt concentration, Cl- content in shoot and root increased. Result showed that sodium accumulation in sugarcane plants was more than potassium. By increasing salinity level, sodium uptake and its translocation to shoots increased reducing growth and dry matter yield of plants. With rising salt concentration from medium (0.5% to high (0.75%, content of chloride in shoot and root of NCO-310 was constant showed that this cultivar had genetic ability to avoid Cl- uptake. CP82-1592 with lowest ratio of shoot / root chloride had minimum transport of Cl- to shoots. Also this cultivar had high content of Ca2+ in shoot and low Na+/Ca2+ ratio at all salinity levels. CP48-103 had low sodium in shoot and relatively low sodium in root. Thus it probably has genetic potential to avoid sodium uptake. At last, exclusion of Na+ and Cl- to older leaves and tillers was seen in CP82-1592 and CP72-2086 cultivars. According to results, to avoid once of absorption and transport, and exclusion of harmful Na+ and Cl- ions were mechanisms that could be used in salinity tolerance of sugarcane.

A. Arzani

2008-01-01

50

Antigenic relationship between the animal and human pathogen Pythium insidiosum and nonpathogenic Pythium species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of the newly named pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum and its differentiation from other Pythium species by morphologic criteria alone can be difficult and time-consuming. Antigenic analysis by fluorescent-antibody and immunodiffusion precipitin techniques demonstrated that the P. insidiosum isolates that cause pythiosis in dogs, horses, and humans are identical and that they were distinguishable from other Pythium species by these means. The immunologic data agreed with the morphologic data. This indicated that the animal and human isolates belonged to a single species, P. insidiosum. Fluorescent-antibody and immunodiffusion reagents were developed for the specific identification of P. insidiosum. PMID:3121666

Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Standard, P

1987-01-01

51

Growth of Chlorella vulgaris on sugarcane vinasse: the effect of anaerobic digestion pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae farming has been identified as the most eco-sustainable solution for producing biodiesel. However, the operation of full-scale plants is still limited by costs and the utilization of industrial and/or domestic wastes can significantly improve economic profits. Several waste effluents are valuable sources of nutrients for the cultivation of microalgae. Ethanol production from sugarcane, for instance, generates significant amounts of organically rich effluent, the vinasse. After anaerobic digestion treatment, nutrient remaining in such an effluent can be used to grow microalgae. This research aimed to testing the potential of the anaerobic treated vinasse as an alternative source of nutrients for culturing microalgae with the goal of supplying the biodiesel industrial chain with algal biomass and oil. The anaerobic process treating vinasse reached a steady state at about 17 batch cycles of 24 h producing about 0.116 m(3)CH4 kgCODvinasse (-1). The highest productivity of Chlorella vulgaris biomass (70 mg l(-1) day(-1)) was observed when using medium prepared with the anaerobic digester effluent. Lipid productivity varied from 0.5 to 17 mg l(-1) day(-1). Thus, the results show that it is possible to integrate the culturing of microalgae with the sugarcane industry by means of anaerobic digestion of the vinasse. There is also the advantageous possibility of using by-products of the anaerobic digestion such as methane and CO2 for sustaining the system with energy and carbon source, respectively. PMID:24013860

Marques, Sheyla Santa Isabel; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Chinalia, Fábio Alexandre

2013-12-01

52

Effect of temperature on the population growth of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of temperature on the developmental time, survival, and reproduction of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) reared on sugarcane was studied at seven constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, and 40 degrees C). The developmental threshold temperatures and effective accumulated temperatures for the whole generation were 17.41 degrees C and 1,590.72 DD, respectively. One generation had the highest survival rate (26.67%) at 28 degrees C. The egg failed to survive at 16 and 40 degrees C. The population trend index (I = 38.22) and net reproductive rate (R(o) = 38.3) were highest at 28 degrees C. The net reproductive rate (R(o) = 3.36), intrinsic rate of increase (r(m) = 0.0028), and finite capacity of increase (lambda = 1.0028) were lowest at 20 degrees C. The mean generation time (T(o) = 85.82) was shortest at 36 degrees C. The population double time (PDT = 27.08) was shortest at 32 degrees C. Based on these studies, we concluded that the temperatures from 28 to 32 degrees C were the most suitable temperatures for the development of R. ferrugineus. PMID:20550815

Li, Lei; Qin, Wei-Quan; Ma, Zi-Long; Yan, Wei; Huang, Shan-Chun; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

2010-06-01

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Growth and metal uptake of energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in different metal mine tailings with soil amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of growing energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in three different metal mine tailings (Cu, Sn and Pb/Zn tailings) amended with uncontaminated soil at different mixing ratios. The results indicated that sugarcane was highly tolerant to tailing environments. Amendments of 20% soil to Sn tailings and 30% soil to Cu tailings could increase the biomass of cane-stem for use as the raw material for bioethanol production. Heavy metals were mostly retained in roots, which indicated that sugarcane was useful for the stabilization of the tailings. Bagasse and juice, as the most valuable parts to produce bioethanol, only accounted for 0.6%-3% and 0.6%-7% of the total metal content. Our study supported the potential use of sugarcane for tailing phytostabilization and bioenergy production. PMID:25079638

Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhang, Yuebin; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Shaochun; Guo, Jiawen; Li, Rudan; Wu, Songlin; Chen, Baodong

2014-05-01

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Solarização do solo e incorporação de fontes de matéria orgânica no controle de Pythium spp. Soil solarization in combination with organic matter for the control of Pythium spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da solarização do solo, associada à incorporação de lodo de esgoto, cama-de-frango e casca de Pinus, no controle de Pythium spp. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios, um em área cultivada comercialmente com crisântemo e outro em área artificialmente infestada com Pythium spp. em cultivo de pepino. A adição de cama-de-frango induziu a supressividade do solo ao patógeno, visto que resultou em maiores temperaturas no solo solarizado, aumento na condutividade elétrica e maior atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pela hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína e desprendimento de CO2. Por outro lado, o lodo de esgoto e a casca de Pinus não induziram a supressividade ao patógeno. A solarização não teve efeito no crescimento da parte aérea e no peso de matéria fresca de raízes de plantas de crisântemo, mas teve efeito significativo no controle do patógeno no ensaio conduzido com pepino.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil solarization in combination with sewage sludge, chicken litter and Pinus bark added to soil for the control of Pythium spp. Two field experiments with chrysanthemum and cucumber were carried out in two soils: one commercially cultivated with chrysanthemum and in the other artificially infested with Pythium spp. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by measuring electrical conductivity, pH, microbial activity of soil as well as shoot growth and root fresh weight of chrysanthemum plant. The chicken litter induced suppressiveness to the pathogen due to higher soil temperatures, enhanced electrical conductivity, and increased microbial activity, which was evaluated by diacetate fluorescein hydrolysis and CO2 emission. On the other hand, the sewage sludge and the Pinus bark did not induce pathogen suppressiveness. Solarization did not affect plant shoot growth nor root fresh weight of chrysanthemum plants, but it significantly controlled the pathogen in the experiment with cucumber.

Raquel Ghini

2002-09-01

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Solarização do solo e incorporação de fontes de matéria orgânica no controle de Pythium spp. / Soil solarization in combination with organic matter for the control of Pythium spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da solarização do solo, associada à incorporação de lodo de esgoto, cama-de-frango e casca de Pinus, no controle de Pythium spp. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios, um em área cultivada comercialmente com crisântemo e outro em área artificialmente infestada [...] com Pythium spp. em cultivo de pepino. A adição de cama-de-frango induziu a supressividade do solo ao patógeno, visto que resultou em maiores temperaturas no solo solarizado, aumento na condutividade elétrica e maior atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pela hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína e desprendimento de CO2. Por outro lado, o lodo de esgoto e a casca de Pinus não induziram a supressividade ao patógeno. A solarização não teve efeito no crescimento da parte aérea e no peso de matéria fresca de raízes de plantas de crisântemo, mas teve efeito significativo no controle do patógeno no ensaio conduzido com pepino. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil solarization in combination with sewage sludge, chicken litter and Pinus bark added to soil for the control of Pythium spp. Two field experiments with chrysanthemum and cucumber were carried out in two soils: one commercially cultivated w [...] ith chrysanthemum and in the other artificially infested with Pythium spp. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by measuring electrical conductivity, pH, microbial activity of soil as well as shoot growth and root fresh weight of chrysanthemum plant. The chicken litter induced suppressiveness to the pathogen due to higher soil temperatures, enhanced electrical conductivity, and increased microbial activity, which was evaluated by diacetate fluorescein hydrolysis and CO2 emission. On the other hand, the sewage sludge and the Pinus bark did not induce pathogen suppressiveness. Solarization did not affect plant shoot growth nor root fresh weight of chrysanthemum plants, but it significantly controlled the pathogen in the experiment with cucumber.

Raquel, Ghini; Ivone Alberta Swart, Schoenmaker; Wagner, Bettiol.

56

Solarização do solo e incorporação de fontes de matéria orgânica no controle de Pythium spp. / Soil solarization in combination with organic matter for the control of Pythium spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da solarização do solo, associada à incorporação de lodo de esgoto, cama-de-frango e casca de Pinus, no controle de Pythium spp. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios, um em área cultivada comercialmente com crisântemo e outro em área artificialmente infestada [...] com Pythium spp. em cultivo de pepino. A adição de cama-de-frango induziu a supressividade do solo ao patógeno, visto que resultou em maiores temperaturas no solo solarizado, aumento na condutividade elétrica e maior atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pela hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína e desprendimento de CO2. Por outro lado, o lodo de esgoto e a casca de Pinus não induziram a supressividade ao patógeno. A solarização não teve efeito no crescimento da parte aérea e no peso de matéria fresca de raízes de plantas de crisântemo, mas teve efeito significativo no controle do patógeno no ensaio conduzido com pepino. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil solarization in combination with sewage sludge, chicken litter and Pinus bark added to soil for the control of Pythium spp. Two field experiments with chrysanthemum and cucumber were carried out in two soils: one commercially cultivated w [...] ith chrysanthemum and in the other artificially infested with Pythium spp. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by measuring electrical conductivity, pH, microbial activity of soil as well as shoot growth and root fresh weight of chrysanthemum plant. The chicken litter induced suppressiveness to the pathogen due to higher soil temperatures, enhanced electrical conductivity, and increased microbial activity, which was evaluated by diacetate fluorescein hydrolysis and CO2 emission. On the other hand, the sewage sludge and the Pinus bark did not induce pathogen suppressiveness. Solarization did not affect plant shoot growth nor root fresh weight of chrysanthemum plants, but it significantly controlled the pathogen in the experiment with cucumber.

Raquel, Ghini; Ivone Alberta Swart, Schoenmaker; Wagner, Bettiol.

1253-12-01

57

SUBSTITUTION OF AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER ON UPLAND SUGARCANE CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH, NUTRIENT CONTENT AND SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare the effect of substitution of Ammonium Sulphate (AS fertilizer on sugarcane growth, nutrient content, and soil chemical properties. This research was conducted on up-land of sugarcane plantation in Tegalweru village, Dau district, Malang regency. This study tested ten treatments consisting of three treatments using AS fertilizer, six treatments using AS substitute fertilizers that used combination of Urea, Gypsum, and bio-compost and one control (no fertilizer. This research used randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the plant growth between the treatment used AS fertilizer and AS substitute was not significantly different. However, the treatment used 400 kg Urea per ha+938 kg Gypsum per ha tended to have the best plant growth and the highest N uptake. For the treatments using AS substitute fertilizer, the higher the application rate was, the higher the soil N and S contents were. The treatments used AS fertilizer due to lower soil pH than AS substitute fertilizer. Based on this research, it can be concluded that the use of alternative fertilizers as a substitute of the AS fertilizer is recommended to reduce an adverse impact on soil fertility.

Nurhidayati

2014-02-01

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Partial purification and characterization of three ginsenoside-metabolizing beta-glucosidases from Pythium irregulare.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ginseng pathogen Pythium irregulare is able to selectively metabolize the 20(S) protopanaxadiol ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, and gypenoside XVII via extracellular glycosidases, leading to the formation and partial assimilation of ginsenoside F2. Herein we have partially purified three ginsenoside-deglycosylating enzymes from P. irregulare culture filtrates, and provide preliminary characterization. A protocol involving acetone precipitation, chromatofocusing on PBE 94, gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 HR and ion-exchange on Q Sepharose Fast Flow resulted in a 13-25-fold purification. The three enzymes were induced in cultures grown in the presence of ginsenosides, and found to be acidic proteins (pI of 4.5-5.0), consisting of an apparent high molecular weight (approximately 160 kDa) homodimer of 78 kDa subunits, with beta(1-->6) activity, and two monomeric enzymes of 61 and 57 kDa, with beta(1-->2) activity. Primary sequence analysis identified them as beta-glucosidases, with no homology to other saponin-deglycosylating enzymes. These are the first glycosidases purified from a Pythium species. We speculate that their role is likely to help Pythium find its host, and/or obtain nutrients/growth factors from its environment. PMID:19818460

Andreea Neculai, M; Ivanov, Dimitre; Bernards, Mark A

2009-12-01

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Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

Katya da Silva Patekoski

2010-08-01

60

Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma / Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de [...] alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1) e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings o [...] f Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1), and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

Katya da Silva, Patekoski; Carmen Lidia Amorim, Pires-Zottarelli.

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma / Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de [...] alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1) e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings o [...] f Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1), and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

Katya da Silva, Patekoski; Carmen Lidia Amorim, Pires-Zottarelli.

62

Control of Pythium Damping-off of Squash (Cucurbita pepo by Seed Treatment with Crop Straw and Soil by the Biocontrol Agent Trichodema harzianum  

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Full Text Available Seed treatment by non-sterilized powdered straw from 4 crops was tested for Pythium damping-off of squash. The tested straws including wheat, faba bean, soybean and sorghum were effective in controlling the disease in soil artificially infested with Pythium ultinum. Sterilizing straws eliminated the efficacy of these straw, faba bean and soybean straws inhibit the mycelial growth of Pythium more than wheat and sorghum on potato dextrose agar when the straws were mixed with sterilized distilled water and left to ferment for 3 days. The soil treatment by the biocontrol agent T. harzianum control the damping-off disease in artificially infested soil and combination between seed treatment by straw powder and soil treatment by T. harzianum improve the efficacy of the biocontrol agent.

Nahed Z. Haikal

2007-01-01

63

Determination of Optimum Level of Phosphorus and its Effect on Growth, Yield and Quality of Ratoon Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.  

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Full Text Available The various components of the sugarcane crop such as stripped cane yield, number of millable canes and unstripped cane yield were affected significantly by different levels of phosphorus. Phosphorus application in the range of 100-150 kg ha-1 along with 200-kg ha-1 and 150 kg K2O ha-1 was found to be an optimum dose. Phosphorus application beyond the range of 100 to 150 kg ha-1 will not be profitable. Phosphorus had non-significant effect on the photo biomass and quality parameters.

Aman Ullah Chaudhry

2000-01-01

64

Dynamic distribution of potassium in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the distribution of potassium in sugarcane has been studied during its growth. The soil was prepared with natural fertilizers prepared with sugarcane bagasse. For the measurement of potassium concentration in each part of the plant, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure gamma-rays emitted from the radioisotope 40K. The concentrations of potassium in roots, stems and leaves were measured every two to three months beginning about five months after planting the sugarcane. The results show a higher concentration of potassium at the beginning of plant development and over time, there is an oscillatory behavior in this concentration in each part of the plant, reaching a lower concentration in the adult plant. To describe the evolution of potassium distribution in sugarcane we proposed a phenomenological model assuming that the potassium incorporation rate is proportional to the difference between the element concentration in the plant and a very long term equilibrium value and it is coupled to a resource-limited growth model. The proposed model succeeded in interpreting the results for the potassium distribution in stems and leaves during the sugarcane growth. -- Highlights: • Sugar-cane. • Distribution of potassium from root to aerial parts of the plant. • Gamma-ray spectrometry. • Phenomenological model to describe potassium distribution

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Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas / Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB) é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT) e a es [...] timativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA) interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT). A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto) foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados. Abstract in english Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP) is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint) and the estimated accumulative G [...] P. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR) was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART), which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August) was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

Ricardo A., Ferreira Junior; José L. de, Souza; Gustavo B., Lyra; Iêdo, Teodoro; Marcos A. dos, Santos; Anthony C. S., Porfirio.

1229-12-01

66

Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT e a estimativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT. A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados.Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint and the estimated accumulative GP. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART, which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

Ricardo A. Ferreira Junior

2012-11-01

67

Antifungal activity of Tagetes patula extracts on some phytopathogenic fungi: ultrastructural evidence on Pythium ultimum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanol extract, obtained from Tagetes patula plant, was assayed against three phytopathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme and Pythium ultimum. The antifungal activity was tested both in the dark and in the light, using two different lighting systems. The data showed that the extract proved to have a dose-dependent activity on all the fungi with a marked difference between treatments in the light than in the dark. Good growth inhibition was observed in fungi only when these were treated with the highest dose of the extract and irradiated, whereas the same dose gave only a modest inhibition when the experiment was conducted in the dark. At 5 and 10 microg/ml in the dark, growth increased. The results indicated that the presence of a luminous source enhances the antifungal activity, with small differences between UV-A and solar spectrum light. SEM and TEM observations on Pythium ultimum revealed that the Tagetes patula extract induced alterations on cell fungal membranes with a photoactivation mechanism possibly involving the production of free radicals and leading to a premature aging of the mycelium. PMID:15462529

Mares, D; Tosi, B; Poli, F; Andreotti, E; Romagnoli, C

2004-01-01

68

Increasing P-Availability and P-Uptake Using Sugarcane Filter Cake and Rice Husk Ash to Improve Chinesse Cabbage (Brassica Sp Growth in Andisol, East Java  

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Full Text Available The production potential in Andisols is limited by the high P-retention capacity. Farmers commonly use organic matter. Sugarcane filter cake (blothong, Indonesian, SFC and rice husk ash (RHA are locally available in Coban Rondo, Malang, East Java and hence potentially used for soil amendment. To study the effects of SFC and RHA on P availability, P uptake and plant growth (Brassica sp., soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth, incubated with SFC (21.37 Mg.ha-1 and RHA (44.64 Mg.ha-1. Total P, P-available, pH, organic carbon, exchangeable cations (K, Na, Ca, Mg, and P retention curve were determined at 0, 15, 30, and 45 days after incubation. Crop parameters (height, number of leaves, total dry weight and P-uptake were also measured at 2, 4, 6 weeks after planting. The results showed that RHA was more effective than SFC to decrease P retention and increase P availability (120% on RHA; and 78% on SFC. Soils having higher organic matter tended to have higher P availability. As a consequence, RHA and SFC increased P-uptake respectively 3 and 2 times in soil rich in organic matter, and 1.9 and 2.7 times in soil low in organic matter compared to untreated soil. Increasing P-uptake was followed by plant growth improvement. RHA was more effective than SFC in soil rich in organic matter, but not soil low in organic matter.

S. R. Utami

2012-08-01

69

Growth at elevated CO(2) delays the adverse effects of drought stress on leaf photosynthesis of the C(4) sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. cv. CP72-2086) was grown in sunlit greenhouses at daytime [CO(2)] of 360 (ambient) and 720 (elevated)mumolmol(-1). Drought stress was imposed for 13d when plants were 4 months old, and various photosynthetic parameters and levels of nonstructural carbohydrates were determined for uppermost fully expanded leaves of well-watered (control) and drought stress plants. Control plants at elevated [CO(2)] were 34% and 25% lower in leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) and 35% greater in leaf water-use efficiency (WUE) than their counterparts at ambient [CO(2)]. Leaf CO(2) exchange rate (CER) and activities of Rubisco, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, NADP-malic enzyme and pyruvate P(i) dikinase were marginally affected by elevated [CO(2)], but were reduced by drought, whereas activity of PEP carboxylase was reduced by elevated [CO(2)], but not by drought. At severe drought developed at day 12, leaf g(s) and WUE of ambient-[CO(2)] stress plants declined to 5% and 7%, while elevated-[CO(2)] stress plants still maintained g(s) and WUE at 20% and 74% of their controls. In control plants, elevated [CO(2)] did not enhance the midday levels of starch, sucrose, or reducing sugars. For both ambient- and elevated-[CO(2)] stress plants, severe drought did not affect the midday level of sucrose but substantially reduced that of starch. Nighttime starch decomposition in control plants was 55% for ambient [CO(2)] and 59% for elevated [CO(2)], but was negligible for stress plants of both [CO(2)] treatments. For both ambient-[CO(2)] control and stress plants, midday sucrose level at day 12 was similar to the predawn value at day 13. In contrast, sucrose levels of elevated-[CO(2)] control and stress plants at predawn of day 13 were 61-65% of the midday values of day 12. Levels of reducing sugars were much greater for both ambient- and elevated-[CO(2)] stress plants, implying an adaptation to drought stress. Sugarcane grown at elevated [CO(2)] had lower leaf g(s) and E and greater leaf WUE, which helped to delay the adverse effects of drought and, thus, allowed the stress plants to continue photosynthesis for at least an extra day during episodic drought cycles. PMID:18462832

Vu, Joseph C V; Allen, Leon H

2009-01-30

70

Zoosporogênese in vitro entre isolados do oomiceto Pythium insidiosum / In vitro zoosporogenesis among oomycetes Pythium insidiosum isolates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto aquático, responsável pela etiologia da pitiose, uma enfermidade crônica, observada freqüentemente em eqüinos. A produção de zoósporos móveis por este microrganismo se constitui no fator determinante da ocorrência da enfermidade. Este estudo avaliou a zoosporogênese [...] e quantificou a produção de zoósporos de 32 amostras de Pythium insidiosum isoladas de eqüinos naturalmente infectados. Pythium insidiosum foi cultivado em meio Corn Meal Agar acrescido de fragmentos de grama, durante 5 dias, a 37°C. Posteriormente, os fragmentos de grama parasitados foram incubados em Meio de Indução a 37°C, por 24 horas. Observou-se que 16 amostras (50%) produziram 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, 12 isolados (37,5%) produziram acima de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, enquanto quatro amostras (12,5%) produziram menos de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1. O período de maior produção de zoósporos foi entre 6 e 8 horas de incubação. O protocolo utilizado na indução da zoosporogênese mostrou-se eficiente e representa uma importante ferramenta, tanto para a identificação do Pythium insidiosum, como para a obtenção de zoósporos em quantidades suficientes para a inoculação em animais experimentais e aplicação no desenvolvimento de testes de suscetibilidade. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete and the etiology of a chronic disease called pythiosis, commonly found in the skin of horses. The production of mobile zoospores by this microorganism is the determinant factor of this disease. This study evaluated the zoosporogenesis and quantification of z [...] oospores in 32 samples of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses with pythiosis. The assay used culture of the Pythium insidiosum in Corn Meal Agar plus grass blades for 5 days at 37°C. The grass blades were incubated in Induction Medium at 37°C for 24 hours. The findings showed 16 samples (50%) yielded 20,000 zoospores mL-1, 12 (37.5%) samples yielded over 20,000 zoospores mL-1 and 4 samples (12.5%) yielded less than 20,000 zoospores mL-1. The zoospores production was higher between 6 and 8 hours of incubation. The protocol used in the zoosporogenesis induction was efficient and represents an important tool for Pythium insidiosum identification and the attainment of zoospores in adequate amounts for inoculation in experimental animals and application in the development of susceptibility tests.

Daniela Isabel Brayer, Pereira; Janio Morais, Santurio; Sydney Hartz, Alves; Juliana Siqueira, Argenta; Ayrton Sydnei, Cavalheiro; Laerte, Ferreiro.

71

Zoosporogênese in vitro entre isolados do oomiceto Pythium insidiosum In vitro zoosporogenesis among oomycetes Pythium insidiosum isolates  

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Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto aquático, responsável pela etiologia da pitiose, uma enfermidade crônica, observada freqüentemente em eqüinos. A produção de zoósporos móveis por este microrganismo se constitui no fator determinante da ocorrência da enfermidade. Este estudo avaliou a zoosporogênese e quantificou a produção de zoósporos de 32 amostras de Pythium insidiosum isoladas de eqüinos naturalmente infectados. Pythium insidiosum foi cultivado em meio Corn Meal Agar acrescido de fragmentos de grama, durante 5 dias, a 37°C. Posteriormente, os fragmentos de grama parasitados foram incubados em Meio de Indução a 37°C, por 24 horas. Observou-se que 16 amostras (50% produziram 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, 12 isolados (37,5% produziram acima de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, enquanto quatro amostras (12,5% produziram menos de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1. O período de maior produção de zoósporos foi entre 6 e 8 horas de incubação. O protocolo utilizado na indução da zoosporogênese mostrou-se eficiente e representa uma importante ferramenta, tanto para a identificação do Pythium insidiosum, como para a obtenção de zoósporos em quantidades suficientes para a inoculação em animais experimentais e aplicação no desenvolvimento de testes de suscetibilidade.Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete and the etiology of a chronic disease called pythiosis, commonly found in the skin of horses. The production of mobile zoospores by this microorganism is the determinant factor of this disease. This study evaluated the zoosporogenesis and quantification of zoospores in 32 samples of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses with pythiosis. The assay used culture of the Pythium insidiosum in Corn Meal Agar plus grass blades for 5 days at 37°C. The grass blades were incubated in Induction Medium at 37°C for 24 hours. The findings showed 16 samples (50% yielded 20,000 zoospores mL-1, 12 (37.5% samples yielded over 20,000 zoospores mL-1 and 4 samples (12.5% yielded less than 20,000 zoospores mL-1. The zoospores production was higher between 6 and 8 hours of incubation. The protocol used in the zoosporogenesis induction was efficient and represents an important tool for Pythium insidiosum identification and the attainment of zoospores in adequate amounts for inoculation in experimental animals and application in the development of susceptibility tests.

Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira

2008-02-01

72

Growth, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. as Affected by Different Levels of NPK Applications  

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Full Text Available Response of three sugarcane cultivars namely BL-4, SPSG-26 and SPSG-394 to NPK levels of 0-0-0, 200-0-0, 200-150-150, and 200-200-200 kg was studied under field conditions. Variety SPSG-394 gave the highest cane yield of 107.67 tons ha-1 compared to 88.85 and 58.53 tons ha-1 for the varieties BL-4 and SPSG-26, respectively. An increase of 16.27 and 26.13 tons ha-1 over control was recorded with the application of 200 kg N ha-1 alone and 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1, respectively. Sucrose contents and commercial cane sugar were not affected significantly by fertilizer application. However, variety SPSG-26 gave significantly higher sucrose contents (18.82 % and commercial cane sugar (12.89 % than SPSG-394 and BL-4. The fertilizer application @ 200-150-150 kg NPK ha-1 was found to be optimum level for achieving maximum cane yield.

M. Ayub

1999-01-01

73

Rhizosphere persistence of three Pythium oligandrum strains in tomato soilless culture assessed by DNA macroarray and real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

In tomato soilless culture, plant-disease optimal control and growth promotion are achieved when the rhizosphere is heavily colonized by the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum. Discrepancies in performance are generally attributed to the poor persistence of P. oligandrum on roots. In this study, three selected strains of P. oligandrum were introduced into the rhizosphere of greenhouse-grown tomato plants, and their persistence was assessed by DNA macroarray hybridization and real-time PCR. The experimental data from DNA detection and plate counting were compared. PCR-based methods detected P. oligandrum throughout the 6-month growing season, whereas plate counting indicated its presence only over the first 3 months. Moreover, the DNA array method provided information about the various Pythium species present in the rhizosphere: P. dissotocum was frequently detected on roots of plants, without distinction between plants inoculated or not inoculated with the antagonist. The detection of other Pythium species was noticed sporadically (P. ultimum, P. sylvaticum and P. intermedium), independent of the treatment. Even though the yield enhancement is not significant throughout the entire growing season, data obtained from epidemiological studies demonstrate an enhancement of P. oligandrum persistence on the rhizosphere of plants and less use of mycoparasitism. PMID:17627780

Le Floch, Gaetan; Tambong, James; Vallance, Jessica; Tirilly, Yves; Lévesque, André; Rey, Patrice

2007-08-01

74

Cytological effects of cellulases in the parasitism of Phytophthora parasitica by Pythium oligandrum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ubiquitous oomycete Pythium oligandrum is a potential biocontrol agent for use against a wide range of pathogenic fungi and an inducer of plant disease resistance. The ability of P. oligandrum to compete with root pathogens for saprophytic colonization of substrates may be critical for pathogen increase in soil, but other mechanisms, including antibiosis and enzyme production, also may play a role in the antagonistic process. We used transmission electron microscopy and gold cytochemistry to analyze the intercellular interaction between P. oligandrum and Phytophthora parasitica. Growth of P. oligandrum towards Phytophthora cells correlated with changes in the host, including retraction of the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic disorganization. These changes were associated with the deposition onto the inner host cell surface of a cellulose-enriched material. P. oligandrum hyphae could penetrate the thickened host cell wall and the cellulose-enriched material, suggesting that large amounts of cellulolytic enzymes were produced. Labeling of cellulose with gold-complexed exoglucanase showed that the integrity of the cellulose was greatly affected both along the channel of fungal penetration and also at a distance from it. We measured cellulolytic activity of P. oligandrum in substrate-free liquid medium. The enzymes present were almost as effective as those from Trichoderma viride in degrading both carboxymethyl cellulose and Phytophthora wall-bound cellulose. P. oligandrum and its cellulolytic enzymes may be useful for biological control of oomycete pathogens, including Phytophthora and Pythium spp., which are frequently encountered in field and greenhouse production. PMID:11010874

Picard, K; Tirilly, Y; Benhamou, N

2000-10-01

75

Reguladores vegetais e qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em meio de safra / Growth regulators and technological quality of sugarcane in the middle of the cropping season  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A maturação da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.) refere-se a um dos aspectos fundamentais para o sistema de produção da indústria sucroalcooleira. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra. [...] O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos da aplicação de quatro maturadores da classe dos retardantes de crescimento (Ethefon, Etil-trinexapac, KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro) e uma testemunha (maturação natural). A eficiência agronômica dos maturadores foi influenciada pela época de aplicação, pela condição climática e pela característica genética da variedade. A aplicação dos maturadores em 10/05/2004 permitiu explorar de forma significativa o potencial genético da variedade quanto ao acúmulo de sacarose nos colmos, implicando em melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. A adoção dessa prática em 04/08/2005, de modo geral, pouco afetou os parâmetros tecnológicos, exceto a aplicação de Etil-trinexapac, o qual induziu melhoria significativa na qualidade da matéria-prima. A produtividade de açúcar refletiu-se de forma direta na margem de contribuição agrícola, sendo constatado maior retorno econômico para as plantas tratadas com KNO3 na safra 2004. Abstract in english The ripening of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is the most important aspect in the production system for sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the technological quality of sugarcane as a function of plant regulators application in the middle of the cropping sea [...] son. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators application of the class of growth retainers (Ethephon, Ethyl.trinexapac, Potassium nitrate and Potassium nitrate + Boron) and a control (natural ripening). The agricultural efficiency of maturators was affected by time application, weather condition and genetic characteristic of variety. The maturation application on 10/05/2004 allowed to explore of a significant form the genetic potential of variety as to sucrose storage in stems implicating in improvement technological quality of raw material. The maturation application on 04/08/2005 little affected technological parameters, except for Ethyl-trinexapac application, that induced significant improvement in technological quality of raw material. The sugar productivity reflected direct agricultural contribution and provided greater economical return with Potassium nitrate treatment in 2004.

Glauber Henrique Pereira, Leite; Carlos Alexandre Costa, Crusciol; Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; Waldemar Gastoni, Venturini Filho.

76

Reguladores vegetais e qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em meio de safra Growth regulators and technological quality of sugarcane in the middle of the cropping season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A maturação da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. refere-se a um dos aspectos fundamentais para o sistema de produção da indústria sucroalcooleira. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos da aplicação de quatro maturadores da classe dos retardantes de crescimento (Ethefon, Etil-trinexapac, KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. A eficiência agronômica dos maturadores foi influenciada pela época de aplicação, pela condição climática e pela característica genética da variedade. A aplicação dos maturadores em 10/05/2004 permitiu explorar de forma significativa o potencial genético da variedade quanto ao acúmulo de sacarose nos colmos, implicando em melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. A adoção dessa prática em 04/08/2005, de modo geral, pouco afetou os parâmetros tecnológicos, exceto a aplicação de Etil-trinexapac, o qual induziu melhoria significativa na qualidade da matéria-prima. A produtividade de açúcar refletiu-se de forma direta na margem de contribuição agrícola, sendo constatado maior retorno econômico para as plantas tratadas com KNO3 na safra 2004.The ripening of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is the most important aspect in the production system for sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the technological quality of sugarcane as a function of plant regulators application in the middle of the cropping season. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators application of the class of growth retainers (Ethephon, Ethyl.trinexapac, Potassium nitrate and Potassium nitrate + Boron and a control (natural ripening. The agricultural efficiency of maturators was affected by time application, weather condition and genetic characteristic of variety. The maturation application on 10/05/2004 allowed to explore of a significant form the genetic potential of variety as to sucrose storage in stems implicating in improvement technological quality of raw material. The maturation application on 04/08/2005 little affected technological parameters, except for Ethyl-trinexapac application, that induced significant improvement in technological quality of raw material. The sugar productivity reflected direct agricultural contribution and provided greater economical return with Potassium nitrate treatment in 2004.

Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

2008-12-01

77

Microbes - friends and foes of sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane is an important cash crop for many countries because it is a major source of several products including sugar and bioethanol. To obtain maximum yields there is a need to apply large quantities of chemical fertilizers.Worldwide yields are also severely affected by more than sixty diseases, mostly caused by fungi but viruses, phytoplasmas, nematodes and other pests can also damage this crop. For most of these diseases, chemical control is not available and breeders are struggling with the development of pest resistant varieties. Many members of the grass family Poaceae establish associations with beneficial microbes which promote their growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. They can be used as means to reduce the need for chemical fertilizer and to minimize the impacts of pathogen invasion. This review highlights the diversity of the microbes associated with sugarcane and the role of beneficial microbes for growth promotion and biocontrol. More extensive use of beneficial microbes will help the sugarcane grower not only to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers but also minimize the disease. In this paper, a brief description of both the non-pathogenic and pathogenic microbes associated with sugarcane is provided. Future prospects for the expanded use of beneficial microbes for sugarcane are also discussed and detailed herein. PMID:23322584

Mehnaz, Samina

2013-12-01

78

Pythium cederbergense sp. nov. and related taxa from Pythium clade G associated with the South African indigenous plant Aspalathus linearis (rooibos).  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Pythium consists of more than 120 species and is subdivided into 11 phylogenetic clades (A-K) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence data. Pythium clade G contains only seven known species, with most not being well described. Our study characterized 12 Pythium isolates from Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) that fit into clade G. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS region and a combined phylogeny of four gene regions (ITS, ?-tubulin, COX1 and COX2 [cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II]) identified five clade G subclades. The rooibos isolates formed two groups, Pythium Rooibos I (RB I) and II (RB II), that clustered into two separate clades within subclade 1. The nine Pythium RB I isolates formed a distinct clade from P. iwayamai and is described here as a new species, Pythium cederbergense sp. nov. The three Pythium RB II isolates had P. canariense and P. violae as their closest relatives and were genetically diverse, suggesting the presence of several new species or a species complex that cannot be resolved with the current data, thus precluding a species description of this group. Morphological analyses showed that P. cederbergense and Pythium RB II were indistinguishable from each other but distinct from known clade G species. Clade G studies are being hampered by imprecise morphological descriptions of P. violae, P. canariense and P. iwayamai and each species being represented by only one isolate. The P. cederbergense and Pythium RB II isolates all were nonpathogenic toward rooibos, lupin and oats seedlings. One oligonucleotide was developed for each of P. cederbergense and Pythium RB II, which was able to differentiate the isolates with DNA macro-array analyses. PMID:23709523

Bahramisharif, Amirhossein; Lamprecht, Sandra C; Spies, Christoffel F J; Botha, Wilhelm J; McLeod, Adéle

2013-01-01

79

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.

Vincentz Michel GA

2009-03-01

80

Influencia del hábito de crecimiento en la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la caña de azúcar / The influence of the growth habit on the velocity of sugarcane manual harvesting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. híbrido) es un cultivo de gran trascendencia en Venezuela. Si bien la cosecha de este rubro tiende a mecanizarse, el corte manual es aún muy importante ya que una significativa proporción del cultivo es cosechado de esa manera. El objetivo de este estudio fue conoce [...] r la influencia del hábito de crecimiento de la planta en la velocidad con que se realiza el corte manual de tallos al momento de la cosecha. El ensayo se realizó en los ciclos de planta y soca, y en cada uno se emplearon cinco trabajadores para cosechar cinco cultivares de caña de azúcar cuyos hábitos variaban desde cañas acamadas hasta cañas erectas. Se empleó un diseño en cuadrado latino 5 x 5 para evaluar el tiempo en que cada trabajador cortaba cada uno de los cultivares y los datos fueron convertidos en tiempo necesario para cosechar una tonelada de caña. Adicionalmente, se midió la dureza del tallo de los diferentes cultivares para tratar de establecer el posible efecto de ese factor en la cosecha manual. Los resultados indicaron que el hábito de crecimiento de la caña de azúcar influye en la velocidad del corte de tallos, es decir, cañas acamadas o con tendencia al acame afectan negativamente la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la planta. No se encontró evidencia de que la dureza del tallo de estos cultivares tenga efecto en la velocidad del corte manual. Abstract in english Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) is a main crop in Venezuela. Even thought there is a trend toward mechanization, manual harvesting remains important due to the fact that a significant proportion of the sugarcane produced is harvested that way. The objective of this study was to determine the exten [...] t in which sugarcane growth habit influences the velocity in which manual harvesting is done. The trial was performed during plant and ratoon cycles, and in each of them, five workers were employed to harvest five sugarcane cultivars whose habits ranged from erect to recumbent. A 5 by 5 Latin Square design was used, and time was recorded for each worker as they cut each of the five cultivars. Data were converted in time needed to harvest a ton of cane. The effect of stalk hardness was also considered. Results indicated that the growth habit of the cultivar influenced the speed in which sugarcane stalks are harvested, so lodged and non-erect stalks are features that negatively affected the velocity of manual harvesting. There was no evidence showing that stalk hardness had any effect on the labor speed.

Orlando, De Sousa-Vieira; Rosaura, Briceño Cárdenas; Ramón, Rea; Alida, Díaz; José, George.

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Pythium recalcitrans sp. nov. revealed by multigene phylogenetic analysis  

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A new species of Pythium collected from grapevine roots (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and roots of common beet (Beta vulgaris) in Majorca, Spain, is described. The phylogenetic position of the new species was investigated by multigene sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the rDNA region, as well as three other nuclear and three mitochondrial coding genes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA and concatenated ?-tubulin and cytrochro...

Moralejo, Eduardo; Clemente, Antonio; Descals, Enric; Belbahri, Lassaad; Calmin, Gautier; Lefort, Franc?ois; Spies, Chris F. J.; Mcleod, Adele

2008-01-01

82

Toll-deficient Drosophila is susceptible to Pythium insidiosum infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a paucity of animal models of pythiosis, a life-threatening disease of humans and animals, the immunopathogenesis of which is poorly understood. A pythiosis model was developed by injecting Toll (Tl)-deficient Drosophila melanogaster flies with Pythium insidiosum zoospores. The infected Tl mutant flies had significantly lower survival rates (73.7%) than did control flies. This study reveals the important role of Tl pathway activation in fly immune response to pythiosis. PMID:23865688

Zanette, Régis A; Santurio, Janio M; Loreto, Érico S; Alves, Sydney H; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2013-10-01

83

Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson Fitzp. a pathogen of greenhouse cucumbers  

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Full Text Available The infection of mature cucumber plants by Pythium aphanidermatum was stated in two greenhouses. Young cucumber plants from the stage of young seedling until the beginning of cropping were easily infected by the fungus when artificially inoculated. The mature plants were effectively infected only when high temperature (above 30°C and high moisture conditions were provided. All 17 cucumber varieties tested were susceptible to infection. Morphology of the fungus is described for the first time in Poland.

Bogdan Nowicki

1982-06-01

84

Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production = Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas  

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Full Text Available Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be thebest substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 timesgreater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass andphycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas emrelação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinaspodendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.

Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

2007-01-01

85

Understanding interception losses under sugarcane plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being planted around 20 million hectares in over 70 countries. The Brazil is a leader in terms of area harvested and production with 9.5 million hectares and 715 million tons in 2011, respectively. Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop which is planted and after the first harvesting, the re-growth is harvested several times (five to eight times) until replanting is needed mainly due to yield decline. The rainfall interception loss is an important process in the hydrological cycle which has a key role on climate change. Details on sugarcane canopy interception are still not well understood in particular within the tropics. In this study, rainfall interception was measured during the complete ratoon crop cycle of the sixth re-growth, observing their growth stage. Five through (each with an area of 2000 cm2) were installed randomly on the plantation. The gross rainfall for the study period of one year was 1413 mm, while the throughfall was 972 mm (69%). Thus, annual rainfall interception loss was 441 mm (31%). The interception losses started to occur in the third stage of plant development (between 110 and 240 days after the onset of re-growth period). During the formation of the stems, the interception was 25.5%. Furthermore, at stage when the plant reached maturity (240 to 385 days), interception loss was increased to 57.5%. Our results indicate that interception losses are an important component of water use in sugarcane crops and the annual values of interception losses from sugarcane may be similar to some results found in tropical and temperate forests.

Costa Silva, R. W.; Salemi, L.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; de Moraes, J. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

2012-12-01

86

Modelagem do crescimento de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar no período de formação da cultura / Modeling of growth of sugarcane cultivars during the crop formation period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo ajustar modelos de crescimento ao acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea da cana-de-açúcar durante o período de formação da cultura, para as cultivares RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 e RB855453. Dados de matéria seca foram obtidos durante a execução de experimento em cond [...] ições de campo entre 26/08/11 e 18/05/12. Os dados experimentais foram coletados a partir dos 45 dias após o plantio, em intervalos de uma ou duas semanas, totalizando 17 datas de amostragem. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear para determinação dos parâmetros dos modelos expolinear, logístico e Gompertz. Todos os modelos avaliados foram capazes de simular adequadamente o acúmulo de matéria seca pelas cultivares ao longo do período estudado, com valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados (R²aj) acima de 0,9245. Com base no modelo de crescimento expolinear, constatou-se que, ao final do período experimental, a massa seca foi ligeiramente maior para a cultivar RB855453 em comparação à RB867515, as quais se destacaram em relação às cultivares RB928064 e RB92579. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to adjust growth models to the above-ground accumulated sugarcane dry matter, during the crop formation period, for cultivars RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 and RB855453. Dry matter data were obtained during the execution of experiment under field conditions from [...] October 26, 2011 to May 18, 2012. Experimental data were collected from 45 days after planting, in one or two week time intervals, totalizing 17 sampling dates. The obtained values were subjected to nonlinear regression analysis in order to determine the parameters of the expolinear, logistic and Gompertz models. All evaluated models were capable of adequately simulating the dry matter accumulation by the cultivars during the studied period, with values of the adjusted determination coefficient above 0.9245. Based on the expolinear growth model, it was observed, at the end of the experimental period, that the accumulated dry mass was stightly superior for the cultivar RB855453 as compared to the RB867515, which outperformed the cultivars RB928064 and RB92579.

Evandro L. da S., Batista; Sérgio, Zolnier; Aristides, Ribeiro; Gustavo B., Lyra; Thieres G. F. da, Silva; Davi, Boehringer.

87

Modelagem do crescimento de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar no período de formação da cultura / Modeling of growth of sugarcane cultivars during the crop formation period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo ajustar modelos de crescimento ao acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea da cana-de-açúcar durante o período de formação da cultura, para as cultivares RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 e RB855453. Dados de matéria seca foram obtidos durante a execução de experimento em cond [...] ições de campo entre 26/08/11 e 18/05/12. Os dados experimentais foram coletados a partir dos 45 dias após o plantio, em intervalos de uma ou duas semanas, totalizando 17 datas de amostragem. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear para determinação dos parâmetros dos modelos expolinear, logístico e Gompertz. Todos os modelos avaliados foram capazes de simular adequadamente o acúmulo de matéria seca pelas cultivares ao longo do período estudado, com valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados (R²aj) acima de 0,9245. Com base no modelo de crescimento expolinear, constatou-se que, ao final do período experimental, a massa seca foi ligeiramente maior para a cultivar RB855453 em comparação à RB867515, as quais se destacaram em relação às cultivares RB928064 e RB92579. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to adjust growth models to the above-ground accumulated sugarcane dry matter, during the crop formation period, for cultivars RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 and RB855453. Dry matter data were obtained during the execution of experiment under field conditions from [...] October 26, 2011 to May 18, 2012. Experimental data were collected from 45 days after planting, in one or two week time intervals, totalizing 17 sampling dates. The obtained values were subjected to nonlinear regression analysis in order to determine the parameters of the expolinear, logistic and Gompertz models. All evaluated models were capable of adequately simulating the dry matter accumulation by the cultivars during the studied period, with values of the adjusted determination coefficient above 0.9245. Based on the expolinear growth model, it was observed, at the end of the experimental period, that the accumulated dry mass was stightly superior for the cultivar RB855453 as compared to the RB867515, which outperformed the cultivars RB928064 and RB92579.

Evandro L. da S., Batista; Sérgio, Zolnier; Aristides, Ribeiro; Gustavo B., Lyra; Thieres G. F. da, Silva; Davi, Boehringer.

1080-10-01

88

Evaluation of Some Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Extracts for Immunostimulatory and Growth Promoting Effects in Industrial Broiler Chickens  

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Full Text Available Present paper describes the immunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of some sugar cane extracts (SCEs in broiler chickens. Aqueous extract (AE from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum juice and ethanolic extract (EE from bagasse were used to demonstrate their effects on lymphoproliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P and Concanavalin-A (Con-A; antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs; growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR in experimental chickens as compared to control. Results showed significantly higher (P<0.05 in vitro and in vivo lymphoproliferative responses to Con-A and PHA-P, respectively in chickens administered with SCEs as compared to those in control group. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05 lymphoproliferative responses were detected in chickens administered with EE as compared to chickens administered with AE. Anti-SRBC total Igs, IgG and IgM titers were significantly higher (P<0.05 in chickens of experimental groups administered with SCEs as compared to those of control group; whereas titers were comparable among the experimental groups. The organ-body weight ratios of lymphoid organs were statistically similar in experimental and control groups. Both the experimental groups administered with SCEs showed better FCR and significantly higher (P<0.05 weight gains as compared to control. In conclusion, oral administration of SCEs showed immunostimulatory effects in broiler chickens and resulted in improved feed utilization and decreased amount of food needed for unit gain in body weight.

Mian Muhammad Awais and Masood Akhtar*

2012-06-01

89

The sugarcane-biofuel expansion and dairy farmers' responses in Brazil  

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The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in São Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a dramatically expanding sugarcane economy. Combining different data sets – semi-structured interviews with 34 farmers and baseline data from all m...

Monteiro Novo, A. L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M. A.

2012-01-01

90

Solarização do solo e incorporação de fontes de matéria orgânica no controle de Pythium spp. Soil solarization in combination with organic matter for the control of Pythium spp.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da solarização do solo, associada à incorporação de lodo de esgoto, cama-de-frango e casca de Pinus, no controle de Pythium spp. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios, um em área cultivada comercialmente com crisântemo e outro em área artificialmente infestada com Pythium spp. em cultivo de pepino. A adição de cama-de-frango induziu a supressividade do solo ao patógeno, visto que resultou em maiores temperaturas no solo solarizado, aumento na ...

Raquel Ghini; Ivone Alberta Swart Schoenmaker; Wagner Bettiol

2002-01-01

91

[Effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and economic benefit of sugarcane intercropped with soybean].  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-factor field experiment of randomized block design was conducted in Guangzhou to investigate the effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and total biomass dynamic of sugarcane as well as the economic benefit of the sugarcane population under different sugarcane/soybean intercropping patterns. Neither N application nor intercropping pattern had significant effects on the yield and quality of sugarcane, and no significant differences were observed in the yield and quality of sugarcane among all treatments. The land equivalent ratio (LER) of sugarcane/soybean intercropping at different N application levels was from 1.36 to 2.12, suggesting that sugarcane/soybean intercropping had higher LER than monoculture sugarcane. The total dry matter (except root) of sugarcane in all treatments increased with plant growth, and the growth pattern fitted sigmoid function. At lower nitrogen application level, the eigenvalues of the dynamic dry matter accumulation model were more coordinative, compared with those at higher nitrogen application level, which meant that in the later case, sugarcane had an advanced peak growth time and shortened fast-growth duration, and thereby, its yield decreased. Therefore, it was possible to reasonably adjust nitrogen application level to improve the eigenvalues of the sugarcane dynamic dry matter accumulation model, and accordingly, to achieve high yield. The population economic benefit under sugarcane/soybean intercropping was 3.2%-26.3% higher at lower than at higher nitrogen application level, suggesting the increase of the economic benefit of sugarcane population under reduced nitrogen application. Among the treatments, 1:2 sugarcane/soybean intercropping had the best economic benefit. PMID:21657029

Li, Zhi-xian; Wang, Jian-wu; Yang, Wen-ting; Shu, Ying-hua; Du, Qing; Liu, Li-ling; Shu, Lei

2011-03-01

92

The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

2012-01-01

93

Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of sugarcane legumain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant legumains, also termed vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), are cysteine peptidases that play key roles in plant development, senescence, programmed cell death and defense against pathogens. Despite the increasing number of reports on plant cysteine peptidases, including VPEs, the characterization of sugarcane VPEs and their inhibition by endogenous cystatins have not yet been described. This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of a sugarcane cysteine peptidase. In this work, a recombinant sugarcane legumain was expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. Kinetic studies of the recombinant CaneLEG revealed that this enzyme has the main characteristics of VPEs, such as self-activation and activity under acidic pH. CaneLEG activity was strongly inhibited when incubated with sugarcane cystatin 3 (CaneCPI-3). Quantitative analysis of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 gene expression indicated a tissue-specific expression pattern for both genes throughout sugarcane growth, with the strong accumulation of CaneLEG transcripts throughout the internode development. Furthermore, the CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 genes exhibited up-regulation in plantlets treated with abscisic acid (ABA). These results suggest that CaneCPI-3 may be a potential endogenous inhibitor of CaneLEG and these genes may be involved in plant stress response mediated by ABA. Also, the expression analysis provides clues for the putative involvement of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 in sugarcane development and phytohormone response. PMID:22721948

Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Gerald, Lee T S; Meneghin, Silvana P; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

2012-08-01

94

Pythium insidiosum: morphological and molecular identification of Brazilian isolates Pythium insidiosum: identificação morfológica e molecular de isolados brasileiros  

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Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete belonging to the kingdom Stramenipila and it is the etiologic agent of pythiosis. Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease characterized by the development of chronic lesions on cutaneous and subcutaneous, intestinal, and bone tissues in humans and many species of animals. The identification of P. insidiosum is important in order to implement a rapid and definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment. This study reports the identification of 54 isolates of P. insidiosum of horses, dogs and sheep that presented suspicious clinical lesions of pythiosis from different regions in Brazil, by using morphological and molecular assays. Throughout the PCR it was possible to confirm the identity of all Brazilian isolates as being P. insidiosum.Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto pertencente ao Reino Stramenopila e agente etiológico da pitiose, uma doença infecciosa com riscos de morte. A pitiose é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento de lesões crônicas sobre os tecidos cutâneos, subcutâneas, intestinal e ósseo em humanos e muitas espécies de animais. A identificação de P. insidiosum é importante, a fim de se obter um diagnóstico rápido e definitivo, bem como um tratamento eficaz. Este estudo relata a identificação de 54 isolados de P. insidiosum de cavalos, cães e ovelhas que apresentavam lesões compatíveis e suspeita clínicas de pitiose, provenientes de diferentes regiões do Brasil, através de métodos morfológicos e moleculares. Através da PCR foi possível confirmar a identidade de todos os isolados brasileiros como sendo P. insidiosum.

Maria Isabel de Azevedo

2012-07-01

95

Sugarcane micropropagation using light emitting diodes and adjustment in growth-medium sucrose concentration / Micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar com diodos emissores de luz e ajuste da concentração de sacarose do meio de cultivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de diodos emissores de luz (LEDs) em substituição a lâmpadas fluorescentes brancas e adequar a concentração de sacarose na micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.). Brotações da variedade RB 872552 foram avaliadas nas fases de multiplic [...] ação e enraizamento, utilizando as fontes de luz LEDs azuis, LEDs vermelhos, LEDs verdes, lâmpadas Growlux e lâmpadas fluorescentes brancas, e as concentrações de sacarose de 0, 15, 30 e 45g L-1, fixando-se a intensidade luminosa em 20µmol m-2 s-1. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em fatorial 5x4 (fontes de luz x concentrações de sacarose). O desenvolvimento das brotações foi satisfatório sob os três tipos de LEDs estudados. A presença de sacarose no meio de cultivo foi indispensável para multiplicação e enraizamento das brotações, sendo necessário ajuste da concentração para cada fonte de luz. Os LEDs vermelhos não proporcionaram a maior taxa de multiplicação, porém esta foi bastante alta (8,5 brotos por subcultivo, com adição de 34,9g L-1 de sacarose), com maior comprimento dos brotos (33,3mm) e maior eficiência de aclimatização das plantas. Concluiu-se que os LEDs podem ser utilizados como substitutos das lâmpadas fluorescentes em laboratórios de micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) instead of white fluorescent lamps as light source and adequate growth-medium sucrose concentration for sugarcane micropropagation (Saccharum officinarum L.). Sugarcane (RB 872552 variety) bud explants were evaluated du [...] ring the multiplication and rooting phases under controlled growth-room conditions. Different light sources (blue, red and green LEDs; Growlux and white fluorescent lamps) and different medium sucrose concentrations (0; 15; 30 and 45g L-1) were used, maintaining constant light intensity (20µmol m-2 s-1), photoperiod (16h) and temperature (25+2°C). The experiment was a completely randomized design, and treatments were arranged in a 5x4 factorial (five light sources and four medium sucrose concentrations) with six replications. Sugarcane bud growth was satisfactory under the three LED types studied. The presence of sucrose in growth media was essential for bud multiplication and rooting. Nevertheless, each light source requires the respective medium sucrose concentration adjustment for best results. Red LEDs provided a significantly high multiplication rate (although not the highest) with 8.5 buds per sub-culture and 34.9g L-1 of sucrose; also, the highest bud length (33.3mm) and the best plantlet acclimatization. Therefore, LED sources can advantageously substitute fluorescent lamps in laboratories of sugarcane micropropagation.

Paulo Sérgio Gomes da, Rocha; Roberto Pedroso de, Oliveira; Walkyria Bueno, Scivittaro.

96

Species of Pythium isolated from eggs of fresh-water fish  

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Full Text Available In the present study species from the genus Pythium were isolated from eggs of fresh water fish. Altogether sixteen species of fungi were found on fish eggs including 13 species noted for the first time from fish.

Bazyli Czeczuga

1996-12-01

97

Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

2012-07-01

98

Mechanism for mercury tolerance in fungi. [Aspergillus niger; Rhizoctonia solani; Pythium ultimum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aspergillus niger was protected from mercury (Hg) poisoning by sulfhydryl (SH) compounds (glutathione and cysteine) in culture experiments, whereas Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum were not protected. Two- to 30-day-old mycelium of A. niger was found to be more tolerant to Hg than either younger or older mycelia. Mycelia of the other fungi were sensitive regardless of age. Mercury tolerance of A. niger mycelium was altered when sulfur nutrition was modified; it was greater after growth on a substrate containing reduced sulfur than after growth on one containing sulfate. The Hg tolerance of A. niger mycelium appears to be due to a pool of intracellular SH that is free of protein and that protects enzyme systems by forming complexes with Hg as it is taken up by the thallus. Potato-dextrose broth-grown mats of A. niger contained about 100 ..mu..g of SH/g of dry mycelia after 36 hr and after 5 days. R.. solani had about 9 ..mu..g of SH/g of mycelia after 5 days; a measurable amount was not recovered from P. ultimum. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Ashworth, L.J. Jr.; Amin, J.V.

1964-01-01

99

Crescimento e acúmulo de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em solo coberto com palhada Growth and accumulation of nitrogen by sugarcane cultivated in soil covered with cane trash  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do nitrogênio da uréia e a influência da palhada na produtividade de soqueira de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi instalado no campo, num solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo no Município de Piracicaba, SP, com dois tratamentos: mistura de vinhaça e uréia aplicada em toda a área sobre o solo coberto com palhada; uréia enterrada em sulcos nos dois lados das linhas da cana-de-açúcar, com prévia aplicação de vinhaça sobre o solo sem palhada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas comparações de produtividade da cultura, do acúmulo de N pela parte aérea, da utilização do N da uréia pela cultura ao final do ciclo. O desenvolvimento vegetal foi representado por curvas de acúmulo de massa de material seco e pelos índices fisiológicos de taxa de produção de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento relativo, que foram semelhantes nas condições, com ou sem a presença da palhada de cana-de-açúcar. Do N total acumulado na parte aérea da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar, 10 a 16% foram absorvidos do fertilizante. A eficiência de utilização do N da uréia pela soqueira de cana foi em média de 17%, e não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of nitrogen from urea and the influence of the cane trash in the productivity of sugarcane ratoon. It was a field experiment, in a ustalfs soil, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, in October 1997, with two treatments: application of a vinasse-urea mixture in the total area of a soil covered with cane trash; and urea buried in furrows in both sides of the cane rows, with previous application of vinasse in a soil without cane trash. A randomized block design with four replications was used. Parameters of crop productivity accumulation of N by the top and use of urea N by the crop were evaluated in each treatment. Plant development was represented by a dry matter mass accumulation and by physiological indexes of dry matter production rate and relative growth rate, which were similar in both conditions, with and without cane trash. From the total N accumulated in the top of the sugarcane ratoon, 10-16% was absorbed from the fertilizer. The mean efficiency of the use of urea N by the sugarcane ratoon was 17%.

Glauber José de Castro Gava

2001-11-01

100

Crescimento e acúmulo de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em solo coberto com palhada / Growth and accumulation of nitrogen by sugarcane cultivated in soil covered with cane trash  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do nitrogênio da uréia e a influência da palhada na produtividade de soqueira de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi instalado no campo, num solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo no Município de Piracicaba, SP, com dois tratamentos: mistura de vinhaça e [...] uréia aplicada em toda a área sobre o solo coberto com palhada; uréia enterrada em sulcos nos dois lados das linhas da cana-de-açúcar, com prévia aplicação de vinhaça sobre o solo sem palhada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas comparações de produtividade da cultura, do acúmulo de N pela parte aérea, da utilização do N da uréia pela cultura ao final do ciclo. O desenvolvimento vegetal foi representado por curvas de acúmulo de massa de material seco e pelos índices fisiológicos de taxa de produção de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento relativo, que foram semelhantes nas condições, com ou sem a presença da palhada de cana-de-açúcar. Do N total acumulado na parte aérea da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar, 10 a 16% foram absorvidos do fertilizante. A eficiência de utilização do N da uréia pela soqueira de cana foi em média de 17%, e não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of nitrogen from urea and the influence of the cane trash in the productivity of sugarcane ratoon. It was a field experiment, in a ustalfs soil, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, in October 1997, with two treatments: application of a vinasse-urea mixture i [...] n the total area of a soil covered with cane trash; and urea buried in furrows in both sides of the cane rows, with previous application of vinasse in a soil without cane trash. A randomized block design with four replications was used. Parameters of crop productivity accumulation of N by the top and use of urea N by the crop were evaluated in each treatment. Plant development was represented by a dry matter mass accumulation and by physiological indexes of dry matter production rate and relative growth rate, which were similar in both conditions, with and without cane trash. From the total N accumulated in the top of the sugarcane ratoon, 10-16% was absorbed from the fertilizer. The mean efficiency of the use of urea N by the sugarcane ratoon was 17%.

Glauber José de Castro, Gava; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin; Mauro Wagner de, Oliveira; Claudimir Pedro, Penatti.

1347-13-01

 
 
 
 
101

Biological activity of Pythium oligandrum against Phytophthora species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influence of Pythium oligandrum as an a.i. of Polyversum on population dynamic of Phytophthora cryptogea in peat and development of Phytophtora rot on gerbera, Lawson cypress and yew-tree were evaluated. Drenching of peat, artificially infested with P. cryptogea, with Polyversum immediatelly after gerbera planting resulted in significant decrease of colony forming units number within 4 weeks. Concentrations of the biopreparate used had no significant influence on its greater, biological activity. Drenching of plants with Polyversum at conc. 0.05 or 0.1%, after planting into peat infested with P. cryptogea or P. cinnamomi, resulted in the strong suppression of Phytophthora foot or root and stem rot of gerbera, cypress and yew-tree. PMID:12425033

Orlikowski, L B

2001-01-01

102

Effect of substrates and plant growth promoting bacteria in the germination of sugarcane seeds / Efeito de substratos e bactérias promotoras do crescimento vegetal na germinação de sementes de cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi testar diferentes substratos e a inoculação com bactérias promotoras do crescimento vegetal (BPCV) na germinação de sementes de cana-de-açúcar. Os susbtratos foram areia, vermiculita e Plantmax®. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 2x3, com 4 r [...] epetições. Foram estimados os parâmetros índice de velocidade de germinação, dias para emergência, e aos 30 dias após a semeadura os parâmetros: altura das plântulas (cm), volume das raízes (cm³), comprimento das raízes (cm) e o número de plântulas germinadas. A aplicação de BPCV promoveu o crescimento das plântulas, principalmente das raízes. O Plantmax® apresentou as melhores condições para o desenvolvimento das plântulas e para a germinação. Na vermiculita o desenvolvimento das plântulas foi limitado. Na areia não houve resposta à aplicação de BPCV. Recomenda-se a utilização do substrato Plantmax® e a aplicação de BPCV na germinação de sementes de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to test different substrates with Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) inoculation on sugarcane seed germination. The substrates were sand, vermiculite and Plantmax®. The completely randomized factorial design 2x3, with 4 repetitions was used. The parameters estimated were [...] speed of germination index, days for emergence, and 30 days after sowing the parameters: height of seedlings (cm), volume of roots (cm³), length of roots (cm), and the number of germinated plants. The application of PGPB promoted better development of seedlings, mainly roots. The Plantmax® presented the better conditions for germination and seedling development. Vermiculite had the worst results. No response to PGPB was observed in the sand. The use of Plantmax® and PGPB in germination of sugarcane seeds is recommended.

Guilherme Grodzki O., Figueiredo; Valéria Rosa, Lopes; João Carlos, B. Filho; Edelclaiton, Daros.

103

Seasonal variation of the canopy structure parameters and its correlation with yield-related traits in sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Population structure determines sugarcane yield, of which canopy structure is a key component. To fully understand the relations between sugarcane yield and parameters of the canopy structure, 17 sugarcane varieties were investigated at five growth stages. The results indicated that there were significant differences between characterized parameters among sugarcane populations at different growth stages. During sugarcane growth after planting, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf distribution (LD) increased, while transmission coefficient for diffuse radiation (TD), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), and extinction coefficient (K) decreased. Significant negative correlations were found between sugarcane yield and MFIA, TD, TR, and K at the early elongation stage, while a significant positive correlation between sugarcane yield and LD was found at the same stage. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 10%, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = 2380.12 + 46.25 × LD - 491.82 × LAI + 1.36 × MFIA + 614.91 × TD - 1908.05 × TR - 182.53 × K + 1281.75 × LD - 1.35 × MFIA + 831.2 × TR - 407.8 × K + 8.21 × MFIA - 834.50 × TD - 1695.49 × K (R (2) = 0.94**). PMID:24453909

Luo, Jun; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Liping

2013-01-01

104

Pythium insidiosum: morphological and molecular identification of Brazilian isolates / Pythium insidiosum: identificação morfológica e molecular de isolados brasileiros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto pertencente ao Reino Stramenopila e agente etiológico da pitiose, uma doença infecciosa com riscos de morte. A pitiose é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento de lesões crônicas sobre os tecidos cutâneos, subcutâneas, intestinal e ósseo em humanos e muitas espécies de a [...] nimais. A identificação de P. insidiosum é importante, a fim de se obter um diagnóstico rápido e definitivo, bem como um tratamento eficaz. Este estudo relata a identificação de 54 isolados de P. insidiosum de cavalos, cães e ovelhas que apresentavam lesões compatíveis e suspeita clínicas de pitiose, provenientes de diferentes regiões do Brasil, através de métodos morfológicos e moleculares. Através da PCR foi possível confirmar a identidade de todos os isolados brasileiros como sendo P. insidiosum. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete belonging to the kingdom Stramenipila and it is the etiologic agent of pythiosis. Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease characterized by the development of chronic lesions on cutaneous and subcutaneous, intestinal, and bone tissues in humans and many sp [...] ecies of animals. The identification of P. insidiosum is important in order to implement a rapid and definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment. This study reports the identification of 54 isolates of P. insidiosum of horses, dogs and sheep that presented suspicious clinical lesions of pythiosis from different regions in Brazil, by using morphological and molecular assays. Throughout the PCR it was possible to confirm the identity of all Brazilian isolates as being P. insidiosum.

Maria Isabel de, Azevedo; Daniela I.B., Pereira; Sônia A., Botton; Mateus M. da, Costa; Camila D., Mahl; Sydney H., Alves; Janio M., Santurio.

105

The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India  

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Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

R. Sinha

2014-06-01

106

Produtividade e qualidade tecnológica da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar submetida à aplicação de biorregulador e fertilizantes líquidos Productivity and technological quality of sugarcane ratoon subject to the application of plant growth regulator and liquid fertilizers  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a aplicação de biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos, na rebrota e na produtividade da soqueira de cinco genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Município de Jaú, São Paulo (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x5, constituído por cinco genótipos (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 e IACSP93-6006 e cinco tratamentos com biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos (Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1 + Cellerate® a 0,5L ha-1; Etefon a 3,0L ha-1 e Testemunha, com quatro repetições. A aplicação dos produtos ocorreu 70 dias após a quarta colheita. Foram avaliados: perfilhamento, produtividade de colmos industrializáveis e de açúcar, fibra, pol % cana e açúcar total recuperável. O etefon proporcionou melhor perfilhamento, mas a resposta foi dependente do genótipo. O maior número de perfilhos promovido pelo etefon não refletiu em maior produtividade. A aplicação de Stimulate® e fertilizantes líquidos não proporcionou efeitos na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar. Houve aumento da produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, independente do genótipo, com o emprego do biorregulador Stimulate®, com ou sem complementação de fertilizante líquido, indicando a possibilidade do aumento da longevidade da cana-de-açúcar.The present work aimed to evaluate the application of plant growth regulators, associate or not to liquid fertilizers, on the ratoon sprouting and productivity of sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú city (SP, in a Eutroferric Red Latosol. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with factorial treatment structure 5x5, constituted by five genotypes (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 and IACSP93-6006 and five plant growth regulators treatments associated or not to liquid fertilizers (Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1, + Cellerate®, 0,5L ha-1; Ethephon, 3,0L ha-1, and control, with four replicates. The application of the products occurred at 70 days after the fourth crop harvest. The attributes tillering, stalk productivity, sugar productivity, fiber, pol % cane and total sugar recoverable were evaluated. Ethephon provided better tillering, but this response was dependent of the genotype. The highest tiller number caused by Ethephon did not mean the highest productivity. The application of Stimulate® and liquid fertilizers did not provide effects on the sugarcane technological quality. There was increase of cane productivity and sugar productivity with the use of plant growth regulator Stimulate® for all genotypes, with or without supplementation of liquid fertilizer, being an indicative for increasing the sugarcane longevity.

Marcelo de Almeida Silva

2010-04-01

107

IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO MEASURE SUGARCANE LEAF AREA  

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Full Text Available In order to increase the average sugarcane yield per acres with minimum cost farmers are adapting precision farming technique. This paper includes the area measurement of sugarcane leaf based on image processing method which is useful for plants growth monitoring, to analyze fertilizer deficiency and environmental stress,to measure diseases severity. In image processing method leaf area is calculated through pixel number statistic. Unit pixel in the same digital images represent the same size hence from known reference area and pixel count, unit pixel size can calculate, so that it is easy to calculate leaf area by counting total pixel in leaf area region. The results are compared with the results of graphical area measurement method. The experimentally it is proved that image processing method for measuring sugarcane leaf area is accurate and strong practicabilitywith small relative error.

Sanjay B. Patil

2011-08-01

108

Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

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Full Text Available Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT, yield (TSS, leaf area index (LAI, and number of plants per linear meter (NPM correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2 window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS. No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3 was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT, produtividade (TSS, índice de área foliar (LAI e número de plantas por metro (NPM por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma área comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronômicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados médios do talhão (DMt. Regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de índices de vegetação. As correlações e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variáveis agronômicas não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Os modelos quadráticos e cúbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variáveis espectrais, em função dos dias após o corte e apresentaram significância com os índices de vegetação da razão e por diferença normalizada (NDVI. As correlações entre os dados espectrais médios do talhão e as variáveis agronômicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados médios do talhão (DMt, para primeira safra (1ªS, para a segunda safra (2ªS e ambas juntas geraram regressões múltiplas, com coeficientes determinação (r² variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar.

Maurício dos Santos Simões

2009-08-01

109

Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield / Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT), produtividade (TSS), índice de área foliar (LAI) e número de plantas [...] por metro (NPM) por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma área comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronômicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados médios do talhão (DMt). Regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de índices de vegetação. As correlações e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variáveis agronômicas não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Os modelos quadráticos e cúbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variáveis espectrais, em função dos dias após o corte e apresentaram significância com os índices de vegetação da razão e por diferença normalizada (NDVI). As correlações entre os dados espectrais médios do talhão e as variáveis agronômicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados médios do talhão (DMt), para primeira safra (1ªS), para a segunda safra (2ªS) e ambas juntas geraram regressões múltiplas, com coeficientes determinação (r²) variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT), yield (TSS), leaf area index (LAI), and number of plants per line [...] ar meter (NPM) correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2) window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS). No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3) was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.

Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

110

Desenvolvimento da cana-de-açúcar cultivar na 56-79 proveniente da propagação de colmos tratados com ethephon / Growth of sugarcane cultivar na 56-79 originated from stalks treated with ethephon  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Aplicou-se ethephon nas dosagens de 0,2 e 3 l/ha em cana-de-açúcar NA 56-79, 31 dias antes da colheita. Dos colmos colhidos foram efetuadas avaliações referentes a: infestação da broca da cana; gemas danificadas,entumescidas e brotadas; altura dos colmos; comprimento do ápice; número total de gemas [...] e por último, análises tecnológicas para Pol, Brix, pureza e teor de fibras. Os toletes obtidos desses colmos foram plantados combinando-se as três dosagens de ethephon com três densidades de plantio: colmos simples, cruzados e duplos. Foram coletados dados semanais e posteriormente mensais de brotação e dados mensais de altura dos colmos. Dados de produção e número de colmos produzidos foram tomados por ocasião do 1º, 2º e 3º cortes da cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados revelaram que a aplicação de ethephon 2 l/ha, no estágio que antecede a colheita, promoveu um aumento do número de gemas e na altura dos colmos, e a dosagem 3 l/ha reduziu o teor de fibras na região apical da cana-de-açúcar em relação ao controle. Observou-se um aumento na velocidade de emergência de gemas obtidas de colmos tratados com o produto na dosagem 2 l/ha, antes do início do perfilhamento. Quanto à densidade de plantio, colmos duplos possibilitaram maior velocidade de emergência, seguidos de colmos cruzados, com relação a colmos simples. O crescimento, perfilhamento e produção de três anos consecutivos da cana-de-açúcar proveniente de toletes obtidos de plantas tratadas com ethephon não diferiram do controle. Notou-se um maior número de colmos produzidos no 1º ano, na densidade de plantio colmos duplos, quando comparados a colmos simples, sem, contudo, haver um aumento correspondente na produção. Abstract in english Ethephon was applied on the dosages 0, 2 e 3 liters per hectare on sugarcane cultivar NA 56-79, 3l days before harvesting. At harvesting time, the following parameters were evaluated: infestation by the Diatraea saccharalis; damaged, swelled and emerged buds; stalks lenght, top lenght; number of bud [...] s per stalk and the cane quality. The setts obtained from the stalks were planted at three differents densities: normal, crossed and doubles setts. Initially, the number of sprouts was collected weekly and later monthly. The other parameter, stalk lenght, was obtained under monthly intervals. The stalks number and the production were taken at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year's growth. The results showed that the ethephon's application on 2 l/ha, before harvesting, increased the number of buds and the stalks lenght. The dosage 3 l/ha reduced the amount of fibers on the apical region of the sugarcane. Increasing of the bud emergency velocity was observed on the dosage 21/ha, before tillering. With reference to planting density, doubles setts showed emergency velocity greater than crossed setts. In turn, the crossed setts proved emergency velocidy greater than normal setts. The growth, tillering and the three years productions of the sugarcane coming from setts of the stalks treated or not with ethephon showed no significative differences.

Eunice, Melotto; Paulo R.C., Castro; Oswaldo P., Godoy; Gil M.S., Câmara; José P., Stupiello; Antonio F., Iemma.

111

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

Goldman Gustavo H

2011-10-01

112

Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugar cane growth was about 257,000 ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 75% and 70% respectively were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugar cane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn2+, Cu2+) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

113

Long-term follow-up after successful treatment of Pythium insidiosum keratitis in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project is to report a case of severe Pythium insidiosum keratitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and its long-term cure after therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. A 24-year-old woman with a history of contact lens wear and exposure to swimming pool water presented with a severe corneal abscess. She was treated with intensive fortified topical antibiotics and natamycin with limited response. Initial cultures suggested the presence of a septate mold, unclearly identified; therefore, both topical and intravenous voriconazole were administered. Despite the above treatment, there was worsening of the clinical picture. PCR assay revealed homology to Pythium insidiosum. Promptly, the patient underwent a large therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. After five years of follow-up, the graft exhibits neither signs of rejection nor any recurrence of infection. We conclude that prompt identification of Pythium insidiosum keratitis and aggressive treatment by therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty may offer a cure to this disease. PMID:23627654

Barequet, Irina S; Lavinsky, Fabio; Rosner, Mordechai

2013-07-01

114

Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS  

Science.gov (United States)

From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

115

Status of the Pythiaceae (Straminipila) in Argentina: I. The GenusPythium / Status de la familia Pythiaceae (Reino Straminipila) en Argentina: I. El género Pythium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El género Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes-ex Oomycetes), Straminipila) incluye patógenos que afectan hospedantes de importancia económica, ocasionando damping off en pre y postemergencia de plántulas de almácigo y el declinamiento de plantas herbáceas y adultas por destrucción de las raíces [...] absorbentes. Con la finalidad de conocer el estado actual de la información disponible sobre este género en Argentina, se llevó a cabo una revisión desde los primeros reportes a fines del siglo XIX hasta octubre de 2009. Se consultaron fuentes primarias y secundarias de información escrita y electrónica: presentaciones en congresos nacionales e internacionales, publicaciones periódicas nacionales e internacionales, boletines de instituciones y universidades, libros y bases de datos. La información obtenida fue categorizada y analizada permitiendo conocer el número de especies de este género, su distribución geográfica y por tipo de cultivos, relaciones hospedante-patógeno involucradas y la sintomatología observada. Se encuentran citadas 18 especies que afectan a 247 hospedantes. Un elevado número de hospedantes fueron afectados por P. ultimum y P. debaryanum, seguidos por P. irregulare y P. aphanidermatum. La diversidad de especies de Pythium en el mundo sugiere que un mayor número de especies podrían estar presentes en el país, siendo necesario su relevamiento e identificación. Abstract in english The genus Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes - ex Oomycetes), Kingdom Straminipila) includes important pathogens, affecting a wide range of hosts of economic value, causing damping-off and decline of herbaceous and wooded plants due to rootlets rot. In order to acquire a more comprehensive visi [...] on of Pythium in Argentina, a review and an updated report of recent progress in this matter was carried out since the first reports in the late XIX century till October 2009. Information was taken from printed and on line primary and secondary sources such as Proceedings of national and international Scientific Meetings, Bulletins from National Institutions and Universities, periodical Journals, books and data bases. The information was analyzed and categorized, thus updating the number of species of this genus, their geographical distribution, hosts affected, and symptoms. So far 18 species have been cited affecting, 247 hosts. The greatest number of hosts is affected by P. ultimum and P. debaryanum, followed by P. irregulare and P. aphanidermatum. The diversity of Pythium species in the world suggests that perhaps a wider variety of species, still not cited, could be present in Argentina. Projects dedicated to surveying the presence and identification of Pythium spp are necessary.

Hemilse E, Palmucci; Silvia M, Wolcan; Pablo E, Grijalba.

116

Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must  

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Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and may influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoc...

Alcarde André Ricardo; Walder Júlio Marcos Melges; Horii Jorge

2003-01-01

117

Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic parameters such as leaf area index (LAI, number of stalks per meter (NPM, yield (TSS and total biomass (BMT. A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4, Simple Ratio (SR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC. After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3 and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79 with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variáveis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF, número de perfilhos por metro (NPM, produtividade (TCH e biomassa total (BMT. Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talhão comercial, localizada no município de Araras/SP foi monitorado em nove campanhas de coleta de dados radiométricos e agronômicos. O comportamento temporal das variáveis espectrais acompanhou o comportamento das variáveis agronômicas. A banda 4 (B4, o índice de vegetação da razão simples (SR, o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI e o índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo (SAVI aumentaram seus valores até o fim da fase de crescimento vegetativo, aproximadamente até os 240 dias após o corte, a partir do qual os valores se estabilizaram e diminuíram em função da entrada da cultura na fase de maturação. A banda 3 (B3 e o índice de vegetação da razão (RVI tiveram queda em seus valores desde o início do ciclo, com posterior estabilização e aumento em seus valores devido ao aumento da quantidade de palha e da queda da biomassa foliar. As variáveis espectrais B3, RVI, NDVI e SAVI tiveram correlações maiores que 0,79 com as variáveis IAF e BMT e de aproximadamente 0,50 com o NPM. Os melhores modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram os com RVI, IAF e NPM e explicaram 0,97 da variação da TCH e 0,99 da BMT.

Maurício dos Santos Simões

2005-06-01

118

Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane / Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variá [...] veis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF), número de perfilhos por metro (NPM), produtividade (TCH) e biomassa total (BMT). Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talhão comercial, localizada no município de Araras/SP foi monitorado em nove campanhas de coleta de dados radiométricos e agronômicos. O comportamento temporal das variáveis espectrais acompanhou o comportamento das variáveis agronômicas. A banda 4 (B4), o índice de vegetação da razão simples (SR), o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI) e o índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo (SAVI) aumentaram seus valores até o fim da fase de crescimento vegetativo, aproximadamente até os 240 dias após o corte, a partir do qual os valores se estabilizaram e diminuíram em função da entrada da cultura na fase de maturação. A banda 3 (B3) e o índice de vegetação da razão (RVI) tiveram queda em seus valores desde o início do ciclo, com posterior estabilização e aumento em seus valores devido ao aumento da quantidade de palha e da queda da biomassa foliar. As variáveis espectrais B3, RVI, NDVI e SAVI tiveram correlações maiores que 0,79 com as variáveis IAF e BMT e de aproximadamente 0,50 com o NPM. Os melhores modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram os com RVI, IAF e NPM e explicaram 0,97 da variação da TCH e 0,99 da BMT. Abstract in english Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic para [...] meters such as leaf area index (LAI), number of stalks per meter (NPM), yield (TSS) and total biomass (BMT). A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4), Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC). After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3) and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79) with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.

Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

2005-06-01

119

Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca / Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois regulador [...] es vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte. Abstract in english The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulat [...] ors, applied before the harvest, in the stool regrowth and productivity of three sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú (SP). The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in split-plot, with four repetitions, constituted by the genotypes IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 and IAC91-5155, and by three crop management: 20 g ha-1 sulfomethuron-methyl; 480 g a.i. ha-1 ethephon and control. The growth regulators were applied 126 days before harvest. To quantify the action of growth regulators the following variables were evaluated: the number of tillers m-1 at 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 days after the harvest; the final percentage of stalk number by meter in relation to the initial percentage; the mass of 10 stalks, the length and the diameter of stalks; the pol and the fiber% cane, the reducing and total recoverable sugars, and the productivity of stalks and sugar. It was concluded that there was stimulating effect on the emergency of tillering up to six months after the harvest. The ethephon promoted larger productivities of stalks and sugar. There were differences among genotypes in relation to growth regulators for stalk length. There was no effect on the technological quality over the subsequent ratoon crop.

Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; Glauber José de Castro, Gava; Marina Maitto, Caputo; Renata Passos, Pincelli; Elisangela Marques, Jerônimo; Juliana Cristina Sodário, Cruz.

120

SUGARCANE BAGASSE: A NOVEL SUBSTRATE FOR MASS MULTIPLICATION OF FUNNELIFORMIS MOSSEAE WITH ONION AS HOST  

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A pot experiment was conducted to test the influence of sugarcane bagasse (fibrous waste left over by recovery of sugarcane juice) as a substrate for the inoculum production of Funneliformis mosseae which was recorded in terms of root colonization, spore number and colonization pattern. Their effect on growth performance of onion was also recorded in terms of increase in plant height, above ground fresh and dry weight, root length, root fresh and dry weight. The experiment is a 3×4 factorial...

Anju Tanwar; Ashok Aggarwal

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Efeitos do glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl no crescimento e na qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar / Effect of glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl on the growth and technological quality of sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os herbicidas, mesmo quando usados em doses reduzidas ou utilizados como maturadores, podem alterar a morfofisiologia da planta, o que pode levar a modificações qualitativas e quantitativas na produção. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência agronômica e os efeitos, durante o crescimento d [...] a cana-soca, da aplicação de glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl em baixas doses. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos herbicidas sulfometuron-methyl e glyphosate em diferentes doses e misturas e por uma testemunha (sem aplicação dos produtos). Uma linha de plantas de cana-de-açúcar foi destinada à aferição da qualidade tecnológica, sendo estabelecido 1 m aleatório a cada época de amostragem. Os colmos coletados foram submetidos ao desponte na altura da gema apical e à desfolha; em seguida, foram encaminhados para processamento segundo a metodologia do Sistema de Pagamento de Cana pelo Teor de Sacarose (SPCTS), sendo considerados os parâmetros tecnológicos: pol cana (PCC), pureza do caldo (PUI), açúcar total recuperável (ATR) e Brix. Nas soqueiras de cana-de-açúcar, realizaram-se análises de crescimento (altura e perfilhos). As avaliações foram realizadas na pré-colheita (30 dias após aplicação dos maturadores) e 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias após a colheita. Os herbicidas glyphosate e sulfometuron-methyl propiciaram melhoria da qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima,com incrementos significativos na pureza do caldo e no Brix. A aplicação dos produtos não interferiu na produtividade e no teor de açúcar. Houve efeito estimulante no perfilhamento quando se usou glyphosate na dose de 400 mL ha-1 e redução em crescimento (altura) no início do desenvolvimento da cana, porém, com o tempo, o efeito não se manteve. Abstract in english Even when used at low doses, or used as growth regulators, herbicides can change the morphology and physiology of the plant, leading to qualitative and quantitative changes in production. This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic efficiency and the effects during sugarcane ratoon growth after apply [...] ing low doses of glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of application of two herbicides (glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl at various doses and mixtures) and a control (without herbicide application). One row of plants was used to measure technological quality, with a random 1 m being established for each sampling time. The stems collected were submitted to apical bud emergence and defoliation and were sent to be processed according to the methodology of the Cane Payment System based on Sucrose Content (CPSSC), considering the following technological parameters: pol cane (PCC), broth purity (BP), total recoverable sugar (TRS), and Brix. The stumps were analyzed for sugarcane growth (height and tillers). Evaluations were performed during pre-harvest (30 DAA), 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after harvest. The treatments with glyphosate and sulfometuron-methyl provided improved technological quality of the raw material, with significant increases in broth purity and Brix. Herbicide application did not affect productivity and sugar content. There was a stimulating effect on tillering with glyphosate at a dose of 400 mL, and growth reduction (height) at the start of cane development, but such effect was not maintained along time.

D.K., Meschede; E.D., Velini; C.A., Carbonari.

1135-11-01

122

Characterization of major hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Pythium myriotylum, causative agent for soft rot disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium myriotylum, an oomycetous necrotroph is the causal agent of soft rot disease affecting several crops. Successful colonization by necrotrophs depends on their secretion of a diverse array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs). The induction dynamics of CWDEs secreted by P. myriotylum was analysed as little information is available for this pathogen. Activities of CWDEs that included pectinase, cellulase, xylanase and protease were detected using radial diffusion assay and differential staining. In Czapek Dox minimal medium supplemented with respective substrates as carbon source, the increase in CWDE activities was observed till 8 days of incubation after which a gradual decline in enzymatic activities was observed. With sucrose as sole carbon source, all the enzymes studied showed increase in activity with fungal growth while with cell wall material derived from ginger rhizome as sole carbon source, an initial spurt in cellulase, xylanase and pectinase activities was observed 3 days post incubation while protease activity increased from three days of incubation and reached maximum at 13 days of incubation. To further evaluate the role of CWDEs in pathogenicity, UV-induced mutants (pmN14uv1) were generated wherein significant reduction in cellulase, pectinase and protease activities were observed while that of xylanase remained unchanged compared to wild type isolate (RGCBN14). Bioassays indicated changes in infection potential of pmN14uv1 thereby suggesting the crucial role played by P. myriotylum CWDEs in initiating the rotting process. Hence appropriate strategies that target the production/activity of these secretory hydrolytic enzymes will help in reducing disease incidence/pathogen virulence. PMID:23897210

Geethu, C; Resna, A K; Nair, R Aswati

2013-11-01

123

Diphenyl diselenide in vitro and in vivo activity against the oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the in vitro activity of diphenyl diselenide against 19 Pythium insidiosum isolates and the in vivo therapeutic response of rabbits with experimentally induced pythiosis. In vitro: susceptibility tests were performed using the broth macrodilution method in accordance with the CLSI document M38-A2. The criteria for interpretation were as follows: MIC-1 and MIC-2 (inhibition of 90% and 100% of mycelium growth, respectively) and the minimum fungicide concentration (MIC-3). In vivo: twenty rabbits were divided into four groups with five animals each and treated for 40 consecutive days: groups 1 and 2 (experimentally induced pythiosis) were treated with diphenyl diselenide (10mg/kg/day) and canola oil (1 mL/kg/day), respectively; groups 3 and 4 (controls) were treated with canola oil (1 mL/kg/day) and diphenyl diselenide (10mg/kg/day), respectively. Toxicity was evaluated using biochemical and haematological parameters. In vitro susceptibility tests showed that 89.4% of isolates had a MIC-1 ? 0.5 ?g/mL, 84.2% of isolates had a MIC-2 ? 1.0 ?g/mL and 94.7% of isolates had a MIC-3 ? 2.0 ?g/mL. The in vivo assay suggested that this compound has a fungistatic activity, and the biochemical and haematological parameters indicated that there was no renal, hepatic or haematological toxicity. The comparison of the unsaturated iron binding capacity levels between animals with and without pythiosis suggested the involvement of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of pythiosis. This study demonstrated the absence of detectable toxicity caused by diphenyl diselenide and the in vitro fungicidal and in vivo fungistatic activities of this drug, which makes it an option for future therapeutic approaches in the treatment of pythiosis. PMID:22055205

Loreto, Erico Silva; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Zeni, Gilson

2012-04-23

124

Molecular Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Pythium insidiosum Infection by Use of PCR Screening and DNA Sequencing  

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Pythium insidiosum is an emerging human pathogen classified among brown algae and diatoms that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in otherwise healthy individuals. Here we describe a pediatric patient with pythiosis acquired in the southern United States, diagnosed by molecular screening and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region 1.

Salipante, Stephen J.; Hoogestraat, Daniel R.; Sengupta, Dhruba J.; Murphey, Donald; Panayides, Kyriacos; Hamilton, Emma; Castan?eda-sa?nchez, Irene; Kennedy, Jason; Monsaas, Peter W.; Mendoza, Leonel; Stephens, Karen; Dunn, James J.; Cookson, Brad T.

2012-01-01

125

Molecular diagnosis of subcutaneous Pythium insidiosum infection by use of PCR screening and DNA sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is an emerging human pathogen classified among brown algae and diatoms that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in otherwise healthy individuals. Here we describe a pediatric patient with pythiosis acquired in the southern United States, diagnosed by molecular screening and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region 1. PMID:22205808

Salipante, Stephen J; Hoogestraat, Daniel R; SenGupta, Dhruba J; Murphey, Donald; Panayides, Kyriacos; Hamilton, Emma; Castañeda-Sánchez, Irene; Kennedy, Jason; Monsaas, Peter W; Mendoza, Leonel; Stephens, Karen; Dunn, James J; Cookson, Brad T

2012-04-01

126

Does immunotherapy protect equines from reinfection by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum?  

Science.gov (United States)

A cutaneous Pythium insidiosum reinfection was diagnosed in an equine in Brazil. Lesions with focal presentation appeared 2 years apart. The first infection and even immunotherapy were not likely to develop enough immune response to prevent reinfection. The use of adjuvants should be considered in the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:21715582

Santos, Carlos E P; Marques, Luiz C; Zanette, Régis A; Jesus, Francielli P K; Santurio, Janio M

2011-08-01

127

Does Immunotherapy Protect Equines from Reinfection by the Oomycete Pythium insidiosum??  

Science.gov (United States)

A cutaneous Pythium insidiosum reinfection was diagnosed in an equine in Brazil. Lesions with focal presentation appeared 2 years apart. The first infection and even immunotherapy were not likely to develop enough immune response to prevent reinfection. The use of adjuvants should be considered in the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:21715582

Santos, Carlos E. P.; Marques, Luiz C.; Zanette, Regis A.; Jesus, Francielli P. K.; Santurio, Janio M.

2011-01-01

128

The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: {yields} The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. {yields} Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. {yields} Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. {yields} Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

Tosi Furtado, Andre, E-mail: furtado@ige.unicamp.b [Department of Science and Technology Policy-DPCT, Institute of Geosciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil); Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne, E-mail: mirnags31@globo.co [Bioethanol Science and Technology Center-CTBE, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto, E-mail: cortez@agr.com.b [School of Agriculture (FEAGRI), University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil)

2011-01-15

129

Relationships between methods of variety adaptability and stability in sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification and recommendation of superior genotypes is crucial for the growth of industrial crops, and sugarcane breeding performs a vital role by developing more productive cultivars. The study of genotype x environment interaction has been an essential tool in this process. Thereby, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between methods of adaptability and stability in sugarcane. Data were collected from trials using a randomized block design with three repetitions and 15 clones of sugarcane in nine environments in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methodologies based on analysis of variance, linear regression, multivariate analysis, nonparametric statistics, and mixed model were used. The methods of Lin and Binns, Annicchiarico, and harmonic mean of relative performance of genotypic values (MHPRVG) were similar in their classification of genotypes. The additive main effect and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) and Wricke methods tended to select the most stable genotypes; however, genotypes were less productive, coinciding with the stability parameter of Eberhart and Russell. The MHPRVG method is preferred over the methods of Lin and Binns and Annicchiarico because it includes the concepts of productivity, adaptability, and stability, and it provide direct genetic values of individuals. The use of the MHPRVG and Eberhart and Russell methods is recommended because the combination of these methods is complementary and leads to greater accuracy in the identification of genotypes of sugarcane for different environments. PMID:25036165

Mendes de Paula, T O; Marinho, C D; Souza, V; Barbosa, M H P; Peternelli, L A; Kimbeng, C A; Zhou, M M

2014-01-01

130

Effect of silicon soil amendment on performance of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a pest of graminaceous crops in the southern USA, including sugarcane, maize, and rice. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) soil amendments on performance of sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis, on two rice cultivars, Cocodrie and XL723. There was a significant increase in the Si content of rice plants supplemented with calcium silicate as compared to non-treated plants. Soil Si amendment led to lower relative growth rates (RGRs) and reduced boring success of sugarcane borer larvae. Effects of soil Si amendments on borer success and RGR appeared to be more pronounced in 'Cocodrie', the cultivar relatively susceptible to borers, than in the moderately resistant cultivar, XL723. Soil Si amendment may contribute to the management of D. saccharalis through reduced feeding injury and increased exposure to adverse environmental conditions and natural enemies arising from reduced boring success. PMID:23830057

Sidhu, J K; Stout, M J; Blouin, D C; Datnoff, L E

2013-12-01

131

Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar: II. micronutrientes / Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane: I. Micronutrients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de determinar la dinámica de acumulación y distribución de micronutrientes en el cultivo de caña de azúcar variedad RB 85-5035, se condujo un estudio en Fundacaña, ubicada en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Se realizaron 10 muestreos de la parte aérea de la plan [...] ta a través del ciclo de crecimiento. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas, tomadas al azar con una frecuencia mensual, en una superficie de 0,6 m²/cepa, a las cuales se les determinó la concentración de Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B y Mo en tallos y hojas. Las muestras de tejido fueron analizadas por los laboratorios Land Crop en York, Inglaterra. Se determinó que los períodos críticos de absorción de micronutrientes se ubican en la fase vegetativa y en la etapa de maduración del cultivo. Los micronutrientes Fe, Mn, B y Mo se almacenaron en mayor cantidad en el tejido foliar de la planta, mientras que Cu y Zn se acumularon de forma más pronunciada en los tallos a lo largo del ciclo. Los patrones de acumulación mostraron que los requerimientos de micronutrientes fueron: Fe=5241,5 g·ha-1, Cu=121,1 g·ha-1, Zn=875,6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142,4 g·ha-1, B=116,4 g·ha-1 y Mo=33,4 g·ha-1. Abstract in english With the purpose of determining the dynamics of micronutrient accumulation and partitioning of sugarcane var. RB 85-5035, a trial was conducted in Fundacaña, located in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ten samples of the aerial part of the plant were taken through the growing season, and each sam [...] ple consisted of three stumps, taken at random on a monthly basis in an area of 0.6 m²·cepa-1. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B and Mo on stems and leaves were analyzed by Land Crop Laboratories in York, England. It was determined that the critical periods for micronutrient absorption are found in the vegetative phase and crop ripening. The micronutrients Fe, Mn, B and Mo were stored in greater amounts in the leaf tissue of the plant, while Cu and Zn accumulated more pronounced in the stems during the cycle. The accumulation patterns showed that the crop micronutrient requirements were: Fe=5241.5 g·ha-1, Cu=121.1 g·ha-1, Zn=875.6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142.4 g·ha-1, B=116.4 g·ha-1 and Mo=33.4 g·ha-1.

Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

2011-08-01

132

Surface motility in Pseudomonas sp DSS73 is required for efficient biological containment of the root-pathogenic microfungi Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pseudomonas sp. DSS73 was isolated from the rhizoplane of sugar beet seedlings. This strain exhibits antagonism towards the root-pathogenic microfungi Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of the cyclic lipopeptide amphisin in combination with expression of flagella enables the growing bacterial culture to move readily over the surface of laboratory media. Amphisin is a new member of a group of dual-functioning compounds such as tensin, viscosin and viscosinamid that display both biosurfactant and antifungal properties. The ability of DSS73 to efficiently contain root-pathogenic microfungi is shown to arise from amphisin-dependent surface translocation and growth by which the bacterium can lay siege to the fungi. The synergistic effects of surface motility and synthesis of a battery of antifungal compounds efficiently contain and terminate growth of the microfungi.

Andersen, Jens Bo; Koch, Birgit

2003-01-01

133

Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. as influenced by alcohol by-products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454, cultivadas simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1 no solo dos vasos (22 L, contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações, e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar.This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp., cultivated simultaneously under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v of each by-product and the check treatment (water were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1 to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height, and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and flegmass reduced B. decumbens emergence and growth and S. rhombifolia growth but did not affect sugarcane growth.

A.A.P.M. Azania

2004-09-01

134

Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia), capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens) e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.) influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool / Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia), brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as influenced by alcohol by-products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia), capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens) e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454), cultivadas simultan [...] eamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v) de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água) foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1) no solo dos vasos (22 L), contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura) e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações), e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia), brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), cultivated simultaneously under [...] greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v) of each by-product and the check treatment (water) were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1) to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height), and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations) and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and flegmass reduced B. decumbens emergence and growth and S. rhombifolia growth but did not affect sugarcane growth.

A.A.P.M., Azania; C.A.M., Azania; M.O., Marques; M.C.M.D., Pavani.

135

Development and yield of sugarcane after application of plant growth regulators in the midle of crop season/ Desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar após aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra  

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Full Text Available The supply of technological quality raw material for providing economical return is the most important necessity of sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane stalks due to plant regulators application at half crop. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators of the class of the growth retainers (Ethephon, Ehyl-trinexapac, Potassium nitrate, Potassium nitrate + Boron application and a control (natural ripening. Ethyl-trinexapac and Ethephon treatments were efficient to hold up growth process regarding height of plants, but had no effect on diameter of stalks. The maintenance of bud top integrity made possible the increase in diameter of stalks, without interrupting the growth process regarding height of plants. According to application time the ripeners provided improvement on technological quality of raw material. The ripeners did not affect the number of plants per meter at harvest and did not cause alterations int the amount mass of stalks per hectare. The ripeners did not affect the regrowth of the ratoon cane. O fornecimento de matéria-prima de qualidade tecnológica que garanta retorno econômico é uma das maiores necessidades da indústria sucroalcooleira. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar decorrente da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no meio da safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram utilizados cinco tratamentos constituídos pela aplicação dos reguladores vegetais da classe dos retardantes de crescimento etefon e etil-trinexapac, e de KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. O etil-trinexapac e o etefon atuaram de forma eficiente em retardar o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas de cana-de-açúcar, sem ocasionar alterações no diâmetro dos colmos. A manutenção da integridade da gema apical possibilitou o incremento no diâmetro dos colmos sem interromper o crescimento em altura das plantas. Os maturadores propiciaram, conforme a época de aplicação, melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. Ainda, não afetaram o número de colmos na colheita, não produziram alterações quantitativas na massa de colmos por hectare, e não afetaram a rebrora da soqueira da cana-de-açúcar.

Marcelo de Almeida Silva

136

Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.121 Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production  

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Full Text Available Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas em relação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0 g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas podendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be the best substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 times greater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass and phycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.

Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

2007-11-01

137

In vitro antimicrobial activity of volatile organic compounds from Muscodor crispans against the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete capable of causing a life-threatening disease in humans, called pythiosis. Conventional antifungal drugs are ineffective against P. insidiosum infection. A synthetic mixture of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the endophytic fungus Muscodor crispans strain B23 demonstrates antimicrobial effects against a broad range of human and plant pathogens, including fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes. We studied the in vitro effects of B23 VOCs against 25 human, 1 animal, and 4 environmental isolates of P. insidiosum, compared with a no-drug control. The B23 synthetic mixture, at amounts as low as 2.5 microl, significantly reduced growth of all P. insidiosum isolates by at least 80%. The inhibitory effect of the B23 VOCs was dose-dependent. The growth of all isolates was completely inhibited by a dose of 10.0 microl of B23 VOCs, and all isolates were killed by a dose of 20.0 microl. Synthetic B23 VOCs of M. crispans had inhibitory and lethal effects against all P. insidiosum isolates tested. Further studies are needed to evaluate this mixture for treatment of pythiosis. PMID:23413712

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Fucharoen, Suthat; Strobel, Gary A

2012-11-01

138

Mapping salinity stress in sugarcane fields with hyperspectral satellite imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. An area with more than 70,000 ha sugarcane farming and its by-products are the major agricultural activities in the Khuzestan province, in the southwest of Iran. Therefore, mapping and identification of soil salinity is the most important issue to improve management of large scale crop production in this area. Besides labour intensive fieldwork, re...

Hamzeh, S.; Naseria, A. A.; Alavi Panah, S. K.; Mojaradic, B.; Bartholomeus, H. M.; Herold, M.

2012-01-01

139

Crescimento e produtividade agrícola de cana-de-açúcar em diferentes fontes de fósforo Growth and yield of sugarcane under different phosphorus sources  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a produtividade agrícola da cana-planta em diferentes fontes de fósforo, conduziu-se um experimento de campo em Coruripe, AL, com 10 tratamentos: 1. Testemunha; 2. NK + micro; 3. Superfosfato simples (SS; 4. Superfosfato triplo (ST; 5. Fosmag; 6. Gafsa; 7. MAP; 8. Fórmula 06-26-24 (460 kg ha-1; 9. Composto e 10. SSP - parcelado. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. Avaliaram-se: população de perfilhos, altura de plantas, Índice de Área Foliar (IAF, taxa de crescimento do colmo, taxa de produção de matéria fresca do colmo, taxa de crescimento relativo, rendimento agrícola e as concentrações foliares de P e os níveis disponíveis no solo. As fontes de fósforo não influenciaram o crescimento da cana-planta em função do efeito residual, proveniente de adubações anteriores, mas proporcionaram produtividades médias superiores a 80 t ha-1. O ST proporcionou o melhor rendimento agrícola na cana-planta a qual, por sua vez, apresentou três fases de crescimento: 1ª fase: intenso perfilhamento até 120 DAP; 2ª fase: grande crescimento de 120 a 240 DAP e 3ª fase: maturação dos 240 aos 360 DAP. As maiores taxas de crescimento e produção de matéria fresca do colmo ocorreram logo após a fase de intenso perfilhamento entre 120 e 240 DAP.This work had as its objective in the evaluation of the growth and production of the sugarcare plant under different phosphorus sources. The experiment was carried out in Coruripe, AL, Brazil with 10 fertilizer treatments: 1 Control; 2 NK + micronutrient; 3 Super Phosphate Simple; 4 Triple Super Phosphate; 5 Fosmag; 6 Gafsa; 7 MAP; 8 NPK 06-26-24 (460 kg ha-1; 9 Compost and 10 Simple Super Phosphate - splitdose. The experiment was in random blocks, with four replicates. Parameters evaluated were: number of tillers, height of plants, IAF, rate of stalk growth, rate of biomass production of the stalk, relative growth rate, production and P in leaf and available in soil. P sources did not show any significant influence upon the growth of cane-plant due to the residual effect of previous manuring, with average yield of 80 t ha-1. The triple super phosphate produced the best production in the cane-plant, which presented three growth phases: 1st phase: intense tillering until 120 days after planting (DAP; 2nd phase:intense growth between 120 and 240 DAP; and 3rd phase: maturation, between 240 and 360 DAP. The major growth rate and fresh matter stalk production occurred after intense tillering phase between 120 and 240 DAP.

Valdevan R. dos Santos

2009-08-01

140

Crecimiento y acumulación de prolina en dos genotipos de caña de azúcar sometidos a salinización con cloruro de sodio / Growth and proline accumulation in two sugarcane genotypes under sodium cloride salinization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluaron en condiciones de cobertizo, dos genotipos de caña de azúcar con respuesta diferencial ante las sales: PR692176 (tolerante) y V78-1 (sensible), a fin de obtener información sobre las causas de ese comportamiento diferencial. Las plantas crecieron en un sustrato artificial (arena) irriga [...] do con solución nutritiva y cuando tuvieron dos meses de edad se iniciaron los riegos con solución nutritiva a la que se añadió cloruro de sodio (100 mM). Se determinaron algunos componentes del crecimiento y la acumulación de prolina en raíces y en hojas de diferentes edades. La salinización con NaCl tuvo efecto negativo sobre el crecimiento de ambos genotipos, pero en el genotipo resistente el área foliar, peso seco de raíces y la relación peso seco del sistema radical/peso seco del sistema aéreo, se redujeron menos. La acumulación de prolina aumentó en las plantas salinizadas, especialmente en raíces y en las vainas foliares, siendo ese incremento mayor para el genotipo sensible, excepto en la lámina foliar de la hoja más recientemente expandida (hoja TVD). Abstract in english Two sugarcane genotypes differing in salinity response were evaluated: PR692176 (salt tolerant) and V78-1 (salt sensitive), in order to get information about the causes of that differential behavior. The plants grew in an artificial substrate (sand) irrigated with nutrient solution and after two mon [...] ths they were subjected to salinization with sodium chloride (100 mM). Some growth parameters and proline accumulation in roots and leaves of different ages were studied. Sodium chloride salinization affected the growth in both genotypes, however, the leaf area, root dry weight and root dry weight/shoot dry weigh ratio were less reducted in the resistant genotype. Proline accumulation was increased in response to salinization, mainly in roots and sheaths. Proline accumulation in the plants under salinization was greater in the sensitive genotype than in the resistant genotype, except in the blade of the leaf forming the top visible dew lap (TVD leaf).

M, García; E, Medina.

2003-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Crecimiento y acumulación de prolina en dos genotipos de caña de azúcar sometidos a salinización con cloruro de sodio Growth and proline accumulation in two sugarcane genotypes under sodium cloride salinization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluaron en condiciones de cobertizo, dos genotipos de caña de azúcar con respuesta diferencial ante las sales: PR692176 (tolerante y V78-1 (sensible, a fin de obtener información sobre las causas de ese comportamiento diferencial. Las plantas crecieron en un sustrato artificial (arena irrigado con solución nutritiva y cuando tuvieron dos meses de edad se iniciaron los riegos con solución nutritiva a la que se añadió cloruro de sodio (100 mM. Se determinaron algunos componentes del crecimiento y la acumulación de prolina en raíces y en hojas de diferentes edades. La salinización con NaCl tuvo efecto negativo sobre el crecimiento de ambos genotipos, pero en el genotipo resistente el área foliar, peso seco de raíces y la relación peso seco del sistema radical/peso seco del sistema aéreo, se redujeron menos. La acumulación de prolina aumentó en las plantas salinizadas, especialmente en raíces y en las vainas foliares, siendo ese incremento mayor para el genotipo sensible, excepto en la lámina foliar de la hoja más recientemente expandida (hoja TVD.Two sugarcane genotypes differing in salinity response were evaluated: PR692176 (salt tolerant and V78-1 (salt sensitive, in order to get information about the causes of that differential behavior. The plants grew in an artificial substrate (sand irrigated with nutrient solution and after two months they were subjected to salinization with sodium chloride (100 mM. Some growth parameters and proline accumulation in roots and leaves of different ages were studied. Sodium chloride salinization affected the growth in both genotypes, however, the leaf area, root dry weight and root dry weight/shoot dry weigh ratio were less reducted in the resistant genotype. Proline accumulation was increased in response to salinization, mainly in roots and sheaths. Proline accumulation in the plants under salinization was greater in the sensitive genotype than in the resistant genotype, except in the blade of the leaf forming the top visible dew lap (TVD leaf.

M García

2003-04-01

142

Crecimiento y acumulación de prolina en dos genotipos de caña de azúcar sometidos a salinización con cloruro de sodio / Growth and proline accumulation in two sugarcane genotypes under sodium cloride salinization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluaron en condiciones de cobertizo, dos genotipos de caña de azúcar con respuesta diferencial ante las sales: PR692176 (tolerante) y V78-1 (sensible), a fin de obtener información sobre las causas de ese comportamiento diferencial. Las plantas crecieron en un sustrato artificial (arena) irriga [...] do con solución nutritiva y cuando tuvieron dos meses de edad se iniciaron los riegos con solución nutritiva a la que se añadió cloruro de sodio (100 mM). Se determinaron algunos componentes del crecimiento y la acumulación de prolina en raíces y en hojas de diferentes edades. La salinización con NaCl tuvo efecto negativo sobre el crecimiento de ambos genotipos, pero en el genotipo resistente el área foliar, peso seco de raíces y la relación peso seco del sistema radical/peso seco del sistema aéreo, se redujeron menos. La acumulación de prolina aumentó en las plantas salinizadas, especialmente en raíces y en las vainas foliares, siendo ese incremento mayor para el genotipo sensible, excepto en la lámina foliar de la hoja más recientemente expandida (hoja TVD). Abstract in english Two sugarcane genotypes differing in salinity response were evaluated: PR692176 (salt tolerant) and V78-1 (salt sensitive), in order to get information about the causes of that differential behavior. The plants grew in an artificial substrate (sand) irrigated with nutrient solution and after two mon [...] ths they were subjected to salinization with sodium chloride (100 mM). Some growth parameters and proline accumulation in roots and leaves of different ages were studied. Sodium chloride salinization affected the growth in both genotypes, however, the leaf area, root dry weight and root dry weight/shoot dry weigh ratio were less reducted in the resistant genotype. Proline accumulation was increased in response to salinization, mainly in roots and sheaths. Proline accumulation in the plants under salinization was greater in the sensitive genotype than in the resistant genotype, except in the blade of the leaf forming the top visible dew lap (TVD leaf).

M, García; E, Medina.

143

The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. (author)

Furtado, Andre Tosi [Department of Science and Technology Policy - DPCT, Institute of Geosciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil); Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne Gaya [Bioethanol Science and Technology Center - CTBE, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [School of Agriculture (FEAGRI), University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil)

2011-01-15

144

Crescimento e produtividade agrícola de cana-de-açúcar em diferentes fontes de fósforo / Growth and yield of sugarcane under different phosphorus sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a produtividade agrícola da cana-planta em diferentes fontes de fósforo, conduziu-se um experimento de campo em Coruripe, AL, com 10 tratamentos: 1. Testemunha; 2. NK + micro; 3. Superfosfato simples (SS); 4. Superfosfato triplo (ST); 5. Fosmag; 6. Gafsa; 7. [...] MAP; 8. Fórmula 06-26-24 (460 kg ha-1); 9. Composto e 10. SSP - parcelado. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. Avaliaram-se: população de perfilhos, altura de plantas, Índice de Área Foliar (IAF), taxa de crescimento do colmo, taxa de produção de matéria fresca do colmo, taxa de crescimento relativo, rendimento agrícola e as concentrações foliares de P e os níveis disponíveis no solo. As fontes de fósforo não influenciaram o crescimento da cana-planta em função do efeito residual, proveniente de adubações anteriores, mas proporcionaram produtividades médias superiores a 80 t ha-1. O ST proporcionou o melhor rendimento agrícola na cana-planta a qual, por sua vez, apresentou três fases de crescimento: 1ª fase: intenso perfilhamento até 120 DAP; 2ª fase: grande crescimento de 120 a 240 DAP e 3ª fase: maturação dos 240 aos 360 DAP. As maiores taxas de crescimento e produção de matéria fresca do colmo ocorreram logo após a fase de intenso perfilhamento entre 120 e 240 DAP. Abstract in english This work had as its objective in the evaluation of the growth and production of the sugarcare plant under different phosphorus sources. The experiment was carried out in Coruripe, AL, Brazil with 10 fertilizer treatments: 1) Control; 2) NK + micronutrient; 3) Super Phosphate Simple; 4) Triple Super [...] Phosphate; 5) Fosmag; 6) Gafsa; 7) MAP; 8) NPK 06-26-24 (460 kg ha-1); 9) Compost and 10) Simple Super Phosphate - splitdose. The experiment was in random blocks, with four replicates. Parameters evaluated were: number of tillers, height of plants, IAF, rate of stalk growth, rate of biomass production of the stalk, relative growth rate, production and P in leaf and available in soil. P sources did not show any significant influence upon the growth of cane-plant due to the residual effect of previous manuring, with average yield of 80 t ha-1. The triple super phosphate produced the best production in the cane-plant, which presented three growth phases: 1st phase: intense tillering until 120 days after planting (DAP); 2nd phase:intense growth between 120 and 240 DAP; and 3rd phase: maturation, between 240 and 360 DAP. The major growth rate and fresh matter stalk production occurred after intense tillering phase between 120 and 240 DAP.

Valdevan R. dos, Santos; Gilson, Moura Filho; Abel W. de, Albuquerque; José P. V. da, Costa; Cícero G. dos, Santos; Alda C. I. dos, Santos.

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Field Screening of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) Mutant and Commercial Genotypes for Salt Tolerance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth and physiological attributes and sugar quality parameters are considered key criteria for screening sugarcane cultivars for salt tolerance. Maximum cane growth and yield were found in a positive check (‘K88-92’) as well as in cv. ‘(A3)AE1-18’ when subjected to salt affected soil. Percent reduction in Fv/Fm

Kirdmanee, Chalermpol; Ashraf, Muhammad; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Chantawong, Satjaporn; Cha-um, Suriyan

2013-01-01

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Resistance to Pythium aphanidermatum in Diploids and Induced Autotetraploids of Catharanthus roseus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM (which causes die-back and collar and root rot) in seven diploid and four induced autotetraploid lines of CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS was studied in the field during 1983 to 1985. The tetraploid lines were, depending on the year of evaluation, about 13 to 155, 18 to 218, and 17 to 366 times more resistant than diploid lines, when resistance was measured in terms of plant mortality, infection rate, and area under disease curve, respectively. On an average over three years, the tetraploid lines yielded about four and five times more leaf and root total alkaloids, respectively, than the diploid lines. The relative levels of resistance of diploid and tetraploid lines to PYTHIUM APHANIDERMATUM determined in the laboratory were similar to those observed in the field. PMID:17265286

Kulkarni, R N; Ravindra, N S

1988-08-01

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In Vitro Activity of Terbinafine Combined with Caspofungin and Azoles against Pythium insidiosum?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this text we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of terbinafine combined with caspofungin, miconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole against 17 Pythium insidiosum strains by using the microdilution checkerboard method. Synergistic interactions were observed with terbinafine combined with caspofungin (41.2% of the strains), fluconazole (41.2%), ketoconazole (29.4%), and miconazole (11.8%). No antagonistic effects were observed. The combination of terbinafine plus caspofungin or ter...

Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Maboni, Grazieli; Azevedo, Maria I.; Argenta, Juliana S.; Pereira, Daniela I. B.; Spader, Tatiana B.; Alves, Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

2009-01-01

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Cytological Effects of Cellulases in the Parasitism of Phytophthora parasitica by Pythium oligandrum  

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The ubiquitous oomycete Pythium oligandrum is a potential biocontrol agent for use against a wide range of pathogenic fungi and an inducer of plant disease resistance. The ability of P. oligandrum to compete with root pathogens for saprophytic colonization of substrates may be critical for pathogen increase in soil, but other mechanisms, including antibiosis and enzyme production, also may play a role in the antagonistic process. We used transmission electron microscopy and gold cytochemistry...

Picard, Karine; Tirilly, Yves; Benhamou, Nicole

2000-01-01

149

Influence of Pythium oligandrum Biocontrol on Fungal and Oomycete Population Dynamics in the Rhizosphere?  

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Fungal and oomycete populations and their dynamics were investigated following the introduction of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum into the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in soilless culture. Three strains of P. oligandrum were selected on the basis of their ability to form oospores (resting structures) and to produce tryptamine (an auxin-like compound) and oligandrin (a glycoprotein elicitor). Real-time PCR and plate counting demonstrated the persistence of large amounts of the a...

Vallance, Jessica; Le Floch, Gae?tan; De?niel, Franck; Barbier, Georges; Le?vesque, C. Andre?; Rey, Patrice

2009-01-01

150

The oomycete Pythium oligandrum expresses putative effectors during mycoparasitism of Phytophthora infestans and is amenable to transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oomycete Pythium oligandrum is a mycoparasitic biocontrol agent that is able to antagonise several plant pathogens, and can promote plant growth. In order to test the potential usefulness of P. oligandrum as a biocontrol agent against late blight disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, we investigated the interaction between P. oligandrum and Ph. infestans using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene. A CaCl(2) and polyethylene-glycol-based DNA transformation protocol was developed for P. oligandrum and transformants constitutively expressing GFP were produced. Up to 56 % of P. oligandrum transformants showed both antibiotic resistance and fluorescence. Mycoparasitic interactions, including coiling of P. oligandrum hyphae around Ph. infestans hyphae, were observed with fluorescent microscopy. To gain further insights into the nature of P. oligandrum mycoparasitism, we sequenced 2376 clones from cDNA libraries of P. oligandrum mycelium grown in vitro, or on heat-killed Ph. infestans mycelium as the sole nutrient source. 1219 consensus sequences were obtained including transcripts encoding glucanases, proteases, protease inhibitors, putative effectors and elicitors, which may play a role in mycoparasitism. This represents the first published expressed sequence tag (EST) resource for P. oligandrum and provides a platform for further molecular studies and comparative analysis in the Pythiales. PMID:22208599

Horner, Neil R; Grenville-Briggs, Laura J; van West, Pieter

2012-01-01

151

Development of new formulations of Bacillus subtilis for management of tomato damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formulations of a strain of Bacillus subtilis AUBS-1 inhibitory to the growth of the damping-off pathogen, Pythium aphanidermatum, were developed for seed treatment. The formulations included a talc-based powder, lignite-based powder, lignite + fly ash-based powder, wettable powder, bentonite-paste, polyethylene glycol (PEG) paste and a water-dispersible tablet. Formulations were stored at room temperature for 2 years and frequently sampled to test their shelf life. Populations of bacteria in the formulations were stable for up to 2 years storage at room temperature (28{degree}C). Viability of propagules in lignite, lignite + fly ash, bentonite paste, wettable powder and water dispersible tablet formulations was 100% for up to 1 year. However, the viability of propagules was significantly reduced in talc, wettable powder, PEG paste and tablet formulations beyond 1 year of storage. Seed treatment of tomato with these formulations resulted in effective control of damping-off caused by P. aphanidermatum, and also enhanced plant biomass under glasshouse and field conditions. Active rhizosphere colonization by the bacterium was observed on tomato plants grown from seeds treated with the above formulations.

Jayaraj, J.; Radhakrishnan, N.V.; Kannan, R.; Sakthivel, K.; Suganya, D.; Venkatesan, S.; Velazhahan, R. [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B (Canada). Dept. of Biological Science

2005-02-15

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Characterisation of the early events in atypical tomato root colonisation by a biocontrol agent, Pythium oligandrum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The specific oomycete-plant relationship established between a biological agent, Pythium oligandrum, and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants was examined over the first 48 h after inoculation of tomato roots with the antagonist. One of the most significant effects was the quick colonisation of cortical and vascular root areas by P. oligandrum (until 9 h post-inoculation); it was similar to invasions by the major pathogens of Pythium genus, and much faster than those by Pythium-minor pathogens. Despite the multiplication of hyphae in the root areas, fungal colonisation was associated with neither host wall disruption nor host cell alterations. The colonising hyphae looked healthy till the ninth hour after inoculation, then, they progressively became highly vacuolated. Cytological observations showed that, over the first 14 h of experiment, oomycete invasion was accompanied with rare host-induced defence reactions. Biochemical analysis evidenced an accumulation of phenolic compounds starting 3 h after inoculation. The 14th hour corresponded to the beginning of rishitin (phytoalexin) synthesis. Accumulation of biochemical host defence compounds was concomitant with early signs of hyphae alterations. During the next 34 h several host reactions were regularly amplified as evidenced by the plugging of invaded host cells with heterogeneous osmiophilic or high electron-dense (ED) materials. Fungal cell decay was accompanied with the formation of oogonia in the cortex, vascular parenchyma and xylem vessels. All these early events suggest a peculiar relationship established between P. oligandrum and the plant. PMID:15763660

Le Floch, Gaétan; Benhamou, Nicole; Mamaca, Emina; Salerno, Maria-Isabel; Tirilly, Yves; Rey, Patrice

2005-01-01

153

Identification of Pythium oligandrum using species-specific ITS rDNA PCR oligonucleotides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium oligandrum is a parasite of cultivated Agaricus bisporus. Infection results in significant yield reductions and a disease referred to as 'black compost'. In this study, P. oligandrum isolates were isolated from New Zealand mushroom composts, and their ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ITS nucleotide sequences obtained from New Zealand P. oligandrum isolates were compared with those previously identified P. oligandrum isolates and 23 described Pythium species. Although New Zealand P. oligandrum isolates had high ITS nucleotide identity with internationally identified P. oligandrum, the order of nucleotides in some regions varied when compared with other Pythium species. These varied nucleotides within the ITS region were used to design PCR primers (P.OLIG.F1 and P.OLIG.R04) for the specific amplification of a 384-bp fragment from P. oligandrum DNA. P.OLIG.F1 and P.OLIG.R04 were used to identify a major source of P. oligandrum inoculation on a New Zealand mushroom farm. Application of this diagnostic test will assist farming strategies implemented to prevent future P. oligandrum outbreaks. Furthermore, results presented identify a need for species resolution between P. oligandrum and P. hydnosporum. PMID:12967205

Godfrey, Scott A C; Monds, Russell D; Lash, Duncan T; Marshall, John W

2003-07-01

154

Development of a Species-Specific Probe for Pythium insidiosum and the Diagnosis of Pythiosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum, the only species in the genus that infects mammals, is the etiological agent of pythiosis, a granulomatous disease characterized by cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and vascular diseases. Accurate diagnosis of pythiosis and identification of its causal agent are often inconsistent with current immunological diagnostic methods. A species-specific DNA probe was constructed by using a 530-bp HinfI fragment from the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer of P. insidiosum. When the probe was incubated with dot blots of genomic DNA from 104 Pythium species, it hybridized only to the DNA of P. insidiosum and P. destruens—two species that have been considered conspecific. The probe also hybridized to DNA from 22 P. insidiosum isolates in this study, regardless of their geographic origin or animal host. When tested against genomic DNA from other pathogenic organisms (Aspergillus fumigatus, Basidiobolus ranarum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Lagenidium giganteum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Prototheca wickerhamii), no cross-hybridization of the probe was detected. The specificity of the probe to hybridize to genomic DNA from all isolates of P. insidiosum and not cross-react with DNA from other Pythium species or pathogens that cause symptoms similar to pythiosis in their hosts makes it a powerful tool for the accurate diagnosis of pythiosis. In addition, the probe has the potential for pathological and environmental diagnostic applications. PMID:15184412

Schurko, Andrew M.; Mendoza, Leonel; de Cock, Arthur W. A. M.; Bedard, James E. J.; Klassen, Glen R.

2004-01-01

155

Sugarcane cropping and cattle husbandry integration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter approaches the Brazilian proposal to replace 5% of gasoline worldwide, mathematical programming and simulation of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, modeling scenario of sugar cane and beef production in Brazil, mathematical modelling of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production, modelling variables and constraints, objective function, optimized results of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, and further potential applications.

Taube-Netto, Miguel; Pinto, Luis Franco de Campos; Castaneda-Ayarza, Juan; Cortez, Luis Augusto B.

2012-07-01

156

Popularizing of Sugarcane Based Intercropping Systems in Non Millzone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the popularity of different intercrops with sugarcane at Nakla thana under Sherpur district of Bangladesh during cropping year 2000-2001. Five intercrops with sugarcane combination such as potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa, coriander (Coriandrum sativum, mustard (Brassica campestris and garlic(Allium sativum were studied against sole sugarcane crop. In respect of agronomic performances, sugarcane with potato, sugarcane with onion and sugarcane with coriander were suitable though they produce lower cane yield than sole cane. In respect of economic profitability sugarcane with potato combination was the most profitable and sugarcane with onion and sugarcane with coriander combination were 2nd and 3rd profitable combinations, respectively. In respect of adjusted yield sugarcane with potato was the best combination and sugarcane with onion was the 2nd combination than the sole cane yield. Sugarcane with mustard and sugarcane with garlic combination was found to be inferior in respect of agronomic yield, economic profitability and adjusted cane yield. Hence, The study reveals that sugarcane with potato, sugarcane with onion and sugarcane with coriander combination may be suggested as intercropping with sugarcane for non mill zone area of Sherpur district (AEZ 8 to get interim benefit from the same piece of land.

M.A.K. Al Azad

2004-01-01

157

Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqüências de P. insidiosum depositadas no GenBank.Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism, Pythium insidiosum, pathogenic to men and animals. A patient with a phagedenic ulcer on the leg is reported. Histopathological examination was suggestive of zygomycosis, response to antifungal drugs was poor and cure was obtained by means of wide surgical excision. Etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing of colonies isolated in Sabouraud agar. After BLAST analysis, the sequence showed 100% identity with those of P. insidiosum deposited on the GenBank.

Silvio Alencar Marques

2006-10-01

158

Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil / Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio [...] de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqüências de P. insidiosum depositadas no GenBank. Abstract in english Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism, Pythium insidiosum, pathogenic to men and animals. A patient with a phagedenic ulcer on the leg is reported. Histopathological examination was suggestive of zygomycosis, response to antifungal drugs was poor and cure was obtained by means of wi [...] de surgical excision. Etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing of colonies isolated in Sabouraud agar. After BLAST analysis, the sequence showed 100% identity with those of P. insidiosum deposited on the GenBank.

Silvio Alencar, Marques; Eduardo, Bagagli; Sandra M. G., Bosco; Rosangela M. P., Camargo; Mariangela E. A., Marques.

159

Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

160

The changes in lipid composition of Pythium irregulare LX oomycetes at a stressful situation created with crude oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pythium irregulare oomycetes adapts with environmental changes including crude oil concentration by changing the composition of lipids in the cytoplasmic membrane and providing the required characteristics for adaptation in improper and stressful environmental situations. It was found that cultivation of Pythium irregulare LX oomycetes in the nutrient media with different concentrations of crude oil with 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 (%), incubated for 5 days at 26-28°C on a rotary shaker (200...

Mehdi Ghasemi; Yemen Atakishiyeva; Asadollah Asadi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Biofiltration kinetics of ethylacetate and xylene using sugarcane bagasse based biofilter  

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Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and xylene in a sugarcane bagasse biofilter were investigated. Microbial growth rate, biochemical reaction rate and kinetic analysis were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of xylene in the inlet concentration range of 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and ...

saravanan Viswanathan; Rajasimman Manivasagam; Rajamohan Natarajan

2010-01-01

162

Obstrução intestinal por Pythium insidiosum em um cão: relato de caso Intestinal obstruction by Pythium insidiosum in a dog: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de pitiose intestinal em um Husky Siberiano, de um ano de idade, macho atendido em um Hospital Veterinário Escola com sinais de obstrução intestinal. Ao exame físico, notou-se massa cilíndrica na região abdominal cranial, posteriormente confirmada por meio de radiografia e ultrassonografia. Durante a laparotomia exploratória, constatou-se massa extraluminal envolvendo o jejuno e alterações na parede do órgão. Realizou-se a ressecção da porção afetada do intestino e, posteriormente, anastomose. O exame histológico do tecido evidenciou inflamação piogranulomatosa acentuada. Na coloração de prata metenamina de Grocott, hifas septadas foram observadas. O diagnóstico de infecção por Pythium insidiosum foi confirmado por meio da imunoistoquímica. Após a cirurgia, o animal restabeleceu a defecação; no 30° dia pós-cirúrgico, foi relatada ainda presença de diarreia. O tratamento com itraconazol e terbinafina foi instituído durante 60 dias. Após dois anos do procedimento cirúrgico e do tratamento com antifúngicos orais, o cão não apresentou recidiva.A case of intestinal pythiosis in a one-year-old male Siberian Husky treated at a Veterinary School Hospital with signs of intestinal obstruction is reported. At physical examination, a cylindrical mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen, later confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography. During the exploratory laparotomy, it was evidenced an extraluminal mass involving the jejunum and alterations of the wall in the organ. After that, a resection of the affected portion of the intestine was made followed by anastomosis. The histologic examination evidenced accented pyogranulomatous inflammation. By the Grocott methenamine silver stain, branching hyphae were observed. The diagnosis of infection by Pythium insidiosum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The animal reestablished the defecation after the surgery; on the 30th postoperative day, it was also reported the presence of diarrhea. The treatment with itraconazol and terbinafina was instituted for 60 days. Two years after the surgical procedure and treatment with oral antifungals, the dog did not show recurrence.

P.S. Hunning

2010-08-01

163

In Vitro Activity of Terbinafine Combined with Caspofungin and Azoles against Pythium insidiosum?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this text we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of terbinafine combined with caspofungin, miconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole against 17 Pythium insidiosum strains by using the microdilution checkerboard method. Synergistic interactions were observed with terbinafine combined with caspofungin (41.2% of the strains), fluconazole (41.2%), ketoconazole (29.4%), and miconazole (11.8%). No antagonistic effects were observed. The combination of terbinafine plus caspofungin or terbinafine plus fluconazole may have significant therapeutic potential for treatment of pythiosis. PMID:19289531

Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Maboni, Grazieli; de Azevedo, Maria I.; Argenta, Juliana S.; Pereira, Daniela I. B.; Spader, Tatiana B.; Alves, Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

2009-01-01

164

In Vitro activity of terbinafine combined with caspofungin and azoles against Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this text we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of terbinafine combined with caspofungin, miconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole against 17 Pythium insidiosum strains by using the microdilution checkerboard method. Synergistic interactions were observed with terbinafine combined with caspofungin (41.2% of the strains), fluconazole (41.2%), ketoconazole (29.4%), and miconazole (11.8%). No antagonistic effects were observed. The combination of terbinafine plus caspofungin or terbinafine plus fluconazole may have significant therapeutic potential for treatment of pythiosis. PMID:19289531

Cavalheiro, Ayrton S; Maboni, Grazieli; de Azevedo, Maria I; Argenta, Juliana S; Pereira, Daniela I B; Spader, Tatiana B; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M

2009-05-01

165

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Elicits a Sugarcane Defense Response Against a Pathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas albilineans  

Science.gov (United States)

A new role for the plant growth-promoting nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been identified and characterized while it is involved in the sugarcane-Xanthomonas albilineans pathogenic interactions. Living G.diazotrophicus possess and/or produce elicitor molecules which activate the sugarcane defense response resulting in the plant resistance to X. albilineans, in this particular case controlling the pathogen transmission to emerging agamic shoots. A total of 47 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were identified by cDNA-AFLP. Transcripts showed significant homologies to genes of the ethylene signaling pathway (26%), proteins regulates by auxins (9%), ?-1,3 Glucanase proteins (6%) and ubiquitin genes (4%), all major signaling mechanisms. Results point toward a form of induction of systemic resistance in sugarcane-G. diazotrophicus interactions which protect the plant against X. albilineans attack. PMID:19516988

Vinagre, Fabiano; Estevez, Yandi; Bernal, Aydiloide; Perez, Juana; Cavalcanti, Janaina; Santana, Ignacio; Hemerly, Adriana S

2006-01-01

166

Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) / Seletividade de herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar para imaturos de Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas são frequentemente utilizados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Entretanto, o uso de compostos não seletivos pode prejudicar a eficiência de insetos benéficos no manejo integrado de pragas. Nesse contexto, avaliou-se o efeito desses produtos sobre as fas [...] es imaturas do parasitoide Trichogramma galloi. Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis contendo o parasitoide no período de ovo-larva e nas fases de pré-pupa e pupa foram imersos em caldas dos produtos avaliados (doses máximas recomendadas para a cana-de-açúcar), sendo eles: os herbicidas clomazone e diuron+hexazinone e os reguladores de crescimento de plantas sulfometuron-methyl e trinexapac-ethyl. As características biológicas avaliadas foram a emergência (gerações F1 e F2) e o número de ovos parasitados por T. galloi (F1). Os produtos foram classificados, conforme percentual de redução da emergência e parasitismo, em: inócuo (99%). Os compostos avaliados foram classificados como inócuos ou levemente prejudiciais aos imaturos de T. galloi e, por isso, devem ser preferidos, visando à preservação dessa espécie de parasitoide em programas de manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products o [...] n the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test solutions of the following pesticides (maximum recommended doses for sugarcane): herbicides clomazone and diuron + hexazinone, and plant growth regulators trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl. The biological properties evaluated were emergence (F1 and F2) and number of eggs parasitized by T. galloi (F1). The products were classified according to percentage of reduction in emergence and parasitism: harmless (99%). The pesticides evaluated were considered to be harmless or slightly harmful to immature T. galloi and, thus, their use should be preferred for preserving this parasitoid species in sugarcane management programs.

H.N., Oliveira; M.R., Antigo; G.A., Carvalho; D.F., Glaeser.

167

Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) / Seletividade de herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar para imaturos de Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas são frequentemente utilizados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Entretanto, o uso de compostos não seletivos pode prejudicar a eficiência de insetos benéficos no manejo integrado de pragas. Nesse contexto, avaliou-se o efeito desses produtos sobre as fas [...] es imaturas do parasitoide Trichogramma galloi. Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis contendo o parasitoide no período de ovo-larva e nas fases de pré-pupa e pupa foram imersos em caldas dos produtos avaliados (doses máximas recomendadas para a cana-de-açúcar), sendo eles: os herbicidas clomazone e diuron+hexazinone e os reguladores de crescimento de plantas sulfometuron-methyl e trinexapac-ethyl. As características biológicas avaliadas foram a emergência (gerações F1 e F2) e o número de ovos parasitados por T. galloi (F1). Os produtos foram classificados, conforme percentual de redução da emergência e parasitismo, em: inócuo (99%). Os compostos avaliados foram classificados como inócuos ou levemente prejudiciais aos imaturos de T. galloi e, por isso, devem ser preferidos, visando à preservação dessa espécie de parasitoide em programas de manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products o [...] n the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test solutions of the following pesticides (maximum recommended doses for sugarcane): herbicides clomazone and diuron + hexazinone, and plant growth regulators trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl. The biological properties evaluated were emergence (F1 and F2) and number of eggs parasitized by T. galloi (F1). The products were classified according to percentage of reduction in emergence and parasitism: harmless (99%). The pesticides evaluated were considered to be harmless or slightly harmful to immature T. galloi and, thus, their use should be preferred for preserving this parasitoid species in sugarcane management programs.

H.N., Oliveira; M.R., Antigo; G.A., Carvalho; D.F., Glaeser.

2014-03-01

168

Influência da densidade do solo infestado por nematoide no desenvolvimento inicial de cana-de-açúcar / Influence of density of soil infested with nematode on initial growth of sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em áreas cultivadas com cana-de-açúcar no Nordeste do Brasil, a compactação do solo e a presença de altas densidades populacionais de nematoides, principalmente Meloidogyne spp. restringem severamente a produtividade agrícola. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis de [...] densidade do solo infestado por nematoides da espécie M. incognita no desenvolvimento inicial da cana-de-açúcar, variedade RB 863129, em condições de casa de vegetação. As avaliações, realizadas 90 dias após a infestação do solo, se fundamentaram na altura da planta, diâmetro do colmo, número de folhas, biomassa fresca das raízes, biomassa fresca e biomassa seca da parte aérea, número de ovos do nematoide por grama de raiz. O aumento dos níveis de compactação do solo de 1,65 para 1,82 kg dm-3 proporcionou redução na multiplicação de M. incognita e aumento no comprimento do colmo da cana-de-açúcar mas não afetou as outras variáveis de desenvolvimento da planta. Abstract in english In cultivated areas of sugarcane in Northeastern Brazil, soil compaction and infestation of nematodes, mainly Meloidogyne spp., severely restrict crop production. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of four levels of density of soil infested with nematodes of the species M. incognita in t [...] he early development of sugarcane variety RB 863129 in greenhouse conditions. Evaluations were carried out 90 days after soil infestation, based on plant height, stalk diameter, number of leaves, root and shoot fresh biomass, shoot dry biomass and number of nematode eggs. The increase in soil compaction level from 1.65 to 1.82 kg dm-3 decreased M. incognita reproduction and increased sugarcane stalk length, but it did not affect the other plant development variables.

Carmem C. M. de, Sousa; Elvira M. R., Pedrosa; Mario M., Rolim; João V., Pereira Filho; Marcela A. L. M. de, Souza.

2014-05-01

169

Cultivation of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: The yeast strain IB09 was isolated from the gut of Calosoma sp. (Carabidae, Coleoptera, Insecta) that were collected in the central Amazon rainforest. First, tolerance of the strain to ethanol and heat was tested. Then, IB09 was cultivated in a medium using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulos [...] ic hydrolyzate as a carbon source, and cell growth (OD600), specific growth rate (µMAX, h-1), biomass yield (Y B, g.g-1) and relative sugar consumption (RSC, %) were evaluated. Taxonomic identification was determined by sequencing the ITS1 region of IB09 and comparing it to sequences obtained from the GenBank database (NCBI). Results: IB09 showed both ethanol tolerance and thermotolerance. Relative sugar consumption indicated that IB09 was able to perform saccharification of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, increasing the total reducing sugar concentration by approximately 50%. The ?MAX value obtained was 0,20, indicating that cell growth was slow under the assessed conditions. Biomass yield was 0,701 g per g of consumed sugar, which is relatively high when compared with other findings in the literature. After 120 hrs of cultivation, 80,1% of total reducing sugar had been consumed. Sequencing of the ITS1 region identified IB09 as Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans. Conclusion: This is the first report to document this species in the central Amazon rainforest at this host. Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans has great biotechnological potential for use in the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and for biomass production with this substrate as carbon source.

Ítalo Thiago Silveira Rocha, Matos; Luciana Araújo, Cassa-Barbosa; Pedro Queiroz Costa, Neto; Spartaco Astolfi, Filho.

2012-01-15

170

O gênero Pythium no Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira, estado de São Paulo, Brasil / The genus Pythium from "Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira", São Paulo state, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Durante o período de junho de 2005 a junho de 2006 foram coletadas trimestralmente, no Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira, amostras de água e solo para o levantamento das espécies do gênero Pythium. As amostras coletadas foram iscadas, em laboratório, com substratos celulósicos, quitinosos e que [...] ratinosos. Foram identificadas seis espécies, as quais são primeira citação para o Parque: Pythium dissotocum Drechsler, P. echinulatum Matthews, P. middletonii Sparrow, P. rostratum Butler, P. torulosum Coker & Patterson e P. vexans de Bary. Abstract in english To study the species of the genus Pythium, water and soil samples were collected, every three months, from June/2005 to June/2006, in the "Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira". The samples were baited, in the laboratory, with celulosic, quitinous and keratinous substrates, to isolate these organi [...] sms. Six species were identified and mentioned for the first time for this area: Pythium dissotocum Drechsler, P. echinulatum Matthews, P. middletonii Sparrow, P. rostratum Butler, P. torulosum Coker & Patterson and P. vexans de Bary.

Maria Luiza de, Miranda; Carmen Lidia Amorim Pires, Zottarelli.

171

O gênero Pythium Pringsheim de áreas de cerrado no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil The genus Pythium Pringsheim from Brazilian cerrado areas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de água e solo em áreas de cerrado no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, de fevereiro/1999 a fevereiro/2001. Estas amostras foram trazidas ao laboratório e tratadas segundo a técnica de iscagem múltipla. Dentre os fungos pitiáceos isolados, nove espécies pertencem ao gênero Pythium Pringsheim: Pythium echinulatum Matthews, P. graminicolum Subramanian, P. irregulare Buisman, P. rostratum Butler, P. spinosum Sawada, P. torulosum Coker & Patterson, P. ultimum Trow var. ultimum, P. undulatum Petersen e P. vexans de Bary. P. undulatum é mencionado pela primeira vez para o Brasil.Water and soil samples were obtained from cerrado areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from February, 1999 to February, 2001, brought to the laboratory and treated by the multiple baiting technique. Among the pythiaceous fungi isolated, nine species belonging to the genus Pythium Pringsheim: Pythium echinulatum Matthews, P. graminicolum Subramanian, P. irregulare Buisman, P. rostratum Butler, P. spinosum Sawada, P. torulosum Coker & Patterson, P. ultimum Trow var. ultimum, P. undulatum Petersen and P. vexans de Bary. P. undulatum is mentioned for the first time to Brazil.

Filipe R. Baptista

2004-06-01

172

Physical Properties of Sugarcane Pertaining to the Design of a Whole Stalk Sugarcane Harvester  

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Full Text Available Sugarcane crop plays a vital role in nation’s economy, being one of the most commercialised crops in India. The production cost of sugarcane is increasing year after year which reduces the profit margin of sugarcane growers and sugar industry. Harvesting is one of the key operations responsible for increase in sugarcane production cost. Hence a tractor mounted whole stalk sugarcane harvester suitable for small and medium farmers is highly essential. The physical properties of sugarcane pertaining to de-topping, de-trashing and conveyance are studied for the designing of a whole stalk sugarcane harvester. The various physical parameters for the major varieties of sugarcane are measured in the farmers’ field. The farmers’ grow CO 86032 sugarcane at a row spacing of 75 to 100cm, and the spacing is increased to 150 and 200cm wherever harvesting is done by self propelled combine harvesters. The average number of cane per meter varied from 27 to 30. The length of the millable cane varies between 1200mm and 2700mm. The maximum and minimum diameters are 40 and 20mm respectively. The trash content at the time of harvesting was 38.56 percent where the regular de-trashing processes were completely skipped by farmers

Joby Bastian *

2014-11-01

173

Yield and quality of induced mutants in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-one near-normal and 4 drastic mutants isolated from mutagen-treated (X-rays, gamma rays and chemical mutagens) sugarcane variety 'Co 419' were tested for yield and juice quality. Mutants '368. and '419/1' had higher yield of cane and higher commercial cane sugar than 'Co 419'. Several mutants, especially the drastic mutants, had higher percentage of sucrose than 'Co 419'. The types with higher percentage of sucrose occurred much more frequently than the higher-yielding ones, indicating more frequent occurrence of disturbances in growth, resulting in diversion of more sucrose to storage than to the apical meristem. (auth.)

174

Effect of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol on pythium: cellular responses and variation in sensitivity among propagules and species.  

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ABSTRACT The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) plays an important role in the suppression of plant pathogens by several strains of Pseudomonas spp. Based on the results of this study, there is variation within and among Pythium spp. to 2,4-DAPG. Also, various propagules of Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum, that are part of the asexual stage of the life cycle, differ considerably in their sensitivity to 2,4-DAPG. Mycelium was the most resistant structure, followed by zoosporangia, zoospore cysts, and zoospores. Additionally, we report for the first time that pH has a significant effect on the activity of 2,4-DAPG, with a higher activity at low pH. Furthermore, the level of acetylation of phloroglucinols is also a major determinant of their activity. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that 2,4-DAPG causes different stages of disorganization in hyphal tips of Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum, including alteration (proliferation, retraction, and disruption) of the plasma membrane, vacuolization, and cell content disintegration. The implications of these results for the efficacy and consistency of biological control of plant-pathogenic Pythium spp. by 2,4-DAPG-producing Pseudomonas spp. are discussed. PMID:18943863

de Souza, Jorge T; Arnould, Christine; Deulvot, Chrystel; Lemanceau, Philippe; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Raaijmakers, Jos M

2003-08-01

175

In Vitro Activities of Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Terbinafine Alone or in Combination against Pythium insidiosum Isolates from Brazil?  

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We evaluated the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine against 30 clinical isolates of Pythium insidiosum using a checkerboard macrodilution method. The combined activity of terbinafine plus itraconazole or plus voriconazole was synergic against 17% of the strains. Antagonism was not observed.

Argenta, Juliana S.; Santurio, Janio M.; Alves, Sydney H.; Pereira, Daniela I. B.; Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Spanamberg, Andre?ia; Ferreiro, Laerte

2008-01-01

176

N-glycosylation in sugarcane  

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Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

Maia Ivan G.

2001-01-01

177

The influence of Aspergillus niger transcription factors AraR and XlnR in the gene expression during growth in D-xylose, L-arabinose and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.  

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The interest in the conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels such as bioethanol has led to an increased investigation into the processes regulating biomass saccharification. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism capable of producing a wide variety of plant biomass degrading enzymes. In A. niger the transcriptional activator XlnR and its close homolog, AraR, controls the main (hemi-)cellulolytic system responsible for plant polysaccharide degradation. Sugarcane is used worldwide as a feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the lignocellulosic residual bagasse can be used in different industrial applications, including ethanol production. The use of pentose sugars from hemicelluloses represents an opportunity to further increase production efficiencies. In the present study, we describe a global gene expression analysis of A. niger XlnR- and AraR-deficient mutant strains, grown on a D-xylose/L-arabinose monosaccharide mixture and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse. Different gene sets of CAZy enzymes and sugar transporters were shown to be individually or dually regulated by XlnR and AraR, with XlnR appearing to be the major regulator on complex polysaccharides. Our study contributes to understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms responsible for plant polysaccharide-degrading gene expression, and opens new possibilities for the engineering of fungi able to produce more efficient enzymatic cocktails to be used in biofuel production. PMID:23892063

de Souza, Wagner Rodrigo; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; de Gouvêa, Paula Fagundes; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Battaglia, Evy; Goldman, Maria Helena S; de Vries, Ronald P; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-11-01

178

Influence of Pythium oligandrum Biocontrol on Fungal and Oomycete Population Dynamics in the Rhizosphere?  

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Fungal and oomycete populations and their dynamics were investigated following the introduction of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum into the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in soilless culture. Three strains of P. oligandrum were selected on the basis of their ability to form oospores (resting structures) and to produce tryptamine (an auxin-like compound) and oligandrin (a glycoprotein elicitor). Real-time PCR and plate counting demonstrated the persistence of large amounts of the antagonistic oomycete in the rhizosphere throughout the cropping season (April to September). Inter-simple-sequence-repeat analysis of the P. oligandrum strains collected from root samples at the end of the cropping season showed that among the three strains used for inoculation, the one producing the smallest amount of oospores was detected at 90%. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis revealed increases in the number of members and the complexity of the fungal community over time. There were no significant differences between the microbial ecosystems inoculated with P. oligandrum and those that were not treated, except for a reduction of Pythium dissotocum (ubiquitous tomato root minor pathogen) populations in inoculated systems during the last 3 months of culture. These findings raise interesting issues concerning the use of P. oligandrum strains producing elicitor and auxin molecules for plant protection and the development of biocontrol. PMID:19447961

Vallance, Jessica; Le Floch, Gaétan; Déniel, Franck; Barbier, Georges; Lévesque, C. André; Rey, Patrice

2009-01-01

179

Influence of Pythium oligandrum biocontrol on fungal and oomycete population dynamics in the rhizosphere.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal and oomycete populations and their dynamics were investigated following the introduction of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum into the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in soilless culture. Three strains of P. oligandrum were selected on the basis of their ability to form oospores (resting structures) and to produce tryptamine (an auxin-like compound) and oligandrin (a glycoprotein elicitor). Real-time PCR and plate counting demonstrated the persistence of large amounts of the antagonistic oomycete in the rhizosphere throughout the cropping season (April to September). Inter-simple-sequence-repeat analysis of the P. oligandrum strains collected from root samples at the end of the cropping season showed that among the three strains used for inoculation, the one producing the smallest amount of oospores was detected at 90%. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis revealed increases in the number of members and the complexity of the fungal community over time. There were no significant differences between the microbial ecosystems inoculated with P. oligandrum and those that were not treated, except for a reduction of Pythium dissotocum (ubiquitous tomato root minor pathogen) populations in inoculated systems during the last 3 months of culture. These findings raise interesting issues concerning the use of P. oligandrum strains producing elicitor and auxin molecules for plant protection and the development of biocontrol. PMID:19447961

Vallance, Jessica; Le Floch, Gaétan; Déniel, Franck; Barbier, Georges; Lévesque, C André; Rey, Patrice

2009-07-01

180

Random amplified polymorphic DNA typing and phylogeny of Pythium insidiosum clinical isolates in Thailand.  

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Forty-three Pythium insidiosum clinical isolates recovered from human pythiosis cases in Thailand were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Three random oligonucleotide primers, OPW11, OPW12 and OPX13 generated 39, 34 and 35 DNA patterns with high value of typeability (100%), reproducibility (98.5, 88.8 and 93.3%) and discriminatory power (0.83, 0.82 and 0.77), respectively. Using GelCompar software based on band similarity, the 43 clinical isolates of P. insidiosum could be arranged into 9, 13 and 11 clades using OPW11, OPW12 and OPX13, respectively and the combination of all three primers revealed 36 RAPD patterns. Members in each RAPD pattern varied in both clinical forms and/or geographical locations. RAPD pattern 15 was found in 6 isolates, half of which were found in central region of Thailand. Isolates MCC15 and MCC16 isolated from different patients exhibited identical pattern with all three primers. Our results revealed high genetic heterogeneity among Pythium insidiosum isolates in Thailand. RAPD method should be appropriate for future epidemiological studies of P. insidiosum strains from patients and from natural habitats. PMID:17539291

Pannanusorn, Srisuda; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Prariyachatigul, Chularut; Krajaejun, Theerapong; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Chindamporn, Ariya; Wanachiwanawin, Wanchai; Satapatayavong, Boonmee

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Mapping of Pythium insidiosum hyphal antigens and ultrastructural features using TEM.  

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Pythium insidiosum, the aetiological agent of pythiosis, has been reported to cause disease in mammals. Although several aspects of this pathogen have been extensively investigated, its ultra-structural features and the location and characterization of the antigens expressed during infection have yet to be examined. During this study the ultrastructural characteristics and the mapping of P. insidiosum hyphal antigens from in vitro cultures were investigated. The ultrastructural study showed similarities between the hyphal features of this mammalian pathogen and other Pythium spp. Using immuno-electron microscopy and protein-A colloidal gold (PACG)-labelling, anti-P. insidiosum antibodies from the sera of infected hosts (bovine, canine, equine, feline, and human), were found to bind specifically to several cytoplasmic and cell wall antigens within the hyphae of P. insidiosum. The anti-P. insidiosum antibodies present in the sera from an infected feline showed only 85% gold binding, whereas the PACG particles failed to bind to the canine antibodies. The mapping of the hyphal antigens of P. insidiosum could be of importance for the specific selection of these antigens and their future molecular characterization. In addition, the antigens of P. insidiosum detected by sera from infected hosts could be used as purified antigens in the diagnosis and the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:18023165

Garcia, Ricky B; Pastor, Alicia; Mendoza, Leonel

2007-11-01

182

Transcriptome analysis reveals pathogenicity and evolutionary history of the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

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Oomycetes form a unique group of microorganisms that share hyphal morphology with fungi. Most of pathogenic oomycetes infect plants, while some species are capable of infecting animals. Pythium insidiosum is the only oomycete that can infect both humans and animals, and causes a life-threatening infectious disease, called 'pythiosis'. Controlling an infection caused by P. insidiosum is problematic because effective antimicrobial drugs are not available. Information on the biology and pathogenesis of P. insidiosum is limited. We generated a P. insidiosum transcriptome of 26 735 unigenes, using the 454 sequencing platform. As adaptations to increased temperature inside human hosts are required for a successful pathogen, we generated P. insidiosum transcriptomes at 28 °C and 37 °C and identified 625 up-regulated and 449 down-regulated genes at 37 °C. Comparing the proteomes of oomycetes, fungi, and parasites provided clues on the evolutionary history of P. insidiosum. Potential virulence factors of P. insidiosum, including putative effectors, were identified. Pythium insidiosum harbored an extensive repertoire of ? 300 elicitin domain-containing proteins. The transcriptome, presented herein, provides an invaluable resource for exploring P. insidiosum's biology, pathogenesis, and evolution. PMID:25088078

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Garg, Gagan; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sullivan, Thomas D

2014-07-01

183

Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil  

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This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes agricultural and industrial activities, distribution, cogeneration of electricity and steam, ethanol use during car driving, and industrial by-products recycling to irrigate sugarcane fields. The use of sugarcane by the ethanol agribusiness is one of the foremost financial resources for the economy of the Brazilian rural area, which occupies extensive areas and provides far-reaching potentials for renewable fuel production. But, there are environmental impacts during the fuel ethanol lifecycle, which this paper intents to analyze, including addressing the main activities responsible for such impacts and indicating some suggestions to minimize the impacts. This study is classified as an applied quantitative research, and the technical procedure to achieve the exploratory goal is based on bibliographic revision, documental research, primary data collection, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The lifecycle impact assessment (LCIA) covers the following emission-related impact categories: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. The results of the fuel ethanol LCI demonstrate that even though alcohol is considered a renewable fuel because it comes from biomass (sugarcane), it uses a high quantity and diversity of nonrenewable resources over its lifecycle. The input of renewable resources is also high mainly because of the water consumption in the industrial phases, due to the sugarcane washing process. During the lifecycle of alcohol, there is a surplus of electric energy due to the cogeneration activity. Another focus point is the quantity of emissions to the atmosphere and the diversity of the substances emitted. Harvesting is the unit process that contributes most to global warming. For photochemical ozone formation, harvesting is also the activity with the strongest contributions due to the burning in harvesting and the emissions from using diesel fuel. The acidification impact potential is mostly due to the NOx emitted by the combustion of ethanol during use, on account of the sulfuric acid use in the industrial process and because of the NOx emitted by the burning in harvesting. The main consequence of the intensive use of fertilizers to the field is the high nutrient enrichment impact potential associated with this activity. The main contributions to the ecotoxicity impact potential come from chemical applications during crop growth. The activity that presents the highest impact potential for human toxicity (HT) via air and via soil is harvesting. Via water, HT potential is high in harvesting due to lubricant use on the machines. The normalization results indicate that nutrient enrichment, acidification, and human toxicity via air and via water are the most significant impact potentials for the lifecycle of fuel ethanol. The fuel ethanol lifecycle contributes negatively to all the impact potentials analyzed: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. Concerning energy consumption, it consumes less energy than its own production largely because of the electricity cogeneration system, but this process is highly dependent on water. The main causes for the biggest impact potential indicated by the normalization is the nutrient application, the burning in harvesting and the use of diesel fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agric

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

2009-01-01

184

Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants  

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Full Text Available O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados com antígeno macerado de micélio (AMM associado a três adjuvantes. Grupo I: hidróxido de alumínio; grupo II: adjuvante de Freund; grupo III: óleo mineral e grupo IV: água destilada -controle. Os tratamentos foram avaliados a diferentes intervalos, quanto à capacidade de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas específicas da classe G, através da técnica de ELISA. Na fase 1, os animais receberam três doses do imunógeno (dias zero, 14 e 28 e foram avaliados sorologicamente nos dias 14, 21, 28 e 35. Nessa fase, os adjuvantes oleosos (GII e III induziram níveis de anticorpos estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos nos grupos I e IV. Durante a fase 2 (dias 42 a 120, cada grupo foi subdividido em dois; sendo um subgrupo mantido em tratamento (imunizações adicionais nos dias 42, 56, 68 e 82 e o outro tendo o tratamento interrompido após a 3ª dose (dia 28. Nos subgrupos mantidos em tratamento, os níveis de anticorpos dos grupos imunizados com adjuvantes foram estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos no grupo GIV (controle. Nos coelhos com tratamento interrompido, os grupos I, II e III apresentaram manutenção nos níveis de IgG e foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo controle, que apresentou declínio nos níveis de anticorpos. Os resultados demonstraram a capacidade dos adjuvantes testados em potencializar e prolongar a resposta humoral aos antígenos do P. insidiosum. O uso de adjuvantes associado aos atuais imunógenos pode aumentar os índices de cura em eqüinos submetidos à imunoterapia, assim como viabilizar sua utilização como preventivo.Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic fungi living in flooded areas which can infect humans and animals. Natural infection in these species results in clinical pythiosis, a granulomatous disease of difficult treatment. Immunotherapy with antigens obtained from cultures of the agent is a promising alternative therapy. In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvants in the immunologic response to P. insidiosum antigens, 24 rabbits were assigned to four groups and immunized with mycelian mass antigen with each of there adjuvants. Group I: aluminum hydroxide; group II: Freund’s adjuvant; group III: mineral oil and group IV: distilled water-control. The effects of the adjavants were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-pythium imunoglobulin G (IgG produced by the immunized rabbits at different time-points after immunization, using an ELISA test. During phase 1, the animals were immunized three times (days zero, 14 and 28 and serologically tested at days 14, 21, 28 and 35. The oil adjuvants (groups II and III were statistically superior to groups I and IV. During phase 2 (from day 42 to 120 each group was subdivided in two, with one subgroup having additional immunizations at days 42, 56, 68 and 82 and the other having the treatment interrupted. Among the rabbits with continued immunizations, groups I, II and III (adjuvants had statistically higher IgG levels than GIV. Among rabbits with interrupted treatment, GI, GII and presented stable IgG levels and were statistically superior to the control group, that presented decrease in the levels. These results demonstrated that the adjuvants were capable of inducing stronger and longer imunologic responses (IgG to P. insidiosum antigens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants associated with P. insidiosum antigens may increase the recovery rates obtained through immunotherapy.

Alexandre Trindade Leal

2002-12-01

185

EL ANÁLISIS DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES EN LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE SISTEMAS AGROECOLÓGICOS PARA EL MANEJO DE RIZOBACTERIAS PROMOTORAS DEL CRECIMIENTO VEGETAL PARA EL CULTIVO DE LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR MAIN COMPONENTS ANALYSIS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF AGROECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING RHIZOBACTERIA IN THE GROWTH OF SUGARCANE CULTIVARS  

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Full Text Available El Análisis de Componentes Principales constituye una herramienta estadística que tradicionalmente ha sido poco utilizada por los investigadores de la Rama Agrícola. En esta investigación se muestran las ventajas de su uso sobre otros métodos estadísticos y su utilidad en la interpretación de sistemas alternativos de nutrición de las plantas. Se experimentó sobre suelos Cambisoles en la cepa de retoños de caña de azúcar de más de tres cortes, evaluando el comportamiento de la planta ante diferentes formas de traslado al campo de las Rizobacterias Promotoras del Crecimiento Vegetal (líquido y sólidas. Las formas sólidas son soportadas en cachaza. Se obtuvo como resultados fundamentales que las variables longitud tallo, grosor del tallo, ancho de la hoja, no de hojas, área foliar entre otras, fueron las que más aportaron al sistema evaluado. Además se concluyó que las variables del tallo dentro de los sistemas biológicos como modo de nutrición de las plantas aportan mayor variabilidad a los indicadores productivos.The Main Component Analysis constitutes a statistical tool that has traditionally been little used by agricultural researchers. This study shows the advantages of its use over other statistical methods and its usefulness in the interpretation of alternative nutrition systems in sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on Cambisol soils in the strain of regrowths of more than three cuttings, evaluating the performance of the plant before different transference forms of the Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria to the field (liquid and solid. The solid forms are based on peat and sugarcane filtered mud. The main results obtained indicated that leaf length, stem width, leaf width, number of leaves, leaf area among others were the variables with the highest contribution to the evaluated system. It was also concluded that the biological systems for the nutrition of sugar cane contribute higher variability to the productive indicators.

Doris Torriente Díaz

2010-04-01

186

EL ANÁLISIS DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES EN LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE SISTEMAS AGROECOLÓGICOS PARA EL MANEJO DE RIZOBACTERIAS PROMOTORAS DEL CRECIMIENTO VEGETAL PARA EL CULTIVO DE LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR / MAIN COMPONENTS ANALYSIS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF AGROECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING RHIZOBACTERIA IN THE GROWTH OF SUGARCANE CULTIVARS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Análisis de Componentes Principales constituye una herramienta estadística que tradicionalmente ha sido poco utilizada por los investigadores de la Rama Agrícola. En esta investigación se muestran las ventajas de su uso sobre otros métodos estadísticos y su utilidad en la interpretación de sistem [...] as alternativos de nutrición de las plantas. Se experimentó sobre suelos Cambisoles en la cepa de retoños de caña de azúcar de más de tres cortes, evaluando el comportamiento de la planta ante diferentes formas de traslado al campo de las Rizobacterias Promotoras del Crecimiento Vegetal (líquido y sólidas). Las formas sólidas son soportadas en cachaza. Se obtuvo como resultados fundamentales que las variables longitud tallo, grosor del tallo, ancho de la hoja, no de hojas, área foliar entre otras, fueron las que más aportaron al sistema evaluado. Además se concluyó que las variables del tallo dentro de los sistemas biológicos como modo de nutrición de las plantas aportan mayor variabilidad a los indicadores productivos. Abstract in english The Main Component Analysis constitutes a statistical tool that has traditionally been little used by agricultural researchers. This study shows the advantages of its use over other statistical methods and its usefulness in the interpretation of alternative nutrition systems in sugarcane. The experi [...] ment was carried out on Cambisol soils in the strain of regrowths of more than three cuttings, evaluating the performance of the plant before different transference forms of the Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria to the field (liquid and solid). The solid forms are based on peat and sugarcane filtered mud. The main results obtained indicated that leaf length, stem width, leaf width, number of leaves, leaf area among others were the variables with the highest contribution to the evaluated system. It was also concluded that the biological systems for the nutrition of sugar cane contribute higher variability to the productive indicators.

Doris, Torriente Díaz; Verena, Torres Cárdenas.

187

Estructura y ultraestructura de Pythium insidiosum en la pitiosis gastrointestinal canina / Structure and ultrastructure of Pythium insidiosum in canine gastrointestinal pythiosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La pitiosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa que se presenta en humanos y en otros mamíferos, causada por Pythium insidiosum, un pseudohongo clasificado en el reino Straminipila. En Venezuela se han diagnosticado casos de pitiosis en perros con diarrea hemorrágica crónica, sin embargo, las caracterís [...] ticas estructurales y ultraestructurales de las lesiones han sido poco estudiadas. Se planteó como objetivo describir, a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido y de transmisión, la estructura y ultraestructura de P. insidiosum y las lesiones que produce en el tracto gastrointestinal de los perros. Se procesaron para microscopia electrónica muestras de tejido procedentes de caninos con diagnóstico de pitiosis gastrointestinal, referidos al Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado”. Las muestras examinadas mostraron tejido necrótico, trombosis vascular y numerosas hifas de P. insidiosum, caracterizadas por ser largas, onduladas, de paredes aplanadas, de 3 a 5 µm de diámetro, ramificadas en ángulo de 90° y externamente rodeadas por un material granular electrón denso en forma de incrustaciones, sugestivo del fenómeno de Splendore-Hoeppli. Se concluyó que la pitiosis en caninos cursa con lesiones granulomatosas y trombóticas, donde se observa que el agente etiológico mantiene su integridad, a pesar de estar íntimamente relacionado con células fagocíticas. Abstract in english Pythiosis is a granulomatous disease that occurs in humans and other mammals, produced by Pythium insidiosum, a pseudofungus classified in the Straminipila kingdom. In Venezuela, pythiosis cases have been diagnosed in dogs with chronic hemorrhagic diarrhea; nevertheless, the structural and ultrastru [...] ctural characteristics of the lesions have not been studied in depth. The objective set for this study was to describe, through scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the structure and ultrastructure of P. insidiosum, and the lesions it produces in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. Tissue samples from canines with a gastrointestinal pythiosis diagnosis, referred by the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado”, were processed for electron microscopy study. The samples examined showed necrotic tissue, vascular thrombosis and numerous P. insidiosum hyphae, characterized by being long, ondulating, with flattened walls, 3 to 5 µm in diameter, ramified in a 90º angle, and externally surrounded by an electron dense granular material in the form of inlays, suggestive of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. It was concluded that canine pythiosis evolves with granulomatous and thrombotic lesions, which show that the etiologic agent maintains its integrity, in spite of being intimately related with phagocytic cells.

Yaritza Josefina, Salas Araujo; Victoria del Rosario, Colmenares; Adelys Antonio, Márquez Alvarado; Juan Jesús Luis, León; Olivar, Castejón.

2009-12-01

188

Estructura y ultraestructura de Pythium insidiosum en la pitiosis gastrointestinal canina / Structure and ultrastructure of Pythium insidiosum in canine gastrointestinal pythiosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La pitiosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa que se presenta en humanos y en otros mamíferos, causada por Pythium insidiosum, un pseudohongo clasificado en el reino Straminipila. En Venezuela se han diagnosticado casos de pitiosis en perros con diarrea hemorrágica crónica, sin embargo, las caracterís [...] ticas estructurales y ultraestructurales de las lesiones han sido poco estudiadas. Se planteó como objetivo describir, a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido y de transmisión, la estructura y ultraestructura de P. insidiosum y las lesiones que produce en el tracto gastrointestinal de los perros. Se procesaron para microscopia electrónica muestras de tejido procedentes de caninos con diagnóstico de pitiosis gastrointestinal, referidos al Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado”. Las muestras examinadas mostraron tejido necrótico, trombosis vascular y numerosas hifas de P. insidiosum, caracterizadas por ser largas, onduladas, de paredes aplanadas, de 3 a 5 µm de diámetro, ramificadas en ángulo de 90° y externamente rodeadas por un material granular electrón denso en forma de incrustaciones, sugestivo del fenómeno de Splendore-Hoeppli. Se concluyó que la pitiosis en caninos cursa con lesiones granulomatosas y trombóticas, donde se observa que el agente etiológico mantiene su integridad, a pesar de estar íntimamente relacionado con células fagocíticas. Abstract in english Pythiosis is a granulomatous disease that occurs in humans and other mammals, produced by Pythium insidiosum, a pseudofungus classified in the Straminipila kingdom. In Venezuela, pythiosis cases have been diagnosed in dogs with chronic hemorrhagic diarrhea; nevertheless, the structural and ultrastru [...] ctural characteristics of the lesions have not been studied in depth. The objective set for this study was to describe, through scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the structure and ultrastructure of P. insidiosum, and the lesions it produces in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. Tissue samples from canines with a gastrointestinal pythiosis diagnosis, referred by the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado”, were processed for electron microscopy study. The samples examined showed necrotic tissue, vascular thrombosis and numerous P. insidiosum hyphae, characterized by being long, ondulating, with flattened walls, 3 to 5 µm in diameter, ramified in a 90º angle, and externally surrounded by an electron dense granular material in the form of inlays, suggestive of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. It was concluded that canine pythiosis evolves with granulomatous and thrombotic lesions, which show that the etiologic agent maintains its integrity, in spite of being intimately related with phagocytic cells.

Yaritza Josefina, Salas Araujo; Victoria del Rosario, Colmenares; Adelys Antonio, Márquez Alvarado; Juan Jesús Luis, León; Olivar, Castejón.

189

Obstrução intestinal por Pythium insidiosum em um cão: relato de caso / Intestinal obstruction by Pythium insidiosum in a dog: case report  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relata-se um caso de pitiose intestinal em um Husky Siberiano, de um ano de idade, macho atendido em um Hospital Veterinário Escola com sinais de obstrução intestinal. Ao exame físico, notou-se massa cilíndrica na região abdominal cranial, posteriormente confirmada por meio de radiografia e ultrasso [...] nografia. Durante a laparotomia exploratória, constatou-se massa extraluminal envolvendo o jejuno e alterações na parede do órgão. Realizou-se a ressecção da porção afetada do intestino e, posteriormente, anastomose. O exame histológico do tecido evidenciou inflamação piogranulomatosa acentuada. Na coloração de prata metenamina de Grocott, hifas septadas foram observadas. O diagnóstico de infecção por Pythium insidiosum foi confirmado por meio da imunoistoquímica. Após a cirurgia, o animal restabeleceu a defecação; no 30° dia pós-cirúrgico, foi relatada ainda presença de diarreia. O tratamento com itraconazol e terbinafina foi instituído durante 60 dias. Após dois anos do procedimento cirúrgico e do tratamento com antifúngicos orais, o cão não apresentou recidiva. Abstract in english A case of intestinal pythiosis in a one-year-old male Siberian Husky treated at a Veterinary School Hospital with signs of intestinal obstruction is reported. At physical examination, a cylindrical mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen, later confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography. During t [...] he exploratory laparotomy, it was evidenced an extraluminal mass involving the jejunum and alterations of the wall in the organ. After that, a resection of the affected portion of the intestine was made followed by anastomosis. The histologic examination evidenced accented pyogranulomatous inflammation. By the Grocott methenamine silver stain, branching hyphae were observed. The diagnosis of infection by Pythium insidiosum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The animal reestablished the defecation after the surgery; on the 30th postoperative day, it was also reported the presence of diarrhea. The treatment with itraconazol and terbinafina was instituted for 60 days. Two years after the surgical procedure and treatment with oral antifungals, the dog did not show recurrence.

P.S., Hunning; G., Rigon; C.S., Faraco; S.P., Pavarini; D., Sampaio; W., Beheregaray; D., Driemeier.

2010-08-01

190

Obstrução intestinal por Pythium insidiosum em um cão: relato de caso / Intestinal obstruction by Pythium insidiosum in a dog: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relata-se um caso de pitiose intestinal em um Husky Siberiano, de um ano de idade, macho atendido em um Hospital Veterinário Escola com sinais de obstrução intestinal. Ao exame físico, notou-se massa cilíndrica na região abdominal cranial, posteriormente confirmada por meio de radiografia e ultrasso [...] nografia. Durante a laparotomia exploratória, constatou-se massa extraluminal envolvendo o jejuno e alterações na parede do órgão. Realizou-se a ressecção da porção afetada do intestino e, posteriormente, anastomose. O exame histológico do tecido evidenciou inflamação piogranulomatosa acentuada. Na coloração de prata metenamina de Grocott, hifas septadas foram observadas. O diagnóstico de infecção por Pythium insidiosum foi confirmado por meio da imunoistoquímica. Após a cirurgia, o animal restabeleceu a defecação; no 30° dia pós-cirúrgico, foi relatada ainda presença de diarreia. O tratamento com itraconazol e terbinafina foi instituído durante 60 dias. Após dois anos do procedimento cirúrgico e do tratamento com antifúngicos orais, o cão não apresentou recidiva. Abstract in english A case of intestinal pythiosis in a one-year-old male Siberian Husky treated at a Veterinary School Hospital with signs of intestinal obstruction is reported. At physical examination, a cylindrical mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen, later confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography. During t [...] he exploratory laparotomy, it was evidenced an extraluminal mass involving the jejunum and alterations of the wall in the organ. After that, a resection of the affected portion of the intestine was made followed by anastomosis. The histologic examination evidenced accented pyogranulomatous inflammation. By the Grocott methenamine silver stain, branching hyphae were observed. The diagnosis of infection by Pythium insidiosum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The animal reestablished the defecation after the surgery; on the 30th postoperative day, it was also reported the presence of diarrhea. The treatment with itraconazol and terbinafina was instituted for 60 days. Two years after the surgical procedure and treatment with oral antifungals, the dog did not show recurrence.

P.S., Hunning; G., Rigon; C.S., Faraco; S.P., Pavarini; D., Sampaio; W., Beheregaray; D., Driemeier.

191

Influence of siderurgical slag about gaseous changes and production of biomass of sugarcane  

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Full Text Available The experiment was installed in greenhouse, using one of the most representative soils of the state of Ceará, Brazil, for sugarcane crop, a Red-Yellow Argissoil. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of silicon in the gas exchange and production of biomass of sugarcane cultivars in sandy loam soil. It was used a completely randomized in 5x2 factorial scheme with five silicon doses: 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0 and 15.0 g per pot-1 of siderurgical slag, two cultivars of sugarcane and four repetitions. The siderurgical slag (calcium and magnesium silicato used containing 11% of soluble SiO2. It was evaluated the silicon level in the leaf, the production of dry matter of the aerial part, the relative growth rate of the plant, the water use efficiency, transpiration and conductance of the leaf. The results showed increase in concentration of Si in leaf with the application of the silicon; practically no influence in growth and physiological characteristics of the plants.Key-words: Argissoil, calcium, greenhouse, sugarcane.

Lúcio Bastos Madeiros

2009-08-01

192

Gamma irradiation effects on sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) clone Co-547  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acute gamma irradiation effects (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kiloroentgens) on sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) clone Co-547 setts studied through the cane grand growth period included bud radiosensitivity estimation and evaluation of the magnitude of induced genetic variability. Seedling performance D50 ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 kR over the grand growth period (52 to 172 days from sett planting) and between 2.0 to 3.0 kR from the planr survival data. Cane yield decreased significantly from 3.0 kR, predominantly influenced by the plant survival at maturity. Variants were selected for increased internode thickness, higher tiller number and rind colour changes that need to be verified in subsequent vegetative generations. These results suggest that variability can be induced in a high frequency in sugarcane following sett irradiation. However, in order to maintain a positive high yield/optimum sugar recovery/population size correlation, the treatment limits should not exceed 3.0 kR when specific attributes need to be introduced into clones. (author)

193

Reuteran and levan as carbohydrate sinks in transgenic sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports the effect of high molecular weight bacterial fructan (levan) and glucan (reuteran) on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in transgenic sugarcane plants. These biopolymers are products of bacterial glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glucose or fructose residues from sucrose. Constructs, targeted to different subcellular compartments (cell wall and cytosol) and driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S: maize-ubiquitin promoter, were introduced into sugarcane by biolistic transformation. Polysaccharide accumulation severely affected growth of callus suspension cultures. Regeneration of embryonic callus tissue into plants proved problematic for cell wall-targeted lines. When targeted to the cytosol, only plants with relative low levels of biopolymer accumulation survived. In internodal stalk tissue that accumulate reuteran (max 0.03 mg/g FW), sucrose content (ca 60 mg/g FW) was not affected, while starch content (levan (max 0.01 mg/g FW). Heterologous expression resulted in a reduction in total carbohydrate assimilation rather than a simple diversion by competition for substrate. PMID:22903192

Bauer, Rolene; Basson, Carin E; Bekker, Jan; Eduardo, Iban; Rohwer, Johann M; Uys, Lafras; van Wyk, Johannes H; Kossmann, Jens

2012-12-01

194

Base excision repair in sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Danos no DNA podem ser induzidos por um grande número de agentes físicos e químicos presentes no ambiente, como também por compostos produzidos pelo próprio metabolismo celular. Estes danos podem interferir com processos celulares como replicação e transcrição, levando a morte celular e/ou mutações. [...] Os baixos níveis de mutação nas células são devidos à presença de vias enzimáticas, que reparam os danos no DNA. Diversos genes de reparo de DNA têm sido clonados e seus produtos caracterizados, principalmente em bactérias, leveduras e mamíferos. O interesse no estudo de mecanismos de reparo de DNA advém de seu envolvimento com a proteção da integridade da informação genética. A alta conservação observada para a maioria dos genes relacionados ao reparo de DNA, especialmente em eucariotos, aponta para sua importância para a manutenção da vida na terra. Em plantas, o conhecimento sobre os mecanismos de reparo de DNA é ainda reduzido. Os primeiros genes de reparo foram recentemente clonados e o mecanismo de ação de seus produtos está por ser caracterizado. Nosso objetivo neste trabalho de data mining foi identificar, no banco de dados gerados pelo projeto Genoma da Cana de Açúcar (Sugarcane Expressed Tag Project-SUCEST), genes relacionados ao reparo por excisão de bases (BER). Esta busca foi feita através do programa tblastn. Em cana de açúcar, foram identificados clusters homólogos para a maioria das proteínas BER analisadas e um alto grau de conservação foi observado. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com proteínas BER de Arabidopsis thaliana. Para alguns homólogos BER de cana de açúcar, a presença de mais de uma forma de mRNA é possível, como definido pela ocorrência de mais de um cluster homólogo. Abstract in english DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low fr [...] equency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals) have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

Lucymara F., Agnez-Lima; Sílvia R. Batistuzzo de, Medeiros; Bruno S., Maggi; Giovanna A.S., Quaresma.

195

Effects of plant densities and management of purple nutsedge on sugarcane yield and effect of growth stages and main way of herbicides contact and absorption on the control of tubers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field experiments carried out with Cyperus rotundus L. at low (58-246), medium (318-773), and high (675-1198 shoots/m2) densities showed sugarcane yield reductions of 13.5, 29.3, and 45.2%, respectively in relation to the control. In the second field experiment, the integration of a mechanic method with two sequences of plowing and disking operations in the dry season, and complementary applications of trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and sulfentrazone (rainy season) was studied. Average of the chain connected to original shoot showed 92, 95, and 65% of reduction with trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and surfactant, at the application stages "early," preflowering, and full flowering, respectively. PMID:15656168

Durigan, Julio Cezar

2005-01-01

196

Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. PMID:25009768

Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Khraiwesh, Basel; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Gupta, Ram Sagar; Singh, Jyotsnendra; Duttamajumder, Sanjoy Kumar; Kapur, Raman

2014-01-01

197

Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed. (author)

Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A. [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos, DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP, CP 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Koehlinger, John [Energy Consultant. 1322 Hepburn Ave 1, Louisville, KY 40204 (United States); Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto [ENEA Trisaia Research Centre. Prot-STP. SS106 Jonica, Rotondella (Italy)

2008-06-15

198

N-glycosylation in sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A N-glicosilação é uma das principais modificações pós-traducionais, sendo responsável por alterações na conformação, estabilidade e conseqüentemente na funcionalidade de proteínas em eucariotos. Com a finalidade de melhor compreender a via de N-glicosilação em plantas foi realizada uma prospecção n [...] o banco de seqüências expressas do projeto genoma da cana de açúcar (SUCEST). Foram identificadas noventa seqüências cujos produtos gênicos apresentam alto grau de similaridade com enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese e processamento de N-glicanos. Dos vinte e três genes da via de N-glicosilação previamente descritos em diferentes espécies, vinte e um foram detectados em cana de açúcar. Abstract in english The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mam [...] mals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

Ivan G., Maia; Adilson, Leite.

199

Oxidative stress response in sugarcane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.

Soares Netto Luis Eduardo

2001-01-01

200

N-glycosylation in sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A N-glicosilação é uma das principais modificações pós-traducionais, sendo responsável por alterações na conformação, estabilidade e conseqüentemente na funcionalidade de proteínas em eucariotos. Com a finalidade de melhor compreender a via de N-glicosilação em plantas foi realizada uma prospecção n [...] o banco de seqüências expressas do projeto genoma da cana de açúcar (SUCEST). Foram identificadas noventa seqüências cujos produtos gênicos apresentam alto grau de similaridade com enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese e processamento de N-glicanos. Dos vinte e três genes da via de N-glicosilação previamente descritos em diferentes espécies, vinte e um foram detectados em cana de açúcar. Abstract in english The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mam [...] mals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

Ivan G., Maia; Adilson, Leite.

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum Isolates to Aminoglycoside Antibiotics and Tigecycline  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the in vitro activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics and tigecycline against Pythium insidiosum. The susceptibility tests were carried out using the broth microdilution method in accordance with the CLSI document M38-A2. MIC values for gentamicin, neomycin, paromomycin, and streptomycin ranged from 32 to 64 mg/liter, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranged from 32 to 128 mg/liter, which are incompatible with safe concentrations of these drugs in plasma in vivo. Tigecycline showed the lowest MIC (0.25 to 2 mg/liter) and MFC (1 to 8 mg/liter) range values. The in vitro susceptibility observed to tigecycline makes this drug a good option in future tests in vitro and in vivo for the management of pythiosis. PMID:22508303

Mahl, Deise Luiza; de Jesus, Francielli Pantella Kunz; Loreto, Erico Silva; Zanette, Regis Adriel; Ferreiro, Laerte; Pilotto, Maiara Ben; Alves, Sydney Hartz

2012-01-01

202

In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Macrolides and Tetracycline Antibiotics ?  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the in vitro activity of macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics against Pythium insidiosum. The MICs were determined according to CLSI procedures (visual MIC) and by a colorimetric method [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. The lowest geometric mean (GM) MIC (MICs in ?g/ml) (0.39 and 0.7 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively) and MIC ranges (0.125 to 2.0) were obtained for minocycline, while the highest MICs were shown for erythromycin (GM of 7.58 and 12.25 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively, and MIC ranged from 2 to 32). This significant in vitro activity makes these classes of antibiotics good candidates for experimental treatment of pythiosis. PMID:21537028

Loreto, Erico Silva; Mario, Debora Alves Nunes; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2011-01-01

203

In vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the in vitro activity of macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics against Pythium insidiosum. The MICs were determined according to CLSI procedures (visual MIC) and by a colorimetric method [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. The lowest geometric mean (GM) MIC (MICs in ?g/ml) (0.39 and 0.7 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively) and MIC ranges (0.125 to 2.0) were obtained for minocycline, while the highest MICs were shown for erythromycin (GM of 7.58 and 12.25 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively, and MIC ranged from 2 to 32). This significant in vitro activity makes these classes of antibiotics good candidates for experimental treatment of pythiosis. PMID:21537028

Loreto, Erico Silva; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2011-07-01

204

In vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum isolates to aminoglycoside antibiotics and tigecycline.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the in vitro activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics and tigecycline against Pythium insidiosum. The susceptibility tests were carried out using the broth microdilution method in accordance with the CLSI document M38-A2. MIC values for gentamicin, neomycin, paromomycin, and streptomycin ranged from 32 to 64 mg/liter, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranged from 32 to 128 mg/liter, which are incompatible with safe concentrations of these drugs in plasma in vivo. Tigecycline showed the lowest MIC (0.25 to 2 mg/liter) and MFC (1 to 8 mg/liter) range values. The in vitro susceptibility observed to tigecycline makes this drug a good option in future tests in vitro and in vivo for the management of pythiosis. PMID:22508303

Mahl, Deise Luiza; de Jesus, Francielli Pantella Kunz; Loreto, Érico Silva; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Ferreiro, Laerte; Pilotto, Maiara Ben; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2012-07-01

205

Diversity and evolution of 5S rRNA gene family organization in Pythium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 5S rRNA gene family organization among 87 species and varieties of Pythium was investigated to assess evolutionary stability of the two patterns detected and to determine which pattern is likely the ancestral state in the genus. Species with filamentous sporangia (Groups A-C according to the ITS phylogenetic tree for Pythium) had 5S genes linked to the rDNA repeat that were predominantly coded for on the DNA strand opposite to the one with the other rRNA genes ('inverted' orientation). A small group of species with contiguous sporangia (Group D) is related to Groups A-C but had unlinked 5S genes. The main group of species with spherical zoosporangia (Groups E-J) generally had unlinked 5S genes in tandem arrays. The six species in Group K, although they also have spherical sporangia, had linked genes on the same strand as the other rRNA genes 'non-inverted' and most of them had pairs of tandem 5S genes. The evolutionary stability of 5S sequence organization was compared with the stability of morphological characters as interpreted from a phylogeny based on ITS sequence analysis. Features of 5S sequence organization were found to be just as consistent within groups as were the morphological characters. To determine the ancestral type of 5S family organization, a survey of Phytophthora strains was conducted to supply an outgroup reference. The most parsimonious interpretation of the data in this survey yielded the tentative conclusion that the linked condition of the 5S sequences was ancestral. PMID:16431276

Bedard, James E J; Schurko, Andrew M; de Cock, Arthur W A M; Klassen, Glen R

2006-01-01

206

A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

Sopa Cansee

2010-01-01

207

Biochemical and physiological responses of sugarcane cultivars to soil water deficiencies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english For sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops, the effects of an environmental stress, especially water deficiency, may cause severe productivity reduction, inferring negatively in the sugarcane industry. The tolerance of two sugarcane cultivars to a lack of water was made by analyzing the levels of the osmo [...] protectors, trehalose and free proline, and the biometrical variables of their initial growth. Biochemical and physiological responses of the cultivars, when subjected to water stress, were assayed to determine how these plants tolerate drought. The study was conducted in an acclimatized greenhouse (29.7 ± 4.3ºC and 75.0 ± 10.1% relative humidity) during 100 days and was divided into random blocks using a factorial 2 × 3 × 2 design (sugarcane cultivars × water availability × time periods) with four replicates. Forty days after germination, sugarcane was planted in pots (12 dm³) containing topsoil material taken from a medium textured Rhodic Ferralsol, submitted to three levels of water availability (WAS): 55% (control), 40% (moderate stress) and 25% (severe stress), for 60 days. The effect of the WAS on the accumulation of trehalose and free proline was detected in both cultivars, although it was found to be more distinctive for the cv. IAC91-5155. Trehalose and free proline are biochemical and physiological indicators of water deficiency. The cv. IAC91-5155 had altered growth and allocation of biomass when subjected to severe water stress conditions. The univariate and the multivariate analysis of the biochemical and physiological responses, presented by the IAC91-5155 cultivar, indicate relative tolerance to drought conditions.

Rafaela Josemara Barbosa, Queiroz; Durvalina Maria Mathias dos, Santos; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo; Samira Domingues, Carlin; Marcelo de Almeida, Silva.

2011-08-01

208

Xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by Candida tropicalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A natural isolate, Candida tropicalis was tested for xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates. Fermentation of corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate showed xylose uptake and xylitol production, though these were very low, even after hydrolysate neutralization and treatments with activated charcoal and ion exchange resins. Initial xylitol production was found to be 0.43 g/g and 0.45 g/g of xylose utilised with corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate respectively. One of the critical factors for low xylitol production was the presence of inhibitors in these hydrolysates. To simulate influence of hemicellulosic sugar composition on xylitol yield, three different combinations of mixed sugar control experiments, without the presence of any inhibitors, have been performed and the strain produced 0.63 g/g, 0.68 g/g and 0.72 g/g of xylose respectively. To improve yeast growth and xylitol production with these hydrolysates, which contain inhibitors, the cells were adapted by sub culturing in the hydrolysate containing medium for 25 cycles. After adaptation the organism produced more xylitol 0.58 g/g and 0.65 g/g of xylose with corn fiber hydrolysate and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate respectively. PMID:16242318

Rao, R Sreenivas; Jyothi, Ch Pavana; Prakasham, R S; Sarma, P N; Rao, L Venkateswar

2006-10-01

209

Development of cassava plants and its mycorrhizal association in soil supplemented with sugarcane agroindustrial residue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of organic agroindustrial residues on agriculture can be one way to improve the development and chemical composition of plants, reducing the cost with chemical fertilizers and impacts generated by the excessive use of them. Sugarcane agroindustrial residue has been generated in high quantity in Brazilian semiarid region and can be applied to cassava crop to improve its growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of sugarcane agroindustrial residue on the vegetative development, chemical composition and mycorrhizal association of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta var. Engana ladrão. It was performed an experiment in greenhouse with completely randomized design with four treatments of addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue (0, 5, 10 and 15% with nine replicates. The addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue increased fresh dry root biomass, leaf area, crude protein and mineral matter, without reducing the mycorrhizal colonization and glomerospores number. This type of residue can be one alternative to improve the nutritional value of these fodder.

Jorge Messias Leal Nascimento

2014-02-01

210

Sugarcane production evaluated by the state-space approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of soil properties on crop growth and yield have traditionally been analyzed using classical statistics methodologies. These methodologies do, however, not consider sampling position coordinates and assume independence between samples. This study had the objective of using the state-space approach, which considers sampling position, to evaluate and to discuss a spatial process using variables related to the soil-plant system. For this, six data sets were collected in a sugarcane experiment carried out on a Dark Red Latosol (Rhodic Kandiudalf), at Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane was planted on a 0.21 ha field, comprising 15 rows, 100 m long, spaced 1.4 m apart, with three treatments (mulching, bare soil and straw burning before harvest) and four replicates, forming a transect of 84 points. In this way, the relationships between the number of canes per meter of row and available soil P, Ca and Mg, clay content and aggregate stability were studied using a first order state-space model. Results show that all of the used state-space equations described the spatial distribution of number of canes better than the equivalent multiple regression equations. It was also identified that the soil clay content spatial series has an effective contribution to describe the number of canes in this study, because it is related to the best performance in each different scenario.

Timm, L. C.; Reichardt, K.; Oliveira, J. C. M.; Cassaro, F. A. M.; Tominaga, T. T.; Bacchi, O. O. S.; Dourado-Neto, D.

2003-03-01

211

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion: The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha; Albano, Rodolpho

2009-01-01

212

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

Neves Anna

2009-09-01

213

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications. PMID:19775431

Bertalan, Marcelo; Albano, Rodolpho; de Padua, Vania; Rouws, Luc; Rojas, Cristian; Hemerly, Adriana; Teixeira, Katia; Schwab, Stefan; Araujo, Jean; Oliveira, Andre; Franca, Leonardo; Magalhaes, Viviane; Alqueres, Sylvia; Cardoso, Alexander; Almeida, Wellington; Loureiro, Marcio Martins; Nogueira, Eduardo; Cidade, Daniela; Oliveira, Denise; Simao, Tatiana; Macedo, Jacyara; Valadao, Ana; Dreschsel, Marcela; Freitas, Flavia; Vidal, Marcia; Guedes, Helma; Rodrigues, Elisete; Meneses, Carlos; Brioso, Paulo; Pozzer, Luciana; Figueiredo, Daniel; Montano, Helena; Junior, Jadier; de Souza Filho, Goncalo; Martin Quintana Flores, Victor; Ferreira, Beatriz; Branco, Alan; Gonzalez, Paula; Guillobel, Heloisa; Lemos, Melissa; Seibel, Luiz; Macedo, Jose; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; Coelho, Ana; Santos, Eidy; Amaral, Gilda; Neves, Anna; Pacheco, Ana Beatriz; Carvalho, Daniela; Lery, Leticia; Bisch, Paulo; Rossle, Shaila C; Urmenyi, Turan; Rael Pereira, Alessandra; Silva, Rosane; Rondinelli, Edson; von Kruger, Wanda; Martins, Orlando; Baldani, Jose Ivo; Ferreira, Paulo CG

2009-01-01

214

In vitro synergism observed with azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline, or tigecycline in association with antifungal agents against Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe here the in vitro activities of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline, or tigecycline alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, or micafungin against 30 isolates of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The assays were based on the CLSI M38-A2 technique and the checkerboard microdilution method. The main synergisms observed were through the combination of minocycline with amphotericin B (73.33%), itraconazole (70%), and micafungin (70%) and of clarithromycin with micafungin (73.33%). PMID:25001300

Jesus, Francielli P K; Ferreiro, Laerte; Loreto, Érico S; Pilotto, Maiara B; Ludwig, Aline; Bizzi, Karine; Tondolo, Juliana S M; Zanette, Régis A; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M

2014-09-01

215

Efecto de la aplicación de abonos orgánicos en la supresión de Pythium myriotylum en plantas de tiquisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Los abonos orgánicos ejercen efecto supresivo sobre patógenos de planta; su capacidad supresora varía de acuerdo al tipo de abono y al sistema planta-patógeno. Se evaluó el efecto supresor de diferentes abonos orgánicos en el sistema tiquisque-Pythium myriotylum. Se determinó la madurez, estabilidad, y actividad microbiana de los diferentes abonos, así como el efecto del tipo de compostaje (compost vs vermicompost), el material de origen (estiércol vs broza de café) y el grado de ma...

Silvia Artavia; Lidieth Uribe; Francisco Saborío; Luis Felipe Arauz; Leida Castro

2010-01-01

216

Detection of diketopiperazine and pyrrolnitrin, compounds with anti-Pythium insidiosum activity, in a Pseudomonas stutzeri environmental strain.  

Science.gov (United States)

AIMS: Screening of bacterial flora for strains producing metabolites with inhibitory effects on the human pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum. Separation and characterization of extracts from Pseudomonas stutzeri with anti-Pythium inhibitory activity. Search for genes with anti-Pythium effect within the genome of P. stutzeri. METHODS: A total of 88 bacterial strains were isolated from water resources in northeastern Thailand. Two screening methods were used to establish their inhibitory effects on P. insidiosum. One strain, P. stutzeri ST1302 was randomly chosen, and the extract with anti-P. insidiosum activity was fractionated and subfractionated using liquid column chromatography and purified by thin layer chromatography. The chemical structure of purified fractions was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Further, search for genes involved in the anti-Pythium activity (phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin and pyrrolnitrin) was undertaken in this P. stutzeri strain using primers described in the literature. RESULTS: Anti-P. insidiosum activity was detected in 16 isolates (18.2%). In P. stutzeri ST1302, a subfraction labeled PYK7 exhibited strong activity against this oomycete. It was assigned to the diketopiperazines as cyclo(D-Pro-L-Val). In the search for genes, one gene region was successfully amplified. This corresponded to pyrrolnitrin. The results suggest the possibility of using the related metabolites against P. insidiosum. This is the first report on the inhibitory effects of P. stutzeri against this oomycete. The results may contribute to the development of antimicrobial drugs/probiotics against pythiosis. PMID:23149469

Thongsri, Yordhathai; Aromdee, Chantana; Yenjai, Chavi; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Hamal, Petr; Prariyachatigul, Chularut

2012-11-13

217

Biological Control of Pythium aphanidermatum, the Causal Agent of Damping off Disease of Greenhouse Cucurbits in Kerman Province of Iran  

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Full Text Available Actinomycetes enhance soil fertility and have antagonistic activity against wide range of plant root-pathogens. These micro organisms were isolated from agricultural soils of Kerman and Fars Provinces as pure cultures. Pythium aphanidermatum, causes damping off and root and stem rots of cucurbits worldwide. From 178 Actinomycetes isolates, 43 inhibited growth of the pathogen in culture plates and two of the most active isolates exhibited biological control of the pathogen under greenhouse conditions. When plants were grown in sterile soil mix and treated both with Actinomycetes and the pathogen, the number of healthy plants increased dramatically and the symptoms on diseased plants were less severe in comparison with seedlings treated with the pathogen alone. From the collected data it was well conclusive that in greenhouse tests, soil applications of Actinomycetes controlled causal agent of damping off in cucurbit seedlings. Antifungal activity was of fungicidal type on the pathogen mycelia. Regarding biotechnological implications, the results indicate that the active isolates can be investigated for use as biofertilizers, biofungicides and use in future development of recombinant DNA in cucurbits bearing elevated resistance to damping off. Field trials of the active isolates are under investigation.

2007-01-01

218

Photodynamic therapy in Pythium insidiosum - an in vitro study of the correlation of sensitizer localization and cell death.  

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Pythiosis is an infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like organism. Due to the lack of ergosterol on its cell membrane, antibiotic therapy is ineffective. The conventional treatment is surgery, but lesion recurrence is frequent, requiring several resections or limb amputation. Photodynamic therapy uses photo-activation of drugs and has the potential to be an attractive alternative option. The in vitro PDT response on the growing of Pythium insidiosum culture was investigated using three distinct photosensitizers: methylene blue, Photogem, and Photodithazine. The photosensitizer distribution in cell structures and the PDT response for incubation times of 30, 60, and 120 minutes were evaluated. Methylene blue did not penetrate in the pathogen's cell and consequently there was no PDT inactivation. Photogem showed heterogenous distribution in the hyphal structure with small concentration inside the cells. Porphyrin-PDT response was heterogenous, death and live cells were observed in the treated culture. After 48 hours, hyphae regrowth was observed. Photodithazine showed more homogenous distribution inside the cell and with the specific intracellular localization dependent on incubation time. Photodithazine first accumulates in intracellular vacuoles, and at incubation times of one hour, it is located at all cell membranes. Higher inhibition of the growing rates was achieved with Photodithazine -PDT, over 98%. Our results showed that the photosensitizers that cross more efficiently the Pythium insidiosum membranes are able to cause extensive damage to the organism under illumination and therefore, are the best options for clinical treatment. PMID:24465559

Pires, Layla; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Baptista, Maurício S; Kurachi, Cristina

2014-01-01

219

EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum) / EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum) / EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese 0 uso de microrganismos como fertilizante, tem sido demonstrado gue têm efeitos benéficos no crescimento das plantas e são considerados uma alternativa ao uso de fertilizantes guímicos, no entanto, cada microrganismo possui diferentes efeitos benéficos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da aplicaçã [...] o de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum e Trichoderma lignorum no crescimento de cana-de-açucar da variedade CC 934418 plantadas em vasos. 0 crescimento das plantas foi medido em termos do diâmetro do caule, comprimento de caule e da raiz e número de folhas e raízes nos dias 15, 30 e 45 após a semeadura. 0 crescimento da planta mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal. Abstract in spanish El uso de microorganismos como fertilizante, ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos sobre el crecimiento de plantas y son una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes guímicos, sin embargo, cada microorganismo difiere en sus efectos benéficos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de microo [...] rganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum y Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento en maceta de plantas de caña de azúcar variedad CC 934418. El crecimiento de las plantas se midió en términos de diámetro del tallo, longitud de tallo y raíces, y número de hojas y raíces a los 15, 30 y 45 días de la siembra. El crecimiento de las plantas mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. Los microorganismos fertilizantes mostraron efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de caña de azúcar, siendo Azospirillum brasilense y Trichoderma lignorum los microorganismos gue ejercieron mayor efecto sobre el diámetro del tallo y los sistemas radical y foliar de la planta. Se observaron los efectos beneficiosos de Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento de la hoja. Este es un nuevo aporte científico, ya que esta especie no ha sido reportada como promotora de crecimiento vegetal. Abstract in english The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azo [...] tobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

LILIANA, SERNA-COCK; CAMILO, ARIAS-GARCÍA; LEIDY JOHANA, VALENCIA HERNANDEZ.

2011-12-01

220

Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.  

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Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and cristobalite in bagasse ash is significant as the ash is recycled onto the fields where erosion and/or mechanical disturbance could break down the deposits and re-suspend respirable-sized particulate. Appropriate methods for treatment and disposal of bagasse ash must, therefore, be employed and adequate protection given to workers exposed to these dusts. PMID:20520870

Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

In vitro Propagation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)  

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Experiments were carried out in order to micropropagate sugarcane cultivars through shoot tip and auxilliary bud culture. Rinsing of four cultivars of sugarcane, namely CP-48-103, CP-57-614, CP-69-1062, and NCO-310 in 75% alcohol for 60 seconds and their subsequent disinfection with sodium and calcium hypochloride (1.5% active material) for 15 minutes decreased a significant amount of infection of explants in the medium. The use of the Murashing and Skoog (MS) solid and liquid medium with 1 m...

Ramin, A. A.

2003-01-01

222

Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.  

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Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

2014-01-01

223

Forecasting Regional Sugarcane Yield Based on Time Integral and Spatial Aggregation of MODIS NDVI  

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Full Text Available This study explored the suitability of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS obtained for six sugar management zones, over nine years (2002–2010, to forecast sugarcane yield on an annual and zonal base. To take into account the characteristics of the sugarcane crop management (15-month cycle for a ratoon, accompanied with continuous harvest in Western Kenya, the temporal series of NDVI was normalized through an original weighting method that considered the growth period of the sugarcane crop (wNDVI, and correlated it with historical yield datasets. Results when using wNDVI were consistent with historical yield and significant at P-value = 0.001, while results when using traditional annual NDVI integrated over the calendar year were not significant. This correlation between yield and wNDVI is mainly drawn by the spatial dimension of the data set (R2 = 0.53, when all years are aggregated together, rather than by the temporal dimension of the data set (R2 = 0.1, when all zones are aggregated. A test on 2012 yield estimation with this model realized a RMSE less than 5 t·ha?1. Despite progress in the methodology through the weighted NDVI, and an extensive spatio-temporal analysis, this paper shows the difficulty in forecasting sugarcane yield on an annual base using current satellite low-resolution data. This is particularly true in the context of small scale farmers with fields measuring less than the size of MODIS 250 m pixel, and in the context of a 15-month crop cycle with no seasonal cropping calendar. Future satellite missions should permit monitoring of sugarcane yields using image resolutions that facilitate extraction of crop phenology from a group of individual plots.

Pierre Todoroff

2013-05-01

224

Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization / Amido de cana-de-açúcar: determinação quantitativa e caracterização  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O amido é encontrado na cana-de-açúcar como um polissacarídeo de reserva. A quantidade depende de diversos fatores. Este trabalho visou a determinação do conteúdo de amido em diferentes variedades de cana-de-açúcar durante o período de Maio a Novembro de 2007; e determinação de algumas característic [...] as do amido de cana-de-açúcar como: estrutura e tamanho dos grânulos de amido; determinação da temperatura de gelificação; determinação da filtrabilidade da solução de amido de cana-de-açúcar; susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar às enzimas glicoamilase, pululanase, -amilases bacterianas e fúngica comerciais. Foi testado também a susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar à enzima amilolítica desramificante isoamilase de Flavobacterium sp. O amido de cana-de-açúcar apresentou forma esférica e diâmetro entre 1-3 µm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar complexado com iodo apresentou maior absorção na faixa de 540 a 620 nm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar in natura mostrou maior susceptibilidade à enzima glicoamilase em relação aos outros amidos testados. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade à enzima amilolítica desramificante pululanase de modo similar ao amido de arroz ceroso. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade às ?-amilases de Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis e Aspergillus oryzae de modo similar aos outros amidos testados produzindo glicose; maltose; maltotriose; maltotetraose e ?- dextrinas limite. Abstract in english Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, [...] and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal ?-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit ?- dextrin.

Joelise de Alencar, Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann, Carvalho; Hélia Harumi, Sato.

2011-09-01

225

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported-biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 89.73-77.13 g/l in average value), and ethanol productivities (about 59.53-62.79 g/l d in average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.34-3.60 g/l) with conversions ranging from 97.67-99.80%, showing efficiency (90.11-94.28%) and operational stability of the biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of this study concerning the use of sugarcane as yeast supports could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:18685877

Liang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-ping; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Ming-jun; Liang, Shi-zhong; Huang, Yu-nan

2008-12-01

226

Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura  

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Full Text Available Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500°C, in presence of air. Sugarcane in natura was also pyrolysed as a model for comparison, in order to determine the viability of processing different sources of raw biomass. The physicochemical characterization of the biomass precursors as well as of the bio-oils was also carried out, which points both biomass feedstocks as suitable for bio-oil production in terms of viscosity, surface tension, density and acidity. The bio-oil obtained from sugarcane in natura presented higher carbon and hydrogen content as well as lower oxygen content. On the other hand, the metal content is higher in the bio-oil obtained from sugarcane straw, in special the iron and potassium contents were 807 ppm and 123 ppm against 27 ppm and 1 ppm in the bio-oil from sugarcane in natura. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds as well as carbohydrates scaffolds were identified as the main components of the bio-oil. GC-MS analyses showed aromatic products from lignine fragmentation and free sugars and sugar derivatives.

Josilaine A. C. Durange

2013-04-01

227

Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus.

Rokhsar Daniel S

2010-04-01

228

Uso de los grados días acumulados en la estimación de la evapotranspiración de la caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. híbrido) para ciclos de crecimiento monomodal / Using degree days accumulated by monomodal growth cycles in estimating evapotranspiration of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan resultados preliminares sobre la relación obtenida, entre los grados días acumulados, la evapotranspiración y los rendimientos agrícolas de la caña de azúcar. Se obtuvo una correlación lineal, entre la evapotranspiración y los grados días acumulados por ciclos de crecimiento monomodal. [...] Se realizó un ensayo para estimar los rendimientos agrícolas en siete Unidades Empresariales Básicas (UEB) de Cuba. Los rendimientos potenciales fueron determinados a partir de los grados días. Estos variaron entre 160,2 y 205,7 t de caña.ha-1, los que indican las posibilidades potenciales de este cultivo. En cinco de las siete empresas, el modelo utilizado subestimó los rendimientos agrícolas en porcentajes desde 8,52 (UEB ?Jesús Rabí? hasta 28,81 % (UEB Brasil). El rendimiento agrícola fue sobreestimado en dos UEB ?Primero de Enero? y ?Argeo Martínez? en 8,20 y 13,98 %, respectivamente. Los resultados permiten ratificar el posible uso de los grados días como similar de la evapotranspiración acumulada, para la predicción del rendimiento agrícola, así como cubrir una primera etapa de carácter cuantitativo a nivel general, considerando a la caña de azúcar como especie individual y preparar condiciones para el arribo a una etapa más cualitativa en la predicción de los rendimientos a nivel de variedades comerciales en este cultivo Abstract in english Presents preliminary results about the relationship obtained among degree days, evapotranspiration and agricultural yields of sugarcane. A linear correlation between evapotranspiration and degrees days accumulated by monomodal growth cycles was obtained. A trial to estimate agricultural yields in se [...] ven basic business units (BSU) of Cuba was conducted. Potential yields were determined from the degree days. These ranged from 160,2 to 205,7 t cane.ha-1, indicating the potential possibilities of this crop. In five of the seven companies, used model underestimated farm yields in percentages from 8,52 (UEB ?Jesús Rabí? to 28,81 % (UEB Brazil). Agricultural performance was overestimated in two UEB ?Primero de Enero? and ?Argeo Martinez? at 8,20 and 13,98 %, respectively. The results obtained allow ratify the possible use of the degree days as similar from the accumulated evapotranspiration, for the prediction of agricultural performance, as well as cover the first stage of quantitative character at a general level, whereas the sugarcane as individual species and prepare conditions for the arrival to a more qualitative stage in the yields prediction at of commercial level of varieties in this crop

Maira, Ferrer Reyes; Guillermo, Gálvez; Carlos, Lamela; Gilda, Jiménez.

2014-09-01

229

Uso de los grados días acumulados en la estimación de la evapotranspiración de la caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. híbrido) para ciclos de crecimiento monomodal / Using degree days accumulated by monomodal growth cycles in estimating evapotranspiration of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan resultados preliminares sobre la relación obtenida, entre los grados días acumulados, la evapotranspiración y los rendimientos agrícolas de la caña de azúcar. Se obtuvo una correlación lineal, entre la evapotranspiración y los grados días acumulados por ciclos de crecimiento monomodal. [...] Se realizó un ensayo para estimar los rendimientos agrícolas en siete Unidades Empresariales Básicas (UEB) de Cuba. Los rendimientos potenciales fueron determinados a partir de los grados días. Estos variaron entre 160,2 y 205,7 t de caña.ha-1, los que indican las posibilidades potenciales de este cultivo. En cinco de las siete empresas, el modelo utilizado subestimó los rendimientos agrícolas en porcentajes desde 8,52 (UEB ?Jesús Rabí? hasta 28,81 % (UEB Brasil). El rendimiento agrícola fue sobreestimado en dos UEB ?Primero de Enero? y ?Argeo Martínez? en 8,20 y 13,98 %, respectivamente. Los resultados permiten ratificar el posible uso de los grados días como similar de la evapotranspiración acumulada, para la predicción del rendimiento agrícola, así como cubrir una primera etapa de carácter cuantitativo a nivel general, considerando a la caña de azúcar como especie individual y preparar condiciones para el arribo a una etapa más cualitativa en la predicción de los rendimientos a nivel de variedades comerciales en este cultivo Abstract in english Presents preliminary results about the relationship obtained among degree days, evapotranspiration and agricultural yields of sugarcane. A linear correlation between evapotranspiration and degrees days accumulated by monomodal growth cycles was obtained. A trial to estimate agricultural yields in se [...] ven basic business units (BSU) of Cuba was conducted. Potential yields were determined from the degree days. These ranged from 160,2 to 205,7 t cane.ha-1, indicating the potential possibilities of this crop. In five of the seven companies, used model underestimated farm yields in percentages from 8,52 (UEB ?Jesús Rabí? to 28,81 % (UEB Brazil). Agricultural performance was overestimated in two UEB ?Primero de Enero? and ?Argeo Martinez? at 8,20 and 13,98 %, respectively. The results obtained allow ratify the possible use of the degree days as similar from the accumulated evapotranspiration, for the prediction of agricultural performance, as well as cover the first stage of quantitative character at a general level, whereas the sugarcane as individual species and prepare conditions for the arrival to a more qualitative stage in the yields prediction at of commercial level of varieties in this crop

Maira, Ferrer Reyes; Guillermo, Gálvez; Carlos, Lamela; Gilda, Jiménez.

230

Oxidative stress response in sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias funções em plantas apesar do gene que codificaria para óxido nítrico sintetase nunca ter sido isolado. Este trabalho descreve os resultados de u [...] ma busca no banco de dados de seqüências expressas de cana de açúcar (SUCEST) de genes envolvidos na resposta ao estresse oxidativo. Eu não encontrei genes similares a óxido nítrico no banco de dados do SUCEST, mas uma via alternativa para a produção deste radical livre pode ser proposta. Eu também encontrei vários genes envolvidos na defesa antioxidante, como quelantes de metais, antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular, enzimas antioxidantes e sistemas de reparo. Ascorbato (vitamina C) é um importante antioxidante em plantas porque é encontrado em altas concentrações em células vegetais e porque é substrato de ascorbato peroxidase, uma enzima que eu encontrei em diferentes isoformas no banco de dados do SUCEST. Eu também encontrei várias enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese de antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular que podem ser alvos para manipulação genética. A obtenção de plantas modificadas geneticamente que sintetizariam vitaminas C e E em altos níveis poderiam melhorar o valor nutricional e a tolerância a estresses de cana de açúcar. Os diversos componentes do sistema de defesa antioxidante interagem entre si e as suas sínteses devem ser muito bem reguladas. Fatores de transcrição envolvidos na regulação da resposta ao estresse oxidativo de bactérias, leveduras e de humanos diferem consideravelmente entre si e quando foram utilizados para buscas no banco de dados do SUCEST, somente genes com similaridades fracas foram encontrados, sugerindo que estas proteínas não são muito conservadas. O envolvimento de espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio na defesa de plantas contra patógenos também é discutido neste trabalho. Abstract in english Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the [...] results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.

Luis Eduardo, Soares Netto.

231

Modelling response patterns of physico-chemical indicators during high-rate composting of green waste for suppression of Pythium ultimum.  

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High-rate composting studies on green waste, i.e. banana leaves (BL) and lawn clippings (LC), were conducted in 0.25-m3 rotary barrel composters to evaluate and model changes in key physico-chemical parameters during composting. Time to compost maturity and antagonistic effects and relationships of composts against Pythium ultimum were also investigated. Higher temperatures were achieved in LC compost (LCC), which did not translate to higher total organic carbon (TOC) loss but resulted in lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and a more mature compost. With the exception of electrical conductivity (EC), net decreases were observed in pH, TOC and C:N across compost types. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) showed a net increase in LCC and a net decrease in BLC. With the exception of TOC and pH, the results showed that compost type and time had a significant effect on the respective TKN, EC and C:N models. Compost temperature and TOC were best described by the critical exponential and rectangular hyperbola functions, respectively. Whereas TKN, C:N and pH were described using double Fourier functions and EC using Fourier functions. Composts achieved maturity within 19 days and significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum. Bacterial population was positively related to growth inhibition (GI) across compost types, whereas total microbial population had a positive relationship with GI in LCC. Evidence suggests that multiple groups of microorganisms contributed to GI through antibiosis and competition for resources. Composts were determined to be suitable for use as components of plant growth substrates based on compost maturity indices. PMID:24645438

St Martin, Chaney C G; Bekele, Isaac; Eudoxie, Gaius D; Bristol, Dexter; Brathwaite, Richard A I; Campo, Kenia-Rosa

2014-01-01

232

CULTIVAR RELEASE - Sugarcane: cultivar RB937570  

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Full Text Available he sugarcane cultivar RB937570 is early to medium maturing. It should be grown preferably on medium texture soils with medium to high fertility. In central-southeastern Brazil, RB937570 should be harvested between May and August. It is tolerant to the major economically relevant crop diseases, has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting and high sucrose yields.

Luís Cláudio Inácio da Silveira

2012-01-01

233

SUGARCANE BURNING AND HEALTH EFFECTS: LITERATURE REVIEW  

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Full Text Available The article presents a literature review on the theme of health effects of air pollution derived from sugarcane burning. In the first part, studies are classified by methods employed. In the second part, health risks by toxic pollutants derived from biomass burning are described.

Helena Ribeiro

2012-10-01

234

Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome.

Singh Nagendra K

2010-11-01

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Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse  

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Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI) and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH4)2SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II). The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these b...

Naureen Chaudhary; Qazi, Javed I.

2006-01-01

236

A complicated case of vascular Pythium insidiosum infection treated with limb-sparing surgery  

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INTRODUCTION Pythiosis is a serious life- and limb-threatening infection endemic to Thailand, but rarely seen in the Western hemisphere. Here, we present a unique case of vascular pythiosis initially managed with limb-sparing vascular bypass grafts complicated by a pseudoaneurysm in our repair. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient is a 17 year-old Jamaican male with severe aplastic anemia. He sustained a minor injury to his left leg while fishing in Jamaica, which evolved to become an exquisitely tender inguinal swelling. His physical exam and imaging were significant for arteriovenous fistula with limb ischemia. Pathology obtained during surgery for an extra-anatomic vascular bypass showed extensive invasion by Pythium insidiosum. He later developed a pseudoaneurysm at the site of proximal anastomosis and required urgent intervention. DISCUSSION This patient presented with a rare, but classic case of vascular pythiosis, which was unrecognized at the time of presentation. A variety of therapeutic modalities have been used to treat this disease, including antibiotics, antifungals, and immunotherapy, but the ultimate management of vascular pythiosis is surgical source control. CONCLUSION A high index of suspicion in susceptible patients is needed for timely diagnosis of vascular pythiosis to achieve optimal source control. PMID:25194603

Pan, Jenny H.; Kerkar, Sid P.; Siegenthaler, Michael P.; Hughes, Marybeth; Pandalai, Prakash K.

2014-01-01

237

Granulomatous pneumonia caused by Pythium insidiosum in a central American jaguar, Panthera onca.  

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A 7-month-old, male jaguar presented with dyspnea and leukocytosis unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. Radiographs revealed unilateral pulmonary consolidation. An exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and the left lung, which contained a large multilobular mass with extensive fibrosis and numerous caseonecrotic foci, was removed. Microscopically, eosinophilic granulomatous inflammation surrounded broad (4.4-8.3 microm) rarely septate hyphae. A diagnosis of Pythium insidiosum infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, immunoblot serology, culture, and polymerase chain reaction. Dyspnea recurred despite treatment, and the animal succumbed 3 weeks after surgery. Necropsy findings indicated that death resulted from occlusion of the right main stem bronchus by a fungal granuloma. The oomycete P. insidiosum typically causes granulomatous disease of the skin or gastrointestinal tract in animals and arteritis, keratitis, or cellulitis in humans. Infection is uncommon in felines, and pulmonary involvement is rare. This report details the first case of P. insidiosum infection in an exotic felid and provides the first description of primary pulmonary pythiosis in any species. PMID:15586573

Camus, Alvin C; Grooters, Amy M; Aquilar, Roberto E

2004-11-01

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Evaluation for the clinical diagnosis of Pythium insidiosum using a single-tube nested PCR.  

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Pythiosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, which typically occurs in tropical and subtropical regions. The high mortality rate may be in consequence of the lack of diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate reliability of a new single-tube nested PCR for detection of P. insidiosum DNA. A total of 78 clinical isolates of various fungi and bacteria, 106 clinical specimens and 80 simulated positive blood samples were tested. The developed primer pairs CPL6-CPR8 and YTL1-YTR1 are located on 18S subunit of the rRNA gene of P. insidiosum. The specificity, negative and positive predictive values were 100, 100 and 87.5 %, respectively, as compared with direct microscopy and cultivation. The detection limit of the single-tube nested PCR was 21 zoospores corresponding to 2.7 pg of the DNA. The results demonstrate that the new single-tube nested PCR offers a highly sensitive, specific and rapid genetic method for detecting P. insidiosum. PMID:23948967

Thongsri, Yordhathai; Wonglakorn, Lumyai; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Svobodova, Lucie; Hamal, Petr; Pakarasang, Maitree; Prariyachatigul, Chularut

2013-12-01

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Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Pythium insidiosum in horses with pythiosis.  

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Reactions to Pythium insidiosum by sera from horses with active pythiosis were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Five strains of P. insidiosum were grown in nutrient broth and then sonicated. After centrifugation, supernatant antigens were separated by SDS-PAGE. An exoantigen of Conidiobolus coronatus was also tested. Bands with molecular weights between 97,000 and 14,000 were identified by Coomassie blue and silver staining. After being transferred to nitrocellulose, the antigens were reacted against sera from six horses with pythiosis, sera from four horses cured a year earlier by vaccination, and sera from five healthy horses. The sera from horses with pythiosis recognized at least 20 antigens in all strains. Three antigens with molecular weights of 32,000, 30,000, and 28,000 appeared to be immunodominant and specific. Sera from horses cured by immunotherapy showed only five very weak bands, three of them the 32,000-molecular-weight (32K), 30K, and 28K antigens. No bands were observed with sera from healthy horses or sera from horses with a variety of other infections. Sera from horses with pythiosis cross-reacted with the 44K antigen of C. coronatus. The immunodominant antigens described here may be useful for diagnostic purposes and in immunotherapy for this oomycotic infection in horses. Images PMID:1452669

Mendoza, L; Nicholson, V; Prescott, J F

1992-01-01

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Identification of Pythium insidiosum by nested PCR in cutaneous lesions of Brazilian horses and rabbits.  

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Pythium insidiosum is a fungus-like organism present in subtropical and tropical areas, such as Brazil, known to infect humans and various animal species. P. insidiosum is the etiological agent of pythiosis, an emerging and granulomatous disease characterized mainly by cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions in horses, the principal species affected. Accurate diagnosis of pythiosis and identification of its causal agent by microbiological and serological tests can be often difficult and inconclusive principally for horses and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the previously described P. insidiosum-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to directly detect P. insidiosum DNA in clinical and experimental lesions. Universal fungal primers (ITS1 and ITS4) were used during the first-round of PCR to amplify ITS1, 5.8s, and ITS2. A second-round of PCR was conducted with P. insidiosum-specific primers (PI1 and PI2) to amplify a variable region within this ITS1. In this study, a total of 21 equine clinical samples (kunkers) and 28 specimens from experimentally infected rabbits were analyzed by nested PCR. The first-round of PCR generated 800-base pair products, and the second-round produced 105-base pair amplicons for each P. insidiosum-specific sample; no amplicons were generated in negative control samples. Our results suggest that nested PCR is an important and efficient tool for diagnosis of both endemic (horse samples) and experimental (rabbit samples) pythiosis. PMID:21188592

Botton, Sonia A; Pereira, Daniela I B; Costa, Mateus M; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Argenta, Juliana S; Jesus, Francielli P K; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Pathology of nasal infection caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges and Pythium insidiosum in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conidiobolomycosis and pythiosis are important diseases of sheep in midwestern Brazil. Veterinary practitioners consider it difficult to differentiate between these diseases because they have similar clinical features. In this study, 186 sheep were subjected to necropsy examination over a 6-year period. Thirty (16.1%) cases of rhinitis in sheep that were caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges (n = 15) or Pythium insidiosum (n = 15) were investigated further. The lesions of C. lamprauges infection were mainly rhinopharyngeal (86.7%), localized to the ethmoidal region and associated with exophthalmos. The lesions appear as a white to yellow, firm mass that microscopically appears as a granulomatous inflammatory reaction with numerous giant cells. In contrast, P. insidiosum infection is associated with rhinofacial (93.3%) lesions that mainly involve the frontal region and hard palate and appear as an irregular, friable, yellow to red mass. Microscopically, pythiosis presents as diffuse necrotizing eosinophilic rhinitis. Immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antisera raised specifically against the two organisms was used to confirm the identity of the infectious agent in each disease. This study reports the first immunohistochemical diagnosis of conidiobolomycosis and the first description of a rhinopharyngeal lesion caused by P. insidiosum in sheep. PMID:23375916

Ubiali, D G; Cruz, R A S; De Paula, D A J; Silva, M C; Mendonça, F S; Dutra, V; Nakazato, L; Colodel, E M; Pescador, C A

2013-01-01

242

Insights into the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in Pythium insidiosum infections.  

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Pythium insidiosum causes life-threatening disease in mammals. Animals with pythiosis usually develop anemia, and most human patients are reported to have thalassemia and the major consequence of thalassemia, iron overload. Therefore, this study evaluated the iron metabolism in rabbits experimentally infected with P. insidiosum. Ten infected rabbits were divided into two groups: one groups received a placebo, and the other was treated with immunotherapy. Five rabbits were used as negative controls. The hematological and biochemical parameters, including the iron profile, were evaluated. Microcytic hypochromic anemia was observed in the infected animals, and this condition was more accentuated in the untreated group. The serum iron level was decreased, whereas the transferrin level was increased, resulting in low saturation. The level of stainable iron in hepatocytes was markedly decreased in the untreated group. A high correlation was observed between the total iron binding capacity and the lesion size, and this correlation likely confirms the affinity of P. insidiosum for iron. The data from this study corroborate the previous implications of iron in the pathogenesis of pythiosis in humans and animals. PMID:23182911

Zanette, R A; Bitencourt, P E R; Alves, S H; Fighera, R A; Flores, M M; Wolkmer, P; Hecktheuer, P A; Thomas, L R; Pereira, P L; Loreto, E S; Santurio, J M

2013-03-23

243

Life cycle of the human and animal oomycete pathogen Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum, the etiologic agent of pythiosis insidiosii, causes life-threatening infections in humans and animals. Previous studies of the epidemiology of this disease hypothesized about the possible life cycle of this oomycete. Details, however, were not provided on the steps required to cause infection. We investigated the life cycle of P. insidiosum by inoculating pieces of equine skin and plant leaves and then studying the ensuing events with a scanning electron microscope. Our observations revealed that zoospores had a strong tropism for skin tissue, horse and human hair, and water lily and grass leaves and a weak attraction to a variety of other leaves. Encysted zoospores were observed on the favored leaves and skin. There they produced germ tubes and later abundant hyphal filaments that penetrated leaf tissues. Young sporangia had compact, thick walls. The sporangial wall was reduced to a fragile membrane when the sporangia had produced well-differentiated biflagellate zoospores. The encysted zoospores secreted an amorphous material that permitted the zoospores to adhere to skin and plant tissues. On the basis of these findings, a model to explain the life cycle of P. insidiosum is proposed. Images PMID:8263182

Mendoza, L; Hernandez, F; Ajello, L

1993-01-01

244

PCDD and PCDF emissions from simulated sugarcane field burning.  

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The emissions from simulated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density found during the practice of preharvest field burning. Eight composite burn tests consisting of 3-33 kg of biomass were conducted, some with replicate samplers. Emission factor calculations using sampled concentration and measured mass loss compared well to rigorous carbon balance methods commonly used in field sampling. The two sources of sugarcane had distinctive emission levels, as did tests on separate seasonal gatherings of the Florida sugarcane. The average emission factor for two tests of Hawaii sugarcane was 253 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg of carbon burned (ng TEQ/kg(Cb)) (rsd = 16%) and for two gatherings of Florida sugarcane was 25 ng TEQ/kg(Cb) (N = 4, rsd = 50%) and 5 ng TEQ/kg(Cb) (N = 2, rsd = 91%). The Hawaii sugarcane, as well as most of the Florida sugarcane, had emission values which were well above the value of 5 ng TEQ/kg(Cb) commonly attributed to biomass combustion. Application of this emission factor range to the amount of U.S. sugarcane fields burned suggests that this practice may be a relatively minor source of PCDDs and PCDFs in the U.S. national inventory, but the limited sample size and range of results make this conclusion tenuous. PMID:17120546

Gullett, Brian K; Touati, Abderrahmane; Huwe, Janice; Hakk, Heldur

2006-10-15

245

Main trends on sustainability of sugarcane production systems  

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This chapter concerns with the development of sustainability concepts, bio fuels and sustainability, trends in the sustainability of sugarcane based production processes, cane production, and cane processing.

Macedo, Isaias C.

2012-07-01

246

Determination of Site Specific Fertilizer Requirement of Sugarcane and Intercrops in Sugarcane-based Cropping Systems  

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Full Text Available The site-specific nutrient requirement of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum and companion crops, viz. onion (Allium cipa and lentil (Lens culinaris in sugarcane based cropping systems field experiments was determined under two Agro-ecological zones (AEZ, namely High Barind Tract (AEZ 26 and Tista Meander Floodplain soils (AEZ 3. The application of fertilizers for sugarcane and intercrops, onion and lentil as per soil test basis followed by dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata significantly increased cane yield to the extent of 19 % at AEZ 26 and 45 % at AEZ 3 over the sole cane crop. Maximum cane yield (119 t ha?1 with highest BCR of Tk.4.37 was found in High Barind Tract with the application of N190 + P44 + K65 + S25 + Zn3.5 kg ha?1 to sugarcane and N55 + P18 + K25 + S6 kg ha?1 to potato. In Tista Meander Floodplain soils, application of N120 + P40 + K75 + S20 + Zn2 + Mg15 kg ha?1 and N15 + P5 + K6 + S3 kg ha?1to sugarcane and lentil, respectively produced the highest yield of 117 t ha?1 with BCR of Tk.4.25. Green manure Sesbania aculeata increased cane yields about 2 to 9 per cent and contributed 56 - 66 kg N ha?1.

S.M. Bokhtiar

2002-01-01

247

Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico Root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum of lettuce cultivars produced in a hydroponic system  

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Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.Lettuce root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and other Pythium species is the main disease in hydroponic systems in Brazil. The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of four commercial lettuce cultivars as to their sensitivity to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum in hydroponic systems. Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing water-agar medium and seedlings of the crisp head lettuce cultivars (Vera and Verônica and leafy lettuce cultivars (Regina and Elisa, infested or not with the pathogen. With the same cultivars, four other experiments were carried out in hydroponic systems (Nutrient Film Technique, two in a shaded greenhouse and the other two in a conventional greenhouse. Seedlings infected or not with P. aphanidermatum were transplanted to hydroponic systems infested or not with the pathogen. The disease severity and the plant development were evaluated. All cultivars were susceptible to root rot in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The shading did not reduce root rot in the lettuce cultivars in hydroponic system. The cultivar Regina showed higher shoot and root dry mass in the presence or absence of the pathogen, constituting thus the most suitable cultivar for hydroponic systems during the hottest period of the year.

Zayame Vegette Pinto

2011-12-01

248

Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico / Root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum of lettuce cultivars produced in a hydroponic system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, c [...] ausada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica) e lisa (Regina e Elisa), infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique), sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano. Abstract in english Lettuce root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and other Pythium species is the main disease in hydroponic systems in Brazil. The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of four commercial lettuce cultivars as to their sensitivity to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum in hydroponic systems. [...] Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing water-agar medium and seedlings of the crisp head lettuce cultivars (Vera and Verônica) and leafy lettuce cultivars (Regina and Elisa), infested or not with the pathogen. With the same cultivars, four other experiments were carried out in hydroponic systems (Nutrient Film Technique), two in a shaded greenhouse and the other two in a conventional greenhouse. Seedlings infected or not with P. aphanidermatum were transplanted to hydroponic systems infested or not with the pathogen. The disease severity and the plant development were evaluated. All cultivars were susceptible to root rot in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The shading did not reduce root rot in the lettuce cultivars in hydroponic system. The cultivar Regina showed higher shoot and root dry mass in the presence or absence of the pathogen, constituting thus the most suitable cultivar for hydroponic systems during the hottest period of the year.

Zayame Vegette, Pinto; Matheus Aparecido Pereira, Cipriano; José Abrahão Haddad, Galvão; Wagner, Bettiol; Flávia Rodrigues Alves, Patrício; Amaury da Silva dos, Santos.

2011-12-01

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Isolation and partial purification of toxin from colletotrichum falcatum: the causal agent of red rot in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum) spores were isolated from infected stalk pieces of sugarcane and grown on Czapek Dox agar medium to obtain pure culture. Spores were obtained from the pure culture and grown in Czapec Dox liquid medium for further studies. It was observed that the fresh and dry weights of fungal mycellial mat significantly increased with time. In addition, fungal growth resulted in a significant change in the pH of the Czapec Dox growth medium over a period of 35 days and gradually increased from 6.5 in the control medium to 8.4. The fungal toxin was extracted from the growth medium and used to treat cell suspension of a red rot resistant sugarcane cultivar HSF-240. The maximum toxin was produced after 28 days of fungal growth in the growth medium which was ascertained by the dry weight of residue obtained from the ethyl actate fractions, as well as percent mortality of sugarcane cells in suspension. The LD50 value (50% cell mortality) of toxin in ethyl acetate (ETA) fraction was 22.03 days while in water it was 30 days. The fungal toxin extracted in ETA fractions was more effective than the one extracted in water. It was mainly due to high solubility and potency of the toxin in ETA than in water. In general, the maximum toxicity was noted at the 4th week (28 days) which decreased at 5th and 6th week of mycelial growth. (author)

250

Phylogenetic relationships of Brazilian isolates of Pythium insidiosum based on ITS rDNA and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that is the causative agent of pythiosis. Advances in molecular methods have enabled increased accuracy in the diagnosis of pythiosis, and in studies of the phylogenetic relationships of this oomycete. To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil, and also regarding to other American and Thai isolates, in this study a total of thirty isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil was used and had their ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2 rDNA (ITS) region and the partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase II (COX II) gene sequenced and analyzed. The outgroup consisted of six isolates of other Pythium species and one of Lagenidium giganteum. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and COX II genes were conducted, both individually and in combination, using four different methods: Maximum parsimony (MP); Neighbor-joining (NJ); Maximum likelihood (ML); and Bayesian analysis (BA). Our data supported P. insidiosum as monophyletic in relation to the other Pythium species, and COX II showed that P. insidiosum appears to be subdivided into three major polytomous groups, whose arrangement provides the Thai isolates as paraphyletic in relation to the Brazilian ones. The molecular analyses performed in this study suggest an evolutionary proximity among all American isolates, including the Brazilian and the Central and North America isolates, which were grouped together in a single entirely polytomous clade. The COX II network results presented signals of a recent expansion for the American isolates, probably originated from an Asian invasion source. Here, COX II showed higher levels bias, although it was the source of higher levels of phylogenetic information when compared to ITS. Nevertheless, the two markers chosen for this study proved to be entirely congruent, at least with respect to phylogenetic relationships between different isolates of P. insidiosum. PMID:22483240

Azevedo, M I; Botton, S A; Pereira, D I B; Robe, L J; Jesus, F P K; Mahl, C D; Costa, M M; Alves, S H; Santurio, J M

2012-09-14

251

Role of mutation breeding in sugarcane improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bud setts of a popular sugarcane var. Co-419 irradiated with Co60 gamma rays produced wide genetic variations. It was easy to rapidly multiply and maintain the mutants appearing in the MV1 generation by repeated vegetative propagations. Two promising mutants (TS-1 and TS-8) found stable over 8 vegetative generations show increased cane girth and weight, enhanced sucrose content and possible early maturity, as compared to var. Co-419. Large scale field trials under different agroclimatic conditions for yield and mill tests are in progress in collaboration with some of the leading sugar factories in the country. Simultaneously, they are also being tested for disease resistance and agronomic performance at several Government Sugarcane Research Stations. Results obtained so far are presented. (author)

252

Crescimento e produção de taro 'Chinês' influenciados por tipos de mudas e camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Plant growth and yield of 'Chinês' corms taro influenced by propagation methods and sugar-cane mulch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos consecutivos, numa mesma área, em Viçosa (MG, de 19/11/1997 a 08/08/1998 (experimento I e de 01/09/1998 a 06/06/1999 (experimento II, com o taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7 (tipos de mudas x camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, com três repetições. No experimento I avaliaram-se os efeitos de quatro tipos de mudas (rizoma-mãe e rizomas filhos grande, médio e pequeno, com 80; 55; 35 e 20 g de massa fresca média, respectivamente e sete espessuras de camadas de bagaço em cobertura (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 cm. No experimento II avaliou-se o efeito residual das camadas de bagaço utilizadas no experimento I, mantendo-se os mesmos tipos de mudas, com massas semelhantes. Avaliaram-se o estande e altura de plantas, índice de área foliar (IAF e produção final de classes de rizomas. Menores estandes foram obtidos no experimento I e para o tipo de muda filho pequeno, principalmente na ausência de bagaço. Mudas com maior massa e camadas intermediárias de bagaço proporcionaram plantas mais vigorosas e com maiores valores de IAF. Não houve interação entre camadas de bagaço e tipos de mudas, para produção de rizomas, em ambos experimentos. No experimento I verificou-se efeito significativo para ambos os fatores, isoladamente, com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis obtidas para o tipo de muda rizomas-mãe, seguido de filho grande, e camada de bagaço entre 16,4 a 17,4 cm de espessura. No experimento II houve efeito apenas de tipos de mudas com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis para as mudas tipos rizoma-mãe e filho grande.Two consecutive experiments were carried out, in the same area, from 11/19/1997 to 08/08/1998 (experiment I and from 09/01/1998 to 06/06/1999 (experiment II, with taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928. The experiments consisted of 28 treatments, in a randomized complete block design, arranged in a factorial 4 x 7 (types of seedlings x layers of sugar-cane mulch, with three repetitions. In experiment I the effect of four types of seedlings were evaluated (corm and comels large, medium and small, with 80; 55; 35 and 20 g of medium fresh mass, respectively and seven thickness of mulch layers on covering (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 and 24 cm. In experiment II the residual effect of the mulch layers used in experiment I was evaluated, the same types of seedlings staying with similar masses. The stand and height of plants, leaf area index (LAI and final corm yield and classes of cormels were evaluated. Smaller stands were obtained in experiment I and for the type of seedling graded as small cormel, mainly in the absence of mulch. Seedlings with larger masses and intermediate layers of mulch provided more vigorous plants and with higher values of LAI. There was no interaction between mulch layers x types of seedlings, for yield of corm and cormels, in both experiments. In experiment I significant effect was verified for both factors, separately, with larger yield of total and commercial cormels obtained for the type seedling corm (head, followed by large cormel, and mulch layer from 16.4 to 17.4 cm of thickness. In experiment II, an evident effect of types of seedlings with larger yield of total and commercial cormels for the seedlings types corm and large cormel was observed.

Mário Puiatti

2004-12-01

253

Taxonomy Icon Data: Sugarcane [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available Sugarcane Saccharum officinarum Saccharum_officinarum_L.png Saccharum_officinarum_NL.png Sacchar ... fficinarum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=L http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=NL http://biosc ... iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=S http://biosci ... encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon /icon .cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=NS ...

254

Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sugarcane  

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Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis was studied in sugarcane cultivars CPF-237 and SPF-213. Explants used were leaves, lateral buds and pith. MS medium along with NAA and 2,4-D in various concentrations were used and it was observed that 1.0 mg NAA and 3-mg/l 2,4-D was optimal for embryogenesis. Leaf portion showed maximum embryogenesis and proved a better explant source than pith.

Farheen Niaz

2002-01-01

255

Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A mitocôndria funciona como uma usina geradora metabólica por meio da fosforilação oxidativa e tem sido alvo de um renovado interesse devido aos progressos no entendimento de sua biogênese e na descrição de novos papéis ligados à senescência, morte celular e montagem dos centros Fe/S. Uma análise gl [...] obal dos genes de planta ligados à esta organela é agora possível. A base de dados do projeto SUCEST foi examinada para detecção de ESTs com similaridade a genes nucleares relacionados às funções mitocondriais usando-se proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens e Arabidopsis thaliana. Foram utilizadas 869 seqüências de proteínas para varrer o banco de ESTs do projeto SUCEST por meio do programa de busca de similaridade TBLASTN, sendo examinados 81.223 agrupamentos. Encontramos 367 agrupamentos com E-value Abstract in english Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, [...] cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value

Ghislaine V., Fonseca; José Humberto M., Tambor; Marina P., Nobrega; Rafael, Santos; Francisco G., Nobrega.

256

Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A mitocôndria funciona como uma usina geradora metabólica por meio da fosforilação oxidativa e tem sido alvo de um renovado interesse devido aos progressos no entendimento de sua biogênese e na descrição de novos papéis ligados à senescência, morte celular e montagem dos centros Fe/S. Uma análise gl [...] obal dos genes de planta ligados à esta organela é agora possível. A base de dados do projeto SUCEST foi examinada para detecção de ESTs com similaridade a genes nucleares relacionados às funções mitocondriais usando-se proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens e Arabidopsis thaliana. Foram utilizadas 869 seqüências de proteínas para varrer o banco de ESTs do projeto SUCEST por meio do programa de busca de similaridade TBLASTN, sendo examinados 81.223 agrupamentos. Encontramos 367 agrupamentos com E-value Abstract in english Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, [...] cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value

Ghislaine V., Fonseca; José Humberto M., Tambor; Marina P., Nobrega; Rafael, Santos; Francisco G., Nobrega.

2001-12-01

257

Radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop, cv. NA56-79, are studied during the period of maximum leaf area index. The coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption of the incoming solar radiation were function of solar elevation and the waveband considered. The photosynthetically active radiation was always less reflected and transmitted but more absorved than the near infrared radiation. (M.A.C.)

258

Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

gar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed

259

Expressed sequence tags reveal genetic diversity and putative virulence factors of the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oomycetes are unique eukaryotic microorganisms that share a mycelial morphology with fungi. Many oomycetes are pathogenic to plants, and a more limited number are pathogenic to animals. Pythium insidiosum is the only oomycete that is capable of infecting both humans and animals, and causes a life-threatening infectious disease, called "pythiosis". In the majority of pythiosis patients life-long handicaps result from the inevitable radical excision of infected organs, and many die from advanced infection. Better understanding P. insidiosum pathogenesis at molecular levels could lead to new forms of treatment. Genetic and genomic information is lacking for P. insidiosum, so we have undertaken an expressed sequence tag (EST) study, and report on the first dataset of 486 ESTs, assembled into 217 unigenes. Of these, 144 had significant sequence similarity with known genes, including 47 with ribosomal protein homology. Potential virulence factors included genes involved in antioxidation, thermal adaptation, immunomodulation, and iron and sterol binding. Effectors resembling pathogenicity factors of plant-pathogenic oomycetes were also discovered, such as, a CBEL-like protein (possible involvement in host cell adhesion and hemagglutination), a putative RXLR effector (possibly involved in host cell modulation) and elicitin-like (ELL) proteins. Phylogenetic analysis mapped P. insidiosum ELLs to several novel clades of oomycete elicitins (ELIs), and homology modeling predicted that P. insidiosum ELLs should bind sterols. Most of the P. insidiosum ESTs showed homology to sequences in the genome or EST databases of other oomycetes, but one putative gene, with unknown function, was found to be unique to P. insidiosum. The EST dataset reported here represents the first steps in identifying genes of P. insidiosum and beginning transcriptome analysis. This genetic information will facilitate understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of this devastating pathogen. PMID:21724174

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Petchthong, Thanom; Yingyong, Wanta; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Smittipat, Nat; Juthayothin, Tada; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Sullivan, Thomas D

2011-07-01

260

Identification of emerging human-pathogenic Pythium insidiosum by serological and molecular assay-based methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pythium insidiosum is a pathogen that causes disease in both animals and humans. Human infection is rare; however, when it does occur, most patients, especially those having underlying hemoglobinopathy syndromes, such as thalassemia, exhibit a severe form. We identified four isolates of P. insidiosum. Two were recovered from tissue biopsy specimens from thalassemic and leukemic patients, one was derived from brain tissue from a thalassemic patient, and another was isolated from a corneal ulcer from a fourth patient. Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed with a serum sample derived from one thalassemic patient. The methods used to identify the P. insidiosum isolates were based on morphology, nucleic acid sequencing, and a PCR assay. To confirm the identification, portions of the 18S rRNA genes of these four isolates were sequenced. The sequences were shown to be homologous to previously described P. insidiosum DNA sequences. In addition, PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region specific for P. insidiosum was positive for all four isolates. The ELISA with the serum sample from the thalassemic patient gave a positive result from a serum dilution of 1:800. Finally, Western immunoblotting with this serum sample showed positive immunoglobulin G recognition for proteins of 110, 73, 56, 42 to 35, 30 to 28, 26, and 23 kDa. The results of this study show that both molecularly based diagnostic and serodiagnostic techniques are useful for the rapid identification of human pythiosis. The predominant antigens recognized by Western blotting may be useful in the development of a more sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for this disease. PMID:15364977

Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Supabandhu, Jitwadee; Khamwan, Chantana; Praparattanapan, Jutarut; Thirach, Sophit; Prasertwitayakij, Narawudt; Louthrenoo, Worawit; Chiewchanvit, Siri; Tananuvat, Napaporn

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Efficacy of immunotherapy using antigens of Pythium insidiosum in the treatment of vascular pythiosis in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human pythiosis is an emerging disease in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. It is caused by the straminipilan, fungus-like, aquatic organism Pythium insidiosum. Pythiosis occurs in localized as well as systemic or vascular forms. Most patients with arterial pythiosis usually have underlying hematologic disorders such as thalassemia and aplastic anemia/paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) syndrome. Vascular pythiosis is characterized by ascending blood vessel infections and thrombosis of the major arteries especially those of the lower extremities. When the infection reaches a main artery, the patient usually dies within weeks. Since this pathogen is resistant to most antifungal drugs, immunotherapy was recently used to cure humans and animals with the disease. A modified P. insidiosum-antigen (PIA) formulation had already saved a young boy with life-threatening arterial pythiosis. Here, we report the therapeutic benefits of the PIA in eight patients with vascular pythiosis. Six of them had thalassemia and the other two had PNH. All of the patients had arterial occlusion of the lower limbs. P. insidiosum was isolated and identified by culture and by histopathology. All patients had evidence of active infection when immunotherapy began. After two injections of 100-200 microl of PIA (2.0mg/ml), at a 14-day interval, four patients (50%) had dramatic and complete remission. Two patients showed partial responses to PIA while the other two did not. Clinical responses correlated with the immunological reactions at the site of injection, clearance of the arteries and cytokine production. The latter included the shifting in serum levels of IL4 and IL5 to IL2 suggesting a switching from a T helper 2 (Th2) to a T helper 1 (Th1) subset. Our findings provide further evidence that immunotherapy using PIA is a safe and effective method to treat pythiosis in humans. PMID:15315840

Wanachiwanawin, Wanchai; Mendoza, Leonel; Visuthisakchai, Sanan; Mutsikapan, Piroon; Sathapatayavongs, Boonmee; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Suwanagool, Parvinee; Manuskiatti, Worapong; Ruangsetakit, Chanian; Ajello, Libero

2004-09-01

262

Persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fipronil gives effective control of early shoot borer and termites in sugarcane. The persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice were studied following application of fipronil (Regent 0.3 G) at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of sugarcane leaves were collected at various time intervals. Samples of sugarcane juice were collected at harvest. Residues of fipronil and its metabolites were quantified by gas liquid chromatograph. The limit of quantification of fipronil and its metabolites was 0.01 mg kg(-1) for sugarcane leaves and juice. Total residues of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane leaves after 7 days of its application at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1) were 0.26 and 0.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 following fipronil application at either concentration. In sugarcane leaves, fipronil was found to be the main constituent, followed by its metabolites amide, desulfinyl, sulfone and sulfide. Samples of sugarcane juice did not reveal the presence of fipronil or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest. PMID:24343262

Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

2014-02-01

263

Study of thermal treatment combined with radiation on the decomposition of polysaccharides in sugarcane bagasse  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment is a physical and chemical process that reduces the crystalline structure and disrupts the hydrogen bonding of cellulose to improve the accessibility to hydrolytic depolymerization reactions. The combination of pretreatment technologies intends to decrease the severity of the processes and to avoid excessive sugar degradation and formation of toxic by-products. An effective pretreatment preserves the pentose fractions and limits the formation of degradation products that inhibits the growth of fermentative microorganisms. This study presents the evaluation of the cleavage of polysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse using ionizing radiation combined with thermal and diluted acid treatment to further enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis of cellulose. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were irradiated using a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with different absorbed doses, and then were submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid, m/m) hydrolysis for 10, 20 and 40 min at 180 °C. Taking into account the sugars and by-products liberated in these treatments the conversion rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses were calculated.

Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.

2013-03-01

264

Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes ?-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control) or with L. buchneri at a theoretical ap [...] plication rate of 5 × 10(4) cfu/g, 1 × 10(5) cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5) cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo) and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 Charolais × Nellore) were housed in 20 collective pens and fed diets comprising (dry matter [DM] basis) 458 g/kg sugarcane silage and 542 g/kg concentrates for an 84-d period. Treated silages had higher concentrations of acetic acid and lower concentrations of ethanol. Total mixed rations (TMR) containing inoculated silages exhibited significantly lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and, consequently, higher in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD). Thus, animals fed TMR containing treated silages spent less time chewing per day and per kilogram of DM intake (DMI), even at higher DMI levels. Nonetheless, the intake of NDF was similar across treatments (0.77 to 0.79 kg/100 kg BW) but markedly lower than the value reported for traditional forages. Average daily gain was significantly greater for animals fed TMR based on inoculated silages due to the higher DMI (14% on average) and the higher energy content of the diets, as indicated by the higher feed efficiency (12% on average). The dose of inoculants used and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes had no significant effects on silage parameters or animal performance. Therefore, inoculation of L. buchneri during sugarcane ensilage can alter the fermentation pattern by increasing acetic acid yield, reducing silage nutrient losses, and improving feed efficiency by bulls.

Patrick, Schmidt; Luiz Gustavo, Nussio; Oscar Cézar Müller, Queiroz; Mateus Castilho, Santos; Maity, Zopollatto; Sérgio Gil de, Toledo Filho; João Luiz Pratti, Daniel.

2014-01-01

265

Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes ?-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control) or with L. buchneri at a theoretical ap [...] plication rate of 5 × 10(4) cfu/g, 1 × 10(5) cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5) cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo) and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 Charolais × Nellore) were housed in 20 collective pens and fed diets comprising (dry matter [DM] basis) 458 g/kg sugarcane silage and 542 g/kg concentrates for an 84-d period. Treated silages had higher concentrations of acetic acid and lower concentrations of ethanol. Total mixed rations (TMR) containing inoculated silages exhibited significantly lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and, consequently, higher in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD). Thus, animals fed TMR containing treated silages spent less time chewing per day and per kilogram of DM intake (DMI), even at higher DMI levels. Nonetheless, the intake of NDF was similar across treatments (0.77 to 0.79 kg/100 kg BW) but markedly lower than the value reported for traditional forages. Average daily gain was significantly greater for animals fed TMR based on inoculated silages due to the higher DMI (14% on average) and the higher energy content of the diets, as indicated by the higher feed efficiency (12% on average). The dose of inoculants used and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes had no significant effects on silage parameters or animal performance. Therefore, inoculation of L. buchneri during sugarcane ensilage can alter the fermentation pattern by increasing acetic acid yield, reducing silage nutrient losses, and improving feed efficiency by bulls.

Patrick, Schmidt; Luiz Gustavo, Nussio; Oscar Cézar Müller, Queiroz; Mateus Castilho, Santos; Maity, Zopollatto; Sérgio Gil de, Toledo Filho; João Luiz Pratti, Daniel.

266

Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island  

Science.gov (United States)

Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

2006-01-01

267

Members of the ethylene signalling pathway are regulated in sugarcane during the association with nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria have been isolated from sugarcane in an endophytic and beneficial interaction that promotes plant growth. In this work, for the first time, the involvement of ethylene signalling in this interaction was investigated by molecular characterizing members of this pathway in sugarcane. The expression pattern of a putative ethylene receptor (SCER1) and two putative ERF transcription factors (SCERF1 and SCERF2) show exclusive modulation in plants inoculated with the diazotrophic endophytes. The gene expression profile of SCER1, SCERF1, and SCERF2 is differentially regulated in sugarcane genotypes that can establish efficient or inefficient associations with diazotrophic micro-organisms, exhibiting high or low biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, respectively. In addition, SCER1, SCERF1, and SCERF2 expression is different in response to interactions with pathogenic and beneficial micro-organisms. Taken together, that data suggest that SCER1, SCERF1, and SCERF2 might participate in specific ethylene signalling cascade(s) that can identify a beneficial endophytic association, modulating sugarcane responses toward the diazotrophic endophytes. PMID:17210990

Cavalcante, J J V; Vargas, C; Nogueira, E M; Vinagre, F; Schwarcz, K; Baldani, J I; Ferreira, P C G; Hemerly, A S

2007-01-01

268

Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes relacionados ao metabolismo secundário da cana de açúcar e investigar o padrão de expressão gênica de enzimas chaves reguladoras das principais vias biossintéticas ativas nos diferentes tipos de tecidos e situações de estress [...] e físico-químico e biológico a que estão submetidas plantas cultivadas em casas de vegetação, campo ou in vitro. A estratégia de mineração dos dados da database de sequências expressas de cana de açúcar, SUCEST, usando ferramentas de bioinformática, focalizou classes de compostos como isoprenóides e fenilpropanóides que comprovadamente desempenham um papel na resposta de plantas a variações ambientais. Foram identificados e caracterizados genes que codificam enzimas chaves para a síntese de terpenóides, como a sesquiterpeno ciclase (SC); (CHS) para síntese de flavonóides; isoflavona sintase (IFS) envolvida na biossíntese de isoflavonóides que desempenharm importante papel na defesa de plantas e nodulação de raízes; isoflavona redutases (IFR) enzimas chaves para a síntese de fenilpropanóide fitoalexinas, bem como enzimas relacionadas à síntese de precursores de lignina, como a enzima ácido caféico- O- metiltransferase. O efeito do estresse causado por bactérias como Herbaspirillum rubri e Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans também foi avaliado tendo sido constatada a indução da expressão de chalcona sintase (CHS) em plântulas infectadas com esses agentes, sugerindo a ativação da via de flavonóides em resposta a este estresse biológico. Esses resultados apontam para o fato de que as vias do metabolismo de isopropanóides e de fenilpropanóides em cana de açúcar são ativadas de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento, especificidade de tecidos e em resposta a situações de estresse. Essas observações deverão ser confirmadas por meio de experimentação genética e bioquímica. Abstract in english A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites inv [...] olved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC); chalcone synthase (CHS), the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS), involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR), a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.

S.C., França; P.G., Roberto; M.A., Marins; R.D., Puga; A., Rodrigues; J.O., Pereira.

2001-12-01

269

Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane  

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Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes relacionados ao metabolismo secundário da cana de açúcar e investigar o padrão de expressão gênica de enzimas chaves reguladoras das principais vias biossintéticas ativas nos diferentes tipos de tecidos e situações de estresse físico-químico e biológico a que estão submetidas plantas cultivadas em casas de vegetação, campo ou in vitro. A estratégia de mineração dos dados da database de sequências expressas de cana de açúcar, SUCEST, usando ferramentas de bioinformática, focalizou classes de compostos como isoprenóides e fenilpropanóides que comprovadamente desempenham um papel na resposta de plantas a variações ambientais. Foram identificados e caracterizados genes que codificam enzimas chaves para a síntese de terpenóides, como a sesquiterpeno ciclase (SC; (CHS para síntese de flavonóides; isoflavona sintase (IFS envolvida na biossíntese de isoflavonóides que desempenharm importante papel na defesa de plantas e nodulação de raízes; isoflavona redutases (IFR enzimas chaves para a síntese de fenilpropanóide fitoalexinas, bem como enzimas relacionadas à síntese de precursores de lignina, como a enzima ácido caféico- O- metiltransferase. O efeito do estresse causado por bactérias como Herbaspirillum rubri e Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans também foi avaliado tendo sido constatada a indução da expressão de chalcona sintase (CHS em plântulas infectadas com esses agentes, sugerindo a ativação da via de flavonóides em resposta a este estresse biológico. Esses resultados apontam para o fato de que as vias do metabolismo de isopropanóides e de fenilpropanóides em cana de açúcar são ativadas de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento, especificidade de tecidos e em resposta a situações de estresse. Essas observações deverão ser confirmadas por meio de experimentação genética e bioquímica.

S.C. França

2001-12-01

270

Pythium phragmitis sp. nov., a new species close to P. arrhenomanes as a pathogen of common reed (Phragmites australis).  

Science.gov (United States)

During a study on the occurrence and pathogenicity of oomycetes in the reed-belt (Phragmites australis) of Lake Constance (Germany), a new Pythium resembling the important cereal pathogen species complex P. arrhenomanes/P. graminicola was consistently isolated from necrotic mature reed leaves and reed rhizosphere samples. The new species proved to be significantly more aggressive towards reed leaves and seedlings in vitro than related species. It is characterised by filamentous, inflated sporangia and plerotic oospores with usually more than one antheridium. ITS and cox II sequence data indicate this new species shares a common ancestor with P. arrhenomanes, but the sequence differences are clearly consistent with a divergence of the two taxa and with P. phragmitis being a distinct species. ITS 1 and 2 of 15 isolates of the taxon consistently differed from P. arrhenomanes by 13 positions. Sequence analyses of the cox II gene confirmed the new species' phylogenetic position. This paper gives a formal description of the taxon as P. phragmitis sp. nov., providing information on morphology, ecology and pathogenicity in comparison to related species. As indicated by the close association to Phragmites australis, the high aggressiveness towards reed leaves and seedlings, and the abundance in the investigated stands, Pythium phragmitis might act as a reed pathogen of considerable importance, in particular under flooding situations. PMID:16353634

Nechwatal, Jan; Wielgoss, Anna; Mendgen, Kurt

2005-12-01

271

Development and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Pythium helicoides.  

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Root rot of poinsettia, caused by Pythium helicoides at high temperatures in hydroponic cultures, has become a serious problem in many parts of the world. We have developed a species-specific, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid diagnosis of this pathogen. The primers were designed using the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. Primer specificity was established using 40 Pythium species including P. helicoides, 11 Phytophthora species, and eight other soil-borne pathogens. A sensitivity test was carried out using genomic DNA extracted from P. helicoides, and the detection limit was c. 100 fg which is comparable to that of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, we tested the ease of pathogen detection in poinsettia roots. The LAMP results were consistent with those from the conventional plating method and showed more sensitivity than the PCR results. Consequently, the LAMP method developed in this study is effective for the rapid and easy detection of P. helicoides. PMID:24797345

Takahashi, Reiko; Fukuta, Shiro; Kuroyanagi, Satoru; Miyake, Noriyuki; Nagai, Hirofumi; Kageyama, Koji; Ishiguro, Yasushi

2014-06-01

272

The changes in lipid composition of Pythium irregulare LX oomycetes at a stressful situation created with crude oil  

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Full Text Available Pythium irregulare oomycetes adapts with environmental changes including crude oil concentration by changing the composition of lipids in the cytoplasmic membrane and providing the required characteristics for adaptation in improper and stressful environmental situations. It was found that cultivation of Pythium irregulare LX oomycetes in the nutrient media with different concentrations of crude oil with 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 (%, incubated for 5 days at 26-28°C on a rotary shaker (200 rpm in aerobic conditions and deep culturing caused an increase in the lipid content and the unsaturation degree of fatty acids, confirming the correspondence between the increase of polar lipid/free sterol in the composition of membrane lipids’ ratio and that of polar lipids in general lipid fractions. Represented data shows that the process of adaptation of oomycetes to a stressful situation created with crude oil motivated the increase of the rate of membrane phospholipids with a high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids.

Mehdi Ghasemi

2012-01-01

273

Site Specific Nutrient Management for Sugarcane-potato And Sugarcane-onion in Intercropping Systems  

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Full Text Available Four field experiments were conducted under different Agro-ecological zones (AEZs of Bangladesh at Ishurdi (AEZ 11, Jamalpur (AEZ 9, Rajshahi (AEZ 11 and Thakurgaon (AEZ 1 in 2001-2002 cropping season. The main aims of the studies were to determine the fertilizer requirements on productivity of cane and intercrops (potato and onion and their economics under sugarcane based cropping systems. Cane yield was enhanced when it was intercropped with potato and onion for the residual effect of applied fertilizer to intercrops. Net economic return was greater in cane intercropped with potato and onion over sole crop for all the experiments. Intercropping potato with sugarcane using FRG`97 rates of fertilizer for cane (130 kg N, 35 kg P, 60 kg K, 20 kg S and 3 kg Zn ha-1 and potato (50 kg N, 10 kg P and 20 kg K ha -1 gave higher economic benefit at Ishurdi site. In Jamalpur site, sugarcane intercropped with potato following fertilizer rates based on BSRI`98 for cane (150 kg N, 42 kg P, 100 kg K, 30 kg S and 2 kg Zn ha -1 and potato (50 kg N, 10 kg P and 40 kg K ha -1 gave the highest net profit. But, the treatment received fertilizers as per FRG`97 showed higher economic benefit from sugarcane-onion intercropping systems both at Rajshahi and Thakurgaon sites.

S.M. Bokhtiar

2003-01-01

274

Frecuencia de presentación de Pythiosis Cutánea Bovina (Pythium insidiosum) en tres explotaciones ganaderas de Córdoba, Colombia / Frequency of presentation of bovine cutaneous pythiosis (Pythium insidiosum) in three cattle farms in Córdoba, Colombia / Freqüência de apresentação da Pitose Cutânea Bovina (Pythium insidiosum) em 3 fazendas em Córdoba, Colômbia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A pitiose cutânea é uma doença granulomatosa crônica, muitas vezes pruriginosa e rapidamente progressiva, causada por Pythium insidiosum. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a freqüência de ocorrência de pitiose cutânea bovina (Pythium insidiosum) em três fazendas no departamento de Córdoba, Colô [...] mbia. Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo em animais a conveniência, entre Maio e Agosto de 2011. Foram avaliados clínica, epidemiológica e histopatologicamente 72 bovinos com lesões cutâneas granulomatosas compatíveis com pitiose, a partir de 187 bovinos pertencentes a 3 fazendas localizadas em zonas inundáveis, no departamento de Córdoba, Colômbia. A freqüência de ocorrência de pitiose cutânea bovina em 3 fazendas no departamento de Córdoba, Colômbia foi de 38,5%. Concluímos que as manifestações clínicas e epidemiológicas, características macroscópicas das lesões de pele e achados patológicos, relatou uma presença mediana de pitiose bovina cutânea em 3 fazendas localizadas em zonas inundáveis no departamento de Córdoba, na Colômbia. Abstract in spanish La Pythiosis cutánea es una enfermedad crónica, granulomatosa, a menudo pruriginosa y rápidamente progresiva, causada por el Pythium insidiosum. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de presentación de pythiosis cutánea bovina en tres explotaciones ganaderas del departamento [...] de Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo en animales a conveniencia, entre los meses de mayo y agosto de 2011. Fueron evaluados clínica, epidemiológica e histopatológicamente 72 bovinos con lesiones cutáneas granulomatosas compatibles con Pythiosis, a partir de 187 bovinos pertenecientes a tres explotaciones ganaderas ubicadas en zonas inundables del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. La frecuencia de la enfermedad fue de 38.5%. Se concluye que por las manifestaciones clínico-epidemiológicas, las características macroscópicas de las lesiones cutáneas y los hallazgos histopatológicos, se informa una mediana presencia de pythiosis cutánea en bovinos de tres explotaciones ganaderas ubicadas en zonas inundables del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Abstract in english The skin pythiosis is a chronic granulomatous, often pruriginous, rapidly progressive illness, caused by Pythium insidiosum. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of bovine cutaneous pythiosis (Pythium insidiosum) in three farms in the department of Córdoba, Colomb [...] ia. A prospective study in animáis was performed, for convenience, between May and August 2011. 72 cattle with granulomatous skin lesions compatible with Pythiosis were evaluated clinical, epidemiological and histopathologically, from 187 cows belonging to three farms located in flood zones in the department of Córdoba, Colombia. The frequency of occurrence of bovine cutaneous Pythiosis in 3 cattle farms in Córdoba department, Colombia was 38,5%. It was concluded that clinical and epidemiological manifestations, macroscopic characteristics of the skin lesions and pathological findings, reported a median pythiosis presence of bovine dermal three farms located in flood zones of the department of Córdoba, Colombia.

José A, Cardona Álvarez; Marlene, Vargas Viloria; Sandra C, Perdomo A.

275

Genetic improvement of sugarcane for drought and salinity stress tolerance using Arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane plant is a glycophyte, hence its growth and sucrose contents are severely affected by drought and salinity stresses. Bioengineering approaches offer a plausible and rapid solution to mitigate these losses. Therefore for genetic improvement of sugarcane against these stresses, the present study was conceived to transform Arabidopsis Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene--confers tolerance against drought and salinity--into sugarcane through Agrobacterium. For this purpose, highly regenerable apical buds of sugarcane variety CP77-400 were used as explants. EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium harboring pGreen0029 vector containing AVP1 gene driven under 35SCaMV promoter was employed for transformation. The key factors studied include application of acetosyringone, cefotaxime, kanamycin, and co-cultivation period for successful transformation. Maximum regeneration frequency of 77.5 % was achieved on MS media containing 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l Kn, 1 mg/l GA?, 0.25 mg/l NAA, 50 ?M acetosyringone, 500 mg/l cefotaxime, and 150 mg/l kanamycin on 3 days of co-cultivation. The results revealed that apical buds are distinctive viable tissues for sugarcane transformation and regeneration to produce a large number of CP77-400 transgenic plants in shorter period of time without intervening mosaics and chimeras. The AVP1 transcripts expression in transgenic lines at various levels was detected by RT-PCR. Longer and profuse root system was observed in transgenic plants in comparison with control plants. Concomitantly, only transgenic plants were able to withstand higher NaCl salt stress as well as scarcity of water thus, showing tolerance against salinity and drought stresses. PMID:24002911

Kumar, Tanweer; Uzma; Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Abbas, Zaheer; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad

2014-03-01

276

The environmental sustainability of sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change: case studies for Brazil and Ghana  

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Over the next decades increasing oil and carbon prices will lead to a proliferation of energy crop cultivation initiatives. Many of these will be based in developing countries, and hence will affect some of the poorest people in the world. The capacity of such initiatives to alleviate poverty in the long term depends on their environmental sustainability. Specifically, the exploitation of water resources in an unsustainable manner may permanently damage vulnerable ecosystems and ultimately deepen poverty. These issues have motivated a collaborative project - Integrated Carbon, Water and Land Management for Poverty Alleviation (ICWALPA), which asks whether the export of bio-fuel technology from Brazil to Ghana will alleviate poverty. This presentation will describe the initial results from ICWALPA - including the development of an integrated environmental modelling framework and its application to sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change. The environmental model used to represent the biophysical interactions is process-based and implemented in the framework of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). Crop growth is predicted dynamically by accumulating the carbon assimilated during photosynthesis and is then allocated according to well-established allometric principles. Two contrasting case studies will be presented: the Sao Paulo region of Brazil (where there is an established sugarcane industry) and the Daka River region of Ghana (where commercial sugarcane cultivation is planned). We show that our model is capable of reproducing both the spatial and temporal variability in sugarcane yield for the Sao Paulo province of Brazil - lending credence to the projections for Ghana. For Ghana, we show that, providing there is sufficient irrigation, it is possible to generate approximately 75% of the yield achieved in the Sao Paulo province. In the final part of the study, the behaviour of sugarcane under an idealized climate change scenario is explored. It is shown that the increased drought tolerance that results from higher CO2 concentrations mitigates the greater water stress associated with higher evaporation.

Black, E.; Vidale, P. L.; Verhoef, A.; Cuadro, S. V.

2012-04-01

277

Kinetics of 35S uptake in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of 35S uptake was studied in excised shoot roots in three sugarcane cultivars Co 419, Co 997 and Co 1148 in relation to concentration. There were at least four distinct phases in uptake in the concentration range from 0.01 mM to 5.00 mM. At higher concentration ranges, cultivars did not differ in kinetics of 35S uptake. However, at lower concentrations Co 1148 was more efficient in 35S uptake compared to Co 419 and Co 997. (author)

278

Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of [14C]fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of [14C] fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant

279

Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community  

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Full Text Available Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indol acetic (IAA production was detected by Dot-Immunobinding and Salkowski's method. These results show that 19 strains and isolates had nitrogenase activity, values ranging from 100 to SOOO/zg/mL; 6 of them produced IAA (values ranging from 1,7 to 2,5 //g/mL: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl-5, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 1-05, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 4-02,17,30 and 305. It was demonstrated that culture medium nutrient sources and pH affected the nitrogenase activity of the strains representing the endophytic community. Key words: endophytic community, sugarcane, nitrogenase activity, indolacetic acid.

Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang

2007-02-01

280

Mechanisms of sugarcane response to herbivory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Deciphering plant-insect interactions at the molecular level is one of the major topics of interest in contemporary plant biology research. In the last few years, various aspects of the plant response to insect damage have been investigated, including the characterization of direct and indirect resp [...] onses, the regulation of gene expression resulting from insect attack and the signal transduction pathways. Such research has resulted in the proposal of new methods to enhance host resistance to insect pests, including the use of insecticidal genes that can be transferred by genetic engineering into target crops. By integrating the understanding of how plants react to insect damage with the techniques of molecular biology researchers should be able to increase the wide range of methods available for the control of insect pests. The sugarcane transcriptome project (SUCEST) has allowed the identification of several orthologues genes involved in the plant response to insect damage. In this paper we summarize several aspects of the complex interaction between plants and insects and describe the use of in silico analysis to provide information about gene expression in different sugarcane tissues in response to insect attack.

Maria Cristina, Falco; Phellippe Arthur S., Marbach; Patrícia, Pompermayer; Francisco Cláudio C., Lopes; Marcio C., Silva-Filho.

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

In vitro Propagation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum  

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Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in order to micropropagate sugarcane cultivars through shoot tip and auxilliary bud culture. Rinsing of four cultivars of sugarcane, namely CP-48-103, CP-57-614, CP-69-1062, and NCO-310 in 75% alcohol for 60 seconds and their subsequent disinfection with sodium and calcium hypochloride (1.5% active material for 15 minutes decreased a significant amount of infection of explants in the medium. The use of the Murashing and Skoog (MS solid and liquid medium with 1 mg/l Indole Butyric Acid (IBA, 1 mg/l Kinetin, 100 mg/l mio-inositol, 1 mg/l Thiamin HCl, and 2% sucrose had significant superiority (P<0.05 to 1/2 MS solid medium. Also, to increase the multiplication in a sterile medium (In vitro, two kinds of solid and liquid MS medium, with a hormone combination of 1 mg/l IBA, 2 mg/l Kinetin and 1 mg/l 6-(benzylamino-9-(2-tetrahydropyranyl-9H-purine (BAP were applied which yielded the highest amount of proliferation. The plants formed roots in Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH medium with a hormone combination of 5 mg/l IBA and 1 mg/l Kinetin. When activate charcoal was used in the medium, a higher percentage of the plants became rooted and a larger number of adventitious roots were produced than in the dark-light or light treatments.

A. A. Ramin

2003-10-01

282

Mechanisms of sugarcane response to herbivory  

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Full Text Available Deciphering plant-insect interactions at the molecular level is one of the major topics of interest in contemporary plant biology research. In the last few years, various aspects of the plant response to insect damage have been investigated, including the characterization of direct and indirect responses, the regulation of gene expression resulting from insect attack and the signal transduction pathways. Such research has resulted in the proposal of new methods to enhance host resistance to insect pests, including the use of insecticidal genes that can be transferred by genetic engineering into target crops. By integrating the understanding of how plants react to insect damage with the techniques of molecular biology researchers should be able to increase the wide range of methods available for the control of insect pests. The sugarcane transcriptome project (SUCEST has allowed the identification of several orthologues genes involved in the plant response to insect damage. In this paper we summarize several aspects of the complex interaction between plants and insects and describe the use of in silico analysis to provide information about gene expression in different sugarcane tissues in response to insect attack.

Falco Maria Cristina

2001-01-01

283

Mechanisms of sugarcane response to herbivory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Deciphering plant-insect interactions at the molecular level is one of the major topics of interest in contemporary plant biology research. In the last few years, various aspects of the plant response to insect damage have been investigated, including the characterization of direct and indirect resp [...] onses, the regulation of gene expression resulting from insect attack and the signal transduction pathways. Such research has resulted in the proposal of new methods to enhance host resistance to insect pests, including the use of insecticidal genes that can be transferred by genetic engineering into target crops. By integrating the understanding of how plants react to insect damage with the techniques of molecular biology researchers should be able to increase the wide range of methods available for the control of insect pests. The sugarcane transcriptome project (SUCEST) has allowed the identification of several orthologues genes involved in the plant response to insect damage. In this paper we summarize several aspects of the complex interaction between plants and insects and describe the use of in silico analysis to provide information about gene expression in different sugarcane tissues in response to insect attack.

Maria Cristina, Falco; Phellippe Arthur S., Marbach; Patrícia, Pompermayer; Francisco Cláudio C., Lopes; Marcio C., Silva-Filho.

284

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

2013-10-28

285

SUGARCANE BAGASSE: A NOVEL SUBSTRATE FOR MASS MULTIPLICATION OF FUNNELIFORMIS MOSSEAE WITH ONION AS HOST  

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Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to test the influence of sugarcane bagasse (fibrous waste left over by recovery of sugarcane juice as a substrate for the inoculum production of Funneliformis mosseae which was recorded in terms of root colonization, spore number and colonization pattern. Their effect on growth performance of onion was also recorded in terms of increase in plant height, above ground fresh and dry weight, root length, root fresh and dry weight. The experiment is a 3×4 factorial design employing three forms of bagasse (fresh, dry and compost and their four different concentrations (without substrate, 25 g/pot, 50 g/pot and 100 g/pot. The results showed that the positive influence of compost bagasse, which promoted higher root colonization and sporulation, followed by dry and fresh bagasse. Maximum spores, vesicles, arbuscules and 100 per cent colonized roots were detected in plants supplemented with 25 g compost bagasse. This treatment also influences significant increase in plant growth. Although, increasing substrate concentration proved stimulatory to AM fungus as well as onion plant growth but highest concentration (100 g proved inhibitory. Hence, compost bagasse can be exploited for the multiplication of F. mosseae by farmers as it is a cost effective method of production.

Anju Tanwar

2013-12-01

286

Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Alumínio (Al) é um dos principais fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento de plantas em solos ácidos, reduzindo substancialmente a produtividade agrícola. Na América do Sul, cerca de 66% da superfície do solo apresenta acidez, onde a alta saturação de alumínio é uma das maiores limitações à prática agr [...] ícola. Apesar do crescente número de estudos, uma compreensão completa das bases bioquímicas e moleculares da tolerância ao alumínio em plantas está longe de ser alcançada. No caso da cana-de-açúcar, não há nada publicado sobre a regulação gênica induzida durante o stress por alumínio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genes de cana-de-açúcar relacionados com as várias vias metabólicas reconhecidamente envolvidas na resposta à toxidez do alumínio em outras espécies de plantas e leveduras. Para a maioria dos genes relacionados com alumínio em outras espécies foram identificados similares em cana-de-açúcar, tais como aqueles que codificam enzimas que combatem o stress oxidativo ou a infestação por patógenos, proteínas responsáveis pela exudação de ácidos orgânicos e pela transdução de sinais. O papel desses genes na tolerância ao alumínio é revisado. Devido ao alto grau de conservação do genoma entre espécies próximas de gramíneas como milho, cevada, sorgo e cana-de-açúcar, esses genes serão uma ferramenta valiosa para a melhor compreensão e manipulação da tolerância ao alumínio nestas espécies. Abstract in english Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The b [...] iochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.

Rodrigo D., Drummond; Claudia T., Guimarães; Juliana, Felix; Fernando E., Ninamango-Cárdenas; Newton P., Carneiro; Edilson, Paiva; Marcelo, Menossi.

2001-12-01

287

Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Alumínio (Al) é um dos principais fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento de plantas em solos ácidos, reduzindo substancialmente a produtividade agrícola. Na América do Sul, cerca de 66% da superfície do solo apresenta acidez, onde a alta saturação de alumínio é uma das maiores limitações à prática agr [...] ícola. Apesar do crescente número de estudos, uma compreensão completa das bases bioquímicas e moleculares da tolerância ao alumínio em plantas está longe de ser alcançada. No caso da cana-de-açúcar, não há nada publicado sobre a regulação gênica induzida durante o stress por alumínio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genes de cana-de-açúcar relacionados com as várias vias metabólicas reconhecidamente envolvidas na resposta à toxidez do alumínio em outras espécies de plantas e leveduras. Para a maioria dos genes relacionados com alumínio em outras espécies foram identificados similares em cana-de-açúcar, tais como aqueles que codificam enzimas que combatem o stress oxidativo ou a infestação por patógenos, proteínas responsáveis pela exudação de ácidos orgânicos e pela transdução de sinais. O papel desses genes na tolerância ao alumínio é revisado. Devido ao alto grau de conservação do genoma entre espécies próximas de gramíneas como milho, cevada, sorgo e cana-de-açúcar, esses genes serão uma ferramenta valiosa para a melhor compreensão e manipulação da tolerância ao alumínio nestas espécies. Abstract in english Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The b [...] iochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.

Rodrigo D., Drummond; Claudia T., Guimarães; Juliana, Felix; Fernando E., Ninamango-Cárdenas; Newton P., Carneiro; Edilson, Paiva; Marcelo, Menossi.

288

PRIMEIRA OCORRÊNCIA DE Pythium sp. E Rhizoctonia sp. CAUSANDO PODRIDÃO-DE-RAÍZES EM ERVAIS NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL  

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Full Text Available RESUMOEm 2004, algumas plantações de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. do Vale do Taquari, RS, apresentaram estagnação do crescimento, amarelecimento, queda de folhas e necrose no sistema radicular, sintomas típicos da podridão-de-raízes. Amostras de raízes de plantas foram coletadas, em propriedades dos municípios de Ilópolis e Putinga, e enviadas ao Laboratório de Fitopatologia do Departamento de Defesa Sanitária/CCR/UFSM para análise fitopatológica. Foi constatada a presença de fungos dos gêneros Rhizoctonia e Pythium e estes se mostraram patogênicos quando inoculados em plantas de erva-mate. É a primeira constatação desses dois fungos causando podridão-de-raízes em ervais no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

Elena Blume

2007-03-01

289

Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

290

7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sugarcane from the field. Irrigated practice —A method of producing a crop by which water is...produce at least the yield used to establish the irrigated production guarantee...planted to the insured crop. Local market...

2010-01-01

291

A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics an...

1998-01-01

292

Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Baggase without Enzymatic Saccharification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugarcane processing generates a large volume of bagasse. Disposal of bagasse is critical for both agricultural profitability and environmental protection. Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable resource that can be used to produce ethanol and many other value added products. In this study, we demonstrate that cane processed bagasse could be used to produce fuel grade ethanol without saccharification. A chemical pre-treatment process using alkaline peroxide and acid hydrolysis was applied to re...

Raj Boopathy; Letha Dawson

2008-01-01

293

SUGARCANE BAGASSE PULPING AND BLEACHING: THERMAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION  

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Cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse in three stages. Initially sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a pre-treatment process with hydrolyzed acid to eliminate hemicellulose. Whole cellulosic fibers thus obtained were then subjected to a two-stage delignification process and finally to a bleaching process. The chemical structure of the resulting cellulose fibers was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractio...

Paulo Henrique Fernandes Pereira; Herman Cornelis Jacobus Voorwald; Maria Odila Hilário Cioffi; Daniella Regina Mullinari; Sandra Maria Da Luz; Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto Da Silva

2011-01-01

294

Biotechnological interventions in sugarcane improvement: strategies, methods and progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work has been conducted towards employing in vitro culture system combined with radiation induced mutagenesis in the improvement of sugarcane. Several radiation induced mutants with agronomically desirable traits were isolated and evaluated under field conditions, besides studying abiotic stress responses using biochemical, physiological and molecular tools. This article describes the developments in the in vitro culture systems and related biotechnologies that are evolving as novel strategies in the recent years for use in sugarcane improvement

295

Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

296

Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2012-07-01

297

Factors that Interfere in Dextran Production By Sugarcane Contaminating Microorganisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dextrans are polysaccharides produced by microorganisms, specially bacterias from the Leuconostoc genus. Dextrans have a high molecular weigh and most of the glycosidic bonds are a(1®6. For the sugar manufacture, dextran is a problem which changes the quality of sugar and the industry efficiency. Dextrans are synthesized when the sugarcane is spoiled before the harvest period, through the sugarcane fissures, which permit the penetration of microorganisms that deteriorate the sugarcane. This work aims at improving the sugar quality and the industry efficiency by isolating dextran producing microorganisms, comparing the time of burning with the infection index and the dextran concentration in the sugarcane juice. Dextran producing microorganisms were isolated from sugarcane juice during the 97/98; 99/00 and 2001 harvests. The isolated strains were maintained in MRS agar at the temperature of 4°C. The fermentation was carried out in MRS broth for 72 hours at 28°C with 180 rpm. Dextran was analyzed by spectrophotometry at 485 nm. Only three isolated strains showed good dextran production. The average of dextran production in MRS broth was 390 mg%. It was observed that a burning period above 72 hours increases the sugarcane contamination and causes high dextran production, and consequently the reduction of the industry efficiency of the sugar factory.

Maria Celia Oliveira Hauly

2002-01-01

298

Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO{sub 2} is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

Crago, Christine L. [Energy Biosciences Institute, 1115 IGB Bldg., 1206 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Khanna, Madhu [Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 301A Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Barton, Jason [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Giuliani, Eduardo [Venture Partners do Brasil, Rua Iguatemi 354 82, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Weber [Av. Padua Dias 11 - CP 9, Forest Sciences Departament - ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, 13148-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

2010-11-15

299

Genetic diversity among sugarcane (Saccharum spp. varieties using molecular markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetic base of today's sugarcane cultivars appears to be narrow and could be the reason for current slow progress in improving sugarcane crops. Sixty-three primer pairs (producing 263 polymorphic fragments flanking simple sequence repeats or micro-satellites were used for assessing the genetic variability of five S. officinarum clones and 33 sugarcane cultivars used in CENICAÑA breeding projects, selected for their economic and agronomic im-portance in several Central and South-American countries. NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analy-sis System and SAS (Statistical Analysis System statistical software was used to analyse data. The number of alleles recorded per marker ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 5. Cluster analysis showed a clear separation of cultivars from S. officinarum clones. The average of genetic similarity between sugarcane genotypes studied was 0.664, while genetic diversity analysis revealed a very different group (H: 0.973. An interesting results concerned CC 91-1880 distribu-tion very close to that of Q genotypes from Australia and also S. officinarum clones, suggesting that this cultivar would be a good candidate for further studies by breeders. The results obtained are useful for CENICAÑA's breed­ing program because, in spite of the genetic homogeneity present in today's sugarcane cultivars, it is clear that allelic variants are present in some of these cultivars and could be used in the new breeding projects. Key words: Sugarcane, genetic diversity, microsatellites, molecular markers, Saccharum officinarum.

John J. Riascos

2007-05-01

300

Effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation in sugarcane by 15N isotope dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

15N stable-isotope dilution technique was used to study effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in sugarcane varieties B8 and ROC22. The results showed that there were significant differences of % Ndfa (Nitrogen-fixing percentage) at different development stages between B8 and ROC22. The % Ndfa of B8 was obviously higher than that of ROC22 at young shoot stage, tillering stage and early elongation stage, and the highest % Ndfa of B8 reached 31.28% Ndfa. BNF was found in root, stem and leaf but the maximum BNF was in leaf at 60d. Inoculation with L03 could increase total nitrogen content in both B8 and ROC22. The leaf of ROC22 and the stem of B8 were found benefited most from the inoculation. BNF varied significantly in different varieties, organs and growth stages of sugarcane. (authors)

 
 
 
 
301

Irrigation Water Productivity and Water use Efficiency of Sugarcane Plants under Drought Conditions (Case Study in Farabi Agro-Industry Lands)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was aimed to evaluate the productivity and performance indexes of sugarcane biomass` irrigation water use, at its growth different ages in 2009-2010 cropping year, in Farabi agro-industry farms. During this study, based on the age, four farms were selected for each plant. These farms had the highest performance among different ones. Performance rate, plant evapotranspiration, and total quantity of irrigation water were determined during the plant growth period and, based on their a...

Leila Joudi; Shadman Veysi; Faramarz Judy

2011-01-01

302

Antimicrobial Activity Of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated From sugarcane And Banana Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endophytes - “Microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without carrying any immediate over negative effects". In this present investigation the endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from root, stem and leaf of Sugarcane and Banana for their antimicrobial activity. Totally 6 endophytic actinomycetes were obtained from all the samples. Population enumeration, phenotypic characters like substrate mycelium, aerial mycelium, aerial mass colour, reverse side pigment, melanoid pigment, spore chain morphology, salt tolerance on growth, growth on different pH, effect of different temperature on growth, Biochemical characteristics, and enzymatic activity were studied. For antimicrobial activity 7 bacterial pathogens and 4 fungal pathogens were used. Up on the 6 isolate 1 endophytic actinomycetes isolate (BAR1 shows good activity against all the isolates. Based on the above characteristics the potential isolate BAR1 is identified as Streptomyces sp.

Gayathri

2013-11-01

303

Isolation and characterisation of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from sugarcane rhizosphere for the selection of strains with agriculture potentialities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen aerobic endospore forming strains were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere in N-free medium. A phenotypic description and analysis of the 5' end hypervariable region sequences of 16S rRNA revealed a high diversity of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified, and four genera were obtained: seven strains belonged to Bacillus (Bacillaceae family), four belonged to Paenibacillus, six belonged to Brevibacillus and one strain was identified as Cohnella (Paenibacillaceae family). Four Brevibacillus strains showed in vitro inhibitory activity against plant pathogens fungi Curvularia and Fusarium. Seventy-four percent of the isolated bacteria grew on pectin as the only carbon source, showing polygalacturonase activity. Pectate lyase activity was detected for the first time in a Brevibacillus genus strain. All isolates showed endoglucanase activity. Calcium phosphate solubilisation was positive in 83.3% of the isolates, with higher values than those reported for Bacillus inorganic phosphate solubilising strains. High ethylene plant hormone secretion in the culture medium was detected in 22% of the bacteria. This is the first report of ethylene secretion in Paenibacillaceae isolates. Indole-3-acetic acid production was found in a Brevibacillus genus isolate. It was reported for the first time the presence of Cohnella genus strain on sugarcane rhizosphere bearing plant growth promoting traits. The sugarcane isolate Brevibacillus B65 was identified as a plant growth inoculant because it showed wider spectra of plant stimulation capabilities, including an antifungal effect, extracellular hydrolases secretion, inorganic phosphate solubilisation and plant hormone liberation. In this work, sugarcane was shown to be a suitable niche for finding aerobic endospore forming 'Bacilli' with agriculture biotechnological purposes. PMID:22805941

de Los Milagros Orberá Ratón, Teresa; Yano, Ricardo; Rodríguez Gámez, Odalys; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Jesús Serrat Díaz, Manuel; Barbosa, Heloíza Ramos

2012-04-01

304

Obtaining lactic acid through discontinuing fermentation using sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product meal, fructose and cassava starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lactic acid presents its larger application in the Food Industry. It is also used in the Textile, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Cosmetic and Packaging Industries. Due to this wide applicability, the acquisition of lactic acid through fermentation is a widely studied process, searching for alternatives for the increase in productivity and the decrease in the production costs. Therefore, this work has the purpose of evaluating the influence of different types of cultivation, proceeding from the agro-industry, regarding the production of lactic acid through fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei. In order to do that, it was used as the cultivation media, sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product crumbs, fructose and cassava starch, previously hydrolyzed when necessary and supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 2% peptone. Fermentations were performed at 37º for 48 hours under constant agitation. The fermentation processes were followed by analysis such as: lactic acid dosage; reductive sugar decrease; biomass; cellular viability and pH. When the results were analyzed it was noticed a larger decrease of the reductive sugar and a larger production of lactic acid when the sugarcane molasses were used as cultivation media. Therein it may be suggested that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presented itself more efficient in promoting the microorganism growth. Such result has also been observed by other authors in the researched literature and it can be explained by the fact that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presents in its composition, besides glucose and fructose, other nutrients able to favor the growth of the microorganism and, consequently, the production of the lactic acid when compared to other medias used in this work.

Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima

2011-06-01

305

Effect of Combining Soil Solarization with Certain Nematicides on Target and Nontarget Organisms and Plant Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field experiments compared pesticidal and plant growth effects of soil solarization, alone and in combination, with overall applications of several nematicides. Nematodes, including Meloidogyne incognita J2, that were targeted for control were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by solarization, 1,3-dichloropropene (44 and 132 liter/ha), ethoprop (13.5 kg/ha), metham sodium (64 liter/ha), formaldehyde (111 liter/ha), and by solarization-nematicide combinations. Control of Pythium ultimum also wa...

Stapleton, James J.; Lear, Bert; Devay, James E.

1987-01-01

306

Field performance of transgenic sugarcane produced using Agrobacterium and biolistics methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Future genetic improvement of sugarcane depends, in part, on the ability to produce high-yielding transgenic cultivars with improved traits such as herbicide and insect resistance. Here, transgenic sugarcane plants generated by different transformation methods were assessed for field performance over 3 years. Agrobacterium-mediated (Agro) transgenic events (35) were produced using four different Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, while biolistic (Biol) transgenic events (48) were produced using either minimal linearized DNA (LDNA) transgene cassettes with 5', 3' or blunt ends or whole circular plasmid (PDNA) vectors containing the same transgenes. A combined analysis showed a reduction in growth and cane yield in Biol, Agro as well as untransformed tissue culture (TC) events, compared with the parent clone (PC) Q117 (no transformation or tissue culture) in the plant, first ratoon and second ratoon crops. However, when individual events were analysed separately, yields of some transgenic events from both Agro and Biol were comparable to PC, suggesting that either transformation method can produce commercially suitable clones. Interestingly, a greater percentage of Biol transformants were similar to PC for growth and yield than Agro clones. Crop ratoonability and sugar yield components (Brix%, Pol%, and commercial cane sugar (CCS)) were unaffected by transformation or tissue culture. Transgene expression remained stable over different crop cycles and increased with plant maturity. Transgene copy number did not influence transgene expression, and both transformation methods produced low transgene copy number events. No consistent pattern of genetic changes was detected in the test population using three DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:24330327

Joyce, Priya; Hermann, Scott; O'Connell, Anthony; Dinh, Quang; Shumbe, Leonard; Lakshmanan, Prakash

2014-05-01

307

Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane  

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Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

L Potgieter

2012-12-01

308

ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE  

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Full Text Available Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL and semi-pilot (25 L reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140ºC for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%; 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9% and 150ºC for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%. These conditions were also used for hydrolysis in a semi-pilot reactor, and the highest xylose recovery yield (83.3% was obtained at 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm

PESSOA JR. A.

1997-01-01

309

Isolation of Aspergillus sulphureus, Penicillium islandicum and Paecilomyces variotii from Agricultural Soil and their Biological Activity Against Pythium spinosum, the Damping-Off Organism of Soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was undertaken to study the biological control of Pythium spinosum var. spinosum, the damping-off organism of soybean using three selected soil fungi of Aspergillus sulphureus, Penicillium islandicum and Paecilomyces variotii. Pythium spinosum var. spinosum was isolated from rhizosphere soil and rhizoplane of healthy and infected soybean roots cultivated in an agricultural field located in Shahean district, Minia city, Egypt in June of 2003 and 2009 using NARM (Nystatin Ampicillin Rifampcin Miconazole selective medium. Rhizosphere and rhizoplane mycoflora isolated from the same sites were tested for their antagonism against Pythium spinosum in agar plates. Among the isolated fungi, Aspergillus sulphureus, Penicillium islandicum and Paecilomyces variotii were proved to be potent biological agents in the plate assay. Their field effectiveness was evaluated in either autoclaved or nonsterilized soil. Coating soybean seeds and roots with spores and mycelia of these three antagonists gave germinating seeds and seedlings a very good protection from root-rot, pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by P. spinosum. Applying these biocontrol agents to autoclaved and nonsterilized soil infested with P. spinosum provided an excellent way of protection.

H.M.A. Abdelzaher

2010-01-01

310

Efecto del tratamiento de semilla con zinc y ácido giberélico sobre la emergencia y el crecimiento inicial de las plantas de caña de azúcar / EFFECT OF SEED TREATMENT WITH ZINC AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE EMERGENCY AND INITIAL GROWTH OF SUGARCANE PLANTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de comparar la aplicación de una suspensión concentrada a base de zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, con el uso de ácido giberélico (ÁG3) en el tratamiento de semilla y evaluar su efecto sobre emergencia y crecimiento inicial de plantas de caña de azúcar, Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, se co [...] ndujo un ensayo en la Fundación Azucarera para el Desarrollo, la productividad y la Investigación (FUNDAcAñA), ubicada en chivacoa, municipio Bruzual, estado Yaracuy. Para tal fin se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones, donde el primero de ellos correspondió al testigo sin aplicación (T0). los tratamientos T1, T2 y T3 consistieron en sumergir secciones de tallo de 5 cm de longitud con una yema viable (mini esquejes) por 10 min en soluciones de Teprosyn Zn® al 1%, 2% y 3%, respectivamente, mientras que en el último tratamiento (T4) la semilla se sometió a inmersión en una solución de 1 g Activol® 100 l agua-1 durante el mismo tiempo. la siembra se realizó en bolsas plásticas negras, utilizando un sustrato obtenido a través de una mezcla de suelo y compost de cachaza en una proporción 1:1. los datos fueron analizados con el programa Statistix 8. Los resultados indican que el tratamiento de semilla con Teprosyn Zn® promovió la emergencia, el crecimiento inicial de raíces, el peso aéreo seco y la producción de materia seca (MS) total de las plantas, favoreciendo el establecimiento del cultivo. la utilización de ÁG3 sólo afectó la longitud total de raíces Abstract in english In order to compare the application of a concentrated suspension based on zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, with the use of gibberellic acid (GA3) in the treatment of seed and evaluate its effect on emergence and early growth of sugarcane plants , Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, a trial was conducted in the [...] Sugar Development Foundation, productivity and Research (FUNDAcAñA), located in chivacoa, municipality Bruzual, Yaracuy. For this purpose was used a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications, the first one corresponded to the control application (T0). Treatments T1, T2 and T3 consisted in immersing stem sections 5 cm long with a viable bud (mini cuttings) for 10 min in solutions of Teprosyn Zn® 1%, 2% and 3% respectively, while in the last treatment (T4) seed was subjected to immersion in a solution of 1 g Activol®/ 100 l water during the same time. The sowing was performed in black plastic bags using a substrate obtained from a mixture of soil and filter cake compost in a 1:1 proportion. Data were analyzed with the program Statistix 8. The results indicate that seed treatment with Teprosyn Zn® promoted the emergence, initial growth of roots, the dry weight and dry matter production (MS) in whole plants, favoring the crop establishment. GA3 using only affected the total length of roots

Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

2011-03-01

311

Radiation Induced In Vitro Mutagenesis, Selection for Salt Tolerance and Characterization in Sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salinity is one the major environmental stresses affecting plant productivity. Combined use of mutagenesis and tissue culture can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt-stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane damage (electrolyte leakage) was threefold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of better water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress, indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. Insalt tolerant lines and control plants. In addition, plantlets regenerated form irradiated calli of sugarcane cv. CoC-671, Co 86032 and Co 94012 were field planted and agronomically desirable variants were identified for economic traits like cane yield and sucrose (Brix). The genetic stability of the variants is being evaluated at field level in M3 generation. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

312

Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

Thiebaut Flávia

2012-07-01

313

Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon s [...] upply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes) were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM) production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1) and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1) of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

João Luís Nunes, Carvalho; Rafael, Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin.

2013-10-01

314

Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon s [...] upply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes) were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM) production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1) and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1) of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

João Luís Nunes, Carvalho; Rafael, Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin.

315

Growth  

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Introduction to models of economic growth with a great deal of focus on the Solow Growth Model both its theory and testing it with data. Also contains a discussion of the effects of the Greenspan Put. From a macroeconomics course at the the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Technology, Massachusetts I.

316

Efecto de la aplicación de abonos orgánicos en la supresión de Pythium myriotylum en plantas de tiquisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los abonos orgánicos ejercen efecto supresivo sobre patógenos de planta; su capacidad supresora varía de acuerdo al tipo de abono y al sistema planta-patógeno. Se evaluó el efecto supresor de diferentes abonos orgánicos en el sistema tiquisque-Pythium myriotylum. Se determinó la madurez, estabilidad [...] , y actividad microbiana de los diferentes abonos, así como el efecto del tipo de compostaje (compost vs vermicompost), el material de origen (estiércol vs broza de café) y el grado de madurez, sobre la supresión del patógeno. El efecto supresivo sobre el desarrollo de la enfermedad en plantas de tiquisque se estableció por medio de una escala visual de síntomas a los 3, 6 y 9 días del transplante. Los abonos presentaron relaciones C/N entre 6 y 15 y ninguno afectó la germinación o la longitud de las raíces de plántulas de pepino. Los abonos maduros clasificaron como estables y los inmaduros, con excepción del compost de broza, como inestables. La menor incidencia de pudrición de raíces por P. myriotylum se obtuvo con el uso de vermicompost a base de estiércol maduro, mientras que la menor severidad de la enfermedad ocurrió cuando el suelo se enmendó con el compost y el vermicompost maduro a base de estiércol. En términos generales los abonos obtenidos a partir de estiércol fueron más supresivos, y presentaron una mayor actividad microbiana, que los producidos a base de broza de café. Se concluye que el tipo de compostaje, el origen y el grado de madurez tienen influencia sobre la capacidad supresora. Abstract in english Effect of the application of compost and vermicompost on the suppression of pythium myriotylum in cocoyam plants (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Organic amendments have been used as a substrate which is able to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens. Since these effects vary depending on the type of compos [...] t and the plant-pathogen system, the aim of this work was to evaluate the suppressive effect of different organic fertilizers against cocoyam root rot disease, caused by Pythium myriotylum. For this purpose, the effect of the composting process (compost vs. vermicompost), origin (animal manure vs. coffee fruit-peel pulp) and degree of maturity were tested. Stability and microbial activity of the organic amendment were also determined. The suppressive effect over disease development on cocoyam was established by using a visual severity-scale on days 3, 6, and 9after transplant. The organic fertilizers presented C/N ratios between 6 and 15. Neither affected the germination or root-length of cucumber seedlings. The mature organic fertilizers classified as stable; and the immature ones, with the exception of the coffee-pulp compost, as unstable. The treatment with the best result in reducing root rot disease incidence was the mature, vermicomposted animal manure. The lowest disease severity was obtained when the soil was amended with the mature, composted or vermicomposted, animal manure. In general, the organic amendments based on animal manure were more suppressive than the ones based on coffee pulp. These results indicate that the type of composting, original material and maturity influence the suppressivity of the organic amendments.

Silvia, Artavia; Lidieth, Uribe; Francisco, Saborío; Luis Felipe, Arauz; Leida, Castro.

2010-06-01

317

Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

2013-03-01

318

[(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira da; Silva, Marcelo Saturnino da; Santos, Solange Laurentino Dos

2014-10-01

319

Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

320

Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. PMID:21710035

Korndörfer, A P; Grisoto, E; Vendramim, J D

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

Korndorfer, A.P.; Grisoto, E.; Vendramim, J.D., E-mail: korndorfer@hotmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

2011-05-15

322

Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon [...] in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used.

AP, Korndörfer; E, Grisoto; JD, Vendramim.

323

Physiological Studies on Ratoonability of Sugarcane Varieties under Tropical Indian Condition  

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Full Text Available The ratoon crop occupies approximately 40% of the total area of sugarcane crop in tropical India. The main reason for the lower average cane productivity is the yield decline in ratoon crops (40 - 50 t/ha despite the release of the high yielding varieties and advanced cane production technology. The physiological factors associated with ratooning performance and the variation in growth and yield were studied in 11 sugarcane varieties in two cycles of one plant and two ratoon crops each. The first ratoon and second ratoon crop showed 17.0% and 28.1% reduction in tiller production and 15.5% and 15.7% reduction in NMC, respectively, over plant crop. The differences in growth parameters between the plant and ratoon crops at the formative phase were lesser than that of grand growth and maturity phases. Varieties Co 86032, Co 97008, Co 95020 Co 99004 and Co 2000-10 showed better physiological efficiency in terms of plant height, shoot population, leaf size, TDMP, partitioning efficiency, chlorophyll content and nitrate reductase activity and significantly higher yield components such as NMC, SCW, cane length, internodal length as well as cane yield compared to other varieties. The higher reduction in ratoon yield in Co 99008, Co 94012, Co 8021 and Co 97009 (>35.00% reduction was due to higher reduction in tiller production associated with stunted plant