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Sample records for sugarcane growth pythium

  1. Effect of Microbial Antagonists on in vitro Growth of Pythium aphanidermatum

    Imran Ali Siddiqui

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one isolates of 38 species of fungi and 24 isolates of 8 species of bacteria were tested in dual culture plates. Penicillium sp., 2 unidentified bacteria and a sterile fungus were found to inhibit the growth of Pythium aphanidermatum producing zones of inhibitions of 7, 11,4 and 6 mm respectively, around the colony of the pathogen. One strain each of Rhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa initially producing zones of inhibition of 15, 20 and 2 mm respectively, but later the pathogen grew and colonies met each other. Similarly, G. , virens initially produced a zone of inhibition of 20 mm but later on the pathogen over grew the zone of inhibition and colonies intermingled. A strain of P. aeruginosa also inhibited the growth of P. aphanidermatum without producing zone of inhibition.

  2. Long-Term Effect of a Pythium Elicitor Treatment on the Growth and Alkaloid Production of Catharanthus roseus Cell Suspensions.

    Nef-Campa, C; Trouslot, M F; Trouslet, P; Chrestin, H

    1994-04-01

    The treatment of a CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS cell suspension culture with a low concentration of PYTHIUM elicitor stimulated the alkaloid production. When these pretreated cells were resuspended in a medium that did not contain the fungal extract, the positive effects of the treatment on alkaloid synthesis and excretion were lost and, moreover, the standard level of production was not recovered. A second treatment of these cells with PYTHIUM elicitor at day 5 of the second culture cycle greatly impaired growth kinetics, but did not stimulate the alkaloid production observed with standard cultures. Repeated treatments with a low concentration of fungal elicitor seemed to have a negative long-term effect on both growth and alkaloid synthesis and did not appear to be a useful process for production purposes. PMID:17236032

  3. Sugarcane Response to Water-Deficit Stress during Early Growth on Organic and Sand Soils

    Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on sand soils in south Florida, USA. Sugarcane yields in the region linearly increased in last 33 years on organic (muck) soils, but not on sand soils. Water deficit during the formative growth phase on sand soils probably limits sugarcane yie...

  4. Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce

    Liliane De Diana Teixeira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3, cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5 e quatro ao grupo T (T1 a T4 de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia.Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3, whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5 and four to group T (T1-T4 of Pythium. The identification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40 to 40.7ºC, respectively. The optimum temperature ranged from 24 to 37ºC for P. helicoides, from 25 to 35ºC for isolate F4 and 21 to 30ºC for the remaining isolates. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the isolates were evaluated by the inoculation of lettuce seeds plated in water-agar, at 21 and 30ºC. At 30ºC, P. helicoides isolates were clearly the most aggressives, determining 100 % seed mortality soon after germination. At 21ºC, all isolates reduced seedling growth, associated or not with root tissue necrosis. This is the first report of P. helicoides in Brazil and the first world reference of this species in hydroponic systems.

  5. Endophytic bacteria affect sugarcane physiology without changing plant growth

    Fernanda Castro Correia Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate if endophytic bacteria inoculants would be beneficial to the sugarcane varieties IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000, promoting changes in photosynthesis and plant growth. The plants, obtained from mini stalks with one bud, were treated with two bacteria mixtures (inoculum I or II or did not receive any inoculum (control plants. The inocula did not affect shoot and root dry matter accumulation as compared to the control condition (plants with native endophytic bacteria. However, photosynthesis and electron transport rate (ETR increased in IACSP94-2094 treated with the inoculum II, whereas the inoculum I enhanced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in IACSP95-5000. The inoculum II caused increase in leaf sucrose concentration of IACSP94-2094 and decrease in IACSP95-5000 leaves. Leaf nitrogen concentration was not affected by treatments, but bacteria inoculation increased nitrate reductase activity in IACSP95-5000, and the highest activity was found in plants treated with the inoculum II. We can conclude that bacteria inoculation changed sugarcane physiology, improving photosynthesis and nitrate reduction in a genotype-dependent manner, without promoting plant growth under non-limiting conditions.

  6. Sugarcane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    In order to increase crop water use efficiency, a field study in northern Ivory Coast on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou. The can crop tested was Co 449, an early-maturing genotype of Indian origin. This experiment was conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop (from November, 1991 to December, 1992) first ratoon crop (from December, 1992 to January, 1994) and as second ratoon crop (from January, 1994 to January, 1995). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of plots 54 m2. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratton crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugarcane growth and yield decline owing to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to that during tillering. As a result, the sugarcane crop tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering (assuming that the crop is successfully established) for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency. (author). 15 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Quantitative relationships of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to Pythium root rot and growth in hydroponic peppers / Relaes quantitativas de Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 com a podrido radicular causada por Pythium e ao crescimento de pimento hidropnico

    Coralie R., Sopher; John C., Sutton.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A supresso da podrido de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum) e a promoo de crescimento de pimento hidropnico por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 foram avaliadas em plantas predispostas ou no ao patgeno. O bioagente foi introduzido na soluo nutritiva 10 dias antes das razes serem inoculadas com o [...] patgeno. A zona radicular foi mantida a 23C, exceto nos trs dias antes da inoculao quando as plantas foram expostas a 33C. Na temperatura de 23C (sem predisposio), P. chlororaphis na concentrao de 10(7) UFC mL-1, aplicada na soluo nutritiva, atrasou o aparecimento dos sintomas da doena. As concentraes de 10(6), 10(7) e 10(8) UFC mL-1 do bioagente foram mais eficientes em controlar a doena nas plantas inoculadas com o patgeno. A densidade do bioagente nas razes, nos dois regimes de temperatura, variou de 5,88 a 6,45 log da UFC g-1 de raiz fresca, do stimo ao 19 dia aps a aplicao de 10(7) UFC mL-1 Nas plantas inoculadas ou no, o bioagente atrasou o aparecimento do escurecimento radicular, remediou a predisposio a doena e incrementou o desenvolvimento das plantas. A expanso foliar foi um indicador adequado para a podrido de raiz e a remediao com P. chlororaphis. Conclui-se que P. chlororaphis 63-28 tem potencial para o manejo da podrido da raiz em sistemas hidropnicos, independentemente da predisposio. Abstract in english The ability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to suppress Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) and promote plant growth was investigated in hydroponic peppers that were predisposed or not predisposed to the disease. The biocontrol agent was introduced into the nutrient solution 10 days before t [...] he roots were inoculated with the pathogen. The root zone was maintained at 23C except when roots were exposed to 33C for three days before inoculation to induce predisposition to root rot. At constant 23C (no predisposition) application of P. chlororaphis at 10(7) CFU mL-1 nutrient solution delayed root browning more effectively than did higher or lower densities. In predisposed plants, densities of 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) CFU mL-1 were equally superior. When applied at 10(7) CFU mL-1, the density of P. chlororaphis on roots of the two temperature regimes ranged from log10 5.88 to 6.45 CFU g-1 fresh roots at seven to 19 days after application. The agent delayed root browning, re-mediated predisposition to root rot, and increased growth of inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Leaf expansion was a sensitive marker of root rot and remediation by P. chlororaphis. We conclude that P. chlororaphis 63-28 has substantial potential for managing the disease regardless of predisposition.

  8. Quantitative relationships of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to Pythium root rot and growth in hydroponic peppers Relaes quantitativas de Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 com a podrido radicular causada por Pythium e ao crescimento de pimento hidropnico

    Coralie R. Sopher

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to suppress Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum and promote plant growth was investigated in hydroponic peppers that were predisposed or not predisposed to the disease. The biocontrol agent was introduced into the nutrient solution 10 days before the roots were inoculated with the pathogen. The root zone was maintained at 23C except when roots were exposed to 33C for three days before inoculation to induce predisposition to root rot. At constant 23C (no predisposition application of P. chlororaphis at 10(7 CFU mL-1 nutrient solution delayed root browning more effectively than did higher or lower densities. In predisposed plants, densities of 10(6, 10(7 and 10(8 CFU mL-1 were equally superior. When applied at 10(7 CFU mL-1, the density of P. chlororaphis on roots of the two temperature regimes ranged from log10 5.88 to 6.45 CFU g-1 fresh roots at seven to 19 days after application. The agent delayed root browning, re-mediated predisposition to root rot, and increased growth of inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Leaf expansion was a sensitive marker of root rot and remediation by P. chlororaphis. We conclude that P. chlororaphis 63-28 has substantial potential for managing the disease regardless of predisposition.A supresso da podrido de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoo de crescimento de pimento hidropnico por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 foram avaliadas em plantas predispostas ou no ao patgeno. O bioagente foi introduzido na soluo nutritiva 10 dias antes das razes serem inoculadas com o patgeno. A zona radicular foi mantida a 23C, exceto nos trs dias antes da inoculao quando as plantas foram expostas a 33C. Na temperatura de 23C (sem predisposio, P. chlororaphis na concentrao de 10(7 UFC mL-1, aplicada na soluo nutritiva, atrasou o aparecimento dos sintomas da doena. As concentraes de 10(6, 10(7 e 10(8 UFC mL-1 do bioagente foram mais eficientes em controlar a doena nas plantas inoculadas com o patgeno. A densidade do bioagente nas razes, nos dois regimes de temperatura, variou de 5,88 a 6,45 log da UFC g-1 de raiz fresca, do stimo ao 19 dia aps a aplicao de 10(7 UFC mL-1 Nas plantas inoculadas ou no, o bioagente atrasou o aparecimento do escurecimento radicular, remediou a predisposio a doena e incrementou o desenvolvimento das plantas. A expanso foliar foi um indicador adequado para a podrido de raiz e a remediao com P. chlororaphis. Conclui-se que P. chlororaphis 63-28 tem potencial para o manejo da podrido da raiz em sistemas hidropnicos, independentemente da predisposio.

  9. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime; Ravnskov, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    after AM fungi inoculation, roots were challenged with P. aphanidermatum. Variables evaluated at each harvest were root colonization levels of the interacting fungi, plant growth responses, and expression of a plant pathogenesis related protein gene (PR-1). All of the tested AM fungi caused marked......Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reducing...... growth suppressions, but did not affect PR-1 gene expression or the phosphorous concentration in the host plant. Plants singly inoculated with P. aphanidermatum had an increased PR-1 expression and phosphorous concentration. Among the AM fungi included in the study only G. intraradices reduced the...

  10. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BENOMYL E PCNB SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO RADIAL DE Fusarium solani E Pythium sp., IN VITRO EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BENOMYL AND PCNB ON THE RADIAL GROWTH OF Fusarium solani AND Pythium sp. IN VITRO

    Luciana Peliz Machado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os experimentos foram realizado nas dependências do Laboratório de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no ano de 1997. Os fungos Fusarium e Pythium sp. foram cultivados em meio de cultura artificial contendo benomyl e PCNB nas concentrações de 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. Os crescimentos radiais dos fungos demonstraram que o benomyl foi eficiente contra o Fusarium, mas não surtiu efeito contra o Pythium, fato este também observado em relação ao PCNB. Este produto, embora menos eficiente, reduziu em mais de 50% o crescimento radial de Fusarium, obtendo uma redução progressiva com o aumento da concentração.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; quintozene.

    The experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Escola de Agronomia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás, in the year of 1997. The fungi Fusarium moniliforme and Pythium sp. were treated in cultural medium with benomyl and PCNB in the concentrations of 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. The radial growth of the fungi demonstrated that benomyl was efficient against Fusarium, but not against Pythium sp. The same was also observed with PCNB. Although less efficient than benomyl, this product reduced radial growth of Fusarium in more than 50%. The increase of PCNB concentration reduced Fusarium growth progressively.

    KEY-WORDS: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; PCNB.

  11. Induction of catharanthine synthesis and stimulation of major indole alkaloids production by Catharanthus roseus cells under non-growth-altering treatment with Pythium vexans extracts.

    Nef, C; Rio, B; Chrestin, H

    1991-05-01

    A Catharanthus roseus cell line was selected that synthesised catharanthine exclusively under elicitation.From the first day of culture, treatment with very low concentrations of a Pythium extract did not alter the growth of the suspension but, within 24 hours, induced the synthesis of catharanthine and stimulated the production of ajmalicine. Kinetic analysis showed that serpentine then began to accumulate and that all of these effects lasted more than 7 days. Elicitation also induced changes in the cell/medium distribution of the alkaloids. Higher, although non-lethal, concentrations of the fungal elicitor were shown to impair alkaloid production. This cell line will serve as a model to study the conditions for the expression of catharanthine synthesis at the molecular level. PMID:24226159

  12. In vitro incorporation of 1-14C-acetate and 32P-orthophosphoric acid into phospholipids at various stages of growth of Pythium irregulare

    Pythium irregulare showed an increase (11.6 to 38.9%) in total lipids and a simultaneous decrease (40.5 to 7.3%) in phospholipid content of total lipids during growth period of 15 days. Incubation of fungus of different ages viz. 2,3,4,5,7,9,11,13 and 15 days old with 32P-orthophosphoric acid for 4 hr showed that the specific activity of mycelium was maximum with the 5-days old fungus. Highest content of total and polar lipids was, however observed with the 3 days old sample. Incubation studies with sodium acetate 1-14C with fungus of various stages of growth showed maxima of specific activity in mycelium, total, polar and non-polar lipids on the 5th day. From specific activity estimation of 32P and 14C in each of the phosphatides, it was concluded that the labels were incorporated at a higher rate into phosphatidyl enthanolamine during early stages of growth. The reverse was true for the later period of growth, indicating that phosphatidyl ethanolamine was possibly converted to phosphatidyl choline. (auth.)

  13. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

  14. Feasibility of growth and nutrition of Dieffenbachia amoena \\\\\\'Tropic Snow\\\\\\' in pot growth-medium amended with sugarcane bagasse vermicompost

    A. Mahboub Khomami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, introduction of conversion technologies to solve environmental problems in accumulation of sugarcane bagasse, as an alternative to peat, in the ornamental plants industry seems necessary. For this purpose, in an experiment, the effects of substitution of sugarcane bagasse + cow manure vermicompost with peat in 60% peat + 30% vermiculite + 10% perlite medium were examined on growth and nutrition of Dieffenbachia amoena ornamental plant. After production of the vermicompost, rooted cuttings of the plants were cultivated in the control medium (containing 60% peat + 30% vermiculite + 10% perlite and the media in which 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% of vermicompost was replaced with peat in control medium. Factors such as plant height, diameter, fresh and dry weights of shoots and leaves, fresh and dry weights of roots, leaf area, and nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in plants and substrates were measured. Physical properties of the substrates including aerial porosity, water holding capacity, total porosity and bulk density were measured too. Results showed that increasing the level of vermicompost + sugarcane bagasse had a significant effect on nitrogen and potassium content of leaves, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of the substrates. The highest amounts of these elements were measured at 60% vermicompost + bagasse treatment. The substrate containing 60% vermicompost + sugarcane bagasse had maximum plant height (15.91 cm, diameter (9.53 mm, fresh weight of stem and leaf (158.91 g, dry weight of stem and leaf (33.99 g, dry weight of root (25.87 g and leaf area (2680.5 cm². Based on the results, vermicomposting of sugarcane bagasse is in accordance with the environment, and can be used in the growing media for production of flowers and plants.

  15. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-01-01

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops. PMID:26634494

  16. Root growth and distribution in sugarcane cultivars fertigated by a subsurface drip system

    Augusto Yukitaka Pessinatti, Ohashi; Regina Clia de Matos, Pires; Rafael Vasconcelos, Ribeiro; Andr Luiz Barros de Oliveira, Silva.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the agronomic importance for water management, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed under field conditions during the crop cycle. The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative root density (LA), root distribution on soil profile and the effective rooting depth (ERD) [...] for three sugarcane cultivars using the minirhizotron method. A field experiment was done with sugarcane cultivars IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 grown under subsurface drip fertigation. Soil chemical and physical characteristics were also evaluated. Root evaluations were taken at 38, 58, 123, 185 and 205 days during the second ratoon, considering the soil profile until 0.8 m depth. The highest LA and root growth rates were found up to 0.4 m soil layer for all cultivars. Root growth rate varied during the crop cycle, with the highest values being found between 38 and 58 days after ratoon (DAR). There was a genotypic variation in root growth, with IACSP94-2101 showing the highest LA of 12.9 mm cm2. The total root length observed around the tube (0.16892 m2) was 10.8, 5.9 and 2.5 m up to 0.8 m depth for IACSP94-2101, SP79-1011 and IACSP94-2094, respectively at 205 DAR. The effective rooting depth varied during the cycle for IACSP94-2094, but all cultivars presented an effective depth of 0.4 m at 205 DAR.

  17. Root growth and distribution in sugarcane cultivars fertigated by a subsurface drip system

    Augusto Yukitaka Pessinatti, Ohashi; Regina Clia de Matos, Pires; Rafael Vasconcelos, Ribeiro; Andr Luiz Barros de Oliveira, Silva.

    Full Text Available Despite of the agronomic importance for water management, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed under field conditions during the crop cycle. The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative root density (LA), root distribution on soil profile and the effective rooting depth (ERD) [...] for three sugarcane cultivars using the minirhizotron method. A field experiment was done with sugarcane cultivars IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 grown under subsurface drip fertigation. Soil chemical and physical characteristics were also evaluated. Root evaluations were taken at 38, 58, 123, 185 and 205 days during the second ratoon, considering the soil profile until 0.8 m depth. The highest LA and root growth rates were found up to 0.4 m soil layer for all cultivars. Root growth rate varied during the crop cycle, with the highest values being found between 38 and 58 days after ratoon (DAR). There was a genotypic variation in root growth, with IACSP94-2101 showing the highest LA of 12.9 mm cm2. The total root length observed around the tube (0.16892 m2) was 10.8, 5.9 and 2.5 m up to 0.8 m depth for IACSP94-2101, SP79-1011 and IACSP94-2094, respectively at 205 DAR. The effective rooting depth varied during the cycle for IACSP94-2094, but all cultivars presented an effective depth of 0.4 m at 205 DAR.

  18. Expected growth of sugarcane industry and impact on the Brazilian economy: 2015 and 2020

    Costa, Cinthia Cabral da; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane sector in Brazil has been achieving large increases in production since the beginning of the 2000s, owing to the deregulation of its two main products: sugar and ethanol. This growth has been driven more by the ethanol production, which grew at a rate of 13% per annum (between 2000 and 2009), than by sugar, which grew at an annual rate of 8% over the same period. Nevertheless, instability in the supply of ethanol is still a problem in the industry. Structural changes, such as th...

  19. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    John Clifford Sutton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances, the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and phenolic substances in the nutrient solution, microbial communities and temperature and human interferences (cropping practices and control measures are reviewed. Recent findings on predisposition of roots to Pythium attack by environmental stress factors are highlighted. The commonly minor impact on epidemics of measures to disinfest nutrient solution as it recirculates outside the crop is contrasted with the impact of treatments that suppress Pythium in the roots and root zone of the crop. New discoveries that infection of roots by P. aphanidermatum markedly slows the increase in leaf area and whole-plant carbon gain without significant effect on the efficiency of photosynthesis per unit area of leaf are noted. The platform of knowledge and understanding of the etiology and epidemiology of root rot, and its effects on the physiology of the whole plant, are discussed in relation to new research directions and development of better practices to manage the disease in hydroponic crops. Focus is on methods and technologies for tracking Pythium and root rot, and on developing, integrating, and optimizing treatments to suppress the pathogen in the root zone and progress of root rot.A etiologia e a epidemiologia da podrido radicular causada por Pythium spp. em cultivo hidropnico so revisadas com nfase em conhecimentos e conceitos considerados importantes para o manejo de doenas em estufas comerciais. A podrido radicular causada por Pythium continuamente ameaa a produtividade de diversas culturas em sistemas hidropnicos, incluindo pepino, tomate, pimento, espinafre, alface, capuchinha, rcula, rosa, e crisntemo. Os principais agentes causais incluem Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, espcies de Pythium do grupo F e Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. So apresentadas e discutidas as principais fontes do inculo primrio de Pythium spp. em sistemas hidropnicos, os processos de infeco e colonizao de razes pelos patgenos, o desenvolvimento de sintomas, a produo de inculo em razes, e a disperso do inculo na soluo nutritiva. Descobertas recentes da existncia de um elicitor produzido especificamente por P. aphanidermatum que pode provocar a necrose (descolorao das razes infectadas e a transio da infeco da fase biotrofica para necrotrofica so consideradas. Efeitos de fatores ligados ao hospedeiro (susceptibilidade doena, estdio fenolgico, exsudatos radiculares, compostos fenlicos, ao ambiente radicular (meio de enraizamento, concentraes de oxignio dissolvido e compostos fenlicos na soluo nutritiva, comunidades microbianas e temperatura e as interferncias humanas (prticas de cultivo e medidas de controle sobre as epidemias de podrido radicular causados por Pythium spp. so revistos. Resultados recentes

  20. Weed-crop competition effects on growth and yield of sugarcane planted using two methods

    Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check (full season weed-crop competition) were randomized in sub-plots. Sugarcane sown by trench method exhibited more leaf area index (LAI), average crop growth rate (ACGR) and yield contributing attributes. Trench sowing by yielding 72.22 and 75.08 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields, significantly showed superiority over the flat sowing, which gave 64.13 and 66.04 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields in 2005-06 and 2006- 07, respectively. Generally, there was an increase in weed population and biomass but decrease in leaf area index, crop growth rate and yield components with an increase in weed-crop competition period. A decrease of 10.06, 17.90, 22.42, 28.65, 37.64 and 56.89% in stripped cane yield was observed for weed-crop competition periods of 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 DAS and weedy check as compared with zero competition in 2005-06, respectively. In 2006-07, the respective decrease in stripped cane yield was 9.84, 18.76, 22.92, 27.98, 38.75, and 54.98%. Trench sowing at 1.2 m row spacing proved better sowing technique and 45 DAS was the critical period of weed-crop competition. (author)

  1. SUBSTITUTION OF AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER ON UPLAND SUGARCANE CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH, NUTRIENT CONTENT AND SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Nurhidayati; Abdul Basit; Sunawan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the effect of substitution of Ammonium Sulphate (AS) fertilizer on sugarcane growth, nutrient content, and soil chemical properties. This research was conducted on up-land of sugarcane plantation in Tegalweru village, Dau district, Malang regency. This study tested ten treatments consisting of three treatments using AS fertilizer, six treatments using AS substitute fertilizers that used combination of Urea, Gypsum, and bio-compost and one control (no fe...

  2. Efficacy of bio-K fertilizer on the growth and sugar content of sugarcane plants

    Bio-K- fertilizer has been used as a source of potassium to enhance the concentration of sugar in sugarcane and prevent loss of resources and environmental damage. Potassium sul phate and murate of Potash are K fertilizers. The field experiments were done during 2009-2010 to see the increase of sugar contents in sugarcane by using K- fertilizer. The use of bio-K-fertilizer has been found effective which resulted better yield in terms of both quantity and quality of sugarcane and found an increase in concentration of sucrose in sugarcane up to 28% calculated as 3-7% sugar content increase as a whole. The increase in crop production as whole was recorded as 74% due to Bio-K-fertilizer as compared to control plots. No chemical fertilizer was used during this experiment. (author)

  3. Pythium kandovanense sp. nov., a fungus-like eukaryotic micro-organism (Stramenopila, Pythiales) isolated from snow-covered ryegrass leaves.

    Chenari Bouket, Ali; Arzanlou, Mahdi; Tojo, Motoaki; Babai-Ahari, Asadollah

    2015-08-01

    Pythiumkandovanense sp. nov. (ex-type culture CCTU 1813T = OPU 1626T = CBS 139567T) is a novel oomycete species isolated from Lolium perenne with snow rot symptoms in a natural grassland in East-Azarbaijan province, Iran. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-rDNA, coxI and coxII mitochondrial genes clustered our isolates in Pythium group E as a unique, well supported clade. Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. is phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the other closely related species in this clade, namely Pythium rostratifingens and Pythium rostratum. Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. can be distinguished from these two species by its cylindrical sporangia and lower temperatures for optimum and maximum growth rate. The development of zoospores released through a shorter discharge tube is an additional morphological feature which can be used to differentiate Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. from Pythium rostratifingens. Laboratory inoculation tests demonstrated the pathogenicity of Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. to L. perenne under wet cold (0-3 °C) conditions. PMID:25933619

  4. Plant Growth-Promoting Nitrogen-Fixing Enterobacteria Are in Association with Sugarcane Plants Growing in Guangxi, China

    Lin, Li; Li, Zhengyi; Hu, Chunjin; Zhang, Xincheng; Chang, Siping; Yang, Litao; LI, Yangrui; An, Qianli

    2012-01-01

    The current nitrogen fertilization for sugarcane production in Guangxi, the major sugarcane-producing area in China, is very high. We aim to reduce nitrogen fertilization and improve sugarcane production in Guangxi with the help of indigenous sugarcane-associated nitrogen-fixing bacteria. We initially obtained 196 fast-growing bacterial isolates associated with the main sugarcane cultivar ROC22 plants in fields using a nitrogen-deficient minimal medium and screened out 43 nitrogen-fixing isol...

  5. Effects of piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from the venom of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, on Pythium ultimum Trow growth in vitro and the application of piperideine alkaloids to control cucumber..

    Pythium ultimum Trow is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical seed treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, the venom alkaloids from red imported fire ant were tested against P. ultimum in vitro and to ...

  6. Two-year growth cycle sugarcane crop parameter attributes and their application in modeling

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production in Hawaii has declined since the 1970s due to a number of factors that include low prices, high labor costs, competition from artificial sweeteners and low-cost production from such countries as Mexico, Brazil, India, and China. Recently, competition ...

  7. Effect of iron, manganese, zinc and their combinations on growth and yield of sugarcane at Kenana sugar scheme

    Two field experiments were conducted at two different sites for one season (1992/93) in order to study the effects of iron, manganese, zinc and their combinations on growth and yield of sugarcane at kenana sugar scheme. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block with four replications. Sulfates of iron, manganese and zinc were used as foliar fertilizers at concentrations of 200 ppm for iron and zinc and 100 ppm for manganese. Half of the fertilizer dose was applied when the crop was four months old, and the other half was applied when the crop was six months old, and the control was sprayed with distilled water only. All the treatments received 415 kg/ha urea fertilizer (46% nitrogen) as nitrogen source and 108 kg/ha triple superphosphate(48% P2 O5) as a source of phosphorus. Data were recorded on the growth and yield of sugarcane crop. The results showed that the lowest stalk height was obtained with treatments receiving iron fertilizer. The highest stalk diameter value was obtained in plants sprayed with zinc. The application of manganese or zinc and their combinations resulted in higher values of cane yield than the control. (Author)

  8. Effect of Soil Acidity on Diseases Caused by Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum on Tomato Plants

    Khalaf M. Alhussaen

    2012-01-01

    Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum are important pathogens in agriculture crops and cause serious diseases that resulted in reducing the yield of many crops. The effect of soil acidity on the occurrence and severity of diseases caused by Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum were examined. Pathogens were grew at pH levels of 2-10 in vitro. Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum isolates have an optimum growth pH level of 6 and 7 and grew well at pH level of 5 and slightly at pH lev...

  9. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; de Santana, Eliane Silva; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Buckeridge, Marcos; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Background Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G) bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses), must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant. Results Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and ?-glucan (that compose the most external part of the cell wall in sugarcane) are likely the first to be released and assimilated by both species of fungi. At all time points tested, A. niger produced more enzymes (quantitatively and qualitatively) than T. reesei. However, the most important enzymes related to biomass degradation, including cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases, ?-glucosidases, ?-xylosidases, endoxylanases, xyloglucanases, and ?-arabinofuranosidases, were identified in both secretomes. We also noticed that the both fungi produce more enzymes when grown in culm as a single carbon source. Conclusion Our work provides a detailed qualitative and semi-quantitative secretome analysis of A. niger and T. reesei grown on sugarcane biomass. Our data indicate that a combination of enzymes from both fungi is an interesting option to increase saccharification efficiency. In other words, these two fungal species might be combined for their usage in industrial processes. PMID:26053961

  10. Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-776 (drought susceptible and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant. Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit. At 0,30 and 60 days after the treatment, gas exchange variables were evaluated for their relationship with water use, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. The SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential and relative water content in the leaves were also analyzed. The genotype HoCP93-776 was more sensitive to drought treatment as indicated by the significantly lower values of SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential (Ψw and relative water content (RWC variables. The genotype TCP02-4587 had higher water potential, stomatal control efficiency, water use efficiency (WUE, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEintr, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. The highest air vapor pressure deficit during the drought conditions could be due to the stomatal closing in the HoCP93-776, which contributed to its lower photosynthetic capacity.

  11. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Genotypes Based on the Ability to Regulate Ion Uptake and Transport at Early Stage of Growth

    A. Arzani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available   Sugarcane is one of the most important sugar crops in the world. Because of semi-arid climate and salinity of its cultivation area in our country, increasing salt tolerance of sugarcane is signifying. To achieve this goal determining salt tolerant cultivars and understanding salinity mechanisms in sugarcane are very important. This study was conducted to evaluate 8 commercial and promising sugarcane cultivars at early stage of growth. A complete randomized design with three replicates and four salinity treatments (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 % NaCl was used in a hydroponics system. The effect of salinity on absorption, transport and accumulation of Na+, Cl- , K+ and Ca2+ ions in shoot and root was determined. At high level salt concentration, Cl- content in shoot and root increased. Result showed that sodium accumulation in sugarcane plants was more than potassium. By increasing salinity level, sodium uptake and its translocation to shoots increased reducing growth and dry matter yield of plants. With rising salt concentration from medium (0.5% to high (0.75%, content of chloride in shoot and root of NCO-310 was constant showed that this cultivar had genetic ability to avoid Cl- uptake. CP82-1592 with lowest ratio of shoot / root chloride had minimum transport of Cl- to shoots. Also this cultivar had high content of Ca2+ in shoot and low Na+/Ca2+ ratio at all salinity levels. CP48-103 had low sodium in shoot and relatively low sodium in root. Thus it probably has genetic potential to avoid sodium uptake. At last, exclusion of Na+ and Cl- to older leaves and tillers was seen in CP82-1592 and CP72-2086 cultivars. According to results, to avoid once of absorption and transport, and exclusion of harmful Na+ and Cl- ions were mechanisms that could be used in salinity tolerance of sugarcane.

  12. Growth of sugarcane under high input conditions in tropical Australia. 1. Radiation use, biomass accumulation and partitioning

    There is little detailed information on yield accumulation in sugarcane under high-input conditions, which can be used to quantify the key physiological parameters contributing to yield variation. Sugarcane is grown under plant and ratoon crop conditions. This study analysed canopy development, radiation interception and biomass accumulation of two contrasting cultivars of sugarcane under irrigation during the same season under plant and ratoon crop conditions. Over the 15 month season, 11 crop samplings were conducted. Biomass partitioning to stalk was also measured to determine to what extent differences in partitioning between cultivars under ratoon and plant crop conditions contribute to differential productivity. The key findings were: (1) The ratoon crop accumulated biomass more quickly than the plant crop during the first 100 days of growth due to higher stalk number, faster canopy development and greater radiation interception. For similar reasons, cultivar Q138 had higher early biomass production than cultivar Q117 in the plant crop, (2) Early differences in biomass accumulation due to crop class became negligible at about 220 days because maximum RUE of the plant crop (1.72 +/- 0.01 g MJ-1) was 8% higher than in the first ratoon crop (1.59 +/- 0.08 g MJ-1). The higher maximum RUE in the plant crop was consistent with a higher crop growth rate (35.1 +/- 2.3 versus 31.0 +/- 3.4 g m-2 d-1) during the Linear phase of biomass accumulation. (3) Biomass accumulation, which ceased about 300 days after planting/ratooning and 140 days before final harvest, attained similar levels of 53-58 t ha-1 in all four crops. (4) The plateau in biomass was associated with loss of live millable stalks, and not a cessation in the growth rate of individual stalks. The crops continued to intercept radiation while on the biomass plateau, so that average RUEs at final harvest were much lower than the maximum values. (5) There was no effect of crop class or cultivar on the fraction of biomass in the leaf and millable stalk components. This study emphasizes that maximising early radiation interception and biomass accumulation will not necessarily lead to higher yield in an environment where biomass production reaches a plateau well before final harvest. Loss of live millable stalks late in the crop cycle results in poor utilisation of intercepted radiation

  13. Pythium aphanidermatum Infection following Combat Trauma?

    Calvano, Tatjana P.; Blatz, Peter J.; Vento, Todd J; Wickes, Brian L; Deanna A. Sutton; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; White, Christopher E.; Renz, Evan M.; Hospenthal, Duane R

    2011-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is a fungus-like plant pathogen which has never been reported as a cause of human infection. We report a case of P. aphanidermatum invasive wound infection in a 21-year-old male injured during combat operations in Afghanistan.

  14. The distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andr Luiz; Clia de Matos Pires, Regina; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to reach high yield and to increase longevity of plants. The SDI allows improving the water use efficiency, due to the application of water and nutrients in the root zone plants. It is necessary knowledge of soil and plant parameters, such as root system to improve irrigation system use efficiency. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system. The mentioned equipment enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars root system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars. The irrigation was performed by subsurface drip system and the soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. Three access tubes with 1.05 m-length were used for each cultivar. The images were caught with Root Scanner CI-600 in two dates, 38 and 58 days after harvest (DAH) of cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon) in five depths and were analyzed by the software RootSnap! . The results show that, except for cultivar IACSP94-2094, more than 80% of root length was found in the first 0.40 m of soil profile. Until 38 DAH the root growth of cultivar IACSP94-2101 were approximately fourfold higher than other three ones in the 0 to 0.20 m layer, sevenfold higher to 0.20 to 0.40 m layer and threefold to 0.40 to 0.60 m soil profile layer. However, between 38 and 58 DAH the cultivar SP79-1011 presented higher growth taxes, being almost twofold higher than IACSP94-2101 at 0 to 0.20 m soil profile layer, although its growth rate for the other soil profile layers were between 38 and 57% of IACSP94-2101 rate. Compared to IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011, the other two cultivars presented fivefold and sixfold lower growth rates in root length between 38 and 58 DAH in the first two layers, respectively. The higher root length in minirhizotron surface was with 0.64 cm cm-2, found in the 20-40 cm layer of IACSP94-2101, while the overall average was 0.15 cm cm-2. The percentage of root length in deeper layers increased between the first and second analyses.

  15. Combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and Zinc(II ions on the growth and bioaccumulation properties of yeast isolates.

    Geetanjali Basak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of zinc(II ions by yeast isolates viz. Candida rugosa and Cryptococcus laurentii was investigated in different growth media. Both the isolates showed maximum bioaccumulation of zinc(II in the medium prepared from sugarcane bagasse extract. The growth and zinc(II bioaccumulation properties of yeasts in sugar cane bagasse extract were tested as a function of pH, temperature and initial metal concentrations. The combined effects of sugar extracted from bagasse and initial zinc(II ion concentrations on specific growth rate and bioaccumulation efficiencies of yeasts were investigated. At a constant zinc(II concentration, the growthand zinc(II bioaccumulation increased with increasing concentrations of sugar up to 24 g/L. The inhibition effect of zinc(II ions on the specific growth rate of yeasts was studied by non competitive and uncompetitive inhibition models at various concentrations of zinc(II ranging from 0-50 mg/L at constant sugar concentrations (8- 24 g/L. Bioaccumulation of zinc(II by the yeast isolates followed first-order-reaction kinetics.

  16. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann Carvalho; Hélia Harumi Sato

    2011-01-01

    Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and co...

  17. Carbohydrate-active enzymes in pythium and their role in plant cell wall and storage polysaccharide degradation.

    Zerillo, Marcelo M; Adhikari, Bishwo N; Hamilton, John P; Buell, C Robin; Lvesque, C Andr; Tisserat, Ned

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are involved in the metabolism of glycoconjugates, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides and, in the case of plant pathogens, in the degradation of the host cell wall and storage compounds. We performed an in silico analysis of CAZymes predicted from the genomes of seven Pythium species (Py. aphanidermatum, Py. arrhenomanes, Py. irregulare, Py. iwayamai, Py. ultimum var. ultimum, Py. ultimum var. sporangiiferum and Py. vexans) using the "CAZymes Analysis Toolkit" and "Database for Automated Carbohydrate-active Enzyme Annotation" and compared them to previously published oomycete genomes. Growth of Pythium spp. was assessed in a minimal medium containing selected carbon sources that are usually present in plants. The in silico analyses, coupled with our in vitro growth assays, suggest that most of the predicted CAZymes are involved in the metabolism of the oomycete cell wall with starch and sucrose serving as the main carbohydrate sources for growth of these plant pathogens. The genomes of Pythium spp. also encode pectinases and cellulases that facilitate degradation of the plant cell wall and are important in hyphal penetration; however, the species examined in this study lack the requisite genes for the complete saccharification of these carbohydrates for use as a carbon source. Genes encoding for xylan, xyloglucan, (galacto)(gluco)mannan and cutin degradation were absent or infrequent in Pythium spp.. Comparative analyses of predicted CAZymes in oomycetes indicated distinct evolutionary histories. Furthermore, CAZyme gene families among Pythium spp. were not uniformly distributed in the genomes, suggesting independent gene loss events, reflective of the polyphyletic relationships among some of the species. PMID:24069150

  18. Soil change induced by the application of biodigested vinasse concentrate, and its effects on growth of sugarcane

    Juliana Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse (or stillage is a byproduct from ethanol production, which contains organic matter, K, N, and other plant nutrients that is regularly used as soil fertilizer. However, high transportation costs limits its application in areas far from distilleries. The possibility of biogas production from vinasse, and the direct or indirect advantages of its use, is a way to reduce costs due to its concentration. Biodigested vinasse concentrate (BVC is an alkaline product that is very different from common vinasse. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of BVC with common vinasse (CV or KCl, with or without N fertilization, on soil fertility and growth and nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. plants. Plants were grown in pots containing Oxisol under different treatments and maintained for 60 d under greenhouse conditions; variables related to soil fertility, plant growth, and mineral nutrition were evaluated. It was observed that adding BVC induces higher soil pH (5.9 to 6.3 and lower potential acidity (13 to 10 mmol c dm-3 compared with KCl, and similar soil chemical changes to CV addition. Plants fertilized with BVC and N showed lower root dry matter (DM (4.02 g compared with those fertilized with KCl and CV (6.3 and 5.44 g, respectively. Plants fertilized with BVC have similar total DM (18.25 and 20.31 g accumulation and nutritional conditions compared with those fertilized with CV and KCl. Plants fertilized with BVC had the highest Na accumulation (0.36 and 0.48 g plant-1.

  19. Increasing P-Availability and P-Uptake Using Sugarcane Filter Cake and Rice Husk Ash to Improve Chinesse Cabbage (Brassica Sp) Growth in Andisol, East Java

    S R Utami; S. Kurniawan; B. Situmorang; N. D. Rositasari

    2012-01-01

    The production potential in Andisols is limited by the high P-retention capacity. Farmers commonly use organic matter. Sugarcane filter cake (blothong, Indonesian, SFC) and rice husk ash (RHA) are locally available in Coban Rondo, Malang, East Java and hence potentially used for soil amendment. To study the effects of SFC and RHA on P availability, P uptake and plant growth (Brassica sp.), soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth, incubated with SFC (21.37 Mg.ha-1) and RHA (44.64 Mg.ha-1). ...

  20. Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma

    Katya da Silva Patekoski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

  1. Antifungal properties of native Trichoderma isolates against Sclerotium rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco.

    Rao, K L N Mallikharjuna; Raju, K Siva; Ravisankar, H

    2015-11-01

    Isolates of Trichoderma native to tobacco rhizosphere, were evaluated for their antifungal properties against Sclerotium rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum, fungal pathogens causing collar rot and damping off diseases in tobacco. Isolate TvJt1 showed maximum HCN production (0.14 OD) followed by ThHt1 and minimum by isolates ThJnt and ThRt1 (0.08 and 0.09 OD). Indole acetic acid (IAA) production among the isolates varied from 6.48 to 14.82 pg ml(-1). Isolate ThJO1 produced maximum siderophore (13.48 m mol ml(-1), whereas isolate TvJt1 produced minimum content (6.24 m mol ml(-1)). Isolate ThJt1 showed maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity (62.12 p kat m;(-1)) as compared to other isolates, followed by isolate TvHt2. Isolate TvHt2 showed maximum and significantly higher ?-1, 3-glucanase activity (9.94 n kat ml(-1)) when compared to all other isolates. Isolate ThJt1 showed second highest activity of ?-1, 3-glucanase (6.75 n kat/ml). In dual culture, inhibition of mycelial growth of Pythium by isolate TvHt2 was maximum (72.45%) followed by ThJt1 whereas inhibition of mycelial growth of S. rolfsii by these two isolates was at a par (78.36% and 76.17%) and significantly higher than some isolates. Isolates TvHt2 and ThJt1 showed maximum and significantly higher inhibition of Pythium and Sclerotium growth (80.24% and 76%) by production of non-volatiles. Inhibition of Pythium and Sclerotium growth by production of volatile compounds by Trichoderma isolates ranged from 54.36 to 72.6% and 66.24 to 84.24% respectively. Hence, further investigation with potential isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 in tobacco nursery may help to explore these bioagents for control of collar rot and damping off diseases in tobacco. PMID:26688972

  2. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane production, and reduced greenhouse gas emission. Overall, the conversion of sugarcane harvest residue to biochar as soil amendment improves sugarcane production for both agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane residue biochar also showed the potential of other environmental use for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  3. Biological nitrogen fixation is not a major contributor to the nitrogen demand of a commercially growth South African sugarcane cultivar

    Hoefsloot, G.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Watt, D.A.; Cramer, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    It has previously been reported that endophytic diazotrophic bacteria contribute significantly to the nitrogen budgets of some graminaceous species. In this study the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to the N-budget of a South African sugarcane cultivar was evaluated using 15N natural abundance, acetylene reduction and 15N incorporation. Plants were also screened for the presence of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria using acetylene reduction and nifH-gene targeted PCR with the pure...

  4. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive) and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  5. Reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar Growth regulators in the development and productivity of sugarcane

    Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar, resultantes da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no iníco da safra. Ostratamentos consistiram na aplicação de três reguladores vegetais inibidores de crescimento - sulfometuron metil, glifosato e compostos de radicais carboxílicos orgânicos + glifosato - e na maturação natural como testemunha, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Os maturadores retardam o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas, sem afetar o número e o diâmetro de colmos na colheita, e influenciam de forma e intensidade distintas a ocorrência do florescimento e chochamento. O glifosato proporciona elevados índices de brotação lateral e prejudica a rebrota da soqueira. Os maturadores induzem o aumento do teor de açúcares redutores totais, o que contribui para a melhoria da qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar.The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane, due to plant regulators application at the cropping season beginning. The treatments consisted of three plant growth inhibitors - sulfometuron methyl, glyphosate, and compounds of organic carboxilic radicals + glyphosate - and natural ripening as control, in a randomized block design with five replicates. The ripeners hold up the growth process of plant height, without affecting the number and diameter of stems at harvest, however they influence, in different intensities and ways, the flowering and pith process. Glyphosate provide the largest index of bud sprouting and damage of regrowth of the ratoon cane. The ripeners induce increase in sugar reducer total contents, contributing for the improvement in technological quality of sugarcane.

  6. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans in sugarcane plantations

    Paulo H.D. Cançado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology and ecology of the stable fly, including larval habitats and their reproduction sites is extremely important for further development of control programs. This paper aims to report the occurrence and development of S. calcitrans larvae inside sugarcane stems in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane stems give protection against bad weather conditions and insecticide application. In this way, for sustainable sugarcane growth specific research concerning this situation should be conducted.

  7. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  8. Cotton Seedling Preemergence Damping-Off Incited by Rhizopus oryzae and Pythium spp. and Its Biological Control with Trichoderma spp.

    Howell, C R

    2002-02-01

    ABSTRACT Planting the cotton cv. Sure-Grow 747 in cotton seedling disease plots during the 2001 growing season resulted in high levels of preemergence damping-off among the seedlings. Four cotton pathogens, Pythium aphanidermatum, P. ultimum, an unidentified Pythium sp., and Rhizopus oryzae, were isolated from diseased seed embryos and seedlings. Disease incited by the Pythium spp. could be controlled by seed treatment with Metalaxyl, but disease incited by R. oryzae could not. Seed treatment with Metalaxyl in naturally infested field soil was only partially effective; therefore, symptoms in 47% of the diseased seedlings could be attributed to R. oryzae. Susceptibility to disease appeared to be related to release in the spermosphere, by the germinating seeds, of compounds that stimulate pathogen propagule germination, because exudates from seed of the suscept Sure-Grow 747 and extracts from wheat bran induced pathogen germination and growth, whereas exudates from resistant cv. Stoneville 213 did not. However, even Stoneville 213 became susceptible when infested soil was amended with wheat bran. Seed treatment with preparations of Trichoderma virens parent, mutant, and hybrid strains gave effective biological control of preemergence damping-off. Disease control was attributable to metabolism by the biocontrol agent of pathogen germination stimulants released by the seed, because amendment of pathogen-infested soil with the propagule germination stimulants in wheat bran negated the protective effect of the seed treatment. PMID:18943091

  9. Crescimento e fotossntese de cana-de-acar em funo de variveis biomtricas e meteorolgicas / Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables

    Ricardo A., Ferreira Junior; Jos L. de, Souza; Gustavo B., Lyra; Ido, Teodoro; Marcos A. dos, Santos; Anthony C. S., Porfirio.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-acar pode ser obtido por modelos biofsicos em que a fotossntese bruta (FB) obtida em funo da radiao solar. O objetivo do trabalho avaliar variedades de canas-de-acar em regime irrigado em relao radiao fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT) e a es [...] timativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biomtricas, variveis de produo e dos elementos meteorolgicos. A irradincia fotossinttica (RFA) interceptada foi obtida pela diferena entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT). A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diria usou-se uma integrao numrica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variveis de produo tiveram correlaes com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A mdia da irradiao solar global diria do perodo chuvoso da regio (maio - agosto) foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variveis de produo, como tambm maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido sua maior capacidade de rebrotao e converso de energia em fotoassimilados. Abstract in english Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP) is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint) and the estimated accumulative G [...] P. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR) was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART), which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August) was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

  10. Dynamic distribution of potassium in sugarcane

    In this work the distribution of potassium in sugarcane has been studied during its growth. The soil was prepared with natural fertilizers prepared with sugarcane bagasse. For the measurement of potassium concentration in each part of the plant, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure gamma-rays emitted from the radioisotope 40K. The concentrations of potassium in roots, stems and leaves were measured every two to three months beginning about five months after planting the sugarcane. The results show a higher concentration of potassium at the beginning of plant development and over time, there is an oscillatory behavior in this concentration in each part of the plant, reaching a lower concentration in the adult plant. To describe the evolution of potassium distribution in sugarcane we proposed a phenomenological model assuming that the potassium incorporation rate is proportional to the difference between the element concentration in the plant and a very long term equilibrium value and it is coupled to a resource-limited growth model. The proposed model succeeded in interpreting the results for the potassium distribution in stems and leaves during the sugarcane growth. -- Highlights: • Sugar-cane. • Distribution of potassium from root to aerial parts of the plant. • Gamma-ray spectrometry. • Phenomenological model to describe potassium distribution

  11. Diversity of the Pythium community infecting crown and roots apple in Tunisia

    Souli M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pythium is important in agriculture, since it contains many plantpathogenic species. Little is known about the diversity of Pythium species causing appledicline. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize 21 Pythium isolates collectedfrom root and collar rot apple trees in Tunisia from 2006 through to 2009. The isolateswere characterized morphologically as well as through sequence analyze of the internaltranscribed spacer region (ITS. Three Pythium species were identified in this study P.rostratifingens, P. undulatum and P. sterilum. In virulence assays on excised apple twigsand in the fields, representative isolates of the different Pythium species isolated werepathogenic on the Anna, Lorka and Meski varieties and the MM106 rootstock. Resultsobtained show the great susceptibility of the MM106 rootstock to the infections for thedifferent Pythium species tested.

  12. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  13. Soil suppressiveness towards Meloidogyne Verticillium or Pythium in greenhouse horticulture

    Wurff, A.W.G., van der; Slooten, M.A., van; Hamelink, R; Bohne, S; Wensveen, W., van

    2011-01-01

    Soils originating from fourteen greenhouse horticultural companies were assessed for the level of suppressiveness of three major pathogens of vegetables and flowers, namely the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, Pythium aphanidermatum and Verticillium dahlia. As controls, three well-documented soils in terms of disease suppressiveness and coarse sand were included for each pathogen. Soils were distributed over three treatments with forty replicates each in a random block design under s...

  14. Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. a pathogen of greenhouse cucumbers

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    The infection of mature cucumber plants by Pythium aphanidermatum was stated in two greenhouses. Young cucumber plants from the stage of young seedling until the beginning of cropping were easily infected by the fungus when artificially inoculated. The mature plants were effectively infected only when high temperature (above 30°C) and high moisture conditions were provided. All 17 cucumber varieties tested were susceptible to infection. Morphology of the fungus is described for the first time...

  15. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80%. (author)

  16. Zoosporogênese in vitro entre isolados do oomiceto Pythium insidiosum In vitro zoosporogenesis among oomycetes Pythium insidiosum isolates

    Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto aquático, responsável pela etiologia da pitiose, uma enfermidade crônica, observada freqüentemente em eqüinos. A produção de zoósporos móveis por este microrganismo se constitui no fator determinante da ocorrência da enfermidade. Este estudo avaliou a zoosporogênese e quantificou a produção de zoósporos de 32 amostras de Pythium insidiosum isoladas de eqüinos naturalmente infectados. Pythium insidiosum foi cultivado em meio Corn Meal Agar acrescido de fragmentos de grama, durante 5 dias, a 37°C. Posteriormente, os fragmentos de grama parasitados foram incubados em Meio de Indução a 37°C, por 24 horas. Observou-se que 16 amostras (50% produziram 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, 12 isolados (37,5% produziram acima de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, enquanto quatro amostras (12,5% produziram menos de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1. O período de maior produção de zoósporos foi entre 6 e 8 horas de incubação. O protocolo utilizado na indução da zoosporogênese mostrou-se eficiente e representa uma importante ferramenta, tanto para a identificação do Pythium insidiosum, como para a obtenção de zoósporos em quantidades suficientes para a inoculação em animais experimentais e aplicação no desenvolvimento de testes de suscetibilidade.Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete and the etiology of a chronic disease called pythiosis, commonly found in the skin of horses. The production of mobile zoospores by this microorganism is the determinant factor of this disease. This study evaluated the zoosporogenesis and quantification of zoospores in 32 samples of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses with pythiosis. The assay used culture of the Pythium insidiosum in Corn Meal Agar plus grass blades for 5 days at 37°C. The grass blades were incubated in Induction Medium at 37°C for 24 hours. The findings showed 16 samples (50% yielded 20,000 zoospores mL-1, 12 (37.5% samples yielded over 20,000 zoospores mL-1 and 4 samples (12.5% yielded less than 20,000 zoospores mL-1. The zoospores production was higher between 6 and 8 hours of incubation. The protocol used in the zoosporogenesis induction was efficient and represents an important tool for Pythium insidiosum identification and the attainment of zoospores in adequate amounts for inoculation in experimental animals and application in the development of susceptibility tests.

  17. Sugarcane borer in Florida

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is one of the most important of the above-ground pests of sugarcane in Florida. This article presents information pertaining to the borers biology, damage to cane, scouting, biological control, cultural control and chemical control. ...

  18. Categorizing Sugarcane Cultivar Resistance to the Sugarcane Aphid and Yellow Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Sugarcane in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a disease that has been added to certifica...

  19. Influencia del hbito de crecimiento en la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la caa de azcar / The influence of the growth habit on the velocity of sugarcane manual harvesting

    Orlando, De Sousa-Vieira; Rosaura, Briceo Crdenas; Ramn, Rea; Alida, Daz; Jos, George.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La caa de azcar (Saccharum spp. hbrido) es un cultivo de gran trascendencia en Venezuela. Si bien la cosecha de este rubro tiende a mecanizarse, el corte manual es an muy importante ya que una significativa proporcin del cultivo es cosechado de esa manera. El objetivo de este estudio fue conoce [...] r la influencia del hbito de crecimiento de la planta en la velocidad con que se realiza el corte manual de tallos al momento de la cosecha. El ensayo se realiz en los ciclos de planta y soca, y en cada uno se emplearon cinco trabajadores para cosechar cinco cultivares de caa de azcar cuyos hbitos variaban desde caas acamadas hasta caas erectas. Se emple un diseo en cuadrado latino 5 x 5 para evaluar el tiempo en que cada trabajador cortaba cada uno de los cultivares y los datos fueron convertidos en tiempo necesario para cosechar una tonelada de caa. Adicionalmente, se midi la dureza del tallo de los diferentes cultivares para tratar de establecer el posible efecto de ese factor en la cosecha manual. Los resultados indicaron que el hbito de crecimiento de la caa de azcar influye en la velocidad del corte de tallos, es decir, caas acamadas o con tendencia al acame afectan negativamente la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la planta. No se encontr evidencia de que la dureza del tallo de estos cultivares tenga efecto en la velocidad del corte manual. Abstract in english Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) is a main crop in Venezuela. Even thought there is a trend toward mechanization, manual harvesting remains important due to the fact that a significant proportion of the sugarcane produced is harvested that way. The objective of this study was to determine the exten [...] t in which sugarcane growth habit influences the velocity in which manual harvesting is done. The trial was performed during plant and ratoon cycles, and in each of them, five workers were employed to harvest five sugarcane cultivars whose habits ranged from erect to recumbent. A 5 by 5 Latin Square design was used, and time was recorded for each worker as they cut each of the five cultivars. Data were converted in time needed to harvest a ton of cane. The effect of stalk hardness was also considered. Results indicated that the growth habit of the cultivar influenced the speed in which sugarcane stalks are harvested, so lodged and non-erect stalks are features that negatively affected the velocity of manual harvesting. There was no evidence showing that stalk hardness had any effect on the labor speed.

  20. A new species of Pythium isolated from burgundian vineyards and its antagonism towards Botrytis cinerea, the causative agent of the grey mould disease.

    Paul, Bernard

    2004-05-15

    During the course of an investigation on the pythiaceous fungi occurring in burgundian vineyards, three isolates of Pythium were found, all of which were characterised by spherical to lemoniform, proliferating sporangia. Only one out of these three isolates produced sexual characters (S-12) after prolonged incubation, but their asexual structures, temperature growth relationship and molecular characteristics were identical. Saprolegnia-type internal proliferation of the sporangia, and Phytophthora-type lemoniform, papillate sporangia were characteristic of all the three isolates. The type specimen is S-12 which is a medium slow growing saprophyte. The sequence of its ITS region of the rDNA shows a close relationship with the genus Phytophthora. Morphological and molecular characteristics of this isolate justifies its description as a new species: Pythium citrinum. When grown together with Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of the grey mould disease of the grapevine, this new species shows a pronounced antagonism and suppresses its growth. This new species is very close to P. montanum, a recently described fungus and constitutes a "border species" linking the genera Pythium and Phytophthora. Morphological features of this new species, its antagonism with B. cinerea, the sequences of the ITS region of its nuclear ribosomal DNA, and its comparison with related species are discussed. PMID:15135532

  1. Evaluation of Some Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Extracts for Immunostimulatory and Growth Promoting Effects in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    Mian Muhammad Awais and Masood Akhtar*

    2012-01-01

    Present paper describes the immunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of some sugar cane extracts (SCEs) in broiler chickens. Aqueous extract (AE) from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) juice and ethanolic extract (EE) from bagasse were used to demonstrate their effects on lymphoproliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) and Concanavalin-A (Con-A); antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs); growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in experimental chickens as com...

  2. Weather variables, water balance, growth, and agro industrial yield of sugarcane / Variveis meteorolgicas, balano hdrico, crescimento e produtividade agroindustrial da cana-de-acar

    IDO, TEODORO; JOS, DANTAS NETO; LUCAS A. DE, HOLANDA; GIVALDO D., SAMPAIO NETO; JOS L. DE, SOUZA; GERALDO V. DE S., BARBOSA; GUILHERME B., LYRA.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as variveis meteorolgicas, a deficincia hdrica, o crescimento e a produtividade agroindustrial das variedades de cana-de-acar: RB72454, RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003, RB951541 e RB971755, em cultivo de sequeiro, em duas safras, na regio d [...] e Rio Largo - AL. As variveis meteorolgicas foram obtidas em uma estao automtica, e o balano hdrico foi feito pelo mtodo de Thornthwaite & Mather. No perodo da pesquisa, a temperatura do ar variou de 16,6 a 35,9 C. No primeiro ciclo de produo, choveu 1.806 mm, e a cultura evapotranspirou 1.775 mm, e, no segundo ciclo, a precipitao pluvial somou 1.632 mm, e a evapotranspirao da cultura foi 1.290 mm. O excesso hdrico mdio dos dois ciclos de produo foi 689 mm; e o dficit hdrico, 665 mm. Ou seja, mesmo resultando em uma precipitao pluvial superior evapotranspirao da cultura, devido m distribuio das chuvas, houve deficincia hdrica. A temperatura do ar no foi limitante para o crescimento da cana-de-acar. A produtividade agrcola mdia da cana-planta foi 86,8 t ha-1, em cana-soca foi 75,2 t ha-1, e o rendimento agroindustrial mdio foi 12,9 e 10,9 toneladas de acar por hectare em cana-planta e cana-soca, respectivamente. As variedades mais produtivas foram a RB93509, a RB92579 e a RB863129. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the meteorological variables, water deficiency, growth, and agro-industrial yield of sugarcane varieties: RB72454, RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003, RB951541, and RB971755, in rainfed crop in two harvests in the Rio Largo-AL region. The meteo [...] rological variables were obtained in an automatic station and water balance was done by Thornthwaite & Mather method. During the study period, the air temperature ranged from 16.6 to 35.9 C. In the first production cycle rained 1,806 mm and the crop evapotranspiration was 1,775 mm. In the second cycle, the rainfall totaled 1,632 mm and the crop evapotranspiration was 1,290 mm. The average water excess of two production cycles was 689 mm and the water deficit totaled 665 mm. The average agricultural productivity in the plant was 86.8 t ha-1, in the first ratoon was 75.2 t ha-1 and the agro-industrial yield average was 12.9 and 10.9 tons of sugar per hectare in the plant and first ratoon, respectively. The air temperature was not limiting to the growth of sugarcane and the rainfall was higher than the crop evapotranspiration, but due to poor distribution of the rains there was water deficit. The most productive varieties were RB93509, RB92579, and RB863129.

  3. Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (μg) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ≥ underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

  4. Metabolic profiling of Zingiber zerumbet following Pythium myriotylum infection: investigations on the defensive role of the principal secondary metabolite, zerumbone.

    Keerthi, D; Geethu, C; Nair, R Aswati; Pillai, Padmesh

    2014-03-01

    Induced biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites constitutes one of the mechanisms of plant basal innate immunity to fungal infection. Metabolic changes were studied in rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet, a wild congener of ginger, after infection with soft rot-causative necrotrophic phytopathogen, Pythium myriotylum, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Infection triggered a considerable alteration in the relative content of zerumbone and α-caryophyllene (humulene) with enhancement in zerumbone content (81.59%) and that of α-caryophyllene (11.91%) compared to 9.97 and 1.11%, respectively, in uninfected rhizomes. While zerumbone is the principal secondary metabolite in Z. zerumbet, α-caryophyllene is its immediate precursor. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the correlations between metabolite changes in Z. zerumbet rhizomes and P. myriotylum infection. Radial diffusion assay with zerumbone indicated a concentration-dependent P. myriotylum growth inhibition with 93.75% inhibition observed at 700 μg and 50% maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 206 μg. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the mechanistic basis of zerumbone's antagonistic action on P. myriotylum growth involved the induction of aberrant morphology including severe hyphal deformities and membrane disruption. Results are discussed highlighting the critical role played by sesquiterpenoid zerumbone in affording resistance in Z. zerumbet and could expedite the development of appropriate strategies for biocontrol of Pythium spp., thus reducing the usage of broad-spectrum fungicides. PMID:24414941

  5. Enhancement of development and induction of resistance in tomato plants by the antagonist, Pythium oligandrum

    Le Floch, Gaétan; Rey, Patrice; Déniel, Franck; Benhamou, Nicole; Picard, Karine; Tirilly, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Augmentation du développement et induction de résistance chez des plants de tomate par l'agent antagoniste, Pythium oligandrum. Pour que Pythium oligandrum exerce un contrôle biologique optimal, il doit coloniser et persister dans la rhizosphère des plantes durant toute la saison culturale. La présente étude montre qu'après inoculation du système racinaire par Pythium oligandrum, celui-ci colonise 20 à 40 % des racines de plants de tomate cultivés dans un système hydroponique. La présence con...

  6. The chemoattractant potential of ginsenosides in the ginseng - Pythium irregulare pathosystem.

    Ivanov, Dimitre A; Georgakopoulos, Jorge R C; Bernards, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Ginsenosides produced by ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) are mildly fungitoxic saponins; however, exposure of the ginseng root pathogen Pythium irregulare Buisman to ginsenosides enhances its growth in a dose dependent manner, leading to speculation that ginsenosides may function as chemoattractants and/or growth regulators in the context of the ginseng - P. irregulare pathosystem. In the present work, it was demonstrated that the treatment of ginseng plants with a relatively high dose of ginsenosides by dipping their roots into a solution of ginsenosides prior to planting results in delayed infection by P. irregulare in pot experiments, as monitored by non-invasive chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. In an attempt to determine whether this observation results from a protective effect of the ginsenosides, or from a modification of P. irregulare growth habit in response to ginsenosides present in the soil, standard in vitro disk diffusion assays were conducted. Here, exposure of P. irregulare to crude ginsenosides or pure ginsenoside Rb1, resulted in delayed hyphal progression, while enhancing aerial hyphae build-up around ginsenoside-treated disks. By contrast, assays with pure ginsenoside F2 resulted in clear zones of inhibition around treated disks. While it remains unclear whether ginsenosides act as chemoattractants for P. irregulare in vivo, the results here suggest that these saponins serve to alter the growth habit of this organism, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26608666

  7. Stem juice production of the C4 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)is enhanced by growth at double-ambient CO2 and high temperature

    Four sugarcane cultivars were grown for three months in sunlit greenhouses under [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720(doubled) ppm and at temperatures (T) of 1.5 (near ambient) and 6.0C higher than outside ambient T. Leaf area, stem juice, plant biomass, leaf CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activities of PEP ...

  8. Multi-temporal observations of sugarcane by terrasar-ximages

    Baghdadi, N.; Todoroff, P.; Rabaute, Th.; Tinel, C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island. Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height. The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop ...

  9. Evaluation of Some Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Extracts for Immunostimulatory and Growth Promoting Effects in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    Mian Muhammad Awais and Masood Akhtar*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Present paper describes the immunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of some sugar cane extracts (SCEs in broiler chickens. Aqueous extract (AE from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum juice and ethanolic extract (EE from bagasse were used to demonstrate their effects on lymphoproliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P and Concanavalin-A (Con-A; antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs; growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR in experimental chickens as compared to control. Results showed significantly higher (P<0.05 in vitro and in vivo lymphoproliferative responses to Con-A and PHA-P, respectively in chickens administered with SCEs as compared to those in control group. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05 lymphoproliferative responses were detected in chickens administered with EE as compared to chickens administered with AE. Anti-SRBC total Igs, IgG and IgM titers were significantly higher (P<0.05 in chickens of experimental groups administered with SCEs as compared to those of control group; whereas titers were comparable among the experimental groups. The organ-body weight ratios of lymphoid organs were statistically similar in experimental and control groups. Both the experimental groups administered with SCEs showed better FCR and significantly higher (P<0.05 weight gains as compared to control. In conclusion, oral administration of SCEs showed immunostimulatory effects in broiler chickens and resulted in improved feed utilization and decreased amount of food needed for unit gain in body weight.

  10. The role of strigolactones and ethylene in disease caused by Pythium irregulare.

    Blake, Sara N; Barry, Karen M; Gill, Warwick M; Reid, James B; Foo, Eloise

    2016-06-01

    Plant hormones play key roles in defence against pathogen attack. Recent work has begun to extend this role to encompass not just the traditional disease/stress hormones, such as ethylene, but also growth-promoting hormones. Strigolactones (SLs) are the most recently defined group of plant hormones with important roles in plant-microbe interactions, as well as aspects of plant growth and development, although the knowledge of their role in plant-pathogen interactions is extremely limited. The oomycete Pythium irregulare is a poorly controlled pathogen of many crops. Previous work has indicated an important role for ethylene in defence against this oomycete. We examined the role of ethylene and SLs in response to this pathogen in pea (Pisum sativum L.) at the molecular and whole-plant levels using a set of well-characterized hormone mutants, including an ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutant and SL-deficient and insensitive mutants. We identified a key role for ethylene signalling in specific cell types that reduces pathogen invasion, extending the work carried out in other species. However, we found no evidence that SL biosynthesis or response influences the interaction of pea with P. irregulare or that synthetic SL influences the growth or hyphal branching of the oomycete in vitro. Future work should seek to extend our understanding of the role of SLs in other plant interactions, including with other fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens, nematodes and insect pests. PMID:26377026

  11. Species of Pythium isolated from eggs of fresh-water fish

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study species from the genus Pythium were isolated from eggs of fresh water fish. Altogether sixteen species of fungi were found on fish eggs including 13 species noted for the first time from fish.

  12. The sugarcane-biofuel expansion and dairy farmers' responses in Brazil

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in So Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a dramatically expanding sugarcane economy. Combining different data sets semi-structured interviews with 34 farmers and baseline data from all memb...

  13. The Role of Nitrogen Fertilizers in Sugarcane Root Biomass under Field Conditions

    Rafael Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Carlos Eduardo Faroni; André Cesar Vitti; Emídio Cantidio Almeida de Oliveira; Renata Alcarde Sermarini; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is used worldwide for sugar, ethanol and energy production. In Brazil, the shift from burned to unburned harvest systems resulted in increases in nitrogen fertilization rates, which can impact root architecture and biomass. The expectation is also an increase in sugarcane biomass. The study hypothesized that high N rates applied to sugarcane fields increases root growth and N stored in roots, promoting higher biomass and N accumulated in shoots. Two experiments ...

  14. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Ho 08-9001 and Ho 08-9003 germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  15. Mechanism for mercury tolerance in fungi. [Aspergillus niger; Rhizoctonia solani; Pythium ultimum

    Ashworth, L.J. Jr.; Amin, J.V.

    1964-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was protected from mercury (Hg) poisoning by sulfhydryl (SH) compounds (glutathione and cysteine) in culture experiments, whereas Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum were not protected. Two- to 30-day-old mycelium of A. niger was found to be more tolerant to Hg than either younger or older mycelia. Mycelia of the other fungi were sensitive regardless of age. Mercury tolerance of A. niger mycelium was altered when sulfur nutrition was modified; it was greater after growth on a substrate containing reduced sulfur than after growth on one containing sulfate. The Hg tolerance of A. niger mycelium appears to be due to a pool of intracellular SH that is free of protein and that protects enzyme systems by forming complexes with Hg as it is taken up by the thallus. Potato-dextrose broth-grown mats of A. niger contained about 100 ..mu..g of SH/g of dry mycelia after 36 hr and after 5 days. R.. solani had about 9 ..mu..g of SH/g of mycelia after 5 days; a measurable amount was not recovered from P. ultimum. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  16. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Nivaldo Schultz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  17. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a

  18. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  19. In vitro susceptibility of Brazilian Pythium insidiosum isolates to essential oils of some Lamiaceae family species.

    Fonseca, A O S; Pereira, D I B; Jacob, R G; Maia Filho, F S; Oliveira, D H; Maroneze, B P; Valente, J S S; Osório, L G; Botton, S A; Meireles, M C A

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial action of Origanum vulgare, Origanum majorana, Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis on Pythium insidiosum oomycete zoospores. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 documentation adapted to phytopharmaceuticals. Twenty-two P. insidiosum isolates were evaluated, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined at 100% growth inhibition. All P. insidiosum isolates evaluated showed a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.05 to 1.75 mg/mL when O. vulgare oil was used and from 0.11 to 3.5 mg/mL for O. majorana, M. piperita and R. officinalis oils. The results obtained indicate that the essential oils tested showed antimicrobial activity on P. insidiosum, with O. vulgare essential oil showing the best performance. These findings emphasize the potential use of plant essential oils as control agents in P. insidiosum infections; further research, however, is needed so as the in vivo activity of these oils can also be evaluated. PMID:25431090

  20. Evaluation of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Manipur as biocontrol agent against Pythium aphanidermatum on common beans.

    Kamala, Th; Indira, S

    2011-12-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is one of the common causal pathogen of damping-off disease of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Manipur. A total of 110 indigenous Trichoderma isolates obtained from North east India were screened for their biocontrol activity which can inhibit the mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum, the causal organism of damping-off in beans. Out of the total isolates, 32% of them showed strong antagonistic activity against P. aphanidermatum under in vitro condition and subsequently 20 best isolates were selected based on their mycelial inhibition capacity against P. aphanidermatum for further analysis. Different biocontrol mechanisms such as protease, chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase activity, cellulase and production of volatile and non-volatile compounds were also assayed. Based on their relative biocontrol potency, only three indigenous Trichoderma isolates (T73, T80 and T105) were selected for pot culture experiment against damping-off diseases in common beans. In greenhouse experiment, Trichoderma isolates T-105 significantly reduced the pre- and post-emergence damping-off disease incidence under artificial infection with P. aphanidermatum and showed highest disease control percentage. PMID:22558540

  1. Antagonistic Potential of Iranian Native Streptomyces Strains in Biocontrol of Pythium aphanidermatum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium aphanidermatum, the major phytopathogen induce damping off, root and stem rots, blights of grasses and fruit and in greenhouse cucurbits growing all areas of the world. Soil Actinomycetes including 178 isolates were assayed for assessing antagonistic activity against P.aphanidermatum. From tested isolates, 43 isolates were effective but 2 isolates strains 311 and 321 showed high anti-fungal activity revealed by bioassays in agar disk and well diffusion methods. For further biological characterizations, the active strains were grown in submerged cultures to determine growth curve and prepare crude extracts. Preliminary greenhouse studies indicated that amending soil with these strains, 311 and 321; reduce crop losses due to the pathogen. Antifungal activities of both antagonists were of fungicidal type on pathogen with complete inhibitory effects.

  2. Molecular phylogenetics and anti-Pythium activity of endophytes from rhizomes of wild ginger congener, Zingiber zerumbet Smith.

    Keerthi, D; Aswati Nair, R; Prasath, D

    2016-03-01

    Zingiber zerumbet, a perennial rhizomatous herb exhibits remarkable disease resistance as well as a wide range of pharmacological activities. Towards characterizing the endophytic population of Z. zerumbet rhizomes, experiments were carried out during two different growing seasons viz., early-June of 2013 and late-July of 2014. A total of 34 endophytes were isolated and categorized into 11 morphologically distinct groups. Fungi were observed to predominate bacterial species with colonization frequency values ranging from 12.5 to 50 %. Among the 11 endophyte groups isolated, molecular analyses based on ITS/16S rRNA gene sequences identified seven isolate groups as Fusarium solani, two as F. oxysporum and one as the bacterium Rhizobium spp. Phylogenetic tree clustered the ITS sequences from Z. zerumbet endophytes into distinct clades consistent with morphological and sequence analysis. Dual culture assays were carried out to determine antagonistic activity of the isolated endophytes against Pythium myriotylum, an economically significant soil-borne phytopathogen of cultivated ginger. Experiments revealed significant P. myriotylum growth inhibition by F. solani and F. oxysporum isolates with percentage of inhibition (PoI) ranging from 45.17 ± 0.29 to 62.2 ± 2.58 with F. oxysporum exhibiting higher PoI values against P. myriotylum. Using ZzEF8 metabolite extract, concentration-dependent P. myriotylum hyphal growth inhibition was observed following radial diffusion assays. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis wherein exposure to ZzEF8 metabolite extract induced hyphal deformities. Results indicate Z. zerumbet endophytes as promising resources for biologically active compounds and as biocontrol agents for soft rot disease management caused by Pythium spp. PMID:26867602

  3. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for...

  4. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  5. Combat-Related Pythium aphanidermatum Invasive Wound Infection: Case Report and Discussion of Utility of Molecular Diagnostics.

    Farmer, Aaron R; Murray, Clinton K; Driscoll, Ian R; Wickes, Brian L; Wiederhold, Nathan; Sutton, Deanna A; Sanders, Carmita; Mende, Katrin; Enniss, Brent; Feig, James; Ganesan, Anuradha; Rini, Elizabeth A; Vento, Todd J

    2015-06-01

    We describe a 22-year-old soldier with 19% total body surface area burns, polytrauma, and sequence- and culture-confirmed Pythium aphanidermatum wound infection. Antemortem histopathology suggested disseminated Pythium infection, including brain involvement; however, postmortem PCR revealed Cunninghamella elegans, Lichtheimia corymbifera, and Saksenaea vasiformis coinfection. The utility of molecular diagnostics in invasive fungal infections is discussed. PMID:25832301

  6. Life table studies of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane.

    Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Reproductive and life table parameters for E. lignosellus were examined at nine constant temperatures from 13 to 36 C with sugarcane as the larval food source. The pre- and postoviposition periods decreased with increasing temperatures and reached their minimums at 33 and 36 C, respectively. The oviposition period was longest at 27 C. The mean fecundity, stage-specific survival, stage-specific fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were greatest at 30 C and decreased with increasing or decreasing temperature. The net reproductive rate was greatest at 27 C. The Logan-6 model best described the relationship between temperature and intrinsic rate of increase. The generation and population doubling times were longest at 13 and shortest at 33 and 30 C, respectively. The most favorable temperatures for E. lignosellus population growth were between 27 and 33C. Life table parameters for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane were greater than for the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on an artificial diet at 30 C. The intrinsic rates of increase for the sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on sugarcane or corn were the same as for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane at 27 C, but the net reproductive rate was four times higher for the former than the latter borer species. PMID:22182570

  7. Characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of Trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.

    A L Rocha, Vanessa; N Maeda, Roberto; Pereira, Nei; F Kern, Marcelo; Elias, Luisa; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing Trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. The component enzymes were identified by LCMS-MS. Glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. Other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (AA9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at levels of 1%. In total, proteases and lipases represented 5 and 1% of the total secretome, respectively, with the rest of the secretome being made up of proteins of unknown or putative function. This enzyme cocktail was efficient in catalysing the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulolignin to fermentable sugars for potential use in ethanol production. Apart from mapping the secretome of T. harzianum, which is a very important tool to understand the catalytic performance of enzyme cocktails, the gene coding for T. harzianum swollenin was expressed in Aspergillus niger. This novel aspect in this work, allowed increasing the swollenin concentration by 95 fold. This is the first report about the heterologous expression of swollenin from T. harzianum, and the findings are of interest in enriching enzyme cocktail with this important accessory protein which takes part in the cellulose amorphogenesis. Despite lacking detectable glycoside activity, the addition of swollenin of T. harzianum increased by two-fold the hydrolysis efficiency of a commercial cellulase cocktail. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:327-336, 2016. PMID:26697775

  8. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  9. The antibiotic activity and mechanisms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse extract against food-borne pathogens.

    Zhao, Yi; Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-10-15

    Sugarcane bagasse contains natural compositions that can significantly inhibit food-borne pathogens growth. In the present study, the phenolic content in sugarcane bagasse was detected as higher than 4 mg/g dry bagasse, with 470 mg quercetin/g polyphenol. The sugarcane bagasse extract showed bacteriostatic activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salomonella typhimurium. Additionally, the sugarcane bagasse extract can increase the electric conductivity of bacterial cell suspensions causing cellular leaking of electrolytes. Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested the antibacterial mechanism was probably due to the damaged cellular proteins by sugarcane bagasse extract. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the sugarcane bagasse extract might change cell morphology and internal structure. PMID:25952848

  10. Oligandrin. A Proteinaceous Molecule Produced by the Mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum Induces Resistance to Phytophthora parasitica Infection in Tomato Plants1

    Picard, Karine; Ponchet, Michel; Blein, Jean-Pierre; Rey, Patrice; Tirilly, Yves; Benhamou, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    A low-molecular weight protein, termed oligandrin, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of the mycoparasitic fungus Pythium oligandrum. When applied to decapitated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Prisca) plants, this protein displayed the ability to induce plant defense reactions that contributed to restrict stem cell invasion by the pathogenic fungus Phytophthora parasitica. According to its N-terminal sequence, low-molecular weight, acidic isoelectric point, ultraviolet spectrum, and migration profile, the P. oligandrum-produced oligandrin was found to share some similarities with several elicitins from other Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. However, oligandrin did not induce hypersensitive reactions. A significant decrease in disease incidence was monitored in oligandrin-treated plants as compared with water-treated plants. Ultrastructural investigations of the infected tomato stem tissues from non-treated plants showed a rapid colonization of all tissues associated with a marked host cell disorganization. In stems from oligandrin-treated plants, restriction of fungal growth to the outermost tissues and decrease in pathogen viability were the main features of the host-pathogen interaction. Invading fungal cells were markedly damaged at a time when the cellulose component of their cell walls was quite well preserved. Host reactions included the plugging of intercellular spaces as well as the occasional formation of wall appositions at sites of potential pathogen entry. In addition, pathogen ingress in the epidermis was associated with the deposition of an electron-opaque material in most invaded intercellular spaces. This material, lining the primary walls, usually extended toward the inside to form deposits that frequently interacted with the wall of invading hyphae. In the absence of fungal challenge, host reactions were not detected. PMID:10982451

  11. AN APPROACH TO FINANCIAL RISK IN A PORTFOLIO FOR PLANNING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM SUGARCANE

    Thárcylla R.N. Clemente; Adiel Teixeira de Almeida-Filho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brazil's location and tropical weather conditions are favourable cultivating sugarcane, which has led to Brazil being one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The influence of the sugarcane industry on its economy stands out among the indicators of Brazilian economic growth and because the diversified investment when planning the production of products derived from this sector is encouraged. The decision on which derivative (for example, crystal sugar, anhydrous ethanol, or...

  12. Pythium root rot of common bean: biology and control methods. A review

    Baudoin, JP.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium root rot constitutes a highly damaging constraint on the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., grown in several areas of Eastern and Central Africa. Here, this food legume is cultivated intensively under poor conditions of crop rotation due to the exiguity of the land in the region. Yield losses of up to 70% in traditional local bean cultivars have been reported in Kenya and Rwanda. In this study, a detailed analysis of the biology and diversity of the Pythium genus was carried out in order to understand the mechanisms leading to the development of the disease. Various control methods for reducing the damage provoked by this disease were analyzed.

  13. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of sugarcane fungi

    The phylogenetic positions of Puccinia spp. infecting sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was determined using 42 newly generated rust sequences and 25 sequences from Genbank. Rust specimens on sugarcane were collected from 161 locations in 25 countries and identified based on light micro...

  15. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  16. Biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    Pandey, V K; Singh, M P; Srivastava, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Takshak, S

    2012-01-01

    The chemically as well as hot water treated agrowaste sugarcane bagasse was subjected to degradation by Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The fungus degraded lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and carbon content of both chemically as well as hot water treated waste and produced in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body. Biodegradation of the waste in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During mycelial growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the sugarcane bagasse decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated substrate supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrates. Degradation of the hot water treated sugarcane bagasse was better and faster than chemically treated substrates. PMID:23273185

  17. Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infeco humana no Brasil Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil

    Silvio Alencar Marques; Eduardo Bagagli; Sandra M. G. Bosco; Rosangela M. P. Camargo; Marques, Mariangela E. A.

    2006-01-01

    A pitiose causada por microorganismo aqutico, fungo-smile, o Pythium insidiosum, patgeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com lcera fagednica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatolgico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensvel teraputica antifngica, obtendo-se cura por meio de ampla exrese. A comprovao etiolgica resultou de mtodos moleculares, com amplificao e seqenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em gar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seq...

  18. Characterization of major hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Pythium myriotylum, causative agent for soft rot disease.

    Geethu, C; Resna, A K; Nair, R Aswati

    2013-11-01

    Pythium myriotylum, an oomycetous necrotroph is the causal agent of soft rot disease affecting several crops. Successful colonization by necrotrophs depends on their secretion of a diverse array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs). The induction dynamics of CWDEs secreted by P. myriotylum was analysed as little information is available for this pathogen. Activities of CWDEs that included pectinase, cellulase, xylanase and protease were detected using radial diffusion assay and differential staining. In Czapek Dox minimal medium supplemented with respective substrates as carbon source, the increase in CWDE activities was observed till 8 days of incubation after which a gradual decline in enzymatic activities was observed. With sucrose as sole carbon source, all the enzymes studied showed increase in activity with fungal growth while with cell wall material derived from ginger rhizome as sole carbon source, an initial spurt in cellulase, xylanase and pectinase activities was observed 3 days post incubation while protease activity increased from three days of incubation and reached maximum at 13 days of incubation. To further evaluate the role of CWDEs in pathogenicity, UV-induced mutants (pmN14uv1) were generated wherein significant reduction in cellulase, pectinase and protease activities were observed while that of xylanase remained unchanged compared to wild type isolate (RGCBN14). Bioassays indicated changes in infection potential of pmN14uv1 thereby suggesting the crucial role played by P. myriotylum CWDEs in initiating the rotting process. Hence appropriate strategies that target the production/activity of these secretory hydrolytic enzymes will help in reducing disease incidence/pathogen virulence. PMID:23897210

  19. Produtividade e qualidade tecnolgica da soqueira de cana-de-acar submetida aplicao de biorregulador e fertilizantes lquidos Productivity and technological quality of sugarcane ratoon subject to the application of plant growth regulator and liquid fertilizers

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a aplicao de biorreguladores, associados ou no a fertilizantes lquidos, na rebrota e na produtividade da soqueira de cinco gentipos de cana-de-acar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Municpio de Ja, So Paulo (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho Eutrofrrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x5, constitudo por cinco gentipos (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 e IACSP93-6006 e cinco tratamentos com biorreguladores, associados ou no a fertilizantes lquidos (Stimulate a 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N a 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N a 3,0L ha-1 + Cellerate a 0,5L ha-1; Etefon a 3,0L ha-1 e Testemunha, com quatro repeties. A aplicao dos produtos ocorreu 70 dias aps a quarta colheita. Foram avaliados: perfilhamento, produtividade de colmos industrializveis e de acar, fibra, pol % cana e acar total recupervel. O etefon proporcionou melhor perfilhamento, mas a resposta foi dependente do gentipo. O maior nmero de perfilhos promovido pelo etefon no refletiu em maior produtividade. A aplicao de Stimulate e fertilizantes lquidos no proporcionou efeitos na qualidade da cana-de-acar. Houve aumento da produtividade de colmos e de acar, independente do gentipo, com o emprego do biorregulador Stimulate, com ou sem complementao de fertilizante lquido, indicando a possibilidade do aumento da longevidade da cana-de-acar.The present work aimed to evaluate the application of plant growth regulators, associate or not to liquid fertilizers, on the ratoon sprouting and productivity of sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Ja city (SP, in a Eutroferric Red Latosol. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with factorial treatment structure 5x5, constituted by five genotypes (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 and IACSP93-6006 and five plant growth regulators treatments associated or not to liquid fertilizers (Stimulate, 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N, 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N, 3,0L ha-1, + Cellerate, 0,5L ha-1; Ethephon, 3,0L ha-1, and control, with four replicates. The application of the products occurred at 70 days after the fourth crop harvest. The attributes tillering, stalk productivity, sugar productivity, fiber, pol % cane and total sugar recoverable were evaluated. Ethephon provided better tillering, but this response was dependent of the genotype. The highest tiller number caused by Ethephon did not mean the highest productivity. The application of Stimulate and liquid fertilizers did not provide effects on the sugarcane technological quality. There was increase of cane productivity and sugar productivity with the use of plant growth regulator Stimulate for all genotypes, with or without supplementation of liquid fertilizer, being an indicative for increasing the sugarcane longevity.

  20. Life cycle assessment of biofuels from an integrated Brazilian algae-sugarcane biorefinery

    Sugarcane ethanol biorefineries in Brazil produce carbon dioxide, electricity and heat as byproducts. These are essential inputs for algae biodiesel production. In this paper, we assessed ethanol's life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use produced in an integrated sugarcane and algae biorefinery where biodiesel replaces petroleum diesel for all agricultural operations. Carbon dioxide from cane juice fermentation is used as the carbon source for algae cultivation, and sugarcane bagasse is the sole source of energy for the entire facility. Glycerin produced from the biodiesel plant is consumed by algae during the mixotrophic growth phase. We assessed the uncertainties through a detailed Monte-Carlo analysis. We found that this integrated system can improve both the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and the fossil energy use of sugarcane ethanol by around 10% and 50%, respectively, compared to a traditional Brazilian sugarcane ethanol distillery. - Highlights: • A high diesel consumption is associated to the ethanol sugarcane life-cycle. • Sugarcane industry can provide sources of carbon and energy for the algae growing. • The sugarcane-algae integration can improve the ethanol life-cycle performance. • This integration is a promising pathway for the deployment of algae biodiesel. • There are still significant techno-economic barriers associated with algae biodiesel

  1. Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-acar

    Maurcio dos Santos Simes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT, yield (TSS, leaf area index (LAI, and number of plants per linear meter (NPM correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, So Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 2 window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS. No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3 was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.Dados de satlites so tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evoluo temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-acar como a biomassa total (BMT, produtividade (TSS, ndice de rea foliar (LAI e nmero de plantas por metro (NPM por meio de dados orbitais dos satlites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma rea comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4 e 5 cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronmicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados mdios do talho (DMt. Regresso linear e mltipla foram usadas para a anlise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de ndices de vegetao. As correlaes e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variveis agronmicas no apresentaram diferenas estatsticas. Os modelos quadrticos e cbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variveis espectrais, em funo dos dias aps o corte e apresentaram significncia com os ndices de vegetao da razo e por diferena normalizada (NDVI. As correlaes entre os dados espectrais mdios do talho e as variveis agronmicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados mdios do talho (DMt, para primeira safra (1S, para a segunda safra (2S e ambas juntas geraram regresses mltiplas, com coeficientes determinao (r variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-acar.

  2. Characterisation and detection of Pythium and Phytophthora species associated with grapevines in South Africa.

    Replant and decline diseases of grapevines not only cause quantitative and qualitative yield losses, but also results in extra costs when vineyards have to be replanted. This study investigated the role of Pythium and Phytophthora in the decline syndrome in South Africa by determining the (i) speci...

  3. Transstadial transmission of Pythium in Bradysia impatiens and lack of adult vectoring capacity

    Fungus gnats have been shown to transmit a variety of plant pathogenic fungi that produce aerial dispersal stages. However, few studies have examined potential interactions between fungus gnats and oomycetes, including Pythium spp. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if ...

  4. Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens

    A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper su...

  5. IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO MEASURE SUGARCANE LEAF AREA

    Sanjay B. Patil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the average sugarcane yield per acres with minimum cost farmers are adapting precision farming technique. This paper includes the area measurement of sugarcane leaf based on image processing method which is useful for plants growth monitoring, to analyze fertilizer deficiency and environmental stress,to measure diseases severity. In image processing method leaf area is calculated through pixel number statistic. Unit pixel in the same digital images represent the same size hence from known reference area and pixel count, unit pixel size can calculate, so that it is easy to calculate leaf area by counting total pixel in leaf area region. The results are compared with the results of graphical area measurement method. The experimentally it is proved that image processing method for measuring sugarcane leaf area is accurate and strong practicabilitywith small relative error.

  6. Girassol: emergência e crescimento inicial de plantas sob resíduos de cana-de-açúcar Sunflower: emergence and initial plant growth under sugarcane residues

    Nilza Patrícia Ramos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da palha residual da colheita da cana-de-açúcar e da adição de vinhaça sobre o solo na emergência e no crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (5 x 2 x 3, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, combinando-se cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20t ha-1 com aplicação ou não de 150m³ ha-1 de vinhaça residual da indústria sulcroalcooleira, utilizando-se três cultivares de girassol ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio 358". Foram determinadas a velocidade e a porcentagem final de emergência de plântulas, além do comprimento e da biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da palha de cana-de-açúcar e da vinhaça, em quantidade equivalente a 150m³ ha-1, em ação conjunta ou isolada, reduz a emergência de plântulas e o crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Entretanto, essa redução não compromete drasticamente o desempenho das cultivares ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio-358", que não diferiram entre si.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of soil cover with sugarcane mulch residue combined with vinasse application on seedling emergence and initial growth of sunflower cultivars. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in pots with soil, in randomized complete blocks, with four replications. The treatments, arranged in a 5 x 2 x 3 factorial, consisted of the combination of five quantities of sugarcane mulch residue cover (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20t ha-1 followed by application or not of 150m³ ha-1 of vinasse, on soil planted to the sunflower cultivars 'IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio 358'. The variables studied were seedling emergence speed, final emergence, as well as plant height and dry weight of above ground plant biomass. It is concluded that, under greenhouse conditions, the presence of sugarcane mulch residue in any of the quantities studied, and of vinasse in the quantity of 150m³ ha-1, either isolated or in combination, reduce seedling emergence and hamper the initial growth of sunflower, but this effect is not so drastic to endanger the cultivars development ('IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio-358', that do not differ between them.

  7. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and <2% ash content. The results show that it is possible to develop a nonfeed application for rendered animal protein by hydrolysis of the protein and feeding to industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds. PMID:22010831

  8. Sugarcane: A versatile energy source

    Biomass is shown to be viable given the same, economic environment as other energy sources. Sugarcane is shown to be the most economic and versatile biomass feedstock at present. The Brazilian national program has proved that gasoline may be substituted and biomass offers a viable alternative to fossil fuel if rationalization of production, distribution and pricing is implemented. A major step towards feasibility of the sugarcane alternative would be the commercialization of bagasse, preferably as a fuel for generating surplus chemical energy. The efficient use of sugarcane as an energy feedstock offers the possibility of very considerable reductions in (net) greenhouse gas emissions as compared to petroleum derivative fuels

  9. Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane

    Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugar cane growth was about 257,000 ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 75% and 70% respectively were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugar cane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn2+, Cu2+) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

  10. Photodynamic Therapy in Pythium insidiosum An In Vitro Study of the Correlation of Sensitizer Localization and Cell Death

    Pires, Layla; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Baptista, Maurcio S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Pythiosis is an infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like organism. Due to the lack of ergosterol on its cell membrane, antibiotic therapy is ineffective. The conventional treatment is surgery, but lesion recurrence is frequent, requiring several resections or limb amputation. Photodynamic therapy uses photo-activation of drugs and has the potential to be an attractive alternative option. The in vitro PDT response on the growing of Pythium insidiosum culture was investiga...

  11. Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS

    Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

    From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

  12. Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois reguladores vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte.The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulators, applied before the harvest, in the stool regrowth and productivity of three sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú (SP. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in split-plot, with four repetitions, constituted by the genotypes IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 and IAC91-5155, and by three crop management: 20 g ha-1 sulfomethuron-methyl; 480 g a.i. ha-1 ethephon and control. The growth regulators were applied 126 days before harvest. To quantify the action of growth regulators the following variables were evaluated: the number of tillers m-1 at 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 days after the harvest; the final percentage of stalk number by meter in relation to the initial percentage; the mass of 10 stalks, the length and the diameter of stalks; the pol and the fiber% cane, the reducing and total recoverable sugars, and the productivity of stalks and sugar. It was concluded that there was stimulating effect on the emergency of tillering up to six months after the harvest. The ethephon promoted larger productivities of stalks and sugar. There were differences among genotypes in relation to growth regulators for stalk length. There was no effect on the technological quality over the subsequent ratoon crop.

  13. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Alcarde André Ricardo; Walder Júlio Marcos Melges; Horii Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and may influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoc...

  14. Shelflife Enhancement of Sugarcane Juice

    Khare, Ashish; Behari Lal, Apoorva; Singh, Anurag; Pratap Singh, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Preservation of sugarcane juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using Potassium Meta bi sulphite (KMS), spices and mild heat treatment at different combinations under refrigeration temperature. The result revealed that good quality beverage from sugarcane juice of variety Cos 767 with satisfactory storage stability of 60 days at refrigeration could be prepared from heat ...

  15. Specific Diversity of Metarhizium Isolates Infecting Aeneolamia spp. (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Sugarcane Plantations.

    Hernández-Domínguez, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Carrillo-Benítez, M G; Alatorre-Rosas, R; Rodríguez-Leyva, E; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A

    2016-02-01

    Spittlebugs from the genus Aeneolamia are important pests of sugarcane. Although the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizum anisopliae s.l. for control of this pest is becoming more common in Mexico, fundamental information regarding M. anisopliae in sugarcane plantations is practically non-existent. Using phylogenetic analysis, we determined the specific diversity of Metarhizium spp. infecting adult spittlebugs in sugarcane plantations from four Mexican states. We obtained 29 isolates of M. anisopliae s.str. Haplotype network analysis revealed the existence of eight haplotypes. Eight selected isolates, representing the four Mexican states, were grown at different temperatures in vitro; isolates from Oaxaca achieved the greatest growth followed by isolates from Veracruz, San Luis Potosi and Tabasco. No relationship was found between in vitro growth and haplotype diversity. Our results represent a significant contribution to the better understanding of the ecology of Metarhizum spp. in the sugarcane agroecosystem. PMID:26438409

  16. Status of the Pythiaceae (Straminipila in Argentina: I. The GenusPythium Status de la familia Pythiaceae (Reino Straminipila en Argentina: I. El género Pythium

    Hemilse E Palmucci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes - ex Oomycetes, Kingdom Straminipila includes important pathogens, affecting a wide range of hosts of economic value, causing damping-off and decline of herbaceous and wooded plants due to rootlets rot. In order to acquire a more comprehensive vision of Pythium in Argentina, a review and an updated report of recent progress in this matter was carried out since the first reports in the late XIX century till October 2009. Information was taken from printed and on line primary and secondary sources such as Proceedings of national and international Scientific Meetings, Bulletins from National Institutions and Universities, periodical Journals, books and data bases. The information was analyzed and categorized, thus updating the number of species of this genus, their geographical distribution, hosts affected, and symptoms. So far 18 species have been cited affecting, 247 hosts. The greatest number of hosts is affected by P. ultimum and P. debaryanum, followed by P. irregulare and P. aphanidermatum. The diversity of Pythium species in the world suggests that perhaps a wider variety of species, still not cited, could be present in Argentina. Projects dedicated to surveying the presence and identification of Pythium spp are necessary.El género Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes-ex Oomycetes, Straminipila incluye patógenos que afectan hospedantes de importancia económica, ocasionando damping off en pre y postemergencia de plántulas de almácigo y el declinamiento de plantas herbáceas y adultas por destrucción de las raíces absorbentes. Con la finalidad de conocer el estado actual de la información disponible sobre este género en Argentina, se llevó a cabo una revisión desde los primeros reportes a fines del siglo XIX hasta octubre de 2009. Se consultaron fuentes primarias y secundarias de información escrita y electrónica: presentaciones en congresos nacionales e internacionales, publicaciones periódicas nacionales e internacionales, boletines de instituciones y universidades, libros y bases de datos. La información obtenida fue categorizada y analizada permitiendo conocer el número de especies de este género, su distribución geográfica y por tipo de cultivos, relaciones hospedante-patógeno involucradas y la sintomatología observada. Se encuentran citadas 18 especies que afectan a 247 hospedantes. Un elevado número de hospedantes fueron afectados por P. ultimum y P. debaryanum, seguidos por P. irregulare y P. aphanidermatum. La diversidad de especies de Pythium en el mundo sugiere que un mayor número de especies podrían estar presentes en el país, siendo necesario su relevamiento e identificación.

  17. Physical Properties of Sugarcane Pertaining to the Design of a Whole Stalk Sugarcane Harvester

    Joby Bastian *; , B. Shridar

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane crop plays a vital role in nation’s economy, being one of the most commercialised crops in India. The production cost of sugarcane is increasing year after year which reduces the profit margin of sugarcane growers and sugar industry. Harvesting is one of the key operations responsible for increase in sugarcane production cost. Hence a tractor mounted whole stalk sugarcane harvester suitable for small and medium farmers is highly essential. The physical properties of ...

  18. The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from sugarcane wastes for solubilizing phosphate

    Atekan, A; Nuraini, Y.; E Handayanto; S Syekhfani

    2014-01-01

    Most of P in agricultural soils is in unavailable forms for plant growth. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria can increase soil P availability. This study was aimed to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from sugarcane waste compost and to test ability of the isolated bacterial to dissolve phosphate. The bacteria were isolated from three types of sugarcane waste, i.e. filter cake compost, bagasse compost, and a mixture of filter cake + bagasse + trash biomass compost. The potential colony was...

  19. Surface polysaccharides and quorum sensing are involved in the attachment and survival of Xanthomonas albilineans on sugarcane leaves.

    Mensi, Imene; Daugrois, Jean-Heinrich; Pieretti, Isabelle; Gargani, Daniel; Fleites, Laura A; Noell, Julie; Bonnot, Francois; Gabriel, Dean W; Rott, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas albilineans, the causal agent of sugarcane leaf scald, is a bacterial plant pathogen that is mainly spread by infected cuttings and contaminated harvesting tools. However, some strains of this pathogen are known to be spread by aerial means and are able to colonize the phyllosphere of sugarcane before entering the host plant and causing disease. The objective of this study was to identify the molecular factors involved in the survival or growth of X.?albilineans on sugarcane leaves. We developed a bioassay to test for the attachment of X.?albilineans on sugarcane leaves using tissue-cultured plantlets grown in?vitro. Six mutants of strain XaFL07-1 affected in surface polysaccharide production completely lost their capacity to survive on the sugarcane leaf surface. These mutants produced more biofilm in?vitro and accumulated more cellular poly-?-hydroxybutyrate than the wild-type strain. A mutant affected in the production of small molecules (including potential biosurfactants) synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) attached to the sugarcane leaves as well as the wild-type strain. Surprisingly, the attachment of bacteria on sugarcane leaves varied among mutants of the rpf gene cluster involved in bacterial quorum sensing. Therefore, quorum sensing may affect polysaccharide production, or both polysaccharides and quorum sensing may be involved in the survival or growth of X.?albilineans on sugarcane leaves. PMID:25962850

  20. The wilt of winter cucumber in south eastern Spain caused by Pythium irregulare

    Gómez-Vázquez, Julio María; Serrano Alonso, Y.; Melero-Vara, José M.

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Pythium irregulare was isolated from adult cucumber plants with stem base necrosis, wilt or, frequently, that were dead; symptoms were particularly observed in crops grown in winter in plastic-houses in south eastern Spain. Damage was often important because symptoms develop during the fruit harvesting period. Cucumber plants cv. Nevada sown in late September were inoculated at the 4-7 leaf stage (mid October) with a suspension of propagules of P. irregulare isolated from diseased cucumb...

  1. Development of new formulations of Bacillus subtilis for management of tomato damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    Jayaraj, J.; Radhakrishnan, N.V.; Kannan, R.; Sakthivel, K.; Suganya, D.; Venkatesan, S.; Velazhahan, R. [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B (Canada). Dept. of Biological Science

    2005-02-15

    Formulations of a strain of Bacillus subtilis AUBS-1 inhibitory to the growth of the damping-off pathogen, Pythium aphanidermatum, were developed for seed treatment. The formulations included a talc-based powder, lignite-based powder, lignite + fly ash-based powder, wettable powder, bentonite-paste, polyethylene glycol (PEG) paste and a water-dispersible tablet. Formulations were stored at room temperature for 2 years and frequently sampled to test their shelf life. Populations of bacteria in the formulations were stable for up to 2 years storage at room temperature (28{degree}C). Viability of propagules in lignite, lignite + fly ash, bentonite paste, wettable powder and water dispersible tablet formulations was 100% for up to 1 year. However, the viability of propagules was significantly reduced in talc, wettable powder, PEG paste and tablet formulations beyond 1 year of storage. Seed treatment of tomato with these formulations resulted in effective control of damping-off caused by P. aphanidermatum, and also enhanced plant biomass under glasshouse and field conditions. Active rhizosphere colonization by the bacterium was observed on tomato plants grown from seeds treated with the above formulations.

  2. Potential of Epicoccum purpurascens Strain 5615 AUMC as a Biocontrol Agent of Pythium irregulare Root Rot in Three Leguminous Plants.

    Koutb, Mostafa; Ali, Esam H

    2010-12-01

    Epicoccum purpurascens stain 5615 AUMC was investigated for its biocontrol activity against root rot disease caused by Pythium irregulare. E. purpurascens greenhouse pathogenicity tests using three leguminous plants indicated that the fungus was nonpathogenic under the test conditions. The germination rate of the three species of legume seeds treated with a E. purpurascens homogenate increased significantly compared with the seeds infested with P. irregulare. No root rot symptoms were observed on seeds treated with E. purpurascens, and seedlings appeared more vigorous when compared with the non-treated control. A significant increase in seedling growth parameters (seedling length and fresh and dry weights) was observed in seedlings treated with E. purpurascens compared to pathogen-treated seedlings. Pre-treating the seeds with the bioagent fungus was more efficient for protecting seeds against the root rot disease caused by P. irregulare than waiting for disease dispersal before intervention. To determine whether E. purpurascens produced known anti-fungal compounds, an acetone extract of the fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The extract revealed a high percentage of the cinnamic acid derivative (trimethylsiloxy) cinnamic acid methyl ester. The E. purpurascens isolate grew more rapidly than the P. irregulare pathogen in a dual culture on potato dextrose agar nutrient medium, although the two fungi grew similarly when cultured separately. This result may indicate antagonism via antibiosis or competition. PMID:23956668

  3. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  4. Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil

    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqüências de P. insidiosum depositadas no GenBank.Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism, Pythium insidiosum, pathogenic to men and animals. A patient with a phagedenic ulcer on the leg is reported. Histopathological examination was suggestive of zygomycosis, response to antifungal drugs was poor and cure was obtained by means of wide surgical excision. Etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing of colonies isolated in Sabouraud agar. After BLAST analysis, the sequence showed 100% identity with those of P. insidiosum deposited on the GenBank.

  5. Relationships between methods of variety adaptability and stability in sugarcane.

    Mendes de Paula, T O; Marinho, C D; Souza, V; Barbosa, M H P; Peternelli, L A; Kimbeng, C A; Zhou, M M

    2014-01-01

    The identification and recommendation of superior genotypes is crucial for the growth of industrial crops, and sugarcane breeding performs a vital role by developing more productive cultivars. The study of genotype x environment interaction has been an essential tool in this process. Thereby, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between methods of adaptability and stability in sugarcane. Data were collected from trials using a randomized block design with three repetitions and 15 clones of sugarcane in nine environments in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methodologies based on analysis of variance, linear regression, multivariate analysis, nonparametric statistics, and mixed model were used. The methods of Lin and Binns, Annicchiarico, and harmonic mean of relative performance of genotypic values (MHPRVG) were similar in their classification of genotypes. The additive main effect and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) and Wricke methods tended to select the most stable genotypes; however, genotypes were less productive, coinciding with the stability parameter of Eberhart and Russell. The MHPRVG method is preferred over the methods of Lin and Binns and Annicchiarico because it includes the concepts of productivity, adaptability, and stability, and it provide direct genetic values of individuals. The use of the MHPRVG and Eberhart and Russell methods is recommended because the combination of these methods is complementary and leads to greater accuracy in the identification of genotypes of sugarcane for different environments. PMID:25036165

  6. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of sugarcane proteins involved in thermal stress

    Sugarcane has gained worldwide interest due to its potential to produce ethanol as an alternative energy source. 2 Therefore, it is of general interest to study the physiological and biochemical aspects of sugarcane, especially those involved in stress tolerance, which may be important to understand survival during exposure to high temperatures. In plants, sHsps rank among the most important heat shock proteins expressed during heat stress. They can accumulate up to 1% in leaves and are correlated with the acquisition of thermotolerance. In this context, the study of sHsps proteins may lead to strategies for increasing sugarcane survival and fitness, allowing for its growth in regions where sugarcane has not been produced before. (author)

  7. Effect of silicon soil amendment on performance of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice.

    Sidhu, J K; Stout, M J; Blouin, D C; Datnoff, L E

    2013-12-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a pest of graminaceous crops in the southern USA, including sugarcane, maize, and rice. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) soil amendments on performance of sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis, on two rice cultivars, Cocodrie and XL723. There was a significant increase in the Si content of rice plants supplemented with calcium silicate as compared to non-treated plants. Soil Si amendment led to lower relative growth rates (RGRs) and reduced boring success of sugarcane borer larvae. Effects of soil Si amendments on borer success and RGR appeared to be more pronounced in 'Cocodrie', the cultivar relatively susceptible to borers, than in the moderately resistant cultivar, XL723. Soil Si amendment may contribute to the management of D. saccharalis through reduced feeding injury and increased exposure to adverse environmental conditions and natural enemies arising from reduced boring success. PMID:23830057

  8. Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. as influenced by alcohol by-products

    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454, cultivadas simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1 no solo dos vasos (22 L, contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações, e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar.This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp., cultivated simultaneously under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v of each by-product and the check treatment (water were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1 to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height, and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and flegmass reduced B. decumbens emergence and growth and S. rhombifolia growth but did not affect sugarcane growth.

  9. Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production = Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be thebest substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 timesgreater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass andphycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas emrelação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinaspodendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.

  10. Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.121 Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas em relação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0 g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas podendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be the best substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 times greater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass and phycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.

  11. Mutation Breeding in Sugarcane

    The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)

  12. Reguladores vegetais e qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em meio de safra Growth regulators and technological quality of sugarcane in the middle of the cropping season

    Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A maturação da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. refere-se a um dos aspectos fundamentais para o sistema de produção da indústria sucroalcooleira. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos da aplicação de quatro maturadores da classe dos retardantes de crescimento (Ethefon, Etil-trinexapac, KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. A eficiência agronômica dos maturadores foi influenciada pela época de aplicação, pela condição climática e pela característica genética da variedade. A aplicação dos maturadores em 10/05/2004 permitiu explorar de forma significativa o potencial genético da variedade quanto ao acúmulo de sacarose nos colmos, implicando em melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. A adoção dessa prática em 04/08/2005, de modo geral, pouco afetou os parâmetros tecnológicos, exceto a aplicação de Etil-trinexapac, o qual induziu melhoria significativa na qualidade da matéria-prima. A produtividade de açúcar refletiu-se de forma direta na margem de contribuição agrícola, sendo constatado maior retorno econômico para as plantas tratadas com KNO3 na safra 2004.The ripening of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is the most important aspect in the production system for sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the technological quality of sugarcane as a function of plant regulators application in the middle of the cropping season. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators application of the class of growth retainers (Ethephon, Ethyl.trinexapac, Potassium nitrate and Potassium nitrate + Boron and a control (natural ripening. The agricultural efficiency of maturators was affected by time application, weather condition and genetic characteristic of variety. The maturation application on 10/05/2004 allowed to explore of a significant form the genetic potential of variety as to sucrose storage in stems implicating in improvement technological quality of raw material. The maturation application on 04/08/2005 little affected technological parameters, except for Ethyl-trinexapac application, that induced significant improvement in technological quality of raw material. The sugar productivity reflected direct agricultural contribution and provided greater economical return with Potassium nitrate treatment in 2004.

  13. Efficacy of Antifungal Metabolites of Bacillus spp. for Controlling Tomato Damping-off Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    Warin INTANA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4 strains of bacteria were isolated from the leaf surface of the rambutan using a tissue transplanting technique. They were characterized, by a dual culture test, for their efficacy to inhibit mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of the damping-off on tomato. All 4 strains significantly inhibited mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA at room temperature (27 °C. B-NST-02 and B-NST-03 gave values of inhibition of 62.0 % and   57.5 %, respectively. All strains were identified as Bacillus spp. Antifungal metabolites extracted from all 4 strains were tested at 1,000 mg/l. Tomato seedlings treated in the laboratory with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 showed germination of 85.5 % and 82.0 %, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, seedling treated with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 provided seed germination rates were 92.5 % and 92.0 %, respectively, while the controls treated with either sterile water or 2 % methanol had only 28.0 % and 26.5 % seed germination rates, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from 4 strains of Bacillus spp. showed no visible growth, while the control with sterile water or 2 % methanol, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered the whole surface of the PDA in the Petri dish within 5 days.

  14. Crecimiento y acumulacin de prolina en dos genotipos de caa de azcar sometidos a salinizacin con cloruro de sodio Growth and proline accumulation in two sugarcane genotypes under sodium cloride salinization

    M Garca

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron en condiciones de cobertizo, dos genotipos de caa de azcar con respuesta diferencial ante las sales: PR692176 (tolerante y V78-1 (sensible, a fin de obtener informacin sobre las causas de ese comportamiento diferencial. Las plantas crecieron en un sustrato artificial (arena irrigado con solucin nutritiva y cuando tuvieron dos meses de edad se iniciaron los riegos con solucin nutritiva a la que se aadi cloruro de sodio (100 mM. Se determinaron algunos componentes del crecimiento y la acumulacin de prolina en races y en hojas de diferentes edades. La salinizacin con NaCl tuvo efecto negativo sobre el crecimiento de ambos genotipos, pero en el genotipo resistente el rea foliar, peso seco de races y la relacin peso seco del sistema radical/peso seco del sistema areo, se redujeron menos. La acumulacin de prolina aument en las plantas salinizadas, especialmente en races y en las vainas foliares, siendo ese incremento mayor para el genotipo sensible, excepto en la lmina foliar de la hoja ms recientemente expandida (hoja TVD.Two sugarcane genotypes differing in salinity response were evaluated: PR692176 (salt tolerant and V78-1 (salt sensitive, in order to get information about the causes of that differential behavior. The plants grew in an artificial substrate (sand irrigated with nutrient solution and after two months they were subjected to salinization with sodium chloride (100 mM. Some growth parameters and proline accumulation in roots and leaves of different ages were studied. Sodium chloride salinization affected the growth in both genotypes, however, the leaf area, root dry weight and root dry weight/shoot dry weigh ratio were less reducted in the resistant genotype. Proline accumulation was increased in response to salinization, mainly in roots and sheaths. Proline accumulation in the plants under salinization was greater in the sensitive genotype than in the resistant genotype, except in the blade of the leaf forming the top visible dew lap (TVD leaf.

  15. Crecimiento y acumulacin de prolina en dos genotipos de caa de azcar sometidos a salinizacin con cloruro de sodio / Growth and proline accumulation in two sugarcane genotypes under sodium cloride salinization

    M, Garca; E, Medina.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron en condiciones de cobertizo, dos genotipos de caa de azcar con respuesta diferencial ante las sales: PR692176 (tolerante) y V78-1 (sensible), a fin de obtener informacin sobre las causas de ese comportamiento diferencial. Las plantas crecieron en un sustrato artificial (arena) irriga [...] do con solucin nutritiva y cuando tuvieron dos meses de edad se iniciaron los riegos con solucin nutritiva a la que se aadi cloruro de sodio (100 mM). Se determinaron algunos componentes del crecimiento y la acumulacin de prolina en races y en hojas de diferentes edades. La salinizacin con NaCl tuvo efecto negativo sobre el crecimiento de ambos genotipos, pero en el genotipo resistente el rea foliar, peso seco de races y la relacin peso seco del sistema radical/peso seco del sistema areo, se redujeron menos. La acumulacin de prolina aument en las plantas salinizadas, especialmente en races y en las vainas foliares, siendo ese incremento mayor para el genotipo sensible, excepto en la lmina foliar de la hoja ms recientemente expandida (hoja TVD). Abstract in english Two sugarcane genotypes differing in salinity response were evaluated: PR692176 (salt tolerant) and V78-1 (salt sensitive), in order to get information about the causes of that differential behavior. The plants grew in an artificial substrate (sand) irrigated with nutrient solution and after two mon [...] ths they were subjected to salinization with sodium chloride (100 mM). Some growth parameters and proline accumulation in roots and leaves of different ages were studied. Sodium chloride salinization affected the growth in both genotypes, however, the leaf area, root dry weight and root dry weight/shoot dry weigh ratio were less reducted in the resistant genotype. Proline accumulation was increased in response to salinization, mainly in roots and sheaths. Proline accumulation in the plants under salinization was greater in the sensitive genotype than in the resistant genotype, except in the blade of the leaf forming the top visible dew lap (TVD leaf).

  16. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78-3567 (15 kg·m−2 and H-87-4319 (20 kg·m−2 appeared to produce more accumulated carbon in both soil types.

  17. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the potential to detect the impact of climatic effects, such as frost, on crop growth, which is relevant information to evaluate the negative impact on sugarcane production. Thus, the objective of the present study is to detect the impact of the frost occurred on 28 June 2011 in the sugarcane production region of São Paulo state, using MODIS images acquired on board of Terra and Aqua satellites before and after the frost event. Also, Landsat type images were used to map the harvested sugarcane fields up to the frost event based on a sugarcane crop map for year 2011. The remaining sugarcane fields available for harvest in 2011 were monitored with the MODIS images acquired on 17, 19, 27, 28 June and 8 and 9 July, to detect frost damage. Field work was conducted shortly after frost occurrence to identify sugarcane fields with frost damage for training and validation purposes. MODIS images transformed to vegetation indices and morphometric variables extracted from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data are being analyzed to detect and quantify the damage of the frost from 28 July 2011 on sugarcane crop.

  18. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  19. SUGARCANE VARIETY CENSUS FLORIDA 2002

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Cultivars originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by USDA-ARS, the Univ...

  20. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  1. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  2. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2007

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  3. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  4. Soil Compaction Assessment in Sugarcane Fields under Different Planting Conditions Using Soil Bulk Density, Relative Bulk Density and Cone Index

    A. Veisitabar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering soil compaction problem in sugarcane fields due to using heavy harvester and haulout equipment under unsuitable moisture conditions, this research aims to assess soil compaction in sugarcane fields located in Da'balKhazaei Plantation unitofSugarcane Development and By-product Company, Ahvaz. Undisturbed soil samples from the furrow (wheel tracks were collected for measuring soil water content and bulk density. Considering the changes in soil texture of sugarcane fields, for expressing the degree of soilcompactness, in addition to soil bulk density (BD, relative bulk density (BD divided by reference BD was also determined. The change in soil mechanical resistance with depth was determined by a cone penetrometer. Results showed that most of soil BD values measured in the sugarcane fields were in the range of small root development scale (high limitation. Comparingthe calculated RBD values with optimum value (0.85, it was observed that most of the values were higher than the optimum values recommended for root growth. This shows excessivesoil compaction in the sugarcane fields. The values of cone indices measured in soil profiles indicated that most of the values were higher than either limiting (2 MPa or critical (3 MPa values for root growth. Therefore, for improving soil physical fertility and achieving sustainability in crop production, management of farm machinery traffic in sugarcane fields, especially at the harvest time, needs to be reconsidered.

  5. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  6. Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

  7. Micafungin alone and in combination therapy with deferasirox against Pythium insidiosum.

    Zanette, R A; Jesus, F P K; Pilotto, M B; Weiblen, C; Ptter, L; Ferreiro, L; Alves, S H; Santurio, J M

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of micafungin alone and in combination with the iron chelator deferasirox against Pythium insidiosum. Micafungin showed a poor in vitro activity when it was used alone, but synergistic interactions were observed for 88.2% of the strains when the drug was combined with deferasirox. Smaller lesions were observed in infected rabbits receiving the combination therapy, although it favored disease dissemination to the lungs. The present results show that micafungin alone is ineffective against P.insidiosum, and the combination micafungin-deferasirox might have deleterious effects for the host. PMID:25459680

  8. Podredumbre basal de plantas adultas de tomate causada por Pythium aphanidermatum (Oomycota)

    Pablo E, Grijalba; Raul L, Zapata; Hemilse E, Palmucci; Claudio, Baron.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En races de plantas adultas de tomate se observ una lesin castaa de aspecto hmedo, que se extenda 2-4 cm por encima del suelo. Las plantas atacadas se marchitaron y murieron. El objetivo del trabajo fue aislar e identificar al organismo causal de esta sintomatologa. Se usaron medios de cultiv [...] os generales y selectivos. A las 24 horas desarrollaron colonias con micelio blanco algodonoso. Se evalu la morfologa de la colonia y la produccin, morfologa y dimensiones de estructuras reproductivas. El rDNA del micelio de un aislamiento fue extrado de cultivos puros con 7-10 das de crecimiento en medios agarizados. La regin ITS se amplific usando primers ITS4 e ITS5, se secuenci y compar en banco de genes del servidor BLAST- NCBI para verificar su similitud con las secuencias tipo u holotipo disponibles. Al microscopio se observ micelio cenoctico, esporangios esfericos-globulados y oosporas apleroticas caractersticos del gnero Pythium. Se efectuaron pruebas de patogenicidad con resultados positivos reaislndose un microorganismo de caractersticas idnticas. La caracterizacin lograda por las tcnicas tradicionales, los estudios moleculares y el resultado de las pruebas de patogenicidad permiten concluir que Pythium aphanidermatum es el causante de la Podredumbre basal de plantas adultas de Tomate. Abstract in english In roots of adult tomato plants a wet and brown lesion, extending 2-4 cm above the soil was observed. Diseased plants withered and died. The objective of this paper was to isolate and to identify the causal organism of these symptoms. General and selective culture media were used. After 24 hours col [...] onies with white cottony mycelium were developed. The morphology of the colony and the production, morphology and size of reproductive structures were evaluated. The rDNA extraction was made from mycelium of pure cultures 7-10 days old grown in agarized media. The ITS region was amplified using ITS4 and ITS5 primers, sequenced and compared in gene bank - NCBI BLAST server to verify their sequence similarity to the type or holotype available. Coenocytic mycelium, spherical-globular sporangium and aplerotic oospores, characteristic of the genus Pythium were observed in microscopic slides. Pathogenicity tests were conducted with positive results; a microorganism identical to the original was re-isolated. The characterization achieved by traditional techniques, molecular studies and the results of the pathogenicity tests support the conclusion that Pythium aphanidermatum is the causal agent of basal rot on mature plants of tomato.

  9. Sugarcane cropping and cattle husbandry integration

    Taube-Netto, Miguel; Pinto, Luis Franco de Campos; Castaneda-Ayarza, Juan; Cortez, Luis Augusto B.

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian proposal to replace 5% of gasoline worldwide, mathematical programming and simulation of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, modeling scenario of sugar cane and beef production in Brazil, mathematical modelling of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production, modelling variables and constraints, objective function, optimized results of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, and further potential applications.

  10. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest; biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduce risks of groundwater contamination, eutrophication of surface waters, soil pollution, and acidifi...

  11. Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

    Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de Castro; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Miguel Ângelo Mutton

    2014-01-01

    The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N) fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira,...

  12. Isolation of cellulolytic bacteria from the intestine of Diatraea saccharalis larvae and evaluation of their capacity to degrade sugarcane biomass.

    Dantur, Karina I; Enrique, Ramón; Welin, Björn; Castagnaro, Atilio P

    2015-01-01

    As a strategy to find efficient lignocellulose degrading enzymes/microorganisms for sugarcane biomass pretreatment purposes, 118 culturable bacterial strains were isolated from intestines of sugarcane-fed larvae of the moth Diatraea saccharalis. All strains were tested for cellulolytic activity using soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degrading assays or by growing bacteria on sugarcane biomass as sole carbon sources. Out of the 118 strains isolated thirty eight were found to possess cellulose degrading activity and phylogenetic studies of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed that all cellulolytic strains belonged to the phyla γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Within the three phyla, species belonging to five different genera were identified (Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Microbacterium, Bacillus and Enterococcus). Bacterial growth on sugarcane biomass as well as extracellular endo-glucanase activity induced on soluble cellulose was found to be highest in species belonging to genera Bacillus and Klebsiella. Good cellulolytic activity correlated with high extracellular protein concentrations. In addition, scanning microscopy studies revealed attachment of cellulolytic strains to different sugarcane substrates. The results of this study indicate the possibility to find efficient cellulose degrading enzymes and microorganisms from intestines of insect larvae feeding on sugarcane and their possible application in industrial processing of sugarcane biomass such as second generation biofuel production. PMID:25852992

  13. Control of Chinese-kale damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum by antifungal metabolites of Trichoderma virens

    Chiradej Chamswarng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven strains of Trichoderma virens were isolated from Chinese-kale planting soil in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Efficacy of those isolates to inhibit mycelial growth and overgrow on mycelia ofPythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of damping-off on Chinese-kale, were determined by a dual culture test. All strains significantly inhibited growth and overgrew on mycelia of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA as compared with the control. Strains T-NST-01, T-NST-05 and T-NST-07 gave high values of inhibition by 85.5, 82.5 and 78.5%, respectively. For efficacy to overgrow on mycelia of pathogen test, strains T-NST-05, T-NST-07 and T-NST-01 provided 48.3, 47.0 and 46.1% of mycelial overgrowth, respectively. Antifungal metabolites were extracted from three promising strains and tested against mycelial growth and sporangium production of P. aphanidermatum. The results showed that 1,000 mg/L of all metabolites completely inhibited mycelial growth and sporangium production. Under laboratory condition, all metabolites (1,000 mg/L significantly increased the number of Chinese-kale seedling germination, especially the metabolites from T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 provided germination of 92.5 and 87.5%, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, Chinese-kale seedlings treated with 1,000 mg/L of metabolites from strains T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 survived by 90.5 and 87.5%, respectively, while the control 1 (sterile water and control 2 (2% methanol had 19.0 and 18.5% of survived seedlings, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from three strains of T. virens showed no visible growth, while the control with 2% methanol or sterile water, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered whole surface of PDA in of the Petri dish within 4 days.

  14. RESISTANCE TO PHYTOPHTHORA ERYTHROSEPTICA AND PYTHIUM ULTIMUM IN A POTATO CLONE DERIVED FROM S. BERTHAULTII AND S. ETUBEROSUM

    Tubers of several potato clones and cultivars were screened for susceptibility to infection by zoospores of Phytophthora erythroseptica and mycelia of Pythium ultimum over a three year period, from 2003-2005. Incidence of infected tubers (%) and penetration of rot (mm) were the parameters used to de...

  15. Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.

    Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

  16. PCR based identification of Pythium spp. causing cavity spot in carrots and sensitive detection in soil samples

    Cavity spot is caused by several Pythium species and is one of the most economically important diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Diagnosis of the pathogens in soil and in carrot tissue has been complicated. On the bases of ITS sequences PCR primers were designed for the identification of the fi...

  17. Lack of Pythium aphanidermatum transmission by adult fungus gnats (Bradysia impatiens) and investigation of larval vectoring capacity

    Studies have provided evidence for transmission of plant pathogens by greenhouse-inhabiting fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). The goal of this study was to determine if fungus gnats are vectors of Pythium aphanidermatum. In the first of a series of laboratory experiment, 10 adult gnats were released i...

  18. Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

  19. Influence of Pythium oligandrum Biocontrol on Fungal and Oomycete Population Dynamics in the Rhizosphere?

    Vallance, Jessica; Le Floch, Gatan; Dniel, Franck; Barbier, Georges; Lvesque, C. Andr; Rey, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Fungal and oomycete populations and their dynamics were investigated following the introduction of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum into the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in soilless culture. Three strains of P. oligandrum were selected on the basis of their ability to form oospores (resting structures) and to produce tryptamine (an auxin-like compound) and oligandrin (a glycoprotein elicitor). Real-time PCR and plate counting demonstrated the persistence of large amounts of the antagonistic oomycete in the rhizosphere throughout the cropping season (April to September). Inter-simple-sequence-repeat analysis of the P. oligandrum strains collected from root samples at the end of the cropping season showed that among the three strains used for inoculation, the one producing the smallest amount of oospores was detected at 90%. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis revealed increases in the number of members and the complexity of the fungal community over time. There were no significant differences between the microbial ecosystems inoculated with P. oligandrum and those that were not treated, except for a reduction of Pythium dissotocum (ubiquitous tomato root minor pathogen) populations in inoculated systems during the last 3 months of culture. These findings raise interesting issues concerning the use of P. oligandrum strains producing elicitor and auxin molecules for plant protection and the development of biocontrol. PMID:19447961

  20. Molecular detection of Pythium insidiosum from soil in Thai agricultural areas.

    Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Szekely, Jidapa; Khanthawong, Sophit; Sawutdeechaikul, Pritsana; Vanittanakom, Pramote; Fisher, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic fungus-like organism in the kingdom Stramenopila that causes pythiosis in both humans and animals. Human pythiosis occurs in ocular, localized granulomatous subcutaneous and systemic or vascular forms. Individuals whose occupations involve exposure to aquatic habitats have an elevated risk of contracting pythiosis. Previously, we reported the first successful isolation of Pythium insidiosum from aquatic environmental samples by culture including confirmation using molecular methods. In this study, we show that P. insidiosum inhabitats moist soil environments in agricultural areas. A total of 303 soil samples were collected from 25 irrigation sources in the areas nearby the recorded home addresses of pythiosis patients residing in northern provinces of Thailand. P. insidiosum DNA was identified directly from each soil extract by using a nested PCR assay and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal intragenic spacer region. P. insidiosum DNA could be detected from 16 of the 25 soil sources (64%). Conventional culture methods were also performed, however all samples exhibited negative culture results. We conclude that both irrigation water and soil are the natural reservoirs of P. insidiosum. In endemic areas, the exposure to these environmental reservoirs should be considered a risk factor for hosts susceptible to pythiosis. PMID:24444720

  1. Simple detection of Pythium irregulare using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Feng, Wenzhuo; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Hotta, Keisuke; Watanabe, Hideki; Suga, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Koji

    2015-11-01

    Pythium irregulare is an important soil-borne pathogen that causes seed, stem and root rot, and seedling damping-off in various crops. Here, we have developed a rapid and reliable approach for detecting the pathogen using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in combination with primers designed from the sequences of the P. irregulare ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. The specificity of the primers for P. irregulare was tested using 50 isolates of 40 Pythium species, 11 Phytophthora isolates and 8 isolates of 7 other soil-borne pathogens. The assay showed that the limit of sensitivity of the LAMP method was 100 fg of pure DNA, a similar level to that of a polymerase chain reaction. LAMP detected P. irregulare from the supernatant after mixing culture medium (template DNA source) with distilled water. Similarly, positive results were obtained using a 'Plant-LAMP' method applied to a suspension rotted roots in water. A 'Bait-LAMP' method using the supernatant of autoclaved perilla seeds incubated in a soil/water mixture for 1 week at 25C successfully detected P. irregulare from the soil. The LAMP assay described in this study is therefore a simple and effective way for practical detection of P. irregulare. PMID:26394643

  2. Oxidative stress response in sugarcane

    Luis Eduardo Soares Netto

    2001-01-01

    Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide ...

  3. Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased leaves, percentage severity were measured. Growth and yield parameters such as stalk length, number of leaves, number of tillers and yield parameters such as fresh and dry shoot weights, percentage dry matter at harvest were also measured. Analysis of variance showed that percentage severity of sugarcane mosaic disease, increased in non-weeded plots compared with weeded plots. Twice weeding (52.1% and the weed free plots (53.7% had the significantly lowest severities. Varietal influence significantly influenced severity and variety NCO-270 produced the significantly lowest severity (45.8%.The interaction of weeding regime and variety indicated that variety CB36411 in the weed free plots, produced the lowest severity (33.5%.Yield parameters showed that significantly highest shoot weight was recorded in the weed free plot, while variety NCO-270 gave the highest fresh and dry shoot weights (254.8g and 50.2g respectively. The results indicate that variety NCO-270 was the most tolerant and that weeding at least once in six months is required to mitigate the effect of sugarcane mosaic disease, as witnessed in significantly increased growth and yield attributes of plants in the weeded plots.

  4. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia

    2003-12-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  5. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  6. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  7. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Alcarde Andr Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and may influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated; yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%.

  8. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    Leite, José M.; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; Mariano, Eduardo; Vieira-Megda, Michele X.; Trivelin, Paulo C. O.

    2016-01-01

    Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers) and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. In-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components), internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio) and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K) were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential–linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply) and crop demand (potential yield). Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K) and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1) were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1) and N:K (0.5:1) ratios.

  9. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I.; Mattos, Raphael S.; Ferreira, Thaís H.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cu...

  10. Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

  11. Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls

    Patrick Schmidt; Luiz Gustavo Nussio; Oscar Cézar Müller Queiroz; Mateus Castilho Santos; Maity Zopollatto; Sérgio Gil de Toledo Filho; João Luiz Pratti Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes β-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control) or with L. buchneri at a theoretical application rate of 5 × 10(4) cfu/g, 1 × 10(5) cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5) cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo) and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 ...

  12. Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) / Seletividade de herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-acar para imaturos de Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    H.N., Oliveira; M.R., Antigo; G.A., Carvalho; D.F., Glaeser.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas so frequentemente utilizados no manejo da cana-de-acar. Entretanto, o uso de compostos no seletivos pode prejudicar a eficincia de insetos benficos no manejo integrado de pragas. Nesse contexto, avaliou-se o efeito desses produtos sobre as fas [...] es imaturas do parasitoide Trichogramma galloi. Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis contendo o parasitoide no perodo de ovo-larva e nas fases de pr-pupa e pupa foram imersos em caldas dos produtos avaliados (doses mximas recomendadas para a cana-de-acar), sendo eles: os herbicidas clomazone e diuron+hexazinone e os reguladores de crescimento de plantas sulfometuron-methyl e trinexapac-ethyl. As caractersticas biolgicas avaliadas foram a emergncia (geraes F1 e F2) e o nmero de ovos parasitados por T. galloi (F1). Os produtos foram classificados, conforme percentual de reduo da emergncia e parasitismo, em: incuo (99%). Os compostos avaliados foram classificados como incuos ou levemente prejudiciais aos imaturos de T. galloi e, por isso, devem ser preferidos, visando preservao dessa espcie de parasitoide em programas de manejo da cana-de-acar. Abstract in english Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products o [...] n the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test solutions of the following pesticides (maximum recommended doses for sugarcane): herbicides clomazone and diuron + hexazinone, and plant growth regulators trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl. The biological properties evaluated were emergence (F1 and F2) and number of eggs parasitized by T. galloi (F1). The products were classified according to percentage of reduction in emergence and parasitism: harmless (99%). The pesticides evaluated were considered to be harmless or slightly harmful to immature T. galloi and, thus, their use should be preferred for preserving this parasitoid species in sugarcane management programs.

  13. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    Debora Danielle Virginio da Silva; Elisangela de Jesus Cândido; Priscila Vaz de Arruda; Silvio Silvério da Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with diff...

  14. Study on Bt Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms in the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis

    Dose response and growth inhibition of Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, were evaluated with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the Cry1Ab-resistant strain was estimated to be >80- and 45-fold greater than that of...

  15. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  16. Tvbgn3, a beta-1,6-glucanase from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens, is involved in mycoparasitism and control of Pythium ultimum.

    Djonovi?, Slavica; Pozo, Maria J; Kenerley, Charles M

    2006-12-01

    Even though beta-1,6-glucanases have been purified from several filamentous fungi, the physiological function has not been conclusively established for any species. In the present study, the role of Tvbgn3, a beta-1,6-glucanase from Trichoderma virens, was examined by comparison of wild-type (WT) and transformant strains in which Tvbgn3 was disrupted (GKO) or constitutively overexpressed (GOE). Gene expression analysis revealed induction of Tvbgn3 in the presence of host fungal cell walls, indicating regulation during mycoparasitism. Indeed, while deletion or overexpression of Tvbgn3 had no evident effect on growth and development, GOE and GKO strains showed an enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to inhibit the growth of the plant pathogen Pythium ultimum compared to results with the WT. The relevance of this activity in the biocontrol ability of T. virens was confirmed in plant bioassays. Deletion of the gene resulted in levels of disease protection that were significantly reduced from WT levels, while GOE strains showed a significantly increased biocontrol capability. These results demonstrate the involvement of beta-1,6-glucanase in mycoparasitism and its relevance in the biocontrol activity of T. virens, opening a new avenue for biotechnological applications. PMID:16997978

  17. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Glaucia Mendes Souza; Ana Carolina Quirino Simoes; Katia Cristina Oliveira; Humberto Miguel Garay; Leonardo Costa Fiorini; Felipe dos Santos Gomes; Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior; Aline Maria da Silva

    2001-01-01

    EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br) that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue (h...

  18. Investigations on Sugarcane De-Trashing Mechanisms

    Joby Bastian, B. Shridar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is the second most important industrial crop in India grown in 4.4 million hectares with an average productivity of about 68 tonnes per hectare (Anon.2013. To mitigate the labour scarcity and ensure timely operations mechanization is a must. Mechanisation will also improve the overall energy use efficiency of sugarcane based farming (Duttamajumder et al. 2011. About 45-48% of the total cost of cultivation is accountable to harvesting operation in manual harvesting. Mechanisation of harvesting operations is imperative in increasing the cost effectiveness of sugarcane production system.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

  20. Yield and quality of induced mutants in sugarcane

    Twenty-one near-normal and 4 drastic mutants isolated from mutagen-treated (X-rays, gamma rays and chemical mutagens) sugarcane variety 'Co 419' were tested for yield and juice quality. Mutants '368. and '419/1' had higher yield of cane and higher commercial cane sugar than 'Co 419'. Several mutants, especially the drastic mutants, had higher percentage of sucrose than 'Co 419'. The types with higher percentage of sucrose occurred much more frequently than the higher-yielding ones, indicating more frequent occurrence of disturbances in growth, resulting in diversion of more sucrose to storage than to the apical meristem. (auth.)

  1. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Maia Ivan G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  2. Pythium periplocum, an aggressive mycoparasite of Botrytis cinerea causing the gray mould disease of grape-vine.

    Paul, B

    1999-12-15

    Pythium periplocum Dreschler has been found to be an aggressive mycoparasite of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of the gray mould disease of the grape-vine. When grown together, the former enters the latter's mycelium, branches freely within, coagulates its cytoplasm and finally tears its hyphae apart, bringing about widespread destruction of the grape-vine pathogen. Extensive coiling around the host, as reported in the case of other mycoparasites belonging to the genus Pythium, has not been observed here. The infected mycelium of B. cinerea fails to infect the grape-vine and does not induce the characteristic gray mould symptoms. Since P. periplocum is not a grape-vine parasite, it could be useful for the biological control of B. cinerea. A brief account of this mycoparasitism is discussed in this article. PMID:10585549

  3. AN APPROACH TO FINANCIAL RISK IN A PORTFOLIO FOR PLANNING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM SUGARCANE

    Thárcylla R.N. Clemente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil's location and tropical weather conditions are favourable cultivating sugarcane, which has led to Brazil being one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The influence of the sugarcane industry on its economy stands out among the indicators of Brazilian economic growth and because the diversified investment when planning the production of products derived from this sector is encouraged. The decision on which derivative (for example, crystal sugar, anhydrous ethanol, or hydrous ethanol to produce from raw sugarcane can be modelled as an investment decision in a portfolio decision problem whenever a combination of these products is considered. As to the future price of these commodities, raw sugarcane is considered to be capital that should be invested. Thus, this paper puts forward a decision model which uses concepts from Decision Analysis and Bayesian Risk Analysis that may well assist the process of managing assets in the Brazilian sugarcane industry by considering the financial aspect when compiling a portfolio for planning production.

  4. Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.

    Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

    2013-05-01

    Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale. PMID:23297683

  5. Gliotoxin-producing endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale found antagonistic to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum.

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-04-01

    Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M + H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus. PMID:25820297

  6. Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane

    O.H.P. Ramos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many bacterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.Metaloproteases exercem papis importantes em muitos processos fisiolgicos em mamferos tais como migrao celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas esto envolvidas tambm na pato-fisiologia de um grande nmero de doenas humanas como hipertenso e cncer. Muitas bactrias patognicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactrias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presena e a caracterizao de metaloproteases em plantas esto pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi pesquisada a biblioteca de cDNA de etiquetas de seqncias expressas da cana-de-acar (SUCEST para identificar, por homologia com seqncias depositadas em outros bancos de dados, famlias gnicas de metaloproteases expressas em diferentes condies. Foram utilizadas seqncias proticas de Arabidopis thaliana e Glycine max e seqncias de nucleotdeos de Sorghum bicolor. Regies conservadas correspondentes aos diferentes domnios e motivos de seqncia de metaloproteases foram identificadas nos cDNAs de cana-de-acar para caracterizar cada grupo de enzimas. Pelo menos quatro classes de metaloproteases foram identificadas na cana-deacar, a saber, metaloproteases de matriz extracelular, zincinas, inverzincinas e metaloproteases dependentes de ATP. Cada uma destas classes foi analisada quanto a sua expresso nas diferentes condies e tecidos utilizados na construo das bibliotecas de cDNA.

  7. Biological Control of Pythium aphanidermatum, the Causal Agent of Damping off Disease of Greenhouse Cucurbits in Kerman Province of Iran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes enhance soil fertility and have antagonistic activity against wide range of plant root-pathogens. These micro organisms were isolated from agricultural soils of Kerman and Fars Provinces as pure cultures. Pythium aphanidermatum, causes damping off and root and stem rots of cucurbits worldwide. From 178 Actinomycetes isolates, 43 inhibited growth of the pathogen in culture plates and two of the most active isolates exhibited biological control of the pathogen under greenhouse conditions. When plants were grown in sterile soil mix and treated both with Actinomycetes and the pathogen, the number of healthy plants increased dramatically and the symptoms on diseased plants were less severe in comparison with seedlings treated with the pathogen alone. From the collected data it was well conclusive that in greenhouse tests, soil applications of Actinomycetes controlled causal agent of damping off in cucurbit seedlings. Antifungal activity was of fungicidal type on the pathogen mycelia. Regarding biotechnological implications, the results indicate that the active isolates can be investigated for use as biofertilizers, biofungicides and use in future development of recombinant DNA in cucurbits bearing elevated resistance to damping off. Field trials of the active isolates are under investigation.

  8. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  9. Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.

    Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janana Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

  10. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  11. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A. [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Department of Mechanics and Aeronautics, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Marcelo, D. [University of Piura, Department of Energy, Av. Ramon Mugica, 131 Piura (Peru)

    2009-05-15

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits. (author)

  12. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production

  13. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  14. Effects of traffic control on the soil physical quality and the cultivation of sugarcane

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane with intensive use of machinery, especially for harvest, induces soil compaction, affecting the crop development. The control of agricultural traffic is an alternative of management in the sector, with a view to preserve the soil physical quality, resulting in increased sugarcane root growth, productivity and technological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Oxisol with and without control traffic and the resulting effects on sugarcane root development, productivity and technological quality. The following managements were tested: no traffic control (NTC, traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and sugarcane trailer (TC1 and traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and trailer and use of an autopilot (TC2. Soil samples were collected (layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m in the plant rows, inter-row center and seedbed region, 0.30 m away from the plant row. The productivity was measured with a specific weighing scale. The technological variables of sugarcane were measured in each plot. Soil cores were collected to analyze the root system. In TC2, the soil bulk density and compaction degree were lowest and total porosity and macroporosity highest in the plant row. Soil penetration resistance in the plant row, was less than 2 MPa in TC1 and TC2. Soil aggregation and total organic carbon did not differ between the management systems. The root surface and volume were increased in TC1 and TC2, with higher productivity and sugar yield than under NTC. The sugarcane variables did not differ between the managements. The soil physical quality in the plant row was preserved under management TC1 and TC2, with an improved root development and increases of 18.72 and 20.29 % in productivity and sugar yield, respectively.

  15. Pheromone-based trapping of West Indian sugarcane weevil in a sugarcane plantation.

    Oehlschlager, Allan C; Gonzalez, Lilliana; Gomez, Manuel; Rodriguez, Carlos; Andrade, Romano

    2002-08-01

    Attraction of Metamasius hemipterus (Oliver) to gallon and bamboo traps baited with insecticide-treated sugarcane, the male-produced pheromone, 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 2-methyl-4-heptanol is more efficient if ethyl acetate is added. The optimal traps are ground-level gallon traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane, pheromone, and ethyl acetate. Capture rates of ground-level gallon traps are doubled by placing an insecticide-laced pad under the trap, but significantly decreased by placing the trap on a stick above ground. The efficiency of ground-level gallon traps is the same as ground level ramp traps. Mass-trapping M. hemipterus in newly planted sugarcane using ground level bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone over six months revealed populations were low for the first two months, became maximum at five months, and declined thereafter. Capture rates of traps bordering newly planted and mature sugarcane were not significantly different from capture rates of traps in the interior of the plots. Capture rates of bamboo traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane and deployed at 30 traps/ha averaged 6 weevils/trap/week compared with 66 weevils/trap/week for traps additionally containing pheromone lures and deployed at 5 traps/ha. Capture rates for bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone and deployed at 10 and 15 traps/ha were 43 and 38 weevils/trap/week, respectively. Total captures were higher in those plots with a higher density of insecticide-laden sugarcane and pheromone baited traps, and the differences were approximately proportional to trap density in the range of 5-15 traps/ha. Capture rates of traps containing insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone were always higher than of traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane, but in the first two months after planting the differences were much greater than in months 3-6 after planting. PMID:12371817

  16. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed

  17. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A. [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos, DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP, CP 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Koehlinger, John [Energy Consultant. 1322 Hepburn Ave 1, Louisville, KY 40204 (United States); Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto [ENEA Trisaia Research Centre. Prot-STP. SS106 Jonica, Rotondella (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed. (author)

  18. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23900800

  19. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine Based on Motion Controller

    Zhang Dehui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a common raw material for sugar, but in the process of machining, there will be suspended solids in the cane juice, in order to process better, the sugarcane should be peeled. Traditional way of peeling is by man, production efficiency is low. In this study, a kind of sugarcane peeling machine was designed based on motion controller, it can realize the automation of input, peeling and output. It can make certain contribution for sugarcane processing.

  20. CRICISE BEFORE SUGARCANE GROWERS: DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM SOME REMEDIAL MEASURES

    ANIL BARBOLE AND B.B.JAGTAP

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to study the constraints faced by the Sugarcane growers and to suggest some remedial measures for use of Drip Irrigation System. Drip Irrigation may help to solve the most important problem of irrigation to sugarcane- water scarcityandrising electricity bills. Majority of sugarcane growers faced the constraints i.e. the higher initial costs for installation of drip irrigation unit and clogging and cracking of emitters.Mostly the sugarcane grow...

  1. The Large-Scale Sugarcane Stripper with Automatic Feeding

    Jiaxiang Lin; Wenjie Yan; Jiaping Lin

    2012-01-01

    This study mainly introduce the large-scale sugarcane stripper with automatic feeding, which including the automatic feeding module, cleaning leaves module, collecting module and control module. The machine is an important part of the segmental type sugarcane harvester, using to solve the highest labor intensity problem of cleaning leaves. Collecting the hilly areas sugarcane and cleaning their leaves, can greatly improve the labor productivity and changing the current mode of sugarcane harvest.

  2. The Large-Scale Sugarcane Stripper with Automatic Feeding

    Jiaxiang Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study mainly introduce the large-scale sugarcane stripper with automatic feeding, which including the automatic feeding module, cleaning leaves module, collecting module and control module. The machine is an important part of the segmental type sugarcane harvester, using to solve the highest labor intensity problem of cleaning leaves. Collecting the hilly areas sugarcane and cleaning their leaves, can greatly improve the labor productivity and changing the current mode of sugarcane harvest.

  3. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine Based on Motion Controller

    Zhang Dehui

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a common raw material for sugar, but in the process of machining, there will be suspended solids in the cane juice, in order to process better, the sugarcane should be peeled. Traditional way of peeling is by man, production efficiency is low. In this study, a kind of sugarcane peeling machine was designed based on motion controller, it can realize the automation of input, peeling and output. It can make certain contribution for sugarcane processing.

  4. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail

    2014-06-09

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70. kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.

    Mohammad Suhail Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%, catalytic activity (13%, cell growth (10% and transport related proteins (6%. A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane.

  6. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Khraiwesh, Basel; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Gupta, Ram Sagar; Singh, Jyotsnendra; Duttamajumder, Sanjoy Kumar; Kapur, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. PMID:25009768

  7. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  8. Disease resistance in sugarcane An overview

    A. Ramesh Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops cultivated world-wide both under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. The crop gains economic importance by virtue of its industrial potential in terms of products like crystal white sugar, bagasse, pressmud, power etc. Among the various production constraints of the crop, diseases are seen as a major threat for sustaining the productivity of sugarcane. Conventional Breeding is a lengthy process and it involves almost more than 10 years for the release of a commercial variety. Many varieties with superior agronomical traits have succumbed to diseases like red rot and smut during the course of cultivation, which hitherto at the time of release were rated to be resistant. The breakdown of disease resistance is attributed to the possible emergence of new virulent pathotypes. This situation has warranted a pertinent need to have a thorough understanding on inheritance pattern and mechanism of disease resistance in sugarcane, which would aid for quick screening of disease resistant clones and successful management of the diseases, respectively. Overall, there is a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant disease resistance, thanks to the advent of robust molecular tools. An integration of the tools of Omics namely genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc. has further strengthened in deciphering plant-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. With the accomplishments in elucidating sugarcane ESTs, which was ably supported by employing the next generation sequencing platforms to unlock the secrets of pathogenomics in sugarcane, it is now made possible to further improve our understanding on disease resistance in sugarcane. Giving the scenario, the future looks evenmore promising, wherein convincing results are in the offing to thoroughly unravel the enigmatic relationship between sugarcane and its important pathogens.

  9. Modelling response patterns of physico-chemical indicators during high-rate composting of green waste for suppression of Pythium ultimum.

    St Martin, Chaney C G; Bekele, Isaac; Eudoxie, Gaius D; Bristol, Dexter; Brathwaite, Richard A I; Campo, Kenia-Rosa

    2014-01-01

    High-rate composting studies on green waste, i.e. banana leaves (BL) and lawn clippings (LC), were conducted in 0.25-m3 rotary barrel composters to evaluate and model changes in key physico-chemical parameters during composting. Time to compost maturity and antagonistic effects and relationships of composts against Pythium ultimum were also investigated. Higher temperatures were achieved in LC compost (LCC), which did not translate to higher total organic carbon (TOC) loss but resulted in lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and a more mature compost. With the exception of electrical conductivity (EC), net decreases were observed in pH, TOC and C:N across compost types. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) showed a net increase in LCC and a net decrease in BLC. With the exception of TOC and pH, the results showed that compost type and time had a significant effect on the respective TKN, EC and C:N models. Compost temperature and TOC were best described by the critical exponential and rectangular hyperbola functions, respectively. Whereas TKN, C:N and pH were described using double Fourier functions and EC using Fourier functions. Composts achieved maturity within 19 days and significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum. Bacterial population was positively related to growth inhibition (GI) across compost types, whereas total microbial population had a positive relationship with GI in LCC. Evidence suggests that multiple groups of microorganisms contributed to GI through antibiosis and competition for resources. Composts were determined to be suitable for use as components of plant growth substrates based on compost maturity indices. PMID:24645438

  10. Detecting sugarcane yellow leaf virus in asymptomatic sugarcane leaves with hyperspectral remote sensing and associated leaf pigment changes

    Sugarcane yellow leaf caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) does not produce visual symptoms in most susceptible sugarcane plants until late in the growing season. High-resolution, hyperspectral reflectance data from SCYLV-infected and non-infected leaves of two cultivars, LCP 85-384 and Ho...

  11. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  12. Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    Naureen Chaudhary; Javed I. Qazi

    2006-01-01

    Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI) and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH4)2SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II). The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH4)2SO4, 0.075% MgSO4,...

  13. Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura

    Josilaine A. C. Durange; Margareth R. L. Santos; Marcelo M. Pereira; Luiz A. P. Fernandes Jr.; Marcio N. Souza; Anderson N. Mendes; Liena M. Mesa; Caio G. Snchez; Elisabete M. S. Sanchez; Juan M. M. Prez; Carvalho, Nakdia M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500C, in presence of air. Sugarcane in natura was also pyrolysed as a model for comparison, in order to determine the viability of processing different sources of raw biomass. T...

  14. Rock biofertilizer and earthworm compost on sugarcane performance and soil attributes in two consecutive years

    Newton Pereira Stamford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The deployment of soluble fertilizers has been one of the most commonly applied agricultural practices in the bid to increase crop yield. However, the production of soluble fertilizers has a considerable economic cost and consumes a substantial amount of energy. In general, soil organic matter provides the nutrients needed for plant growth in organic agriculture. However, these nutrients are not sufficient if the best yield is to be obtained. The aim of our field experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphate and potassic sources (rocks, bio-fertilizers and soluble fertilizers based on several sugarcane characteristics and soil attributes. Our experiment was conducted over two consecutive years, and we assessed the effect of using sugarcane filter mud cake (SFMC. In addition, we mixed the phosphate and potassic sources with earthworm compost enriched in N by inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria (OM and applied at 50, 100 and 150 % of the recommended dosage rate (RDR. The PK biofertilizer with OM enriched in N positively affected sugarcane height, yield, and industrial characteristics. The application of SFMC greatly increased available P and K in the soil and plant characteristics with residual effect in the two consecutive harvests. We conclude that the biofertilizer has the potential to increase sugarcane characteristics and may represent an alternative to soluble fertilizers.

  15. Efficient and repeated production of succinic acid by turning sugarcane bagasse into sugar and support.

    Chen, Pengcheng; Tao, Shengtao; Zheng, Pu

    2016-07-01

    Here we reported an endeavor in making full use of sugarcane bagasse for biological production of succinic acid. Through NaOH pre-treatment and multi-enzyme hydrolysis, a reducing sugar solution mainly composed of glucose and xylose was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse. By optimizing portions of cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase and pectinase in the multi-enzyme "cocktail", the hydrolysis percentage of the total cellulose in pre-treated sugarcane bagasse can be as high as 88.5%. A. succinogenes CCTCC M2012036 was used for converting reducing sugars into succinic acid in a 3-L bioreactor with a sugar-fed strategy to prevent cell growth limitation. Importantly, cells were found to be adaptive on the sugarcane bagasse residue, offering possibilities of repeated batch fermentation and replacement for MgCO3 with soluble NaHCO3 in pH modulation. Three cycles of fermentation without activity loss were realized with the average succinic acid yield and productivity to be 80.5% and 1.65g·L(-1)·h(-1). PMID:27035471

  16. Development of cassava plants and its mycorrhizal association in soil supplemented with sugarcane agroindustrial residue

    Jorge Messias Leal Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic agroindustrial residues on agriculture can be one way to improve the development and chemical composition of plants, reducing the cost with chemical fertilizers and impacts generated by the excessive use of them. Sugarcane agroindustrial residue has been generated in high quantity in Brazilian semiarid region and can be applied to cassava crop to improve its growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of sugarcane agroindustrial residue on the vegetative development, chemical composition and mycorrhizal association of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta var. Engana ladro. It was performed an experiment in greenhouse with completely randomized design with four treatments of addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue (0, 5, 10 and 15% with nine replicates. The addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue increased fresh dry root biomass, leaf area, crude protein and mineral matter, without reducing the mycorrhizal colonization and glomerospores number. This type of residue can be one alternative to improve the nutritional value of these fodder.

  17. ITS1 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the mycoparasite Pythium periplocum, its taxonomy, and its comparison with related species.

    Paul, B; Masih, I

    2000-08-01

    Pythium periplocum Drechsler was isolated from some soil samples taken in the botanical garden of Tenerife, Canary Islands. This fungus has been found to be an aggressive mycoparasite of Botrytis cinerea. It is unique amongst the members of the genus Pythium because of the character combination of inflated filamentous type of sporangia and ornamented oogonia. The taxonomic description of this fungus and its comparison with related species, together with the polymerase chain reaction of the internal transcribed spacer of its nuclear ribosomal DNA, are discussed in this article. PMID:10913866

  18. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  19. Induction and isolation of mutants in sugarcane

    A review of the progress made on the induction of mutations in sugarcane at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, is presented. A description of some of the mutants is given. A few disease-resistant mutants have been obtained. Yield of C.C.S./ha of some of the mutants has surpassed the parent variety. Selection based on individual canes has increased the mutation rate and stability of mutants. Different techniques such as decapitation, closer planting and growing vM1 generation at different N levels have been observed to be promising methods to increase mutation rate. Raising of plants from mutated tissues by in vitro culture seems to be a potential tool in induced mutagenesis in sugarcane. (author)

  20. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    Neves Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

  1. EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum

    LILIANA SERNA-COCK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de microorganismos como fertilizante, ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos sobre el crecimiento de plantas y son una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes guímicos, sin embargo, cada microorganismo difiere en sus efectos benéficos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum y Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento en maceta de plantas de caña de azúcar variedad CC 934418. El crecimiento de las plantas se midió en términos de diámetro del tallo, longitud de tallo y raíces, y número de hojas y raíces a los 15, 30 y 45 días de la siembra. El crecimiento de las plantas mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. Los microorganismos fertilizantes mostraron efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de caña de azúcar, siendo Azospirillum brasilense y Trichoderma lignorum los microorganismos gue ejercieron mayor efecto sobre el diámetro del tallo y los sistemas radical y foliar de la planta. Se observaron los efectos beneficiosos de Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento de la hoja. Este es un nuevo aporte científico, ya que esta especie no ha sido reportada como promotora de crecimiento vegetal.0 uso de microrganismos como fertilizante, tem sido demonstrado gue têm efeitos benéficos no crescimento das plantas e são considerados uma alternativa ao uso de fertilizantes guímicos, no entanto, cada microrganismo possui diferentes efeitos benéficos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da aplicação de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum e Trichoderma lignorum no crescimento de cana-de-açucar da variedade CC 934418 plantadas em vasos. 0 crescimento das plantas foi medido em termos do diâmetro do caule, comprimento de caule e da raiz e número de folhas e raízes nos dias 15, 30 e 45 após a semeadura. 0 crescimento da planta mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal.The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of Brazilian isolates of Pythium insidiosum based on ITS rDNA and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    Azevedo, M I; Botton, S A; Pereira, D I B; Robe, L J; Jesus, F P K; Mahl, C D; Costa, M M; Alves, S H; Santurio, J M

    2012-09-14

    Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that is the causative agent of pythiosis. Advances in molecular methods have enabled increased accuracy in the diagnosis of pythiosis, and in studies of the phylogenetic relationships of this oomycete. To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil, and also regarding to other American and Thai isolates, in this study a total of thirty isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil was used and had their ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2 rDNA (ITS) region and the partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase II (COX II) gene sequenced and analyzed. The outgroup consisted of six isolates of other Pythium species and one of Lagenidium giganteum. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and COX II genes were conducted, both individually and in combination, using four different methods: Maximum parsimony (MP); Neighbor-joining (NJ); Maximum likelihood (ML); and Bayesian analysis (BA). Our data supported P. insidiosum as monophyletic in relation to the other Pythium species, and COX II showed that P. insidiosum appears to be subdivided into three major polytomous groups, whose arrangement provides the Thai isolates as paraphyletic in relation to the Brazilian ones. The molecular analyses performed in this study suggest an evolutionary proximity among all American isolates, including the Brazilian and the Central and North America isolates, which were grouped together in a single entirely polytomous clade. The COX II network results presented signals of a recent expansion for the American isolates, probably originated from an Asian invasion source. Here, COX II showed higher levels bias, although it was the source of higher levels of phylogenetic information when compared to ITS. Nevertheless, the two markers chosen for this study proved to be entirely congruent, at least with respect to phylogenetic relationships between different isolates of P. insidiosum. PMID:22483240

  3. Differentiation Between Two Isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum Isolated from Diseased Plants in Two Different Continents

    Hani M.A. Abdelzaher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the differences between two distinct isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, the diseased organisms of wheat and lettuce in agricultural fields in each of Egypt and Germany, respectively. Morphological study indicated that the Egyptian and German isolates comprised a single taxon, P. ultimum var. ultimum, by the current taxonomical keys. The isolates were morphologically distinguished as having smaller or larger sexual organs by the sizes of their antheridia and oogonia. The German isolate grew faster in the lower temperature range of 4-15°C whereas the Egyptian isolate grew faster in the higher temperature range of 25-37°C. Similarities in the sequence of the r-DNA-ITS including the 5.8S rDNA demonstrated evident genetic similarity at the species level between the two isolates and should be used for confirmation of identification of species of Pythium. The two isolates were not distinguishable by their pathogenicity to cucumber seedlings. The effect of temperature, hydrogen ion concentration and osmotic potential on oospores production and germination were studied. Oospores production and germination showed a similar manner, however, the Egyptian isolate produced more oospores than the German isolate. Identification of the Egyptian and German isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum to the species level can be done using sequencing of r-DNA-ITS including the 5.8S rDNA, however, some morphological and physiological differences might present within the same species. This might be attributed to the effect of environmental factors and cultural conditions.

  4. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) in sugarcane plantations

    Paulo H.D. Cançado; Taciany Ferreira; Eliane M. Piranda; Cleber O. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology a...

  5. Biology of Azospirillum-Sugarcane Association: Enhancement of Nitrogenase Activity †

    Berg, R. Howard; Tyler, Max E.; Novick, Norman J.; Vasil, Vimla; Vasil, Indra K.

    1980-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense was reisolated from associations with callus tissue cultures of sugarcane and compared with stock cultures of the inoculated bacterium and related strains. Although the reisolate had a growth rate similar to stock cultures, it exhibited a severalfold increase in maximum specific activity of nitrogenase. The reisolate and the parent culture had similar ultrastructure. The general ultrastructure of Azospirillum is described. The bacterium was capsulated when grown on nit...

  6. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group; Esterilizacao quimica da broca da cana-de-acucar Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) atraves de isca com melaco e inseticidas do grupo dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos

    Sazaki, Catia Sumie Shimatai. E-mail csazaki@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80%. (author)

  7. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Jnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

  8. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

  9. Quantification of sugarcane yellow leaf virus in sugarcane following transmission through aphid vector, Melanaphis sacchari.

    Chinnaraja, C; Viswanathan, R

    2015-12-01

    Yellow leaf caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is a serious constraint to sugarcane production in India and currently the disease epidemics occur on many of the susceptible varieties under field conditions. Studies were conducted on the virus transmission by sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari in sugarcane by inoculating virus-free meristem derived from micro- propagated plants of sugarcane cv Co 86032 with viruliferous aphids. Virus transmission was confirmed through RT-PCR assays and subsequently SCYLV population was established through RT-qPCR. A maximum of 22.3 × 10(3), 3.16 × 10(6) and 4.78 × 10(6) copies of SCYLV-RNA targets were recorded in the plants after 7, 180 and 300 days, respectively. This study showed that the aphid species M. sacchari acts as an effective vector of SCYLV. The relative standard curve method in RT-qPCR efficiently detected the increment in SCYLV copy numbers in sugarcane following transmission through M. sacchari. PMID:26645033

  10. Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables

    Ricardo A. Ferreira Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT e a estimativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT. A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados.Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint and the estimated accumulative GP. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART, which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

  11. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    Rokhsar Daniel S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus.

  12. Biological nitrogen fixation in Louisiana sugarcane

    Nitrogen (N) is a major input for sugarcane with crops in Louisiana receiving between 90 and 180 kg/ha with the cost of N increasing 75% in the last decade. Biological N fixation (BNF) may be a viable alternative to fertilizer N. The process relies on endophytic bacteria (bacteria that live among th...

  13. Sugarcane Variety Census:Florida 2006

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  14. Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.

    Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2012-06-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

  15. Oogonal biometry and phylogenetic analysis of the Pythium vexans species group from woody agricultural hosts in South Africa reveal distinct groups within this taxon

    Pythium vexans fits into the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clade K. In South Africa, as well as in other regions of the world, P. vexans isolates are known to be heterogeneous in their ITS sequences and may consist of more than one species. Therefore, this study examined the diversity of South...

  16. MUTATION OF A DEGS HOMOLOG IN ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE DECREASES SEED AND ROOT COLONIZATION BUT DOES NOT AFFECT BIOCONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF CAUSED BY PYTHIUM ULTIMUM ON CUCUMBER

    Strains of Enterobacter cloacae show promise as biocontrol agents for Pythium ultimum-induced damping-off on cucumber and other crops. E. cloacae strain C10 is a mini-Tn5 Km transposon mutant of strain 501R3. Strain C10 was reduced in colonization of cucumber, sunflower, and pea seeds, but unaffecte...

  17. Evaluation of seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum on cucumber seeds against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum

    Seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated on cucumber seeds to control pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum in greenhouse studies. Results showed that coating formulation H reduced the disease incidence significantly, and had the potential for commer...

  18. Surface motility in Pseudomonas sp DSS73 is required for efficient biological containment of the root-pathogenic microfungi Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Koch, Birgit; Nielsen, T.H.; Sørensen, D.; Hansen, M.; Nybroe, O.; Christophersen, C.; Sørensen, J.; Molin, Søren; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. DSS73 was isolated from the rhizoplane of sugar beet seedlings. This strain exhibits antagonism towards the root-pathogenic microfungi Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of the cyclic lipopeptide amphisin in combination with expression of flagella enables the growing...

  19. Contribucin al conocimiento de la relacin biolgica entre Pythium sp. y races y ndulos radicales de Alnus acuminata H.B.K

    Moncada Mara Amelia

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available En los alrededores del embalse del Neusa (Cundinamarcal, se encontr un hongo del gnero Pythium asociado frecuentemente a los ndulos radicales del Aliso (Alnus acuminata, especie nativa de gran importancia en programas de reforestacin, proteccin de cuencas y sistemas silviculturales, debido a su rpido crecimiento y al efecto mejorado que ejerce sobre las caracter sticas nutricionales del suelo. La presente investigacin tuvo por objeto conocer algunos aspectos de la relacin biolgica de Pythium sp, asociado a las races y ndulos radicales de Alnus acuminata. Se utiliz un diseo experimental completamente al azar,
    con tres repeticiones. Para evaluar la relacin se inocularon
    plntulas de Aliso con una combinacin de cuatro dosis del hongo Pvthium y cuatro dosis del Actinornvcete. La respuesta a los tratamientos fue registrada a los 20, 30, 40 y 60 das de inoculadas, mediante la determinacin de peso seco, altura, nmero de hojas e infeccin radical de Alnus acuminata.
    Los resultados mostraron que el hongo asociado a los ndulos de Pythium silveticum y que las dosis altas de este inculo
    causaron la muerte de las plntulas y las dosis menores disminuyeron peso seco, altura y nmero de hojas por planta. En la interaccin del Actinomycete y el hongo, la presencia del primero disminuy el efecto patognico de Pythium silvaticum.

  20. Development and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Pythium helicoides.

    Takahashi, Reiko; Fukuta, Shiro; Kuroyanagi, Satoru; Miyake, Noriyuki; Nagai, Hirofumi; Kageyama, Koji; Ishiguro, Yasushi

    2014-06-01

    Root rot of poinsettia, caused by Pythium helicoides at high temperatures in hydroponic cultures, has become a serious problem in many parts of the world. We have developed a species-specific, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid diagnosis of this pathogen. The primers were designed using the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. Primer specificity was established using 40 Pythium species including P. helicoides, 11 Phytophthora species, and eight other soil-borne pathogens. A sensitivity test was carried out using genomic DNA extracted from P. helicoides, and the detection limit was c. 100 fg which is comparable to that of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, we tested the ease of pathogen detection in poinsettia roots. The LAMP results were consistent with those from the conventional plating method and showed more sensitivity than the PCR results. Consequently, the LAMP method developed in this study is effective for the rapid and easy detection of P. helicoides. PMID:24797345

  1. Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

    Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil, with the sugarcane variety SP81-3250, on soil classified as Acrudox, in a randomized block design with split-split plots and four replications. The main treatments consisted of harvest systems (harvesting green cane or burnt cane, the secondary treatment consisted of the mechanical cultural practices in the interrows and the tertiary treatments were N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg ha-1, using ammonium nitrate (33 % N as N source. The harvest systems did not differ in sugarcane yield (tons of cane per hectare - TCH, but in burnt cane, the pol percent and total sugar recovery (TSR were higher. This could be explained by the higher quantity of plant impurities in the harvested raw material in the system without burning, which reduces the processing quality. Mechanical cultural practices in the interrows after harvest had no effect on cane yield and sugar quality, indicating that this operation can be omitted in areas with mechanical harvesting. The application of N fertilizer at rates of 88 and 144 kg ha-1 N, respectively, increased stalk height and TCH quadratically to the highest values for these variables. For the sugar yield per hectare (in pol %, N fertilization induced a linear increase.

  2. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater contamination, eutrophication of surface waters, soil pollution and acidification. This paper reviews the effect of commercial sugarcane production on soil chemical, physical and biological properties us...

  3. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties

    Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Costa, Estela Araujo; Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to...

  4. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    João Luís Nunes Carvalho; Rafael Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estim...

  5. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Background In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and to...

  6. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    G. M. Souza; M.-A. Van-Sluys; Vincentz, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Menossi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regul...

  7. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Douglas L. Karlen; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e...

  8. Antifungal Volatile Organic Compounds from the Endophyte Nodulisporium sp. Strain GS4d2II1a: a Qualitative Change in the Intraspecific and Interspecific Interactions with Pythium aphanidermatum.

    Sánchez-Fernández, Rosa Elvira; Diaz, Daniel; Duarte, Georgina; Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Sánchez, Sergio; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrates volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production as one of the defense mechanisms of the antagonistic endophyte Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a, and the volatile changes in two times of the fungal growth; and, as result of its intra and interspecific interactions with the plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. The antifungal activity of the volatile and diffusible metabolites was evaluated by means of three types of antagonism bioassays and by organic extract agar dilution. VOCs were obtained by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry from 3- and 5-day Nodulisporium sp. cultures, as well as from its interspecific in vitro antagonistic interaction with the oomycete P. aphanidermatum, and its intraspecific Nodulisporium sp.-Nodulisporium sp. interaction. The GS4d2II1a strain completely inhibited the growth of two fungi and seven oomycetes by replacing their mycelia in simple antagonism bioassays and by producing in vitro volatile and diffusible metabolites that acted synergistically in multiple antagonism bioassays. Additionally, VOCs inhibited the growth of three oomycetes and one fungus in antagonism bioassays using divided plates. A total of 70 VOCs were detected, mainly including mono and sesquiterpenes, especially eucalyptol and limonene. Multiple correspondence analysis revealed four different volatile profiles, showing that volatiles changed with the fungus age and its intra and interspecific interactions. The metabolites produced by Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a could be useful for biological control of fungal and oomycetes plant pathogens of economically important crops. PMID:26408189

  9. Evaluation of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrids against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H

    2007-12-01

    A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the CrylAb protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of five non-Bt and seven Bt field corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in a greenhouse study. Larval survival was recorded 21 d after infestation of neonates on potted plants. Larval survival across the three sugarcane borer genotypes and five non-Bt corn hybrids after 21 d ranged from 23.6 +/- 5.2% (mean +/- SEM) to 57.5 +/- 5.2%. Mean survival of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on vegetative and reproductive plant stages was 12 and 21%, respectively. During the vegetative stages, all seven Bt corn hybrids were highly efficacious against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer, with a larval survival rate of <2% for the Bt-susceptible genotype and < or =5% for the heterozygotes. However, 8-18% of the heterozygous genotype survived on reproductive stage plants for four of the seven Bt corn hybrids tested. The variation in performance of Bt corn cultivars at vegetative and reproductive growth stages against Cry1Ab resistant sugarcane borer suggests differential seasonal expression that may hasten resistance in the field. Bt corn hybrids expressing a "high dose" for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbner), may not produce a sufficient high dose for the sugarcane borer. PMID:18232406

  10. CRICISE BEFORE SUGARCANE GROWERS: DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM SOME REMEDIAL MEASURES

    ANIL BARBOLE AND B.B.JAGTAP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to study the constraints faced by the Sugarcane growers and to suggest some remedial measures for use of Drip Irrigation System. Drip Irrigation may help to solve the most important problem of irrigation to sugarcane- water scarcityandrising electricity bills. Majority of sugarcane growers faced the constraints i.e. the higher initial costs for installation of drip irrigation unit and clogging and cracking of emitters.Mostly the sugarcane growers suggested that the cost of drip irrigation units should be reduced And there is a need to give technical knowledge about remedies against the clogging of the emitters.

  11. Soybean silage and sugarcane tops silage on lamb performance

    Josiane Aparecida de Lima; Ivana Lícia de Campos Gavioli; Cristina Maria Pacheco Barbosa; Alexandre Berndt; Flávia Maria de Andrade Gimenes; Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz; Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of sheep fed with diets consisting of different proportions of soybean silage and sugarcane tip silage. Twenty four lambs from Morada Nova breed were used, with an average age of 75 days and average weight of 16.98±2.62kg. The following diets were evaluated: T1 = 20% sugarcane tops silage + 80% concentrate, T2 = 20% sugarcane tops silage + 30% soybean silage + 50% concentrate, T3 = 20% sugarcane tops silage + 60% soybean silage + 20%...

  12. Oxidative stress response in sugarcane

    Luis Eduardo Soares Netto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias funções em plantas apesar do gene que codificaria para óxido nítrico sintetase nunca ter sido isolado. Este trabalho descreve os resultados de uma busca no banco de dados de seqüências expressas de cana de açúcar (SUCEST de genes envolvidos na resposta ao estresse oxidativo. Eu não encontrei genes similares a óxido nítrico no banco de dados do SUCEST, mas uma via alternativa para a produção deste radical livre pode ser proposta. Eu também encontrei vários genes envolvidos na defesa antioxidante, como quelantes de metais, antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular, enzimas antioxidantes e sistemas de reparo. Ascorbato (vitamina C é um importante antioxidante em plantas porque é encontrado em altas concentrações em células vegetais e porque é substrato de ascorbato peroxidase, uma enzima que eu encontrei em diferentes isoformas no banco de dados do SUCEST. Eu também encontrei várias enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese de antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular que podem ser alvos para manipulação genética. A obtenção de plantas modificadas geneticamente que sintetizariam vitaminas C e E em altos níveis poderiam melhorar o valor nutricional e a tolerância a estresses de cana de açúcar. Os diversos componentes do sistema de defesa antioxidante interagem entre si e as suas sínteses devem ser muito bem reguladas. Fatores de transcrição envolvidos na regulação da resposta ao estresse oxidativo de bactérias, leveduras e de humanos diferem consideravelmente entre si e quando foram utilizados para buscas no banco de dados do SUCEST, somente genes com similaridades fracas foram encontrados, sugerindo que estas proteínas não são muito conservadas. O envolvimento de espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio na defesa de plantas contra patógenos também é discutido neste trabalho.

  13. Sugarcane Phenological Date Estimation Using Broad-Band Digital Cameras

    Mobasheri M. Chahardoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agricultural industry, precision farming is the most important task that attracts lots of attentions. The health of the plant depends mostly on the amount of water in its access that can be estimated through vegetation indices. These indices can be extracted from satellite images through Image processing algorithms. The objective of this research was to provide an equation for assessment of the quality of the phenological dates of the sugarcane in Degree-Day (DD which are usually derived using satellite data. Then these calibration equations can be used in the collection of some ground truth data applicable in remote sensing where ever the need arises. A simple way for implementing this task is to develop an algorithm (an equation with which we can (to a limited extent quantify the interaction of light (in the RGB region of spectrum with the plant foliage to have DDs as their outputs. To do this 63 digital photographs were taken in three field campaigns on Sep29, 2006 through Oct1, 2006 from Amirkabir and Dea`bal-Khazaie sugarcane sites located in the south-west of Iran. These photographs included 9 different stages of the sugarcane growth and bare soil. It was found that on the average, the effect of dust on the leaves is an increase in DN values of about 9, 8 and 13 for bands red, green and blue respectively. To find an algorithm for determination of plant phenological date four different methods were used. These were Rectangular Method (RM, Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM, Thresholding Method (TM and Hybrid Method (HM. To test the ability of different methods in the prediction of plants DDs, three photographs with known DDs and vegetation cover percentage were used. Entering these predicted DDs and true values in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the degree of significance level of the predicted value of each method was evaluated. As a result MLM with R2 of 0.987 and TM method with R2 of 0.989 both with significance level of 0.827 were the best methods for estimation of phenological date using broadband digital cameras.

  14. Isolation and partial purification of toxin from colletotrichum falcatum: the causal agent of red rot in sugarcane

    The red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum) spores were isolated from infected stalk pieces of sugarcane and grown on Czapek Dox agar medium to obtain pure culture. Spores were obtained from the pure culture and grown in Czapec Dox liquid medium for further studies. It was observed that the fresh and dry weights of fungal mycellial mat significantly increased with time. In addition, fungal growth resulted in a significant change in the pH of the Czapec Dox growth medium over a period of 35 days and gradually increased from 6.5 in the control medium to 8.4. The fungal toxin was extracted from the growth medium and used to treat cell suspension of a red rot resistant sugarcane cultivar HSF-240. The maximum toxin was produced after 28 days of fungal growth in the growth medium which was ascertained by the dry weight of residue obtained from the ethyl actate fractions, as well as percent mortality of sugarcane cells in suspension. The LD50 value (50% cell mortality) of toxin in ethyl acetate (ETA) fraction was 22.03 days while in water it was 30 days. The fungal toxin extracted in ETA fractions was more effective than the one extracted in water. It was mainly due to high solubility and potency of the toxin in ETA than in water. In general, the maximum toxicity was noted at the 4th week (28 days) which decreased at 5th and 6th week of mycelial growth. (author)

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  16. Influence of Rind Hardness on Sugarcane Quality

    Sujeet Pratap Singh; Amrita Nigam; Ram Kushal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Sugar recovery in a factory depends upon regular crushing and quality of varieties besides various other working parameters. Strategies for increased productivity and sugar recovery, varietal improvement can bring out through selection of parents to get maximum gains. These are governed by sugar content, fiber, rind hardness and cane yield. In order to assess the breeding value of different traits including rind hardness, study was undertaken at Sugarcane Research Institute, Shahjahanpur, du...

  17. Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil

    Lin, Wenxiong; Lin, Sheng; Zhang, Aijia; Zhou, Mingming; Lin, Rui; Wang, Haibin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhixing; Lin, Ruiyu

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis. Results The available stalk number, stalk diameter, single stalk weight and theoretical yield of ratoon cane (RS) were found to be significantly lower than those of plant cane (NS). The activities of several carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus processing enzymes, including invertase, peroxidase, ...

  18. Radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop

    The radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop, cv. NA56-79, are studied during the period of maximum leaf area index. The coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption of the incoming solar radiation were function of solar elevation and the waveband considered. The photosynthetically active radiation was always less reflected and transmitted but more absorved than the near infrared radiation. (M.A.C.)

  19. Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sugarcane

    Farheen Niaz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis was studied in sugarcane cultivars CPF-237 and SPF-213. Explants used were leaves, lateral buds and pith. MS medium along with NAA and 2,4-D in various concentrations were used and it was observed that 1.0 mg NAA and 3-mg/l 2,4-D was optimal for embryogenesis. Leaf portion showed maximum embryogenesis and proved a better explant source than pith.

  20. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the reaction of young, recently planted, or recently ratooned sugarcane during spring months. The purpose of this study was to test t...

  1. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.; R. Secchi, Argimiro; Woodley, John M.

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option us...

  2. Controlled traffic and soil physical quality of an Oxisol under sugarcane cultivation

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machinery traffic in sugarcane (Saccharumsp. plantations reduces soil physical quality, and hinders both root development and crop yield. We evaluated the physical quality of an Oxisol and the development of sugarcane roots under controlled traffic. The treatments assessed were: without controlled machinery traffic (WCT, controlled traffic by adjusting the tractor and infield wagons to a 3.0 m track width with the operator guiding the machinery (CT1 and the previous treatment using real time kinematic / global positioning system (RTK / GPS precision auto steer (CT2. Soil samples were collected from the planting rows, seedbed and inter-row center to determine the least limiting water range (LLWR and soil porosity from scanned 2-D images. The root dry mass was sampled from monoliths, separated from the soil by washing through a 2-mm sieve and dried in an oven. A higher LLWR was observed in the planting row under CT1 and CT2 than under WCT. The planting row had a predominance of complex pores with a diameter > 500 m in the 0.15-0.27 m depth layer under CT1 and CT2. In the planting rows under WCT, the root dry mass was only 44 % of that measured under CT2. Benefits regarding soil physical quality and growth roots were observed when the tractor-wagon track width was adjusted based on the sugarcane spacing using either precision auto steering or manual operation of the machinery.

  3. Development of salt tolerant potato and sugarcane through in vitro techniques

    Improvement of sugarcane and potato in Pakistan is hampered by their intricate flowering behavior under natural day-length conditions. The improvement of these crops for their salt tolerance can be carried out by tissue culture mediated techniques. To induce variation in sugarcane, five-week old white yellow nodular embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5, 20, 40 and 60 Gy gamma rays. After one month, the calli were cultured on regeneration media, and plant hardening procedures were optimized. Irradiated and non-irradiated calli were subjected to various levels of salt stress and plant regeneration was investigated. Although growth of sugarcane calli was observed at 200 mM NaCl, regeneration was inhibited even at 50 mM NaCl in the medium. The regenerants from gamma irradiated material are under field evaluation. Variation was detected in both irradiated and salt treated calli by DNA fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In potato, 6-7 weeks old in vitro grown plants with single shoots having 8-10 buds were irradiated with 20 Gy gamma rays. Shoot formation was successful only from 50% of the axillary buds. The cultures were subjected to four levels of salinity (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM Nacl). Shoot-tip necrosis was observed along with significant reduction in shoot height. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Controlled traffic and soil physical quality of an Oxisol under sugarcane cultivation

    Gustavo Soares de, Souza; Zigomar Menezes de, Souza; Miguel, Cooper; Cssio Antnio, Tormena.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machinery traffic in sugarcane (Saccharumsp.) plantations reduces soil physical quality, and hinders both root development and crop yield. We evaluated the physical quality of an Oxisol and the development of sugarcane roots under controlled traffic. The treatments assessed were: without controlled [...] machinery traffic (WCT), controlled traffic by adjusting the tractor and infield wagons to a 3.0 m track width with the operator guiding the machinery (CT1) and the previous treatment using real time kinematic / global positioning system (RTK / GPS) precision auto steer (CT2). Soil samples were collected from the planting rows, seedbed and inter-row center to determine the least limiting water range (LLWR) and soil porosity from scanned 2-D images. The root dry mass was sampled from monoliths, separated from the soil by washing through a 2-mm sieve and dried in an oven. A higher LLWR was observed in the planting row under CT1 and CT2 than under WCT. The planting row had a predominance of complex pores with a diameter > 500 m in the 0.15-0.27 m depth layer under CT1 and CT2. In the planting rows under WCT, the root dry mass was only 44 % of that measured under CT2. Benefits regarding soil physical quality and growth roots were observed when the tractor-wagon track width was adjusted based on the sugarcane spacing using either precision auto steering or manual operation of the machinery.

  5. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    M. Bacci Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propsito de determinar a relao filogentica entre a cana-de-acar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a regio gnica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma anlise atravs do mtodo de parcimnia, utilizando esta regio e seqncias homlogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-acar o grupo-irmo de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido pequena quantidade de caracteres informativos para parcimnia e homoplasia presentes na regio ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, no foi possvel determinar com segurana a relao filogentica entre a cana-de-acar e alguns dos demais membros da tribo Saccharine. Como alternativa para esta baixa resoluo, dezessete regies gnicas nucleares, cloroplasmticas ou mitocondriais foram selecionadas a partir do banco de dados SUCEST com o objetivo de encontrar marcadores mais apropriados para a reconstruo da filogenia da cana-de-acar. Entre elas, aquelas correspondentes alfa-tubulina, rpl16, e rpoC2 apresentaram baixa incidncia de polimorfismo e taxas de evoluo equivalentes ou mesmo maiores do que a observada para a regio ITS1-5,8S-ITS2. Estes marcadores so propostos como preferenciais para estudos filogenticos da subtribo Saccharinae.

  6. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract.

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cndido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvrio; Felipe, Maria das Graas de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH?)?SO?; peptone and yeast extract; (NH?)?SO?, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH?)?SO?, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH?)?SO? and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH?)?SO? was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  7. Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls

    Patrick Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes β-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control or with L. buchneri at a theoretical application rate of 5 × 10(4 cfu/g, 1 × 10(5 cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5 cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 Charolais × Nellore were housed in 20 collective pens and fed diets comprising (dry matter [DM] basis 458 g/kg sugarcane silage and 542 g/kg concentrates for an 84-d period. Treated silages had higher concentrations of acetic acid and lower concentrations of ethanol. Total mixed rations (TMR containing inoculated silages exhibited significantly lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF concentration and, consequently, higher in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD. Thus, animals fed TMR containing treated silages spent less time chewing per day and per kilogram of DM intake (DMI, even at higher DMI levels. Nonetheless, the intake of NDF was similar across treatments (0.77 to 0.79 kg/100 kg BW but markedly lower than the value reported for traditional forages. Average daily gain was significantly greater for animals fed TMR based on inoculated silages due to the higher DMI (14% on average and the higher energy content of the diets, as indicated by the higher feed efficiency (12% on average. The dose of inoculants used and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes had no significant effects on silage parameters or animal performance. Therefore, inoculation of L. buchneri during sugarcane ensilage can alter the fermentation pattern by increasing acetic acid yield, reducing silage nutrient losses, and improving feed efficiency by bulls.

  8. Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.

    Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

    2012-01-01

    The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods. PMID:22864427

  9. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    Debora Danielle Virginio da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH42SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH42SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH42SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH42SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a for both yeasts (NH42SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.

  10. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    Debora Danielle Virginio da, Silva; Elisangela de Jesus, Cndido; Priscila Vaz de, Arruda; Silvio Silvrio da, Silva; Maria das Graas de Almeida, Felipe.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioproce [...] sses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.

  11. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, Andr P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean Franois; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane molasses in Uttar Pradesh, India. A comparative analysis with south-central Brazilian sugarcane ethanol is also presented to compare the performance of sugarcane molasses-based ethanol with sugarcane ju...

  12. Genetic diversity analysis of sugarcane ( Saccharum sp. clones using simple sequence repeat markers of sugarcane and rice

    G.Banumathi , V.Krishnasamy, M.Maheswaran, R.Samiyappan, P.Govindaraj and N.Kumaravadivel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers are powerful tools, which help in differentiating plant varieties at the DNA level and have been widelyused for genetic diversity studies in a number of crop species'. Understanding the genetic diversity of available clones of S.officinarum and S. spontaneum will be helpful in breeding programs. In the present study, a set of 48 sugarcane clones fromNational Hybridization Garden, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore was subjected to genetic diversity analysisinvolving 40 SSR markers of sugarcane and rice. SSR analysis involving a set of 20 sugarcane and 20 rice primer pairsgenerated 147 and 114 markers with average polymorphism information content (PIC value of 0.665 and 0.532respectively. Cluster analysis using rice marker across 48 genotypes revealed two major clusters with ISH 23 remaining adeviant from the rest of the cultivars. Cluster analysis based on sugarcane SSR markers were found to be more or lesssimilar to that based on rice SSR markers showing minor difference in grouping. Hence, similar results obtained forcharacterizing the sugarcane clones by using SSR markers from sugarcane and rice reveal that markers with betterdiscriminating power from other cereals can bring out better characterization of sugarcane clones.

  13. SUGARCANE RESISTANCE TO THE SUGARCANE BORER: RESPONSE TO INFESTATION AMONG PROGENY DERIVED FROM RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE PARENTS

    The sugarcane borer (SCB), Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana. The deployment of SCB-resistant varieties is an integral part of the integrated pest management approach to minimizing injury from SCB infestation. Our objective was ...

  14. Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    Naureen Chaudhary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II. The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4, 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comprising of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI. All the four strains grew best at pH 7 and 37°C. Aeration was not required for these bacterial strains. 5% inocula sizes were found optimum for the bacterial isolates except strain No. 23, which yielded best growth with 10% inoculum. After 2nd day of incubation in M-IV medium the bacteria liberated upto 8033 mg/100 mL of total sugar content, which showed reduction in subsequent sampling periods. On the other hand glucose content showed variable response to incubation periods. The strain 11a expressed 1411 mg/100 mL of glucose at 10th day while isolate No. 23 yielded 808 mg/100 mL glucose at 18th day of incubation. Fermentation by ethanologenic yeast of culture fluids saccharification by the isolate 194 and 23 expressed about 0.2 and 1.2% ethanol on 3rd and 7th days, respectively. The bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus cereus based upon their chemical characterization. These isolates appear potential candidates for saccharifying the sugarcane bagasse and production of ethanol employing ethanologenic yeast.

  15. Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Water Use and Yield of Irrigated Sugarcane in South Africa

    Jones, M.R; Singels, A.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable predictions of climate change impacts on water use, irrigation requirements and yields of irrigated sugarcane in South Africa (a water-scarce country) are necessary to plan adaptation strategies. Although previous work has been done in this regard, methodologies and results vary considerably. The objectives were (1) to estimate likely impacts of climate change on sugarcane yields, water use and irrigation demand at three irrigated sugarcane production sites in South Africa (Malelane, Pongola and La Mercy) for current (1980-2010) and future (2070-2100) climate scenarios, using an approach based on the Agricultural Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) protocols; and (2) to assess the suitability of this methodology for investigating climate change impacts on sugarcane production. Future climate datasets were generated using the Delta downscaling method and three Global Circulation Models (GCMs) assuming atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of 734 ppm(A2 emissions scenario). Yield and water use were simulated using the DSSAT-Canegro v4.5 model. Irrigated cane yields are expected to increase at all three sites (between 11 and 14%), primarily due to increased interception of radiation as a result of accelerated canopy development. Evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements increased by 11% due to increased canopy cover and evaporative demand. Sucrose yields are expected to decline because of increased consumption of photo-assimilate for structural growth and maintenance respiration. Crop responses in canopy development and yield formation differed markedly between the crop cycles investigated. Possible agronomic implications of these results include reduced weed control costs due to shortened periods of partial canopy, a need for improved efficiency of irrigation to counter increased demands, and adjustments to ripening and harvest practices to counter decreased cane quality and optimize productivity. Although the Delta climate data downscaling method is considered robust, accurate and easily-understood, it does not change the future number of rain-days per month. The impacts of this and other climate data simplifications ought to be explored in future work. Shortcomings of the DSSAT-Canegro model include the simulated responses of phenological development, photosynthesis and respiration processes to high temperatures, and the disconnect between simulated biomass accumulation and expansive growth. Proposed methodology refinements should improve the reliability of predicted climate change impacts on sugarcane yield.

  16. Effects of Pythium Species and Time in Cold Storage on the Survival of Bareroot and Container-Grown Southern Pine Seedlings

    Jackson, D. Paul; Enebak, Scott A.; South, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Cold storing bareroot southern pine (Pinus spp.) seedlings for greater than one week after lifting in the fall can lead to poor outplanting survival when compared to seedlings that are lifted and stored in winter. In contrast, container-grown seedlings typically do not experience adverse effects from storing for periods greater than one week. The practice of lifting bareroot seedlings can cause wounds to root systems, which could allow soil-borne pathogens such as Pythium species to be used a...

  17. Comparative study on agro-physiology of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum l.) genotypes at different irrigation co-efficient values

    Drought is the primary factor limiting sugarcane growth and physiological development under the climatic conditions of Pakistan; especially in those areas where without supplemental irrigation, productivity is not possible. Lack of detailed information regarding the performance of cane varieties under drought during formative stage and poor selection breeding program played key role in limiting cane productivity. The proposed study was conducted to investigate the genetic response of different cultivars viz., CSSG-676, CSSG-668, HoSG-795, HoSG-529, NSG-59 and HSF- 240 (standard) regarding the physiological development of sugarcane and its productivity at different irrigation co-efficient levels (100%, 80% and 60%). This study elucidates that moisture has a pronounced impact on the physiological attributes of sugarcane and proper irrigation scheduling with 20 no. of irrigations were reported best in-term of better germination (69.65%), leaf area index (7.13), crop growth rate (8.44), net assimilation rate (1.06) and chlorophyll contents (5.98). Similarly in case of genomic response, NSG-59 was reported significant best as compared to all other test cultivars in term of better physiological performance, showing significant higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, chlorophyll contents and water use efficiency that maximized the crop growth and resulted in higher net assimilation rate. Higher proline contents (1.59) produced in NSG-59 also made it best under drought conditions. (author)

  18. Crescimento e produtividade agrícola de cana-de-açúcar em diferentes fontes de fósforo Growth and yield of sugarcane under different phosphorus sources

    Valdevan R. dos Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a produtividade agrícola da cana-planta em diferentes fontes de fósforo, conduziu-se um experimento de campo em Coruripe, AL, com 10 tratamentos: 1. Testemunha; 2. NK + micro; 3. Superfosfato simples (SS; 4. Superfosfato triplo (ST; 5. Fosmag; 6. Gafsa; 7. MAP; 8. Fórmula 06-26-24 (460 kg ha-1; 9. Composto e 10. SSP - parcelado. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições. Avaliaram-se: população de perfilhos, altura de plantas, Índice de Área Foliar (IAF, taxa de crescimento do colmo, taxa de produção de matéria fresca do colmo, taxa de crescimento relativo, rendimento agrícola e as concentrações foliares de P e os níveis disponíveis no solo. As fontes de fósforo não influenciaram o crescimento da cana-planta em função do efeito residual, proveniente de adubações anteriores, mas proporcionaram produtividades médias superiores a 80 t ha-1. O ST proporcionou o melhor rendimento agrícola na cana-planta a qual, por sua vez, apresentou três fases de crescimento: 1ª fase: intenso perfilhamento até 120 DAP; 2ª fase: grande crescimento de 120 a 240 DAP e 3ª fase: maturação dos 240 aos 360 DAP. As maiores taxas de crescimento e produção de matéria fresca do colmo ocorreram logo após a fase de intenso perfilhamento entre 120 e 240 DAP.This work had as its objective in the evaluation of the growth and production of the sugarcare plant under different phosphorus sources. The experiment was carried out in Coruripe, AL, Brazil with 10 fertilizer treatments: 1 Control; 2 NK + micronutrient; 3 Super Phosphate Simple; 4 Triple Super Phosphate; 5 Fosmag; 6 Gafsa; 7 MAP; 8 NPK 06-26-24 (460 kg ha-1; 9 Compost and 10 Simple Super Phosphate - splitdose. The experiment was in random blocks, with four replicates. Parameters evaluated were: number of tillers, height of plants, IAF, rate of stalk growth, rate of biomass production of the stalk, relative growth rate, production and P in leaf and available in soil. P sources did not show any significant influence upon the growth of cane-plant due to the residual effect of previous manuring, with average yield of 80 t ha-1. The triple super phosphate produced the best production in the cane-plant, which presented three growth phases: 1st phase: intense tillering until 120 days after planting (DAP; 2nd phase:intense growth between 120 and 240 DAP; and 3rd phase: maturation, between 240 and 360 DAP. The major growth rate and fresh matter stalk production occurred after intense tillering phase between 120 and 240 DAP.

  19. Sugarwin: a sugarcane insect-induced gene with antipathogenic activity.

    Medeiros, Ane H; Franco, Flvia P; Matos, Juliana L; de Castro, Patrcia A; Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Henrique-Silva, Flvio; Goldman, Gustavo H; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2012-05-01

    In sugarcane fields, colonization of the stalk by opportunistic fungi usually occurs after the caterpillar Diatraea saccharalis attacks the sugarcane plant. Plants respond to insect attack by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN), sugarcane wound-inducible proteins SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2, have been identified in sugarcane by an in silico analysis. Antifungal properties have been described for a number of BARWIN homologues. We report that a SUGARWIN::green fluorescent protein fusion protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the extracellular space of sugarcane plants. The induction of sugarwin transcripts occurs in response to mechanical wounding, D. saccharalis damage, and methyl jasmonate treatment. The accumulation of transcripts is late induced and is restricted to the site of the wound. Although the transcripts of sugarwin genes were strongly increased following insect attack, the protein itself did not show any effect on insect development; rather, it altered fungal morphology, leading to the apoptosis of the germlings. These results suggest that, in the course of evolution, sugarwin-encoding genes were recruited by sugarcane due to their antipathogenic activity. We rationalize that sugarcane is able to induce sugarwin gene expression in response to D. saccharalis feeding as a concerted plant response to the anticipated invasion by the fungi that typically penetrate the plant stalk after insect damage. PMID:22250584

  20. INFLUENCE OF SOLID MOISTURE AND BED HEIGHT ON CULTIVATION OF Aspergillus niger FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE WITH VINASSE

    R. G. Bastos; D. V. Morais; M. P. C. Volpi

    2015-01-01

    AbstractSolid-state cultivation (SSC) may be defined as growth of microorganisms on a solid support impregnated or not with a nutrient solution in near absence of free-water conditions. The use of sugarcane bagasse as a support for SSC usually demands that the particles are impregnated and moistened with nutrient solution. Vinasse is the main wastewater of ethanol fermentation-distillation. As there are no reports of the use of wastewater for moistening solid supports in SSC, the proposal is ...

  1. Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

    Ashok A. Nikam; Rachayya M. Devarumath; Akash Ahuja; Harinath Babu; Mahadeo G. Shitole; Penna Suprasanna

    2015-01-01

    Gamma ray-induced in vitro mutagenesis and selection for salt (NaCl) tolerance were investigated in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Embryogenic callus cultures were irradiated (10 to 80 Gy) and subjected to in vitro selection by exposure of irradiated callus to NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol L− 1). Increasing NaCl concentrations resulted in growth reduction and increased membrane damage. Salt-selected callus lines were characterized by the accumulation of proline, glycine beta...

  2. Isolation of a novel peroxisomal catalase gene from sugarcane, which is responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Chen, Shanshan; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Liping; Allan, Andrew C; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an iron porphyrin enzyme, which serves as an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to avoid oxidative damage. In sugarcane, the enzymatic activity of catalase in a variety (Yacheng05-179) resistant to the smut pathogen Sporisorium scitamineum was always higher than that of the susceptible variety (Liucheng03-182), suggesting that catalase activity may have a positive correlation with smut resistance in sugarcane. To understand the function of catalase at the molecular level, a cDNA sequence of ScCAT1 (GenBank Accession No. KF664183), was isolated from sugarcane infected by S. scitamineum. ScCAT1 was predicted to encode 492 amino acid residues, and its deduced amino acid sequence shared a high degree of homology with other plant catalases. Enhanced growth of ScCAT1 in recombinant Escherichia coli Rosetta cells under the stresses of CuCl2, CdCl2 and NaCl indicated its high tolerance. Q-PCR results showed that ScCAT1 was expressed at relatively high levels in the bud, whereas expression was moderate in stem epidermis and stem pith. Different kinds of stresses, including S. scitamineum challenge, plant hormones (SA, MeJA and ABA) treatments, oxidative (H2O2) stress, heavy metal (CuCl2) and hyper-osmotic (PEG and NaCl) stresses, triggered a significant induction of ScCAT1. The ScCAT1 protein appeared to localize in plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Furthermore, histochemical assays using DAB and trypan blue staining, as well as conductivity measurement, indicated that ScCAT1 may confer the sugarcane immunity. In conclusion, the positive response of ScCAT1 to biotic and abiotic stresses suggests that ScCAT1 is involved in protection of sugarcane against reactive oxidant-related environmental stimuli. PMID:24392135

  3. The environmental sustainability of sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change: case studies for Brazil and Ghana

    Black, E.; Vidale, P. L.; Verhoef, A.; Cuadro, S. V.

    2012-04-01

    Over the next decades increasing oil and carbon prices will lead to a proliferation of energy crop cultivation initiatives. Many of these will be based in developing countries, and hence will affect some of the poorest people in the world. The capacity of such initiatives to alleviate poverty in the long term depends on their environmental sustainability. Specifically, the exploitation of water resources in an unsustainable manner may permanently damage vulnerable ecosystems and ultimately deepen poverty. These issues have motivated a collaborative project - Integrated Carbon, Water and Land Management for Poverty Alleviation (ICWALPA), which asks whether the export of bio-fuel technology from Brazil to Ghana will alleviate poverty. This presentation will describe the initial results from ICWALPA - including the development of an integrated environmental modelling framework and its application to sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change. The environmental model used to represent the biophysical interactions is process-based and implemented in the framework of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). Crop growth is predicted dynamically by accumulating the carbon assimilated during photosynthesis and is then allocated according to well-established allometric principles. Two contrasting case studies will be presented: the Sao Paulo region of Brazil (where there is an established sugarcane industry) and the Daka River region of Ghana (where commercial sugarcane cultivation is planned). We show that our model is capable of reproducing both the spatial and temporal variability in sugarcane yield for the Sao Paulo province of Brazil - lending credence to the projections for Ghana. For Ghana, we show that, providing there is sufficient irrigation, it is possible to generate approximately 75% of the yield achieved in the Sao Paulo province. In the final part of the study, the behaviour of sugarcane under an idealized climate change scenario is explored. It is shown that the increased drought tolerance that results from higher CO2 concentrations mitigates the greater water stress associated with higher evaporation.

  4. Effects of Every-Other Furrow Irrigation on Water Use Efficiency and Sugarcane Characteristics in Southern Ahvaz Sugarcane Fields

    H.A Kashkuli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been cultivated in an extensive area in Khuzestan and irrigated by hydro-flume or siphon and furrow. In a field experiment during 2005-6 at Amir Kabir Agro-Industry, Khuzestan, the effect of every other-furrow irrigation method was studied on sugarcane in regard to irrigation water volume, water use efficiency and quality and quantity of sugarcane. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three irrigation treatments, including conventional method (blank, variable every other furrow(alternative furrow and fixed every other furrow. This experiment was conducted by cv. Cp69-1062 sugarcane. The results showed that water use efficiency rates were 0.41, 0.58 and 0.7 kg/m3 for conventional, fixing furrow and alternative, respectively. However, water use efficiency rates were not significantly different in treatments. It had minimum amount of water use efficiency in every other furrow treatments. Maximum water use efficiency, quality and quantity of sugarcane were obtained every other irrigation. Maximum irrigation water was used in conventional treatment and resulted in minimum irrigation, quality sugarcane and water use efficiency. It produced 14.5 ton/ha sugar for 20604 m3/ha application of irrigation. Sugarcane quality and quantity characteristics in variable treatments, except for length number per hectare, were not significant.

  5. Identification of active metabolism roots of sugarcane for the isotopic dilution technique with 15N

    The knowledge of the sugarcane roots growth dynamics, as well as of the root system architecture of its, better allows to understanding of the relations between the plant and its environment of production, making possible the handling from practical more efficient and sustainable agriculturists who result in increase of productivity and longevity of the culture. In the study of the development of the sugarcane root system has an aggravating one in what the root renewal between cycles is mentioned to it, or in the same cycle, becoming necessary the identification of alive or active metabolism roots in a total mass showed. The present study it had for objective to develop a methodology of sugarcane active metabolism roots identification in the ground, by means of the isotopic dilution technique with 15N. The sugarcane root system study it can be carried through with this isotopic marker saw leaf application, a time that 15N is translocated until the root system. The experiment was carried through in commercial area of sugarcane in the region of Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, in a Oxissoil, with one second sprouts again of cultivating RB85 5156. The urea was the vehicle of supply of the isotopic marker 15N, by means of solution applied to leaves of the plants. After harvest of the aerial part, carried through 96 hours after the application of the urea solution, had been opened trenches, transversally to the line of the culture, with dimensions of 1 m of length and 1,4 m of width. The ground samples had been harvested by means of monoliths (5,6 dm-3) in the depths of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm, in the projection of the line of the culture and laterally in the distances of 14-42 cm and 42-70 cm of the culture line. In each depth of sampling, and the culture line projection, they had been separate samples of visually active roots. These samples had been considered standard for the determination for isotopic dilution technique of roots with active metabolism. The determination of the text of N and abundance of 15N in samples of plant and ground had been carried through in a spectrometer of masses model ANCA-SL of the Europe Scientific Ltd. The results had shown that the isotopic dilution technique with 15N made possible to identify roots with active metabolism and its distribution in the ground. (author)

  6. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant β- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good β-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  7. Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane

    The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of [14C]fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of [14C] fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant

  8. Mechanisms of sugarcane response to herbivory

    Falco Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering plant-insect interactions at the molecular level is one of the major topics of interest in contemporary plant biology research. In the last few years, various aspects of the plant response to insect damage have been investigated, including the characterization of direct and indirect responses, the regulation of gene expression resulting from insect attack and the signal transduction pathways. Such research has resulted in the proposal of new methods to enhance host resistance to insect pests, including the use of insecticidal genes that can be transferred by genetic engineering into target crops. By integrating the understanding of how plants react to insect damage with the techniques of molecular biology researchers should be able to increase the wide range of methods available for the control of insect pests. The sugarcane transcriptome project (SUCEST has allowed the identification of several orthologues genes involved in the plant response to insect damage. In this paper we summarize several aspects of the complex interaction between plants and insects and describe the use of in silico analysis to provide information about gene expression in different sugarcane tissues in response to insect attack.

  9. Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance

    Rodrigo D. Drummond

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The biochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.Alumnio (Al um dos principais fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento de plantas em solos cidos, reduzindo substancialmente a produtividade agrcola. Na Amrica do Sul, cerca de 66% da superfcie do solo apresenta acidez, onde a alta saturao de alumnio uma das maiores limitaes prtica agrcola. Apesar do crescente nmero de estudos, uma compreenso completa das bases bioqumicas e moleculares da tolerncia ao alumnio em plantas est longe de ser alcanada. No caso da cana-de-acar, no h nada publicado sobre a regulao gnica induzida durante o stress por alumnio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genes de cana-de-acar relacionados com as vrias vias metablicas reconhecidamente envolvidas na resposta toxidez do alumnio em outras espcies de plantas e leveduras. Para a maioria dos genes relacionados com alumnio em outras espcies foram identificados similares em cana-de-acar, tais como aqueles que codificam enzimas que combatem o stress oxidativo ou a infestao por patgenos, protenas responsveis pela exudao de cidos orgnicos e pela transduo de sinais. O papel desses genes na tolerncia ao alumnio revisado. Devido ao alto grau de conservao do genoma entre espcies prximas de gramneas como milho, cevada, sorgo e cana-de-acar, esses genes sero uma ferramenta valiosa para a melhor compreenso e manipulao da tolerncia ao alumnio nestas espcies.

  10. Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar. I. macronutrientes Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane. I. Macronutrients

    Marcos Rengel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar el crecimiento y patrones de acumulación de macronutrientes en una variedad de caña de azúcar y contribuir con el manejo racional de su fertilización se evaluó en un tablón plantado con la variedad RB 85-5035, en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. La evaluación consistió en realizar diez muestreos de la parte aérea de la planta con frecuencia mensual a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas o “macollas”, tomadas al azar en una superficie de 0,6 m2 por cepa, y se determinó en tallos y hojas el contenido de materia seca y la concentración de macronutrientes. En los meses 11 y 12 se tomaron muestreos adicionales para determinar el contenido final de materia seca. Hacia el final del ciclo la planta acumuló 43,7 t·ha-1 de biomasa aérea, con un 75,1 % correspondiente a tallos y el restante a tejido foliar. La acumulación de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y S a los 300 días después del corte (ddc fue de 201,4; 43,2; 149,0; 112,7; 71,1 y 71,6 kg·ha-1, respectivamente. El nitrógeno se acumuló principalmente en las hojas durante una buena parte del ciclo pero al final fue transportado mayoritariamente hacia los tallos; se detectaron dos períodos críticos de absorción, el primero de los cuales abarcó las etapas de macollamiento y crecimiento en la fase vegetativa, y el segundo en la etapa de maduración de la fase reproductiva. Los nutrientes P, K, Mg y S se distribuyeron proporcionalmente en hojas y tallos durante la mayor parte del ciclo del cultivo, pero se diferenciaron radicalmente a partir del día 251 ddc, momento en que la acumulación se dirigió fundamentalmente hacia el tallo. El calcio se almacenó principalmente en las hojas pero al final del ciclo se revirtió la tendencia y los tallos superaron moderadamente a las hojas. Se detectó que durante los cuatro primeros meses del ciclo el cultivo había producido solamente el 16,5 % de su biomasa seca, pero había acumulado entre 20 y 40 % de los macronutrientes, lo cual sugiere la necesidad de su suministro desde las primeras etapas del cultivo.With the purpose of assessing the growth and macronutrient accumulation patterns of the sugar cane plant and promote a rational fertilization management of the crop, an evaluation was carried out in a plot cropped with the RB 85-5035 variety, in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. The trial consisted on taking ten monthly samplings of the aerial portion of the plant, along the whole crop cycle. Each sample consisted of three stumps, taken at random in a surface of 0.6 m2 per stump, and dry biomass content and macronutrient concentrations were determined on both leaves and stalks. In the months 11 and 12, additional samples were taken to determine the final dry biomass. At the end of cycle the crop accumulated 43.7 t·ha-1 dry biomass, with 75.1 % corresponding to the stalks and the remaining to the leaves. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S at 300 days after cutting (dac was 201,4; 43,2; 149,0; 112,7; 71,1 y 71,6 kg·ha-1, respectively. Nitrogen accumulated mainly in leaves during a good part of the cycle but at the end the nutrient was mainly translocated to the stems; it were found two critical periods of absorption, the first of which covered the stages of tillering and vegetative growth phase, and the second one was located at the stage of maturation of the reproductive phase. The nutrients P, K, Mg and S were proportionally distributed in leaves and stems for most of the crop cycle, but differed dramatically from 251 dac, when the accumulation was directed mainly towards the stem. Calcium was stored mainly in the leaves but at the end of the cycle the trend was reversed and the nutrient in the stems moderately exceeded that in the leaves. It was found that for the first four months of the plant growth the crop had produced just 16,5 % of its total biomass, but it had accumulated between 20 and 40 % of the macronutrients, which suggests the needs of their supply since the initial steps of the crop cycle.

  11. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of...... study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The...... harvesting and the use of diesel fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial...

  12. Feasibility of cultivation of sugarcane in agroforestry systems

    Pinto Luís Fernando Guedes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's main sugarcane producer and the production system has changed abiding to legal and technical recommendation. In Piracicaba many smallholders grow sugarcane in steep areas. Under such situation, mechanization at harvest makes cultivation impossible. This work assess the viability of agroforestry systems on joining crop production and conservation of natural resources. Soils at 12-20% slope class were identified, tree species which could be cultivated along with sugarcane were selected, and the design of the systems to be adopted was evaluated. Identified area occupies 11,556 ha and the most representative soil types are Typic Kandiuldult and Lithic Hapludoll. The exotic species coconut, eucalyptus, pejibaye and rubber, and eight native species have potential to be grown in contourhedgerows with sugarcane. Initial planting of exotic, domesticated trees is recommended, and gradual introduction of native, non-domesticated species, can be set according to their ecological requirements.

  13. Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.

    Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

    2006-06-01

    This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

  14. Development and yield of sugarcane after application of plant growth regulators in the midle of crop season/ Desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar após aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    Full Text Available The supply of technological quality raw material for providing economical return is the most important necessity of sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane stalks due to plant regulators application at half crop. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators of the class of the growth retainers (Ethephon, Ehyl-trinexapac, Potassium nitrate, Potassium nitrate + Boron application and a control (natural ripening. Ethyl-trinexapac and Ethephon treatments were efficient to hold up growth process regarding height of plants, but had no effect on diameter of stalks. The maintenance of bud top integrity made possible the increase in diameter of stalks, without interrupting the growth process regarding height of plants. According to application time the ripeners provided improvement on technological quality of raw material. The ripeners did not affect the number of plants per meter at harvest and did not cause alterations int the amount mass of stalks per hectare. The ripeners did not affect the regrowth of the ratoon cane. O fornecimento de matéria-prima de qualidade tecnológica que garanta retorno econômico é uma das maiores necessidades da indústria sucroalcooleira. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar decorrente da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no meio da safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram utilizados cinco tratamentos constituídos pela aplicação dos reguladores vegetais da classe dos retardantes de crescimento etefon e etil-trinexapac, e de KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. O etil-trinexapac e o etefon atuaram de forma eficiente em retardar o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas de cana-de-açúcar, sem ocasionar alterações no diâmetro dos colmos. A manutenção da integridade da gema apical possibilitou o incremento no diâmetro dos colmos sem interromper o crescimento em altura das plantas. Os maturadores propiciaram, conforme a época de aplicação, melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. Ainda, não afetaram o número de colmos na colheita, não produziram alterações quantitativas na massa de colmos por hectare, e não afetaram a rebrora da soqueira da cana-de-açúcar.

  15. Evaluating sugarcane diets for dairy cows using a digestion model

    E. Kebreab; Assis, A.G.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J

    2001-01-01

    To eliminate unnecessary feeding trials, a mechanistic model of sugarcane digestion was used in the search for suitable supplements to improve milk production. Milk production simulated by the model was compared with data observed in four feeding trials published in the tropical literature where crossbred dairy cows were fed sugarcane/urea diets with different types of supplements. The predicted effects of the supplements on the ruminal microbial population, concentrations of ammonia and vola...

  16. Evaluation of Exotic Sugarcane Germplasm for Agronomic Characters and Productivity

    Maqbool Akhtar; Nosheen Noor Elahi; Ashraf, M.

    2001-01-01

    Six exotic sugarcane varieties were evaluated for their agronomic characters and productivity. All exotic sugarcane varieties had similar germination percentage except standard variety CP77-400 which had higher germination. Significant differences were found in number of tillers ha -1, stalk height, girth and total soluble solids. Minimum (102.3 thousands ha -1) number of millable canes were found in variety CP84-1198 and the maximum (160 thousands ha -1) in CP85-1491. Cane yield ranged from ...

  17. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Baggase without Enzymatic Saccharification

    Raj Boopathy; Letha Dawson

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane processing generates a large volume of bagasse. Disposal of bagasse is critical for both agricultural profitability and environmental protection. Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable resource that can be used to produce ethanol and many other value added products. In this study, we demonstrate that cane processed bagasse could be used to produce fuel grade ethanol without saccharification. A chemical pre-treatment process using alkaline peroxide and acid hydrolysis was applied to re...

  18. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether), which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorg...

  19. Biotechnological interventions in sugarcane improvement: strategies, methods and progress

    Work has been conducted towards employing in vitro culture system combined with radiation induced mutagenesis in the improvement of sugarcane. Several radiation induced mutants with agronomically desirable traits were isolated and evaluated under field conditions, besides studying abiotic stress responses using biochemical, physiological and molecular tools. This article describes the developments in the in vitro culture systems and related biotechnologies that are evolving as novel strategies in the recent years for use in sugarcane improvement

  20. Pretreatment strategies for delignification of sugarcane bagasse: a review

    Susan Grace Karp; Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski; Vanete Thomaz Soccol; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2013-01-01

    The valorization of agro-residues by biological routes is a key technology that contributes to the development of sustainable processes and the generation of value-added products. Sugarcane bagasse is an agro-residue generated by the sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil (186 million tons per year), composed essentially of cellulose (32-44%), hemicellulose (27-32%) and lignin (19-24%). The conversion of sugarcane bagasse into fermentable sugars requires essentially two steps: pretreatment and ...

  1. Impulsive Biological Pest Control Strategies of the Sugarcane Borer

    Marat Rafikov; Alfredo Del Sole Lordelo; Elvira Rafikova

    2012-01-01

    We propose an impulsive biological pest control of the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) by its egg parasitoid Trichogramma galloi based on a mathematical model in which the sugarcane borer is represented by the egg and larval stages, and the parasitoid is considered in terms of the parasitized eggs. By using the Floquet theory and the small amplitude perturbation method, we show that there exists a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution when some conditions ho...

  2. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  3. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US$1=R$2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. - Research highlights: →The relative cost of ethanol produced in the US and imported from Brazil is shown to depend on currency exchange rate, feedstock costs, and co-product credits. →In 2006-2008, the cost of corn ethanol is estimated to be 15% lower than the cost of imported sugarcane ethanol at US ports. →A carbon pricing policy could affect relative costs in favor of sugarcane ethanol, but only at a high carbon price.

  4. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    Amandeep Singh; Uma Ranjan Lal; Hayat Muhammad Mukhtar; Prabh Simran Singh; Gagan Shah; Ravi Kumar Dhawan

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary produ...

  5. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    Duli Zhao; Yang-Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems ...

  6. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  7. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  8. Influence of Pythium oligandrum on the bacterial communities that colonize the nutrient solutions and the rhizosphere of tomato plants.

    Vallance, J; Déniel, F; Barbier, G; Guerin-Dubrana, L; Benhamou, N; Rey, P

    2012-09-01

    The influence exerted by the biocontrol oomycete Pythium oligandrum on the bacterial populations proliferating in the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in a hydroponic system and in the circulating solutions is studied in the present experiment. Quantitative PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism were used to investigate the genetic structure and dynamics of the bacterial communities colonizing the root systems and the various circulating solutions. Quantitative PCR assays showed that bacteria heavily colonized the rhizosphere of tomato plants with, however, no significant density changes throughout the cultural season (April-September). Single strand conformation polymorphism fingerprints revealed the occurrence of transient perturbations in the rhizospheric indigenous bacterial communities following P. oligandrum introduction in the root system of plants. This effect was, however, transient and did not persist until the end of the cropping season. Interestingly, the genetic structure of the bacterial microflora colonizing either the roots or the nutrient solutions evolved throughout the cropping season. This temporal evolution occurred whatever the presence and persistence of P. oligandrum in the rhizosphere. Evidence is also provided that bacterial microflora that colonize the root system are different from the ones colonizing the circulating solutions. The relationships between these 2 microflora (at the root and solution levels) are discussed. PMID:22913267

  9. A novel protein elicitor (PaNie) from Pythium aphanidermatum induces multiple defense responses in carrot, Arabidopsis, and tobacco.

    Veit, S; Wörle, J M; Nürnberger, T; Koch, W; Seitz, H U

    2001-11-01

    A novel protein elicitor (PaNie(234)) from Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. was purified, microsequenced, and the corresponding cDNA was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative eukaryotic secretion signal with a proteinase cleavage site. The heterologously expressed elicitor protein without the secretion signal of 21 amino acids (PaNie(213)) triggered programmed cell death and de novo formation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota). Programmed cell death was determined using the tetrazolium assay and DNA laddering. Infiltration of PaNie(213) into the intercellular space of leaves of Arabidopsis (Columbia-0, wild type) resulted in necroses and deposition of callose on the cell walls of spongy parenchyma cells surrounding the necrotic mesophyll cells. Necroses were also formed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Wisconsin W38, wild type) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) but not in maize (Zea mays), oat (Avena sativa), and Tradescantia zebrina (Bosse), indicating that monocotyledonous plants are unable to perceive the signal. The reactions observed after treatment with the purified PaNie(213) were identical to responses measured after treatment with a crude elicitor preparation from the culture medium of P. aphanidermatum, described previously. The availability of the pure protein offers the possibility to isolate the corresponding receptor and its connection to downstream signaling-inducing defense reactions. PMID:11706166

  10. A Novel Protein Elicitor (PaNie) from Pythium aphanidermatum Induces Multiple Defense Responses in Carrot, Arabidopsis, and Tobacco1

    Veit, Stefan; Wörle, Jörg Manfred; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Koch, Wolfgang; Seitz, Hanns Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    A novel protein elicitor (PaNie234) from Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. was purified, microsequenced, and the corresponding cDNA was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative eukaryotic secretion signal with a proteinase cleavage site. The heterologously expressed elicitor protein without the secretion signal of 21 amino acids (PaNie213) triggered programmed cell death and de novo formation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota). Programmed cell death was determined using the tetrazolium assay and DNA laddering. Infiltration of PaNie213 into the intercellular space of leaves of Arabidopsis (Columbia-0, wild type) resulted in necroses and deposition of callose on the cell walls of spongy parenchyma cells surrounding the necrotic mesophyll cells. Necroses were also formed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Wisconsin W38, wild type) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) but not in maize (Zea mays), oat (Avena sativa), and Tradescantia zebrina (Bosse), indicating that monocotyledonous plants are unable to perceive the signal. The reactions observed after treatment with the purified PaNie213 were identical to responses measured after treatment with a crude elicitor preparation from the culture medium of P. aphanidermatum, described previously. The availability of the pure protein offers the possibility to isolate the corresponding receptor and its connection to downstream signaling-inducing defense reactions. PMID:11706166

  11. The type III secretion system of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens KD targets the phytopathogenic Chromista Pythium ultimum and promotes cucumber protection.

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Binder, Christian; Dfago, Genevive; Monne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2005-09-01

    The type III secretion system (TTSS) is used by Proteobacteria for pathogenic or symbiotic interaction with plant and animal hosts. Recently, TTSS genes thought to originate from the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae were evidenced in Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, which protects cucumber from the oomycete Pythium ultimum (kingdom Chromista/Stramenopila). However, it is not known whether the TTSS contributes to plant protection by the bacterium and, if so, whether it targets the plant or the phytopathogen. Inactivation of TTSS gene hrcV following the insertion of an omega cassette strongly reduced the biocontrol activity of the pseudomonad against P. ultimum on cucumber when compared with the wild type, but had no effect on its root-colonization ability. Analysis of a plasmid-based transcriptional hrpJ'-inaZ reporter fusion revealed that expression in strain KD of the operon containing hrcV was strongly stimulated in vitro and in situ by the oomycete and not by the plant. In vitro, both strain KD and its hrcV mutant reduced the activity level of the pectinase polygalacturonase (a key pathogenicity factor) from P. ultimum, but the reduction was much stronger with the wild type. Together, these results show that the target range of bacterial TTSS is not restricted to plants and animals but also can include members of Chromista/Stramenopila, and suggest that virulence genes acquired horizontally from phytopathogenic bacteria were functionally recycled in biocontrol saprophytic Pseudomonas spp., resulting in enhanced plant protection by the latter. PMID:16167769

  12. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. First quarterly report, June 1--August 31, 1977

    Alexander, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    Research was initiated on the intensive production of sugarcane and other tropical grasses as solar-dried forages. Greenhouse experiments designed to screen candidate clones and to evaluate growth curves were the first to get underway. Chemical growth control tests were also initiated. Plant materials at this stage consist of commercial sugarcane hybrids, progeny from the AES-UPR cane breeding program, Saccharum clones from the species officinarum, spontaneum, sinense, and robustum, Erianthus clones, a commercial tropical forage grass, napier grass, and forms of S. spontaneum plus Arundo donax growing wild in Puerto Rico. Initial stages of cane breeding and progeny selection for the high tonnage attribute were begun during August. Foliar tissue analyses for N, P, K, S, and Si were started together-with assays for acid invertase and other components of expanding stem tissue. The first field experiment was initiated during July at the semi-arid Lajas Substation. Four clones (three sugarcane hybrids plus napier grass var. Merker) are being evaluated incident to row spacing and harvest frequency in field-plots.

  13. Effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation in sugarcane by 15N isotope dilution technique

    15N stable-isotope dilution technique was used to study effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in sugarcane varieties B8 and ROC22. The results showed that there were significant differences of % Ndfa (Nitrogen-fixing percentage) at different development stages between B8 and ROC22. The % Ndfa of B8 was obviously higher than that of ROC22 at young shoot stage, tillering stage and early elongation stage, and the highest % Ndfa of B8 reached 31.28% Ndfa. BNF was found in root, stem and leaf but the maximum BNF was in leaf at 60d. Inoculation with L03 could increase total nitrogen content in both B8 and ROC22. The leaf of ROC22 and the stem of B8 were found benefited most from the inoculation. BNF varied significantly in different varieties, organs and growth stages of sugarcane. (authors)

  14. Mathematical modeling of enzyme production using Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and sugarcane bagasse as carbon source.

    Gelain, Lucas; da Cruz Pradella, Jos Geraldo; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of enzyme production by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 was developed using a low cost substrate as main carbon source (pretreated sugarcane bagasse). The model describes the cell growth, variation of substrate concentration and production of three kinds of enzymes (cellulases, beta-glucosidase and xylanase) in different sugarcane bagasse concentrations (5; 10; 20; 30; 40gL(-1)). The 10gL(-1) concentration was used to validate the model and the other to parameter estimation. The model for enzyme production has terms implicitly representing induction and repression. Substrate variation was represented by a simple degradation rate. The models seem to represent well the kinetics with a good fit for the majority of the assays. Validation results indicate that the models are adequate to represent the kinetics for a biotechnological process. PMID:26378961

  15. INFLUENCE OF SOLID MOISTURE AND BED HEIGHT ON CULTIVATION OF Aspergillus niger FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE WITH VINASSE

    R. G. Bastos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSolid-state cultivation (SSC may be defined as growth of microorganisms on a solid support impregnated or not with a nutrient solution in near absence of free-water conditions. The use of sugarcane bagasse as a support for SSC usually demands that the particles are impregnated and moistened with nutrient solution. Vinasse is the main wastewater of ethanol fermentation-distillation. As there are no reports of the use of wastewater for moistening solid supports in SSC, the proposal is the development of an innovative process, with valuation of these by-products. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate SSC of Aspergillus niger using sugarcane bagasse and vinasse for citric acid production. The results indicate that citric acid production and glucose consumption are dependent on oxygen availability, which can be modulated by selection of bed height and air-flow in packed-bed bioreactors.

  16. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOPHILIC CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULASE SYNTHESIZED BY Bacillus sp. GROWING ON SUGARCANE BAGASSE IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    I. Q. M., Padilha; L. C. T., Carvalho; P. V. S., Dias; T. C. S. L., Grisi; F. L. Honorato da, Silva; S. F. M., Santos; D. A. M., Arajo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The production and characterization of cellulase from thermophilic strain Bacillus sp. C1AC5507 was studied. For enzyme production, sugarcane bagasse was used as carbon source. The produced carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) had a molecular weight around 55 kDa and its activity varied between [...] 0.14 and 0.37 IU mL-1 in conditions predicted by Response Surface Methodology. The optimum temperature and pH for the CMCase production were 70 C and 7.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited mostly by Cu+2 and activated mostly by Co+2, Mn2+, Ca+2 and Fe+3. Our findings provide a contribution to the use of natural wastes such as sugarcane bagasse as substrate for growth and production of thermophilic CMCase. Further optimization to increase the production of cellulase enables the use in industrial applications.

  17. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOPHILIC CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULASE SYNTHESIZED BY Bacillus sp. GROWING ON SUGARCANE BAGASSE IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    I. Q. M. Padilha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The production and characterization of cellulase from thermophilic strain Bacillus sp. C1AC5507 was studied. For enzyme production, sugarcane bagasse was used as carbon source. The produced carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase had a molecular weight around 55 kDa and its activity varied between 0.14 and 0.37 IU mL-1 in conditions predicted by Response Surface Methodology. The optimum temperature and pH for the CMCase production were 70 C and 7.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited mostly by Cu+2 and activated mostly by Co+2, Mn2+, Ca+2 and Fe+3. Our findings provide a contribution to the use of natural wastes such as sugarcane bagasse as substrate for growth and production of thermophilic CMCase. Further optimization to increase the production of cellulase enables the use in industrial applications.

  18. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer.

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  19. Irrigation Water Productivity and Water use Efficiency of Sugarcane Plants under Drought Conditions (Case Study in Farabi Agro-Industry Lands)

    Leila Joudi; Shadman Veysi; Faramarz Judy

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the productivity and performance indexes of sugarcane biomass` irrigation water use, at its growth different ages in 2009-2010 cropping year, in Farabi agro-industry farms. During this study, based on the age, four farms were selected for each plant. These farms had the highest performance among different ones. Performance rate, plant evapotranspiration, and total quantity of irrigation water were determined during the plant growth period and, based on their a...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity Of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated From sugarcane And Banana Plant

    Gayathri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes - “Microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without carrying any immediate over negative effects". In this present investigation the endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from root, stem and leaf of Sugarcane and Banana for their antimicrobial activity. Totally 6 endophytic actinomycetes were obtained from all the samples. Population enumeration, phenotypic characters like substrate mycelium, aerial mycelium, aerial mass colour, reverse side pigment, melanoid pigment, spore chain morphology, salt tolerance on growth, growth on different pH, effect of different temperature on growth, Biochemical characteristics, and enzymatic activity were studied. For antimicrobial activity 7 bacterial pathogens and 4 fungal pathogens were used. Up on the 6 isolate 1 endophytic actinomycetes isolate (BAR1 shows good activity against all the isolates. Based on the above characteristics the potential isolate BAR1 is identified as Streptomyces sp.

  1. ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    A. PESSOA JR.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL and semi-pilot (25 L reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140C for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%; 140C for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9% and 150C for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%. These conditions were also used for hydrolysis in a semi-pilot reactor, and the highest xylose recovery yield (83.3% was obtained at 140C for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm

  2. Resistance of sugarcane cultivars to Diatraea saccharalis

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the oviposition preference of Diatraea saccharalis and the effect of ten sugarcane cultivars on larval development. Oviposition preference was assessed under greenhouse conditions by three releases of couples of moths, with subsequent counting of egg masses and eggs per plant. In order to evaluate the effect of the cultivars on larval development, each plant was infected with about 150 eggs, and, 29 days later, the total number of internodes, number of bored internodes, number of life forms found, larval and pupal weight and length, and the width of larval head capsule were evaluated. The cultivars IACSP94-2101 and IACSP96-2042, the least preferred by D. saccharalis for oviposition, and IACSP94-2094, the most unfavorable for larvae entrance and development, show resistance to the pest.

  3. Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane

    L Potgieter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

  4. Identification of sugarcane cDNAs encoding components of the cell cycle machinery

    Andrietta Mírian Helene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on cell cycle research in plants indicate that the majority of the fundamental regulators are conserved with other eukaryotes, but the controlling mechanisms imposed on them, and their integration into growth and development is unique to plants. To date, most studies on cell division have been conducted in dicot plants. However, monocot plants have distinct developmental strategies that will affect the regulation of cell division at the meristems. In order to advance our understanding how cell division is integrated with the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth and development in monocots, we took advantage of the sugarcane EST Project (Sucest to carry an exhaustive data mining to identify components of the cell cycle machinery. Results obtained include the description of distinct classes of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs; A, B, D, and H-type cyclins; CDK-interacting proteins, CDK-inhibitory and activating kinases, pRB and E2F transcription factors. Most sugarcane cell cycle genes seem to be member of multigene families. Like in dicot plants, CDKa transcription is not restricted to tissues with elevated meristematic activity, but the vast majority of CDKb-related ESTs are found in regions of high proliferation rates. Expression of CKI genes is far more abundant in regions of less cell division, notably in lateral buds. Shared expression patterns for a group of clusters was unraveled by transcriptional profiling, and we suggest that similar approaches could be used to identify genes that are part of the same regulatory network.

  5. Effect of sugarcane vinasse and EDTA on cadmium phytoextraction by two saltbush plants.

    Eissa, Mamdouh A

    2016-05-01

    Although the use of saltbush plants in metal phytoremediation is well known, there is little information about the impact of sugarcane vinasse (SCV) and EDTA on metal uptake. Heavily cadmium-polluted soil (38 mg kg(-1) Cd) was used in pot and incubation experiments to investigate the Cd phytoextraction potential of wavy saltbush (Atriplex undulata) and quail saltbush (Atriplex lentiformis). EDTA at rates of 3, 6, and 10 mM kg(-1) soil and SCV at rates of 7, 15, and 30 mL kg(-1) soil were added to the polluted soil. The application of EDTA significantly (P = 0.002) reduced the growth of saltbush plants; on the other hand, SCV improved the growth. Both EDTA and SCV increased the availability and root-to-shoot transfer of Cd. The plants of A. lentiformis grown on the soil amended with the highest rate of SCV were able to remove 20.4 % of the total soil Cd during a period of 9 months. Based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that A. lentiformis and sugarcane vinasse could be more effective in the phytoextraction of Cd from the polluted soils. PMID:26884237

  6. Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil

    Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

    2012-12-01

    The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro-regions) from Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009); (ii) One index that indicates the degree of relative occurrence of vulnerable areas in relation to contamination risk of surface and groundwater by effluents from sugarcane agroindustry from a model made by Barbalho e Campos (2010); (iii) two indicators that evaluate the commitment degree of the available water to meet the demand of sugarcane potential expansion distinctly for dryland and irrigation system; (iv) two indicators that evaluate the attendance level of the sugarcane water demand considering the limits of available water from local water resource in terms of maximum area that the culture can expand in a sustainable way For the estimation of water supply was used a spatially distributed model of specific flow (FERRAZ, 2012). The results show that the indicators were able to characterize and distinguish the different territorial units of analysis and the spatial models used satisfactorily met, in terms of level of detail, the purposes explained. The Sudoeste de Goiás and Quirinópolis microregions exhibit higher favorability, from the point of view of water sustainability therefore have areas where culture can be grown in dry system and still rely on higher available water volumes to supply the demand of sugarcane cultivation in the areas of compulsory irrigation.

  7. A Global View of Transcriptome Dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum Challenge in Sugarcane by RNA-seq

    Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and ROC22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitat...

  8. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems

    Lucas Carvalho Basilio de Azevedo; Sidney Luiz Stürmer; Marcio Rodrigues Lambais

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcan...

  9. A Review of Sugarcane Deterioration in the United States and South Africa

    A review of sugarcane deterioration that detrimentally affects processing in the United States (US) and South Africa (SA) is presented. Postharvest sugarcane deterioration products are dependent on sugarcane injury, environmental conditions, variety, cut-to-crush delays, and extent of adventitious i...

  10. Louisiana sugarcane entomology: A look at the back and a peek at the future

    Controlling insect pests is an important consideration for sugarcane farmers seeking to minimize losses and maximize profits. Research in managing insects has been conducted for almost as long as sugarcane has been grown in Louisiana. This presentation reviews Louisiana sugarcane entomology from the...

  11. Whole genome sequence of the emerging oomycete pathogen Pythium insidiosum strain CDC-B5653 isolated from an infected human in the USA

    Ascunce, Marina S.; Huguet-Tapia, Jose C.; Edward L. Braun; Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza; Keyhani, Nemat O.; Goss, Erica M.

    2016-01-01

    Pythium insidiosum ATCC 200269 strain CDC-B5653, an isolate from necrotizing lesions on the mouth and eye of a 2-year-old boy in Memphis, Tennessee, USA, was sequenced using a combination of Illumina MiSeq (300 bp paired-end, 14 millions reads) and PacBio (10  Kb fragment library, 356,001 reads). The sequencing data were assembled using SPAdes version 3.1.0, yielding a total genome size of 45.6 Mb contained in 8992 contigs, N50 of 13 Kb, 57% G + C content, and 17,867 putative protein-coding g...

  12. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    Thiebaut Flávia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

  13. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    Joo Lus Nunes, Carvalho; Rafael, Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon s [...] upply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes) were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM) production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1) and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1) of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

  14. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    Joo Lus Nunes Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crops provide carbon (C for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves and from root system (rhizomes and roots were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1 of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

  15. Radiation Induced In Vitro Mutagenesis, Selection for Salt Tolerance and Characterization in Sugarcane

    Salinity is one the major environmental stresses affecting plant productivity. Combined use of mutagenesis and tissue culture can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt-stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane damage (electrolyte leakage) was threefold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of better water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress, indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. In addition, plantlets regenerated form irradiated calli of sugarcane cv. CoC-671, Co 86032 and Co 94012 were field planted and agronomically desirable variants were identified for economic traits like cane yield and sucrose (Brix). The genetic stability of the variants is being evaluated at field level in M3 generation. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

  16. Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants

    Alexandre Trindade Leal

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados com antígeno macerado de micélio (AMM associado a três adjuvantes. Grupo I: hidróxido de alumínio; grupo II: adjuvante de Freund; grupo III: óleo mineral e grupo IV: água destilada -controle. Os tratamentos foram avaliados a diferentes intervalos, quanto à capacidade de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas específicas da classe G, através da técnica de ELISA. Na fase 1, os animais receberam três doses do imunógeno (dias zero, 14 e 28 e foram avaliados sorologicamente nos dias 14, 21, 28 e 35. Nessa fase, os adjuvantes oleosos (GII e III induziram níveis de anticorpos estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos nos grupos I e IV. Durante a fase 2 (dias 42 a 120, cada grupo foi subdividido em dois; sendo um subgrupo mantido em tratamento (imunizações adicionais nos dias 42, 56, 68 e 82 e o outro tendo o tratamento interrompido após a 3ª dose (dia 28. Nos subgrupos mantidos em tratamento, os níveis de anticorpos dos grupos imunizados com adjuvantes foram estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos no grupo GIV (controle. Nos coelhos com tratamento interrompido, os grupos I, II e III apresentaram manutenção nos níveis de IgG e foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo controle, que apresentou declínio nos níveis de anticorpos. Os resultados demonstraram a capacidade dos adjuvantes testados em potencializar e prolongar a resposta humoral aos antígenos do P. insidiosum. O uso de adjuvantes associado aos atuais imunógenos pode aumentar os índices de cura em eqüinos submetidos à imunoterapia, assim como viabilizar sua utilização como preventivo.Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic fungi living in flooded areas which can infect humans and animals. Natural infection in these species results in clinical pythiosis, a granulomatous disease of difficult treatment. Immunotherapy with antigens obtained from cultures of the agent is a promising alternative therapy. In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvants in the immunologic response to P. insidiosum antigens, 24 rabbits were assigned to four groups and immunized with mycelian mass antigen with each of there adjuvants. Group I: aluminum hydroxide; group II: Freund’s adjuvant; group III: mineral oil and group IV: distilled water-control. The effects of the adjavants were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-pythium imunoglobulin G (IgG produced by the immunized rabbits at different time-points after immunization, using an ELISA test. During phase 1, the animals were immunized three times (days zero, 14 and 28 and serologically tested at days 14, 21, 28 and 35. The oil adjuvants (groups II and III were statistically superior to groups I and IV. During phase 2 (from day 42 to 120 each group was subdivided in two, with one subgroup having additional immunizations at days 42, 56, 68 and 82 and the other having the treatment interrupted. Among the rabbits with continued immunizations, groups I, II and III (adjuvants had statistically higher IgG levels than GIV. Among rabbits with interrupted treatment, GI, GII and presented stable IgG levels and were statistically superior to the control group, that presented decrease in the levels. These results demonstrated that the adjuvants were capable of inducing stronger and longer imunologic responses (IgG to P. insidiosum antigens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants associated with P. insidiosum antigens may increase the recovery rates obtained through immunotherapy.

  17. Seedling tolerance to Rhizoctonia and Pythium in wheat chromosome group 4 addition lines from Thinopyrum spp

    Chromosome 4 from Thinopyrum spp. confers regrowth after a sexual cycle and senescence in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), and is associated with resistance to the necrotrophic eyespot pathogen, Tapesia yallundae. We sought to determine whether robust root growth or other traits expressed in ch...

  18. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical, physical and biological processes within the soil. Our SQ evaluations also suggest that current approaches for expanding Brazilian sugarcane production by converting degraded pasture land to cropland can be a sustainable strategy for meeting increasing biofuel demand. However, management practices that alleviate negative impacts on soil physical and biological indicators must be prioritized within sugarcane producing areas to prevent unintentional SQ degradation over time. PMID:26938642

  19. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical, physical and biological processes within the soil. Our SQ evaluations also suggest that current approaches for expanding Brazilian sugarcane production by converting degraded pasture land to cropland can be a sustainable strategy for meeting increasing biofuel demand. However, management practices that alleviate negative impacts on soil physical and biological indicators must be prioritized within sugarcane producing areas to prevent unintentional SQ degradation over time. PMID:26938642

  20. TRS value of sugarcane according to bioenergy and sugar levels

    Tadeu Alcides Marques

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the specific case of sugarcane, producers in Brazil are currently paid by the content of total recoverable sugars (TRS in the raw material when it reaches the industry, according to CONSECANA: TRS = 9.6316 *PC +9.15 * RSS, where PC is the Pol in cane (apparent sucrose and RSS are reducing sugars in sugarcane (glucose + fructose. The objective of the project was to propose changes in the procedures used to mathematically determine the TRS, estimating the calorific value of moist cake and weight of moist cake. The final model is then proposed: TRS = 25.9892 + 0.02172*CVmc*WMC+0.536*WMC – 4.14*CVmc + + 4.8158*PC + 4.575*RSS. Thus we obtain the TRS calculated according to the calorific value of moist cake (CVmc, weight of moist cake (WMC, Pol cane (PC and the reducing sugars in sugarcane (RSS. This form is included in the estimation of TRS, the calorific value of moist cake, which reflects the bioenergy of fiber, weight of moist cake that estimates sugarcane fiber, in addition to existing factors Pol cane and reducing sugars in sugarcane. In the proposed model, the estimated values of TSR were 11.08% higher than the estimated values in the CONSECANA model.

  1. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    G. M. Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

  2. Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

  3. [(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].

    da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

    2014-10-01

    In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

  4. Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions

    Koga-Vicente, A.

    2011-12-01

    The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

  5. Sugarcane spirit market share simulation: an application of conjoint analysis

    João de Deus Souza Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of packaging and labeling attributes of sugarcane spirit on consumers' behavior by applying the results of conjoint analysis in sugarcane spirit market share simulation. Firstly, a conjoint analysis was performed aiming to estimate the part-worths of each consumer for some sugarcane spirit packaging and labeling attributes. These part-worths were used in the market share simulation using the maximum utility model. It was observed that some packaging and labeling attributes affected consumer's purchase intention and that most consumers showed a similar preference pattern regarding these attributes. These consumers showed preference for the Seleta brand, which was bottled in 700 mL clear glass bottles with a metal screw cap that bore a label illustration unrelated to sugarcane spirit production process and had the information "aged 36 months in oak barrels". This study also showed that conjoint analysis and the use of its results in the market share simulation proved important tools to better understand consumer behavior towards intention to purchase sugarcane spirit.

  6. Tolerance and compensatory response of rice to sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury.

    Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Longnecker, M T

    2008-06-01

    A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), as affected by cultivar (Cocodrie, Francis, and Jefferson), stage of crop growth during which the injury occurred (third tiller stage, panicle differentiation stage, and heading stage), and sugarcane borer density. The proportion of rice tillers with sugarcane borer injury (leaf and leaf sheath injury and/or stem injury) was lower when injury occurred at the third tiller stage (0.05) than at panicle differentiation (0.19) and heading (0.18). When injury occurred at the two latter stages, both the proportion of tillers with injury and the proportion of tillers with stem injury were negatively correlated with rainfall. Rainfall resulted in dislodgement and mortality of sugarcane borer eggs and larvae before the larvae entered the stems. Rice plant density in this study (111.1 plants/m2) was higher than recorded for previous research on rice compensation using potted rice or conducted in low-density hill production systems (26.7-51.3 plants/m2). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were observed. Stem injured plants produced approximately 0.69 more tillers than uninjured plants, whereas tillers with leaf and leaf sheath injury produced larger panicles, up to 39.5 and 21.0% heavier than uninjured tillers, when injury occurred at third tiller stage and at panicle differentiation, respectively. Rice yield was not reduced with up to 23% injured tiller and up to 10% injured stems at the third tiller stage, 42% injured tillers and 17% injured stems at panicle differentiation, and 28% injured tillers and 14% injured stems at heading. Significant between-plant compensation was not detected, suggesting competition between adjacent plants is not significantly reduced by injury. Our results suggest that rice can tolerate and/or compensate for a level of stem borer injury previously considered to be economically damaging. PMID:18559187

  7. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

  8. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    Korndorfer, A.P.; Grisoto, E.; Vendramim, J.D., E-mail: korndorfer@hotmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

  9. Water use efficiency of different sugarcane genotypes irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    Silva, A. L. B. O.; Pires, R. C. M.; Ribeiro, R. V.; Machado, E. C.; Rolim, G. S.; Magalhes Filho, J. R.; Marchiori, P. E. R.

    2012-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supplying should be take into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The aim of this work was to evaluate water consumption and the water use efficiency of two sugarcane genotypes irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000 and SP79-1011 varieties. Those varieties have different canopy characteristics and development, with IACSP95-5000 being more responsive to soil water availability and presenting higher light interception when compared to SP79-1011. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was calculated through field water balance from August 2010 to March 2011. Soil water content was evaluated by using a capacitance probe, sampling different depths in soil profile until 1-m. IACSP95-5000 had higher water consumption than SP79-1011. The mean ETc value of IACSP95-5000 was 5.0 mm day-1, whereas SP79-1011 showed 3.7 mm day-1. ETc values were positively correlated to biomass production, with IACSP95-5000 exhibiting higher growth and water use efficiency than SP79-1011.

  10. Mutagenesis and selection in vitro for salinity tolerance and molecular characterization in sugarcane

    can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50 Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane stability (electrolyte leakage) was 3-fold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that of retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of an ample water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20 Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

  11. The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from sugarcane wastes for solubilizing phosphate

    Atekan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of P in agricultural soils is in unavailable forms for plant growth. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria can increase soil P availability. This study was aimed to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from sugarcane waste compost and to test ability of the isolated bacterial to dissolve phosphate. The bacteria were isolated from three types of sugarcane waste, i.e. filter cake compost, bagasse compost, and a mixture of filter cake + bagasse + trash biomass compost. The potential colony was further purified by the Pikovskaya method on selective media. Eight isolates of phosphate solubilizing bacteria were obtained from all wasted studied. Amongst them, T-K5 and T-K6 isolates were superior in dissolving P from Ca3(PO42 in the media studied. The two isolates were able to solubilize P with solubilizing index of 1.75 and 1.67 for T-K5 and T-K6, respectively. Quantitatively, T-K6 isolate showed the highest P solubilization (0.74 mg / L, followed by T-K5 isolate (0.56 mg / L, while the lowest P solubilization (0.41 mg / L was observed for T-K4 isolate. The increase of soluble P was not always followed by the decrease in pH.

  12. Improved Citric Acid Production by Radiation Mutant Aspergillus niger Using Sugarcane Bagasse Extract

    J. Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to huge demand of citric acid, attempts are taking to introduce its efficient production either by using low cost substrates or by improving the potency of the fermentation microorganisms. In this study, sugarcane bagasse extract was used for citric acid production using wild type Aspergillus niger CA16 and its radiation mutant 79/20 by submerged fermentation. Fermentation was carried out up to 15 days using 5, 10, 15 and 20% of sugarcane bagasse extract which contained 21.06, 32.60, 43.50 and 53.20 g L-1 sugar, respectively. The fermentation medium was supplemented with prescott salt. With the increasing concentration of baggase extract, total titratable acidity and citric acid production was increased. Moreover, radiation mutant A. niger 79/20 had higher citric acid production than A. niger CA16. Maximum amount of citric acid (12.81 g L-1 was produced in the 20% bagasse extract medium by A. niger 79/20, whereas, CA16 produced 10.25 g L-1 citric acid in the same fermentation medium. Maximum substrate uptake, growth yield co-efficient and productivity were also found higher in case of the strain 79/20. Thus, radiation mutation induced improved citric acid production in A. niger 79/20.

  13. The genome sequence of the gram-positive sugarcane pathogen Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli.

    Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B; Camargo, Luis E A; Van Sluys, Marie A; Kitajima, João P; Truffi, Daniela; do Amaral, Alexandre M; Harakava, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Julio C F; Wood, Derek; de Oliveira, Mariana C; Miyaki, Cristina; Takita, Marco A; da Silva, Ana C R; Furlan, Luis R; Carraro, Dirce M; Camarotte, Giovana; Almeida, Nalvo F; Carrer, Helaine; Coutinho, Luiz L; El-Dorry, Hamza A; Ferro, Maria I T; Gagliardi, Paulo R; Giglioti, Eder; Goldman, Maria H S; Goldman, Gustavo H; Kimura, Edna T; Ferro, Emer S; Kuramae, Eiko E; Lemos, Eliana G M; Lemos, Manoel V F; Mauro, Sonia M Z; Machado, Marcos A; Marino, Celso L; Menck, Carlos F; Nunes, Luiz R; Oliveira, Regina C; Pereira, Gonsalo G; Siqueira, Walter; de Souza, Alessandra A; Tsai, Siu M; Zanca, A S; Simpson, Andrew J G; Brumbley, Stevens M; Setúbal, João C

    2004-08-01

    The genome sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, which causes ratoon stunting disease and affects sugarcane worldwide, was determined. The single circular chromosome of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli CTCB07 was 2.6 Mb in length with a GC content of 68% and 2,044 predicted open reading frames. The analysis also revealed 307 predicted pseudogenes, which is more than any bacterial plant pathogen sequenced to date. Many of these pseudogenes, if functional, would likely be involved in the degradation of plant heteropolysaccharides, uptake of free sugars, and synthesis of amino acids. Although L. xyli subsp. xyli has only been identified colonizing the xylem vessels of sugarcane, the numbers of predicted regulatory genes and sugar transporters are similar to those in free-living organisms. Some of the predicted pathogenicity genes appear to have been acquired by lateral transfer and include genes for cellulase, pectinase, wilt-inducing protein, lysozyme, and desaturase. The presence of the latter may contribute to stunting, since it is likely involved in the synthesis of abscisic acid, a hormone that arrests growth. Our findings are consistent with the nutritionally fastidious behavior exhibited by L. xyli subsp. xyli and suggest an ongoing adaptation to the restricted ecological niche it inhabits. PMID:15305603

  14. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant against Fusarium sacchari--the causal organism of pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane.

    Goswami, Debahuti; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Deka, Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane caused by the fungus Fusarium sacchari results considerable damage to the crop leading to top rot, the most serious and advanced stage of pokkah boeng, where the growing point is killed and the entire top of the plant dies. In the present study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant as an antifungal agent against F. sacchari to control pokkah boeng disease was investigated. On the basis of surface tension reduction, 12 bacterial isolates were selected as potent biosurfactant producers and eight of them showed antagonistic effect against F. sacchari. Among the eight, the isolate DS9 was found as the effective inhibitor of the fungus in vitro which was further evaluated using its biosurfactant present in whole culture, cell-free culture supernatant and crude biosurfactant at various concentrations. Reductions of fungal growths were found more with crude biosurfactant. By sequencing 16S rRNA, DS9 was identified as P. aeruginosa and the produced biosurfactant was characterized as rhamnolipid by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant inhibits phytopathogenic fungi F. sacchari and therefore seems to be a good biocontrol agent to control pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane. PMID:23687052

  15. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Lcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15g biomasskg wet culture medium?1 and light intensity of 6.0klx.

  16. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Baggase without Enzymatic Saccharification

    Raj Boopathy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane processing generates a large volume of bagasse. Disposal of bagasse is critical for both agricultural profitability and environmental protection. Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable resource that can be used to produce ethanol and many other value added products. In this study, we demonstrate that cane processed bagasse could be used to produce fuel grade ethanol without saccharification. A chemical pre-treatment process using alkaline peroxide and acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin, which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC strain 765 was used in the experiment. The pre-treatment process effectively removed lignin. Ethanol production in the culture sample was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicate that ethanol can be made from the sugarcane bagasse.

  17. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  18. Tracking soil transport to sugarcane industry using neutron activation analysis

    Soil as mineral impurity in sugarcane loads impacts the Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry with rising production and maintenance costs as well as decreased productivity. The mechanical harvesting of sugarcane was conceived as a technology with potential to increase the raw material quality thereby has been gradually replacing manual harvesting throughout the country. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for determination of soil tracers in order to compare the performance of both harvesting systems in terms of mineral impurities. There were no significant differences in the amount of soil transported to sugarcane industry despite the technological progress aggregated to mechanical harvesting. However, for both harvesting systems there were significant differences on the amount of such mineral impurity between clay and sandy soils. (author)

  19. Preparation and characterization of super absorbent polymer from sugarcane bagasse

    Sugarcane bagasse is a source of biomass which large enough numbers and has not been fully exploited. At this time has developed a super absorbent polymer material of sugarcane bagasse that can absorb water up to several times of its own weight and keep this water. Super absorbent polymers can be used as a soil conditioner that can be used as an absorber and storage of ground water, the giver of nutrients for plants, and can improve soil properties. The purpose of this study is to make and characterization of super absorbent polymer (PCS) from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation of super absorbent polymers (PCS) has been done by grafting method using ionizing radiation from Electron Beam Engineering (MBE) 350 mA keV/10. Irradiation process carried out with a dose variation of 20, 35, and 50 kGy. Increasing doses of radiation will increase the percentage fraction of transplantation (grafting) and the fraction of water absorption ability (swelling ratio). (author)

  20. Pretreatment strategies for delignification of sugarcane bagasse: a review

    Susan Grace Karp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The valorization of agro-residues by biological routes is a key technology that contributes to the development of sustainable processes and the generation of value-added products. Sugarcane bagasse is an agro-residue generated by the sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil (186 million tons per year, composed essentially of cellulose (32-44%, hemicellulose (27-32% and lignin (19-24%. The conversion of sugarcane bagasse into fermentable sugars requires essentially two steps: pretreatment and hydrolysis. The aim of the pretreatment is to separate the lignin and break the structure of lignocellulose, and it is one of the most critical steps in the process of converting biomass to fermentable sugars. The aim of this review is to describe different pretreatment strategies to promote the delignification of the sugarcane bagasse by thermo-chemical and biological processes.

  1. OPTIMIZED AGRICULTURAL PLANNING OF SUGARCANE USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Maximiliano Salles Scarpari* and Edgar Gomes Ferreira de Beauclair**

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimized agricultural planning is a fundamental activity in business profitability because it can increase the returns from an operation with low additional costs. Nonetheless, the use of operations research adapted to sugarcane plantation management is still limited, resulting in decision-making at management level being primarily empirical. The goal of this work was to develop an optimized planning model for sugarcane farming using a linear programming tool. The program language used was General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS as this system was seen to be an excellent tool to allow profit maximization and harvesting time schedule optimization in the sugar mill studied. The results presented support this optimized planning model as being a very useful tool for sugarcane management.

  2. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Daniela Kajihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as molecular domestication, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  3. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior cultivar information.

  4. Isozyme Analysis on Different Varieties of Sugarcane

    Johnson M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Isozymic and protein diversity among five sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 85019, Co 8371, Co 89003 and Co 91010 were studied to understand the varietal interrelationship and to identify the biochemical marker for the disease resistance and stress tolerance. The standard technique of vertical gel electrophoresis PAGE was employed for size separation of isozymes. The gel was stained with different staining solutions for different isozyme systems viz. peroxidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and proteins. Rf values of the banding profiles, similarity index and variation between the varieties were analysed. Among the four enzyme systems, peroxidase profile reveals the difference between the disease resistant / susceptible and abiotic stress tolerant / non tolerant varieties. The two isoperoxidase bands with Rf values 0.62 and 0.66 showed their presence in disease resistant and abiotic tolerant varieties. The presence of two marker bands (0.62, 0.66 of resistant and stress tolerant varieties suggest that the variety Co 6304 may also be resistant to smut, wilt and moderately resistant to red rot and tolerant to drought.

  5. Liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse for enzyme production.

    Cunha, F M; Kreke, T; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S; Ximenes, E; Ladisch, M R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to report liquefaction of pretreated and sterilized sugarcane bagasse for enhancing endoglucanase production through submerged fermentation by Aspergillus niger. After initial solid state fermentation of steam pretreated bagasse solids by A. niger, fed-batch addition of the substrate to cellulase in buffer over a 12h period, followed by 36h reaction, resulted in a liquid slurry with a viscosity of 0.300.07Pas at 30% (w/v) solids. Addition of A. niger for submerged fermentation of sterile liquefied bagasse at 23% w/v solids resulted in an enzyme titer of 2.5IUmL(-1) or about 15 higher productivity than solid-state fermentation of non-liquefied bagasse (final activity of 0.17IUmL(-1)). Bagasse not treated by initial solid-state fermentation but liquefied with enzyme gave 2IUmL(-1). These results show the utility of liquefied bagasse as a culture medium for enzyme production in submerged fermentations. PMID:25265329

  6. TRS value of sugarcane according to bioenergy and sugar levels

    Tadeu Alcides Marques; Larissa Carolina Gonçalves Neves; Erick Malheiros Rampazo; Elvis Lima Deltrejo Junior; Fernando Caetano Souza; Patricia Angelica Alves Marques

    2015-01-01

    In the specific case of sugarcane, producers in Brazil are currently paid by the content of total recoverable sugars (TRS) in the raw material when it reaches the industry, according to CONSECANA: TRS = 9.6316 *PC +9.15 * RSS, where PC is the Pol in cane (apparent sucrose) and RSS are reducing sugars in sugarcane (glucose + fructose). The objective of the project was to propose changes in the procedures used to mathematically determine the TRS, estimating the calorific value of moist cake and...

  7. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Wong, Y C; V. Sanggari

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast) also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples w...

  8. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  9. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of...... study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The...

  10. Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major corn borer pest and a target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in South America and the U.S. mid-southern region. With a major role in dietary protein digestion, midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. ...

  11. Manejo de Pythium sp. y Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn en bancos de enraizamiento de Gypsophila paniculata L. Management of Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonía solaní kuhn in rooting benches of Gypsophíla paniculata L.

    Garcés de Granada Emira

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo, se evaluó el efecto que sobre los patógenos Pythium sp. Y Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., tienen los aislamientos de Trichoderma harzianum (T 17 y T 13 y Trichoderma sp. (T18, lo mismo que tratamientos químicos aplicados en bancos de enraizamiento de Gypsophila paniculata L., con altos índices de contaminación. Para evaluar el control de la pudrición del cuello de la raíz de Gypsophila paniculata L., se realizaron observaciones semanales en las cuales se tuvieron en cuenta los porcentajes de esquejes sanos, de esquejes muertos y de esquejes en los cuales se desarrollaban raíces. Los resultados muestran que es más efectivo el control de la pudrición con la aplicación semanal de fungicidas. Sin embargo, se recomienda el empleo de cepas de Trichoderma sp., pero aplicadas con una frecuencia, por lo menos igual, a la empleada con los fungicidas, ya que se observa su efecto inmediato, pero no permanente y, además, porque parecen influir sobre el desarrollo de las plantas.

  12. Biofiltration kinetics of ethylacetate and xylene using sugarcane bagasse based biofilter

    saravanan Viswanathan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and xylene in a sugarcane bagasse biofilter were investigated. Microbial growth rate, biochemical reaction rate and kinetic analysis were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of xylene in the inlet concentration range of 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and xylene in this concentration range. The half-saturation constant Ks values of ethyl acetate and xylene were 1.8489 and 1.784 g.m-3, respectively. The maximum reaction rate Vm values of ethyl acetate and xylene were 0.8073and 0.8438 g C h-1 kg-1 packed material, respectively at a concentration of 0.2 g.m-3. For the biochemical reaction process, the biochemical reaction rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of xylene in the inlet concentration range of 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3. The inhibitive effect for ethyl acetate was more pronounced than that for 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3 in this concentration range. The EAX concentration profiles along the depth were also determined by using diffusion reaction model. It was observed that at low concentration and low flow rate, the model is in good agreement with the experimental values for ethylacetate and xylene.

    Keywords: Xylene, ethyl acetate, sugarcane bagasse, biofilter, biochemical reaction

    DOI = 10.3329/cerb.v14i1.4683

    Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin 14 (2010 51-57

  13. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  14. Nitrogen management research in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient in sugarcane production and is considered the biggest expense among fertilizer inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer remained expensive after a drastic price increase in 2008. The average cost of a ton of N as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution from 2003 to 2007 wa...

  15. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether, which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorghum, etc. The popular raw materials used in ethanol production in Thailand are molasses and cassava. Molasses are a by-product of sugar production process. They are the sugarcane residues that can no longer be extracted for more sugar. In many countries including Thailand, molasses are used as raw material to produce ethanol (1 ton of molasses can produce 260 liters of ethanol used in gasohol production. In this research, the researcher found that the problem of excess supply and low price of sugarcane can be solved if gasohol E20 or higher was used to replace the Octane 91 gasoline and Octane 95 gasoline.

  16. Feed Technology of Fibrous Sugarcane Residues for Ruminants

    Kuswandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundant sugarcane residue during shortage of roughage in dry season gives an opportunity to raise ruminants around sugarcane industries. However, these products are not widely used by farmers due to an assumption that the usage is inefficient and that the feed utilization technology is not widely recognized. Sugarcane fibrous residues (tops, bagasse and pith may be a potential feed component if pre-treated to increase its digestion and consumption by the animal, and/or supplemented by other ingredients to balance nutrients in the rumen as well as those for production purpose. Digestibility can be increased by chemical treatments such as ammoniation and other alkaline treatments, whereas consumption can be increased by physical treatments such as grinding, hammermilling or pelleting. Nutrients that are missing in these fibrous residues can be provided by addition of urea, molasses and minerals for maintenance need, and bypass nutrients (carbohydrates, protein and fats that are digested in the small intestine and available for tissue or milk synthesis. There are three options for development of livestock agribusiness based on fibrous sugarcane residues; however, these require several technologies to optimize the utilization of these residues.

  17. Phylogenetic diversity of Brazilian Metarhizium associated with sugarcane agriculture

    Biological control of spittlebug with Metarhizium in sugarcane is an example of the successful application of sustainable pest management in Brazil. However little is known about the richness, distribution and ecology of Metarhizium species in the agroecosystems and natural environments of Brazil. W...

  18. Breeding for resistance to the sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner)

    The sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis sacchari] (SCA) was first reported to damage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in the United States in Louisiana and Texas in 2013, and was subsequently detected in Oklahoma and the Mississippi Delta. In 2014, the aphid spread and was eventually reported in state...

  19. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  20. Registration of ‘CP 04-1566’ Sugarcane

    CP 04-1566’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida on 30 Sept. 2011. CP 04-1566 was selected from the cross X01-024...

  1. Sugarcane Stemborers and their parasites in southern Texas

    Approximately 40,000 stemborer larvae, pupae, and parasite cocoons were collected during 1982-1995 from commercial sugarcane fields and allowed to complete development under laboratory conditions. Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F) comprised 92.4% (36,897/39,945) and 5.2% (2,057/...

  2. Optimizing hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  3. Review: Sugarcane production: Impact of climate change and its mitigation

    ASHOK K. SRIVASTAVA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a climatic sensitive crop: therefore, its spatial distribution on the globe is restricted as per the suitability of various climatic parameters. The climate change, though, a very slow phenomenon is now accelerated due to natural, as well as enormous human activities disturbing the composition of atmosphere. The predications of various climatic models for probable rise in temperature, rainfall, sea level show an alarming condition in forthcoming decades. As the sugarcane is very sensitive to temperature, rainfall, solar radiations etc. therefore, a significant effect on its production and sugar yield is expected in future. It is also well known that sugarcane is one of the precious crops of the world and its end products i.e. sugar and ethanol have a continuous growing demand on global level. Hence, the studies related to good production of sugarcane in changing conditions of climate has become one among the front line area of research and is a major concern of scientist’s world over. Advance agronomic measures including development of suitable cane varieties susceptible to changed climatic conditions, land preparation, time and pattern of plantation, weed, disease and pest managements, nutrients managements, proper timing and adequate water management seems to be the affective measures for obtaining high production of crop with good quality juice in future.

  4. RB002504 - New early-maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Antonio Marcos, Iaia; Ricardo Augusto de, Oliveira; Luiz Jos Oliveira Tavares de, Melo; Edelclaiton, Daros; Djalma Euzbio, Simes Neto; Gerson Quirino, Bastos; Francisco Jos de, Oliveira; Andrea, Chaves; Tassia Taiana Abreu Tavares de, Melo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high sucrose content, RB002504 is indicated for harvesting in the early harvest period, from September to November, in the Northeastern region of Brazil. Planting on medium texture soils is recommended. The cultivar is highly responsive to ideal production environments and resistant to th [...] e major sugarcane diseases.

  5. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  6. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Glaucia Mendes Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.O sequenciamento de ESTs (etiquetas de sequencias transcritas tem possibilitado a descoberta de muitos novos genes em uma ampla variedade de organismos. Um aumento do aproveitamento desta informação pela comunidade científica tem sido possível graças ao desenvolvimento de base de dados contendo seqüências completamente anotadas. O trabalho aqui relatado teve como objetivo a identificação de ESTs de cana de açúcar seqüenciadas através do projeto SUCEST (http://sucest.lad.ic. unicamp.br que codificam para proteínas envolvidas em mecanismos de transdução de sinal. Nós também preparamos um catálogo dos componentes de transdução de sinal da cana de açúcar (SUCAST englobando as principais categorias e vias conhecidas (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp. br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm. ESTs codificadoras de enzimas envolvidas nas rotas de biossíntese de hormônios (giberelinas, etileno, auxinas, ácido abscíssico, ácido jasmônico foram encontradas e sua expressão específica nos tecidos foi inferida a partir de seu enriquecimento nas diferentes bibliotecas. Quando possível, transmissores do sinal hormonal e da resposta a peptídeos produzidos pela planta foram associados a suas respectivas vias. Mais de 100 receptores foram encontrados na cana de açúcar, entre os quais uma grande família de receptores Ser/Thr quinase e também de fotoreceptores, receptores do tipo histidina quinase e seus respectivos reguladores da resposta. Proteínas G e GTPases pequenas foram também analisadas e comparadas com membros destas famílias já conhecidos em mamíferos e plantas. As vias principais que envolvem a participação de proteínas quinases e fosfatases foram mapeadas, em especial as vias da quinase MAP quinase e do inositol que são bem estudadas em plantas.

  7. Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane

    Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The increase of stem yield due to irrigation was observed in the ratoon sugarcane cycle and promoted significant effect in RTR in the last two ratoons sugarcane cycles. There were no negative effects in technological attributes by using irrigation. On the other hand in second ratoon the irrigation improved Brix, Pol and ATR in relation to non irrigated plants. The use of double planting spacing provided higher of stem yield when compared to simple spacings, with an average gain per cycle of 13.4 and 11.1 Mg ha-1 in relation to treatments S1 and S2 respectively. The double rows planting improved RTR in plant-sugarcane and also in second ratoon sugarcane cycles in relation to other spacings. There was no interaction between irrigation and spacing on production of stems. The stem production presented positive interaction between irrigation and spacing only in the second cycle of sugarcane ratoon. In this case higher RTR yield occurred in irrigated plots in double spacing cultivation (S3). The irrigation promoted higher yield when compared to rainfed cultivation, with average values of 141.3 and 132.4 Mg ha-1, respectively. The irrigated sugarcane plants provided higher RTR compared to non irrigated ones averaging 1.5 Mg ha-1, representing an increase of approximately 6 Mg ha-1 in four yields cycles. In general, results showed beneficial use of irrigation by SDI in sugarcane over the four years of production.

  8. Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane

    M. Fida Hasan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical quality and yield performance were studied in six new sugarcane genotypes at normal and water-logging condition. The highest chemical indices, Brix % (22.20 and pol % (20.53 were found in January’ 2002 in I-93/93 and I-110/93 respectively and the lowest in I-39/94 (Brix %: 14.93; pol %: 12.52 at water-logged cultivated cane in all months. The highest of purity % (95.79 and recovery % (13.05 were found in I-110/93 in the month December 2001 and January’ 2002 respectively and the lowest in Isd 20 (purity % : 77.44; recovery % 6.49 in September 2001 at water-logged and normal cultivated cane respectively. The highest R.S. % (1.51 was found in I-39/94 in all months and the lowest in I-110/93 (0.09 at water-logged cultivated cane. Result showed that the highest tiller (183.3×1000 ha‾1 in I-110/93, millable cane (117.8×1000 ha‾1 in I-8/95, Yield (162.8 t ha‾1 in I-8/95 and TSH (16.63 ton sugar ha‾1 in I-110/93 were found in normal cultivated and the lowest were found in water-logged cultivated sugarcane (tiller 107.6×1000 ha‾1 in Isd 20; millable cane 73.38×1000 ha‾1 in Isd 30; yield 59.4 t ha‾1 in Isd 20 and TSH 6.75 ton sugar ha‾1 in Isd 20. It is concluded that the highest percentage in juice quality were found in water-logged condition cultivated cane, on the other hand growth & yield performance were also found in highest in normal cultivated cane. In aspect of sugar production some tested cultivars showed (Isd-20, I-93/93 and I-8/95 similar performance in normal and water-logged cultivated sugarcane due to genetic potentiality and environmental adaptation on quality, yield and growth.

  9. Impacts of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) on the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Simões, Renata A; Feliciano, Julia R; Solter, Leellen F; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is controlled with massive releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); over 3 million hectares of sugarcane are treated annually with 18 billion parasitoids. In order to meet this demand, parasitoids are produced in D. saccharalis under laboratory conditions where a Nosema sp. is reported to be an important problem in mass rearing of the host. The goals for this work were to study the pathogenicity of the Nosema sp. and the progression of the disease in the host under laboratory conditions. The average median lethal time (LT₅₀) of Nosema sp. in first instar D. saccharalis varied from 9 ± 0.3 to 42 ± 2.3 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10 spores/μl). For third instar, the average of LT50 ranged from 32 ± 0.7 to 37 ± 0.7 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-5 × 10(2) spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10(4) spores/μl in saline). The concentration necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC₅₀) of first instar larvae was 5.6 (0.9-17.6) spores/μl and the estimated LC50 for third instar larvae was 1,200 (200-4700) spores/μl. The impacts of Nosema sp. on D. saccharalis were analyzed for first instar larvae fed 0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet. Duration and viability of the larval and pupal stages, adult longevity, pupal weight and fertility life table were measured for offspring of mating pairs composed of infected females and uninfected males or infected males and uninfected females and compared to offspring of uninfected pairs. Nosema sp. infection resulted in adverse effects on all biological parameters measured except for the duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight of the male pupae, which did not differ statistically between infected and uninfected groups. The intrinsic rates of growth (rm) were greater for uninfected pairs compared to pairs with either male or female infected. The growth rate of individual larvae produced by uninfected adults was 48.2% faster than of larval offspring of infected females and it was negative (-0.003) when males were infected. Our study confirms the negative impact of the Nosema sp. in mass rearing of D. saccharalis for parasitoid production but shows potential for use as a microbial control agent of the sugarcane borer. PMID:25981134

  10. Cross-resistance between the Mexican Rice Borer and the Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A Case Study Using Sugarcane Breeding Populations

    The sugarcane borer (SCB) (Diatraea saccharalis) and Mexican rice borer (MRB) (Eoreuma loftini) are two economically important pests of sugarcane in the USA. Because of similarities in larval feeding behavior, selecting for resistance to one species could provide resistance to the other, a phenomeno...

  11. Study of elemental variations during somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane using photon induced X-ray probe

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) has been extensively used to characterize trace element profiles during plant growth under stress and development. In this study, elemental accumulation was analyzed using EDXRF technique during somatic embryogenesis, from de-differentiated callus (S1) to proembryogenic callus (S2), embryogenic callus with developing embryos (S3) and embryo converted plantlets (S4, S5). There was much variation in Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Higher Mg (4.6%) K (1068 ppm) and Fe accumulation was observed in proembryogenic callus (S2) stage compared to other stages suggesting specific elemental accumulation in embryogenic callus. The results suggest that the information on the accumulation of elements during developmental stages in vitro could be useful for formulating a media for induction of high frequency of embryogenesis in sugarcane

  12. Experimental assessment of the accuracy of genomic selection in sugarcane.

    Gouy, M; Rousselle, Y; Bastianelli, D; Lecomte, P; Bonnal, L; Roques, D; Efile, J-C; Rocher, S; Daugrois, J; Toubi, L; Nabeneza, S; Hervouet, C; Telismart, H; Denis, M; Thong-Chane, A; Glaszmann, J C; Hoarau, J-Y; Nibouche, S; Costet, L

    2013-10-01

    Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids with an aneuploid, highly heterozygous polyploid genome. The complexity of the sugarcane genome is the main obstacle to the use of marker-assisted selection in sugarcane breeding. Given the promising results of recent studies of plant genomic selection, we explored the feasibility of genomic selection in this complex polyploid crop. Genetic values were predicted in two independent panels, each composed of 167 accessions representing sugarcane genetic diversity worldwide. Accessions were genotyped with 1,499 DArT markers. One panel was phenotyped in Reunion Island and the other in Guadeloupe. Ten traits concerning sugar and bagasse contents, digestibility and composition of the bagasse, plant morphology, and disease resistance were used. We used four statistical predictive models: bayesian LASSO, ridge regression, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and partial least square regression. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed through the correlation between observed and predicted genetic values by cross validation within each panel and between the two panels. We observed equivalent accuracy among the four predictive models for a given trait, and marked differences were observed among traits. Depending on the trait concerned, within-panel cross validation yielded median correlations ranging from 0.29 to 0.62 in the Reunion Island panel and from 0.11 to 0.5 in the Guadeloupe panel. Cross validation between panels yielded correlations ranging from 0.13 for smut resistance to 0.55 for brix. This level of correlations is promising for future implementations. Our results provide the first validation of genomic selection in sugarcane. PMID:23907359

  13. Sugarcane Brown and Orange Rusts: Their Impact in Florida and the USDA-ARS Sugarcane field Station

    Sugarcane brown rust has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust, caused Puccinia kuehnii, was confirmed in Florida in 2007 by morphological and molecular techniques. Both brown and orange rusts have impacted both the commercial production and cultivar development programs in Florida. Sin...

  14. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D were tested in their respective commercial doses regarding their impact on the growth of the bacteria in liquid medium DIGs. For this, we determined the duration of lag phase, generation time and maximum cell density of H. seropedicae, calculated from optical density data obtained at regular intervals during the incubation of cultures for 33 h at 32oC. We also evaluated the impact of herbicides on nitrogenase activity of H. seropedicae grown in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium. The effects of herbicides on the growth variables and the ARA were compared with the untreated control by Dunnett test. A completely randomized design was used. The herbicides paraquat, imazapyr, ametryne, glyphosate and oxyfluorfen inhibited the growth of H. seropedicae in vitro. Ametryne, oxyfluorfen and glyphosate caused a small reduction in the duration of the lag phase of diazotrophic bacteria H. seropedicae. Oxyfluorfen, ametryne and imazapyr resulted in increased the generation time by H. seropedicae. Glyphosate promoted drastic reduction in biological nitrogen fixation in vitro by H. seropedicae. The other tested herbicides did not affect the growth or the same BNF by H. seropedicae.

  15. Recombinant cellulase accumulation in the leaves of mature, vegetatively propagated transgenic sugarcane.

    Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, R Jason; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Palupe, Anthony; Sainz, Manuel B; Dale, James L

    2014-09-01

    The cost of enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars needs to be reduced to make cellulosic ethanol a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel. Sugarcane is a perennial crop and the successful integration of cellulase transgenes into the sugarcane production system requires that transgene expression is stable in the ratoon. Herein, we compared the accumulation of recombinant fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), fungal cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II), and bacterial endoglucanase (EG) in the leaves of mature, initial transgenic sugarcane plants and their mature ratoon. Mature ratoon events containing equivalent or elevated levels of active CBH I, CBH II, and EG in the leaves were identified. Further, we have demonstrated that recombinant fungal CBH I and CBH II can resist proteolysis during sugarcane leaf senescence, while bacterial EG cannot. These results demonstrate the stability of cellulase enzyme transgene expression in transgenic sugarcane and the utility of sugarcane as a biofactory crop for production of cellulases. PMID:24793894

  16. Whole genome sequence of the emerging oomycete pathogen Pythium insidiosum strain CDC-B5653 isolated from an infected human in the USA.

    Ascunce, Marina S; Huguet-Tapia, Jose C; Braun, Edward L; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Keyhani, Nemat O; Goss, Erica M

    2016-03-01

    Pythium insidiosum ATCC 200269 strain CDC-B5653, an isolate from necrotizing lesions on the mouth and eye of a 2-year-old boy in Memphis, Tennessee, USA, was sequenced using a combination of Illumina MiSeq (300 bp paired-end, 14 millions reads) and PacBio (10  Kb fragment library, 356,001 reads). The sequencing data were assembled using SPAdes version 3.1.0, yielding a total genome size of 45.6 Mb contained in 8992 contigs, N50 of 13 Kb, 57% G + C content, and 17,867 putative protein-coding genes. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JRHR00000000. PMID:26981361

  17. Whole genome sequence of the emerging oomycete pathogen Pythium insidiosum strain CDC-B5653 isolated from an infected human in the USA

    Marina S. Ascunce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum ATCC 200269 strain CDC-B5653, an isolate from necrotizing lesions on the mouth and eye of a 2-year-old boy in Memphis, Tennessee, USA, was sequenced using a combination of Illumina MiSeq (300 bp paired-end, 14 millions reads and PacBio (10  Kb fragment library, 356,001 reads. The sequencing data were assembled using SPAdes version 3.1.0, yielding a total genome size of 45.6 Mb contained in 8992 contigs, N50 of 13 Kb, 57% G + C content, and 17,867 putative protein-coding genes. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JRHR00000000.

  18. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment. PMID:26090363

  19. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.

  20. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Jnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a com...

  1. Analysis of Cellulose Degrading Enzymes in Genetically Modified Sugarcane Juice Using Capillary Electrophoretic Techniques

    Gupta, Ruchi

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) sugarcane expressing cellobiohydrolase (CBH), endo-?-glucosidase (EG) and ? glucosidase (BG) have a potential to provide low cost enzymes required for commercially viable production of ethanol from waste such as bagasse. The expression of enzymes in GM sugarcane is likely to be dependent on the variety of the plant and its growing conditions. In this project, reliable, rapid and easy-to-use methods capable of on-site analysis of cellulases in every batch of sugarcane...

  2. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Rachid Caio TCC; Piccolo Marisa C; Leite Deborah Catharine A; Balieiro Fabiano C; Coutinho Heitor Luiz C; van Elsas Jan; Peixoto Raquel S; Rosado Alexandre S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the di...

  3. Oxidative enzymes activity in sugarcane juice as a function of the planting system

    Tadeu Alcides Marques; rick Malheiros Rampazo; Patricia Anglica Alves Marques

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the largest producer of sugarcane in the world, the industrial process transforms this crop into ethanol and/or granulated sugar. Some cultivars exhibit enzymatic browning in the extracted sugarcane juice at levels harmful to the manufacturing process of white granulated sugar. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sugarcane straw used as soil coverage, the use of different planting systems, and treatments with hydrogel polymer on enzymatic activity. The cultivar ...

  4. IMPACT OF DELAYED CRUSH ON POST-HARVEST DETERIORATION OF PROMISING EARLY MATURING SUGARCANE CLONES

    Y. SHARATH; K V NAGA MADHURI

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a perishable commodity and must be processed in to sugar quickly after it is harvested. Post harvest sucrose losses have been reported from many cane producing countries due to delayed crushing as a major concern. In this context to access the effect of delayed crushing in sugarcane the present study was conducted with seven promising early maturing sugarcane clones at Agricultural Research station, Perumallapalle, A.P., India during Rabi 2011-2012. Different biochemi...

  5. Relationship between endogenous ethylene production and natural defoliation traits during the maturation of sugarcane

    Xin Xin Gao; Xian Fan; Jing Mei Dao; Jun Deng; Ru Dan Li; Yue Bin Zhang; Jia Wen Guo; Shao Chun Liu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between endogenous ethylene production and natural defoliation rate was examined in sugarcane cultivars with different natural defoliation traits. Ethylene production was examined at different positions on leaf sheaths and leaf scars at various sugarcane maturation stages using gas chromatography as an external standard method. During the sugarcane maturation process, ethylene production was greatest in the 2nd leaf sheath scar, followed by the 5th and 10th, in that order. It...

  6. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    João Andrade de Carvalho; Turibio Gomes Soares Neto; José Carlos Santos; Saulo R. Freitas; Rudorff, Bernardo F. T.; Daniela de Azeredo França; Edson Anselmo; Ely Vieira Cortez; Karla Maria Longo

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due...

  7. Ethanol from Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Residues - Opportunities for Process Improvement and Production Cost Reduction

    Macrelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, and the increasing demand for fuel ethanol has prompted studies on the use of the lignocellulosic residues of sugarcane, namely bagasse and leaves, as new feedstock. This thesis describes various process designs and the economic feasibility of producing second generation (2G) ethanol from bagasse and leaves via the enzymatic route in an integrated sugarcane biorefinery, where first-generation (1G) ethanol is produced from...

  8. Climatic effects on sugarcane ripening under the influence of cultivars and crop age

    Nilceu Piffer Cardozo; Paulo Cesar Sentelhas

    2013-01-01

    The lack of information about the effects of cultivars, crop age and climate on the sugarcane (Saccharum ssp.) crop yield and quality has been the primary factor impacting the sugar-ethanol sector in Brazil. One of the processes about which we do not have a satisfactory understanding is sugarcane ripening and the effects of cultivars, crop age and climate on that. Sugarcane ripening is the process of sucrose accumulation in stalks, which is heavily influenced by several factors, mainly by cli...

  9. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties Using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

    Maria Lucília M. da Costa; Lidiane L. Barbosa Amorim; Onofre, Alberto V. C.; Luiz J. O. Tavares de Melo; Oliveira, Maria Betânia M.; Reginaldo de Carvalho; Ana M. Benko-Iseppon

    2011-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop, responsible for two thirds of the world sugar production, gaining actually importance as a source of biofuel. Drought tolerance is a very important feature considering the actual climate change scenario throughout the world. This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity between sugarcane varieties with contrasting features under drought. For this purpose, twelve ISSR primers were used to characterize nine sugarcane varieties under cultivation in ...

  10. microRNAs Associated with Drought Response in the Bioenergy Crop Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    Ferreira, Thaís Helena; Gentile, Agustina; Vilela, Romel Duarte; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Dias, Lara Isys; Endres, Laurício; Menossi, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the most important crops in the world. Drought stress is a major abiotic stress factor that significantly reduces sugarcane yields. However the gene network that mediates plant responses to water stress remains largely unknown in several crop species. Although several microRNAs that mediate post-transcriptional regulation during water stress have been described in other species, the role of the sugarcane microRNAs during drought stress has not been studied...

  11. Burnt Sugarcane Harvesting – Cardiovascular Effects on a Group of Healthy Workers, Brazil

    Barbosa, Cristiane Maria Galvão; Terra-Filho, Mário; de Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Di Giorgi, Dante; Grupi, Cesar; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Rondon, Maria Urbana Pinto Brandão; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Marcourakis, Tânia; dos Santos, Fabiana Almeida; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; ZANETTA Dirce Maria Trevisan; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2012-01-01

    Background Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugarcane. Harvest is predominantly manual, exposing workers to health risks: intense physical exertion, heat, pollutants from sugarcane burning. Design Panel study to evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on blood markers and on cardiovascular system. Methods Twenty-eight healthy male workers, living in the countryside of Brazil were submitted to blood markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cardiopulmonary exercise t...

  12. Dispersal of Cotesia flavipes in sugarcane field and implications for parasitoid releases

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda; Juliano Vilela Fracasso; Viviane Pereira da Costa; Diego Olympio Teixeira Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis Fabr. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major sugarcane pest in Brazil. The management of infested areas is based on the release of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of D. saccharalis larvae, but there are doubts about the effectiveness of C. flavipes, primarily regarding its rate of dispersal in sugarcane fields. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the dispersal of C. flavipes in a sugarcane field and suggest a release method th...

  13. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems

    Lucas Carvalho Basilio de Azevedo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning. Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

  14. Sugarcane proteomics: An update on current status, challenges, and future prospects.

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ramadass, Ashwin; Amalraj, Ramesh Sundar; Palaniyandi, Malathi; Rasappa, Viswanathan

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated worldwide for the production of crystal sugar, ethanol, and other related by-products. Unlike other comparable monocots like sorghum, maize, and rice, sugarcane genome by virtue of its polyploidy nature remains yet to be fully deciphered. Proteomics-an established complementary tool to genomics is at its infancy in sugarcane as compared to the other monocots. However, with the surge in genomics research accomplished by next-generation sequencing platforms, sugarcane proteomics has gained momentum. This review summarizes the available literature from 1970 to 2014, which ensures a comprehensive coverage on sugarcane proteomics-a topic first of its kind to be reviewed. We herewith compiled substantial contributions in different areas of sugarcane proteomics, which include abiotic and biotic stresses, cell wall, organelle, and structural proteomics. The past decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the pace with which sugarcane proteomics is progressing, as evident by the number of research publications. In addition to extensively reviewing the progress made thus far, we intend to highlight the scope in sugarcane proteomics, with an aspiration to instigate focused research on sugarcane to harness its full potential for the human welfare. PMID:25641866

  15. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  16. Predaceous ant fauna in new sugarcane fields in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Marcelo Nogueira Rossi; Harold Gordon Fowler

    2004-01-01

    Predaceous ant fauna present in natural sugarcane field plantations in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was evaluated by using sardine baits sampling technique. Three-month-old sugarcane plants were used for ant fauna estimation in two sugarcane mills, São João and Barra Mill. Twelve 30m X 30 m (900 m²) plots were previously delimited in each sugarcane mill for ant sampling. Ants were sampled in each plot by placing nine sardine baits in 12 mm X 75 mm plastic tubes. In the São João Mill, the p...

  17. Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo

    D. Dzaba; D. Nganga; L. Moundzeo; J. Pandzou

    2011-01-01

    This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E). The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane pla...

  18. Field Screening of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Mutant and Commercial Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Suriyan CHA-UM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and physiological attributes and sugar quality parameters are considered key criteria for screening sugarcane cultivars for salt tolerance. Maximum cane growth and yield were found in a positive check (K88-92 as well as in cv. (A3AE1-18 when subjected to salt affected soil. Percent reduction in Fv/Fm, quantum efficiency of PSII (?PSII and water use efficiency (WUE due to salt stress was considerably low in K88-92, (A3AE1-18 and KK3 which was associated with very low salt-induced reduction in net photosynthetic rate and growth characters such as shoot length, number of internodes, and internodal length as well as yield traits. In addition, brix, polarlization, fiber, purity and commercial cane sugar (CCS in (A18AE2-15 and (A3AE1-18 were well maintained under saline stress. By subjecting the data for various physiological, growth, yield and sugar quality parameters to the Wards cluster analysis K88-92 (positive check, (A3AE1-18 and KK3 were identified as salt tolerant, whereas (A11AE1-114 and K97-32 as salt sensitive.

  19. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    E. Van Ranst; Debaveye, J.; Mahop, F.

    1999-01-01

    The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as...

  20. Efficiency of selection within sugarcane families via simulated individual BLUP

    Felipe Lopes da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of the simulated individual BLUP (BLUPIS method in selecting genotypes within full-sib families of sugarcane in ratoon stage, through comparison with selection using the individual BLUP method. The optimal number of genotypes to be selected in the best families were established for mean stems mass, total soluble solids assay (BRIX, ton of stalks per hectare, and BRIX tons per hectare traits. Seventeen full-sib families were assessed in the Centre for Experimentation in Sugarcane, located in Oratrios, MG, Brazil. Mixed model methodology was used to predict the genotypic effects of each family and the genotypic values of each individual within family. BLUPIS method is efficient for individual selection. The optimal number of genotypes to be selected in the best family for obtaining higher efficiency of the BLUPIS method is 100 in the majority of cases.

  1. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  2. Fabrication and Mechanical Performance Investigation of Sisal and Sugarcane Fibers

    T.E.Narentharan*

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers, such as sisal, flax and jute, possess good reinforcing capability when properly compounded with polymers. These fibers are relatively inexpensive, originate from renewable resources and possess favorable values of specific strength and specific modulus. Thermoplastic polymers have a shorter cycle time as well as reprocessability despite problems with high viscosities and poor fiber wetting. The renewability of natural fibers and the recyclability of thermoplastic polymers provide an attractive ecofriendly quality to the resulting natural fiberreinforced thermoplastic composite materials. Common methods for manufacturing natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites, injection moulding and extrusion, tend to degrade the fibers during processing. Development of a simple manufacturing technique for sisal fiber, sugarcane baggage-reinforced polypropylene composites, that minimizes fiber degradation and can be used in developing countries, is the main objective of this study. Combination of sisal and sugarcane baggage fibers possesses good reinforcing capability when properly compounded with polymers.

  3. Evaluation of sugarcane genotypes for theoretical yield of alcohol

    M.Shanthi Priya, K.H.P.Reddy, M.Hemanth Kumar, V.Rajarajeswari, G.Mohan Naidu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy seven genotypes of sugarcane were evaluated in second clonal stage for theoretical yield of alcohol. The genotypes viz., 2010T-72 (14.67 g/100ml, 2010T-16 (14.01 g/100ml and 2010T-88 (13.93 g/100ml showed significantly higher performance over the best check Co 7219 (12.80 g/100ml for theoretical yield of alcohol. Path analysis revealed that the characters viz., total sugars per cent, pol per cent cane and CCS per cent exhibited positive direct effects on theoretical yield of alcohol and the other characters also exhibited their indirect positive effects on theoretical yield of alcohol via total sugars per cent, pol per cent cane and CCS per cent, indicating that these were the major contributing characters to theoretical yield of alcohol in sugarcane

  4. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS; high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with 60% of DDS. Spittlebug attack caused significant losses in cane quality, reducing total soluble solids, sucrose content, total reducing sugars, and pH, and increasing total phenolic compounds, and total and volatile juice acidity. The fermentation process was also significantly affected, resulting in lower ethanol content in wine. There was an increase in acetaldehyde concentration in the distillate. The spittlebug attack caused negative impacts on sugarcane quality and fermentation process, and these impacts are stronger in late season harvests.

  5. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

  6. Management of sugarcane insect pests through environment-friendly techniques

    The environment ecofriendly techniques like cultural and biological control are effective to manage sugarcane insects like borers and sucking pests on an area-wide basis in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. Among the cultural practices for the management of shoot borer of sugarcane (Chilo infuscatellus Snell), a major pest of this region, planting in the early season of December-January proves to be more efficient, followed by a system of trash mulching on the ridges or raising intercrop pulses like green gram or black gram immediately after planting. The benefit-cost ratio in the trash mulching and intercropping systems was higher than in the sugarcane monocrop. The reduction of shoot borer in the intercropped system ranged from 45.8% to 51.4% while the reduction was 50.5% in the trash mulched system. Early season planted sugarcane was minimally infested by shoot borer and stray incidence was only recorded. Another cultural practice of increasing the sugarcane sett/seed rate, while planting at 20% over and above the normal recommended rate during the late season when the incidence of shoot borer is highest in this region, recorded reduction in infestation to the extent of 26.8% during the two seasons trials conducted from 2002-2004. Another effective cultural practice of removal of older and dried up leaves of sugarcane twice during 5th and 7th months after planting reduced sucking pests likes white fly (Aleurolobus barodensis Mask) nymphs by 42.1% and puparia by 63.9%; and leaf hopper (Pyrilla perpusilla Wlk.) to the extent of 66% respectively. Among the biocontrol techniques the release of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) reared under artificial conditions, at fortnightly intervals at 2.5cc/ha six times commencing from 5th month stage of crop reduced internode borer (Chilo sacchariphagus indicus Kapur) only to the extent of 20%, which is the least among the other practices tested. The natural field parasitisation of another egg parasitoid, Telenomus beneficiens Zehnt. (Scelionidae: Hymenoptera) was more predominant from September to March (32.3 to 73.5%), though rearing under artificial conditions as for T. chilonis was not successful. The sugarcane leafhopper Pyrilla perpusilla was managed by the release of its nymphal-adult ecto-parasitoid Epiricania melanoleuca Fletcher, twice after the onset of infestation, which reduced the overall mean nymphal parasitisation by 28.4% (500 egg masses/ha) or 47.2% (1,000 cocoons /ha). The IPM demonstration trials carried out during the two seasons of 2002-2004 incorporating the cultural components of trash mulching on ridges immediately after planting, detrashing of older leaves on 5th and 7th months and biological component of release of egg parasitoid T. chilonis during vegetative phase of the crop, resulted in increased cane yield of 23.3 and 17.3% over and above the plots where these practices were not followed up during 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 respectively. The incidence of shoot borer was reduced by 33.6 and 42.4% during these two years, while the internode borer incidence was reduced by 19.69 and 13.74% respectively. The experiments on eco-friendly techniques for warding off insect pests of sugarcane and subsequent demonstrations in the field prove that cultural practices coupled with biological control techniques could reduce borers and sucking pest infestation and result in subsequent yield increase

  7. In vitro mutagenesis and selection for salinity tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane

    Full text: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) is a highly polyploid plant (2n=36-170) grown in different parts of the world from the tropics to subtropics, and accounts for around 60% of the world's sugar. It is also one of the important cash crops in many developing/developed countries, with a high trade value. In this study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerance in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars CoC- 671, Co 86032 and Co 94012. Embryogenic callus cultures were subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50). Radio sensitivity estimation indicated that 20 Gy irradiated cultures exhibited almost 50 per cent survival response. Relative growth rate and cell mass accumulation were recorded after irradiation and 30 days of post- irradiation culture. The plants regenerated from the calli irradiated at 20, 30 and 40 Gy were hardened and field planted to study their performance. The embryogenic callus cultures were also exposed to inhibitory levels of NaCl (42.8, 85.6, 128.3, 171.1, 213.9, 256.7 mM). The biochemical responses to the salt stress were studied in terms of proline, glycine betaine accumulation, membrane stability and cell viability. The variegated plants were also observed following gamma irradiation and were analyzed by different molecular markers (RAPD and Ac homologous transposons). The salt selected plants were further field evaluated and the desirable clones are now being evaluated in the second generation for their genetic stability. The proper evaluation of these induced variants with desirable traits may prove useful for cultivation under stress conditions

  8. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    Hopkinson, C. S., Jr.; Day, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ehtyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54 percent of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  9. Nitrate Paradigm Does Not Hold Up for Sugarcane

    Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at o...

  10. Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: Present knowledge and future applications

    In Brazil the long-term continuous cultivation of sugarcane with low N fertiliser inputs, without apparent depletion of soil-N reserves, led to the suggestion that N2-fixing bacteria associated with the plants may be the source of agronomically significant N inputs to this crop. From the 1950s to 1970s, considerable numbers of N2-fixing bacteria were found to be associated with the crop, but it was not until the late 1980s that evidence from N balance and 15N dilution experiments showed that some Brazilian varieties of sugarcane were able to obtain significant contributions from this source. The results of these studies renewed the efforts to search for N2-fixing bacteria, but this time the emphasis was on those diazotrophs that infected the interior of the plants. Within a few years several species of such 'endophytic diazotrophs' were discovered including Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans and Burkholderia sp. Work has continued on these endophytes within sugarcane plants, but to date little success has been attained in elucidating which endophyte is responsible for the observed BNF and in what site, or sites, within the cane plants the N2 fixation mainly occurs. Until such important questions are answered further developments or extension of this novel N2-fixing system to other economically important non-legumes (e.g. cereals) will be seriously hindered. As far as application of present knowledge to maximise BNF with sugarcane is concerned, molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. An abundant water supply favours high BNF inputs, and the best medium term strategy to increase BNF would appear to be based on cultivar selection on irrigated N deficient soils fertilised with Mo. (author)

  11. Life cycle impact assssment of biobased plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, Andr; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Biois, J.F.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol with production of their petrochemical counterparts in Europe. Bio-based polyethylene results in greenhouse gas emissions of around ?0.75 kg CO2eq/kgpolyethylene, i.e. 140% lower than petrochemical ...

  12. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Ahmed, F. M.; Rahman, S. R.; Gomes, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-trea...

  13. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli; Débora Branquinho Garcia; Leonardo Lucas Madaleno; Miguel Ângelo Mutton; José Paulo Stupiello; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata) attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS); high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with...

  14. Distribution of DNA repair-related ESTs in sugarcane

    W.C. Lima; R. Medina-Silva; R.S. Galhardo; Menck, C F M

    2001-01-01

    DNA repair pathways are necessary to maintain the proper genomic stability and ensure the survival of the organism, protecting it against the damaging effects of endogenous and exogenous agents. In this work, we made an analysis of the expression patterns of DNA repair-related genes in sugarcane, by determining the EST (expressed sequence tags) distribution in the different cDNA libraries of the SUCEST transcriptome project. Three different pathways - photoreactivation, base excision repair a...

  15. Host Plant Specialization in the Sugarcane Aphid Melanaphis sacchari.

    Nibouche, Samuel; Mississipi, Stelly; Fartek, Benjamin; Delatte, Hlne; Reynaud, Bernard; Costet, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Most aphids are highly specialized on one or two related plant species and generalist species often include sympatric populations adapted to different host plants. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of host specialized lineages of the aphid Melanaphis sacchari in Reunion Island. To this end, we investigated the genetic diversity of the aphid and its association with host plants by analyzing the effect of wild sorghum Sorghum bicolor subsp. verticilliflorum or sugarcane as host plants on the genetic structuring of populations and by performing laboratory host transfer experiments to detect trade-offs in host use. Genotyping of 31 samples with 10 microsatellite loci enabled identification of 13 multilocus genotypes (MLG). Three of these, Ms11, Ms16 and Ms15, were the most frequent ones. The genetic structure of the populations was linked to the host plants. Ms11 and Ms16 were significantly more frequently observed on sugarcane, while Ms15 was almost exclusively collected in colonies on wild sorghum. Laboratory transfer experiments demonstrated the existence of fitness trade-offs. An Ms11 isofemale lineage performed better on sugarcane than on sorghum, whereas an Ms15 lineage developed very poorly on sugarcane, and two Ms16 lineages showed no significant difference in performances between both hosts. Both field and laboratory results support the existence of host plant specialization in M. sacchari in Reunion Island, despite low genetic differentiation. This study illustrates the ability of asexual aphid lineages to rapidly undergo adaptive changes including shifting from one host plant to another. PMID:26600253

  16. [Surveillance experience in the sugarcane sector: challenges in disrupting the perilous "marathon" of the sugarcane plantations].

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; dos Santos, Simone Alves; da Silva, Alessandro José Nunes; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz

    2014-12-01

    The sugar-alcohol sector is growing year by year, especially in the state of Sao Paulo where approximately 42.9% of the sugar-ethanol plants are concentrated. The production chain is a subject for concern to public agencies and to civil society by exposing migrant workers to risks arising from the work process. In Sao Paulo, from 2006-2009, Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) set up two initiatives to address problems related to the housing and working conditions of sugarcane workers. The objective of this article presented in the form of an essay is to analyze the experiences in their context. The methodology used combines document analysis with the perception of the authors who participated in the actions. The experience led to improvements in these conditions and fostered public debate on the conditions of such physically demanding work. The interventions resulted in a definition of sanitary norms and initiatives at the legislative and judicial level, but even the most successful measures failed to attain the organizational targets, especially a production remuneration structure that challenges the traditional action of surveillance and the impacts were weakened due to the fragility of worker representation for the sector. PMID:25388174

  17. IMPROVING ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BY BIOLOGICAL/PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PRETREATMENT USING TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND BACILLUS SP.

    Chularat Krongtaew Sakdaronnarong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, laccase biosynthesis of two microorganisms, Trametes versicolor TISTR 3224 and Bacillus sp. TISTR 908 isolated in Thailand, was investigated using sugarcane bagasse (SCB as substrate. Two-stage biological/physico-chemical pretreatment of SCB on delignification and saccharification yield was studied. A two-level full factorial design was applied and 3 factors influencing delignification and saccharification processes of SCB were studied including C:N ratio (10:1 to 20:1, temperature (100 to 140°C, and alkali concentration (0 to 5% w/w NaOH. It was found that during biological pretreatment of SCB, a greater amount of laccase was produced from T. versicolor in the early stage of growth compared with Bacillus sp. Nitrogen supplement enhanced laccase biosynthesis of T. versicolor. By contrast, Bacillus sp. required a smaller amount of nitrogen source to produce laccase. Biological treated bagasse was subsequently subjected to a physico-chemical treatment. The results showed that the highest xylose and glucose yield of 51.97% w/w based on carbohydrate content was obtained from T. versicolor cultivation at a C:N ratio of 20:1, and consecutively treated in 5% w/w NaOH solution at 140°C for 1 h. Bacterial/alkali and alkali pretreatment yielded xylose and glucose in smaller degrees compared with fungal/alkali pretreatment. T. versicolor preferentially degraded lignin in sugarcane bagasse relative to cellulose and hemicelluloses constituents, while Bacillus sp. simultaneously attacked both lignin and carbohydrate moieties, as indicated by analysis of relative FT-IR intensities ratios of pretreated and untreated sugarcane bagasse.

  18. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  19. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km2 resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  20. Cell wall proteomics of sugarcane cell suspension cultures.

    Calderan-Rodrigues, Maria Juliana; Jamet, Elisabeth; Bonassi, Maria Beatriz Calderan Rodrigues; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Begossi, Amanda Carmanhanis; Setem, Las Vaz; Franceschini, Livia Maria; Fonseca, Juliana Guimares; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2014-03-01

    The use of cell walls to produce cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse is a new challenge. A better knowledge of proteins involved in cell wall remodelling is essential to improve the saccharification processes. Cell suspension cultures were used for this first cell wall proteomics study of sugarcane. Proteins extracted from cell walls were identified using an adapted protocol. They were extracted using 0.2 M CaCl2 and 2 M LiCl after purification of cell walls. The proteins were then identified by the innovative nanoACQUITY UPLC MS/MS technology and bioinformatics using the translated SUCEST EST cluster database of sugarcane. The experiments were reproduced three times. Since Sorghum bicolor is the closest plant with a fully sequenced genome, homologous proteins were searched for to complete the annotation of proteins, that is, prediction of subcellular localization and functional domains. Altogether, 69 different proteins predicted to be secreted were identified among 377 proteins. The reproducibility of the experiments is discussed. These proteins were distributed into eight functional classes. Oxidoreductases such as peroxidases were well represented, whereas glycoside hydrolases were scarce. This work provides information about the proteins that could be manipulated through genetic transformation, to increase second-generation ethanol production. PMID:24436144

  1. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  2. Evaluation of Exotic Sugarcane Germplasm for Agronomic Characters and Productivity

    Maqbool Akhtar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Six exotic sugarcane varieties were evaluated for their agronomic characters and productivity. All exotic sugarcane varieties had similar germination percentage except standard variety CP77-400 which had higher germination. Significant differences were found in number of tillers ha -1, stalk height, girth and total soluble solids. Minimum (102.3 thousands ha -1 number of millable canes were found in variety CP84-1198 and the maximum (160 thousands ha -1 in CP85-1491. Cane yield ranged from the minimum of 70.67 t ha -1 in variety CP84-1198 to the maximum of 131.3 t ha -1 in variety TCP86-3368. Sugar recovery was maximum (13.78 % in variety CP85-1491 and minimum (11.82% in the variety TCP86-3368. Sugarcane variety CP84-1198 produced the minimum (9.26 t ha -1 sugar yield. Purity of juice was also significantly different in most of the varieties. All the varieties except CP 84-1198 had better cane and sugar yield potentials than the standard variety.

  3. Imaging spectroscopy for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentration

    Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Ahmed, Fethi B.; van den Berg, Maurits

    2008-10-01

    Imaging spectroscopy can provide real-time high throughput information on growing crops. The spectroscopic data can be obtained from space-borne, air-borne and handheld sensors. Such data have been used for assessing the nutritional status of some field crops (maize, rice, barely, potato etc.). In this study a handheld FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer in the 350 - 2500 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum was evaluated for its use to estimate sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentrations. Sugarcane leaf samples from one variety viz., N19 of two age groups (4-5 and 6-7 months) were subjected to spectral and chemical measurements. Leaf reflectance data were collected under controlled conditions and leaf nitrogen concentration was obtained using an automated combustion technique (Leco TruSpec N). The potential of spectroscopic data for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen status was evaluated using univariate correlation and regression analyses methods with the first-order reflectance across the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm. The variables that presented high correlation with nitrogen concentration were used to develop simple indices combining reflectances of 2-wavelengths. Simple linear regression was then used to select a model that yielded the highest R2. These were the R744 / R2142 index for the 4-5 months old cane crop and the (R2200 - R2025) / (R2200 + R2025) index for the 6-7 months old cane crop, with R2 of 0.74 and 0.87, respectively.

  4. Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse

    Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by C?C and C?O?C links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

  5. Purification and Characterization of Invertase Enzyme from Sugarcane

    S.M.M. Mahbubur Rahman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane invertase was purified from mature sugarcane stem tissue to an electrophoretically homogenous state, by successive ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose and CM-Cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of purified invertase enzyme was determined 218 kDa on SDS-Polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. When the enzyme was characterized, it was found that the sugarcane invertase is glycoprotein in nature and it contained 7.29% sugar. The height enzyme activity was found at pH 7.2 and 60?C temperature. The Km value of the enzyme was 8.0 mM. NaCl, MnCl2 increased invertase activity remarkably and KCl increased slightly while MgCl2, CaCl2 increased moderately. HgCl2 has completely and FeCl2 showed strong inhibitory effects on enzyme activity while EDTA and acetic acid have remarkable inhibitory effects on invertase activity. CuCl2, ZnCl2 and CdCl2 decreased invertase activity moderately. AgNO3, AlCl3, Glucose and Tris showed less inhibitory effects on invertase activity.

  6. Precipitation variability and the sugarcane climate demand in Brazil

    Pereira, V. R.; de Avila, A. M. H.; Blain, G.; Zullo, J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the precipitation variability in São Paulo state/Brazil considering the climate demand for high sugarcane productivity. The Brazilian sugarcane and the bioethanol chain are facing an increase demand in response of the biofuel industry expansion. The productivity improvement is the key point to face the challenges about the land expansion in the Brazilian agriculture. The sugarcane phenology is climate dependent even being efficient in the decarboxylation process. The sprouting, growing, yield and the sugar content are determined by the climate. The accumulated rainy days during the pre harvest or more than 180 days of dry period can reduce the sugar content during the maturation process. Daily rainfall time series for the period 1960-2003 from 210 rain gauges at São Paulo state - the major Brazilian producer - are used. We subset the time series in the annual, seasonal, ten-day totals and dry and wet spells analysis. We used the mann- kendall non-parametric test to calculate the trends. The annual, the seasonal totals and the dry and wet spells did not showed a significant change in time. However, the ten-day total analysis in the beginning of the rainy season - i.e. in October - showed an interesting changing pattern - 24% of gauges showed a significant negative trend (p_valuemarket in Brazil in the last years.

  7. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  8. Paternity identification in sugarcane polycrosses by using microsatellite markers.

    Xavier, M A; Pinto, L R; Fvero, T M; Perecin, D; Carlini-Garcia, L A; Landell, M G A

    2014-01-01

    Although polycrosses have been used to test the potential of cross-combination of a large number of sugarcane parents, the male parent of the half-sib progenies produced is unknown. The present study aimed to integrate the molecular marker technology to the sugarcane polycross approach by the application of microsatellite markers to identify the male parent of 41 elite clones derived from polycross families. Ten microsatellite [single sequence repeats (SSRs)] primer pairs were used to identify the most likely male parent considering markers present in the selected clone but absent in the female parent. The number of alleles generated by the 10 microsatellite primer pairs ranged from 102 (cross-pollination lantern 4) to 120 (cross-pollination lantern 2) with an average of 113.25 alleles per SSR. The average genetic similarity among the involved parents in the polycrosses was 45.9%. The results of the analysis of the SSR markers absent in the female parent and present only in the selected clone as well as the genetic similarity values allowed the identification of the most likely male parent in 73% of the total clones evaluated and also to detect probable contaminations. The obtained results highlight the importance of using molecular marker technology in the identification and confirmation of the male parent of high-performance clones derived from polycrosses in the sugarcane breeding programs. PMID:24737475

  9. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  10. Probing genetic diversity to characterize red rot resistance in sugarcane

    Genetic diversity was assessed in a set of twelve sugarcane genotypes using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of thirty-two oligo-primers were employed, sixteen of them revealed amplification at 149 loci, out of which 136 were polymorphic. The genotype SPSG-26 showed the highest number of polymorphic loci, followed by CSSG-668 and HSF-242. Pairwise genetic similarity ranged from 67.2% to 83.3%. The UPGMA cluster analysis resolved most of the accessions in two groups. The clustering pattern did not place all resistant varieties in one or related group which depict diverse resistance source in the present set of sugarcane varieties. Ten primers revealed genotype specific bands among which four primers (K07, H02, K10 and F01) produced multiple genotype specific bands that aid genotype identification especially those with red rot resistance. The present study not only provided information on the genetic diversity among the genotypes but also revealed the potential of RAPD-PCR markers for genotype identification and therefore could be utilized in marker assisted selection for red rot resistance in sugarcane. (author)

  11. Isolation and Characterisation of Endophytic Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Sugarcane.

    Muangthong, Ampiga; Youpensuk, Somchit; Rerkasem, Benjavan

    2015-04-01

    Endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of industrial variety (cv. U-Thong 3; UT3), wild and chewing sugarcane plants grown for 6 weeks in nitrogen (N)-free sand. Eighty nine isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained on N-free agar. An acetylene reduction assay (ARA) detected nitrogenase activity in all 89 isolates. Three isolates from the chewing (C2HL2, C7HL1 and C34MR1) sugarcane and one isolate from the industrial sugarcane (UT3R1) varieties were characterised, and their responses to different yeast extract concentrations were investigated. Three different responses in nitrogenase activity were observed. Isolates C2HL2 and C7HL1 exhibited major increases with the addition of 0.005% yeast extract, C34MR1 exhibited no response, and UT3R1 exhibited a significant decrease in nitrogenase activity with 0.005% yeast extract. In all the isolates, nitrogenase activity decreased with further increase of the yeast extract to 0.05%. The highest nitrogenase activity was observed in isolates C2HL2 and C7HL1, which had 16S rRNA gene sequences that were closely related to Novosphingobium sediminicola and Ochrobactrum intermedium, respectively. PMID:26868592

  12. Long-term decomposition of sugarcane harvest residues in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Crop residues returned to the soil are important to preserve fertility and sustainability. This research addressed the long-term decomposition of sugarcane post-harvest residues (trash) under reduced tillage, therefore field renewal was performed with herbicide followed by subsoiling and ratoons were deprived of interrow scarification. The trial was conducted in the northern Sao Paulo State, Brazil during four consecutive crops (2005–2008) where litter bags containing 15N-labeled trash were disposed in the field attempting to simulate two distinct situations: the previous crop trash (PCT) or residues incorporated in the field after tillage, and post-harvest trash (PHT) or the remains of plant-cane harvest. Decomposition rates regarding dry matter (DM), carbon (C), root growth, plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S), lignin (LIG) cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) contents were assessed for PCT (2005 ndash;2008) and for PHT (2006–2008). There were significant reductions on DM and C:N ratio due to C losses and root growth within the litter bags over time. The DM from PCT and PHT decreased 96% and 73% after four and three crops, respectively, and the higher nutrients release were found for K, Ca and N. The LIG, CEL and HCEL concentrations in PCT decreased 60%, 29%, 70% after four crops and 47%, 35%, 70% from PHT after three crops, respectively. Trash decomposition was driven mainly by residues biochemical composition, root growth within the trash blanket and the climatic conditions during the crop cycles. -- Highlights: ► Degradation of sugarcane previous or post-harvest trash (PCT or PHT) was evaluated. ► Dry matter and C decreased due to microbial and root growth within trash blankets. ► C:N ratio of PCT linearly decreased 23% per year during four consecutive crops. ► Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose concentration averagely declined 54, 41 and 70%. ► PCT and PHT are long-term sources of C, K, Ca and N to the soil-plant system.

  13. The role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) pretreatment in improving sugarcanes salt (NaCl) tolerance

    MUNIR, Neelma; AFTAB, Faheem

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of salt tolerance studies in different plants is the relationship between salt and water stress. In the present study calluses (60 days old) of 2 sugarcane cultivars (cv. SPF 234 and cv. HSF 240) were treated with 4 different salt concentrations, including a control (0 mM NaCl), after 1% polyethylene glycol (PEG) pretreatment for 5 days. Fresh weight, callus browning, and necrosis data were recorded at day 120. Biochemical parameters (soluble protein contents, and peroxida...

  14. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  15. Glyphosate Control of Orange and Brown Rusts in Glyphosate-Sensitive Sugarcane Cultivars

    Technical Abstract: Brown and orange rust diseases cause substantial yield reductions on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida and other regions where sugarcane is grown. Brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust caused by Pucci...

  16. A rapid biochemical test to assess postharvest deterioration of sugarcane and milled juice

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...

  17. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  18. Control of rhizome johnsongrass (sorghum halepense) in sugarcane with trifloxysulfuron and asulam

    Johnsongrass, in its perennial form, is a difficult weed problem for sugarcane growers in Louisiana. Studies were conducted to determine the benefit, if any, of the addition of trifloxysulfuron to postemergence (POST) applications of asulam for the selective control of johnsongrass in sugarcane. A...

  19. A structured approach to target starch solubilization and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial a-amylases have been used for many years ...

  20. Pyraclostrobin wash-off from sugarcane leaves and aerobic dissipation in agricultural soil

    In order to mitigate damage from the fungal sugarcane pathogen brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala), a Section 18 Emergency Use Label was put in place by the EPA for the application of pyraclostrobin (trade name Headline SC; produced by BASF) on sugarcane in 2008. In order to assess the dynamics of ...

  1. Characterization of CENH3 and centromere-associated DNA sequences in sugarcane.

    Nagaki, Kiyotaka; Murata, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    Centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) has been used to detect active centromeres, and to analyse the DNA sequences closely associated with the centromere, because they localize only in active centromeres and bind directly to the DNA. In maize and rice, the centromeric retrotransposons (CR) are shown to be closely associated with their own CENH3 whereas no such association was found in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, this sort of association was investigated in sugarcane. Two expressed sequence tag groups encoding putative sugarcane CENH3 (SoCENH3) were found in a sugarcane-expressed sequence tag database. Their deduced amino acid sequences were similar to these of the CENH3s in rice and maize. An antibody against rice CENH3 seemed to crossreact with the SoCENH3s, and stained sugarcane centromeres. A set of immunoprecipitation tests was conducted with the antibody and chromatin from the sugarcane genome to reveal CENH3-associated DNA sequences in sugarcane. Centromeric tandem repeats (SCEN) and centromeric retrotransposons of sugarcane (CRS) were significantly precipitated with the antibody, meaning these repeats are directly interacting with CENH3 in sugarcane centromeres. PMID:15861308

  2. The presence and implication of soluble, swollen, and insoluble starch at the sugarcane factory and refinery

    Starch impurity concentrations in sugarcane are country dependent and in recent years there has been a general world-wide increase. This has occurred mostly because of one or a combination of the following: (i) increased mechanical processing of unburnt (green) sugarcane; (ii) varying environmental...

  3. Silicon Fertilizer Effects on Electrolyte Leakage from Sugarcane Leaf Cells after Exposure to Freezing Temperatures

    Sugarcane grown in subtropical regions often sustains damage from freezing temperatures. Some sugarcane growers have reported that commercial fields fertilized with silicon had less freeze damage than non-silicon fertilized fields. The purpose of this study was to determine if fertilizer silicon red...

  4. Sugarcane Cultivar Response to High Summer Water Tables in the Everglades

    Sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) in Florida is frequently subjected to periods of higher than desired (wetter) water levels. This study was conducted to evaluate yields of nine sugarcane cultivars subjected to the wet conditions of two hig...

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo

    D. Dzaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E. The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane plantations of the Niari valley amounts to 50 tons per hectare. This carbon sequestration presents important values ranging from 60 to 80 tons per hectare (p<0.05 during the first two years of the new sprout (R 570 and Co 997 and a more or less stationary level up to the tenth new sprout of sugar cane for the variety NCO 376. These results depend on the environment conditions, the burning of sugarcane fields before harvesting to facilitate the processing of sugarcanes and also the flexibility in terms of adaptability of the sugarcane varieties cultivated. The sugarcane plantations contribute a great deal in the struggle against climate changes and their use in terms of bio fuel.

  6. CROSS RESISTANCE IN SUGAR CANE TO THE MEXICAN RICE BORER AND THE SUGARCANE BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), has been the dominant stemborer of sugar cane in the United States. However, in 1980, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), became established in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and has since supplanted the sugarcane borer as the dominan...

  7. Utilizing Diapause in a Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Laboratory Colony as a Cost Saving Measure

    The ability to rear insects in the laboratory broadens the scope of research opportunities available to the scientist. We routinely rear the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for our research in host plant resistance and biological control of this important sugarcane pest. Unfortunately, i...

  8. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives.

    Andrade, Felipe Leite de; Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Trece, Aline Souza; Silva, Tadeu Eder; Fischer, Vivian; Weiss, Kirsten; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intake, digestibility, and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage, fresh sugarcane, and sugarcane ensiled in three different forms. Twenty-five Holstein cows at 114 ± 12.6 days in milk (DIM) were used. A randomized block design was adopted, using an arrangement of repeated measures over time. The following treatments were tested: corn silage (CS); fresh sugarcane (FS); sugarcane silage without additives (SCS); sugarcane silage enriched with calcium oxide at 5 g/kg of forage (SCSc); and sugarcane silage enriched with Lactobacillus buchneri at 5 × 10(4) cfu/kg of forage (SCSb). The roughage to concentrate ratio was 60:40 for the CS diet and 40:60 for the sugarcane-based diets. The dry matter intake (DMI) as a function of body weight had a downward trend for the cows fed sugarcane silage, compared with those fed FS. The sugarcane silages had higher digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDFap), compared with FS. The use of L. buchneri or calcium oxide improved the diet's digestibility. The use of FS, sugarcane silage, or sugarcane silage with additives had no effects on milk and fat-corrected milk yield, compared to corn silage. Cows fed FS presented lower milk total solids content and had a downward trend for milk fat, compared with cows fed sugarcane-silage diets. Cows fed sugarcane silages produced milk with higher casein stability in the alcohol test than cows fed fresh-sugarcane diet. Sugarcane silage, with or without additives, did not reduce the intake of dairy cows, and the use of additives improved the fiber's digestibility. PMID:26898688

  9. Phenotype adaptability and stability of sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane belt of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the agroindustrial performance of 25 sugarcane genotypes adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, within the microregions Mata Norte, Mata Sul, Região Central, Litoral Norte, and Litoral Sul. The variables analyzed were POL tonnage per hectare, sugarcane tonnage per hectare, fiber and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare, using a randomized block design with four repetitions. Combined variance of experiments, genetic parameter estimates, decomposition of the genotype-environment interaction, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotype adaptability and stability were also analyzed. The various genotypes presented great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern to the microregions Centro and Mata Sul of the state of Pernambuco. Genotypes RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB953180, SP81-3250, RB75126, and RB942520 were better in productivity and phenotype adaptability and stability compared to genotypes RB892700, RB943365, SP79-1011, Q138, RB943538, SP78-4764, RB953281, RB943066, RB928064, RB93509, RB72454, RB952675, RB952991, RB943161, RB942898, RB872552, RB952900, and RB942849. These genotypes are recommended as cultivation options in the sugarcane belt in the state of Pernambuco, since they stand out in terms of phenotype adaptability and stability as evaluated using the method by Annicchiarico, Lin and Bins, and the method by Eberhart and Russel. PMID:25177966

  10. The impact of some physiomorphic characters of sugarcane genotypes on their resistance against sugarcane pyrilla, pyrilla perpusilla wlk. (lophopidae: homoptera)

    Field trials were conducted in the Research Area, Directorate of Sugarcane, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to study he physio-morphic characters of sugarcane resistance to the sucking pest Pyrilla perpusilla. Twenty genotypes of sugarcane were tested for their resistance susceptibility against P. perpusilla, as a preliminary screening experiment, during 2006. Based on the population-density count, 3 genotypes, viz., HSF- 240, CPF-243 and S-2002-US-114 showing resistance responses, 3 genotypes viz. CPHS-35, S-2003-US-394 and S-2003-US-623 showing susceptible trends and 3 genotypes viz. S-2003-US-809, S-2002-US-140 and S- 2002-US-104 exerting intermediate trends against the pest under test were selected for the final screening trials during 2007.The genotype S-2003-US-623, was found to be comparatively susceptible; whereas, HSF-240, showed resistance responses. The leaf-width and cane length showed a positive and significant correlation whereas the leaf-spine density had a significant negative effect with pest-population. The Leaf-length and Cane-Diameter did not show a significant correlation with the pest population. (author)

  11. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  12. Expression of sugarcane genes induced by inoculation with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans

    Nogueira Eduardo de Matos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Brazilian sugarcane varieties have the ability to grow with little addition of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers, showing high contributions of Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF. A particular type of nitrogen-fixing association has been described in this crop, where endophytic diazotrophs such as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. colonize plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. In order to gain insight into the role played by the sugarcane in the interaction between this plant and endophytic diazotrophs, we investigated gene expression profiles of sugarcane plants colonized by G. diazotrophicus and H. rubrisubalbicans by searching the sugarcane expressed sequence tag SUCEST Database (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/en/. We produced an inventory of sugarcane genes, candidates for exclusive or preferential expression during the nitrogen-fixing association. This data suggests that the host plant might be actively involved in the establishment of the interaction with G. diazotrophicus and H. rubrisubalbicans.

  13. Short-term physiological changes in roots and leaves of sugarcane varieties exposed to H2O2 in root medium.

    Silva, Karina I; Sales, Cristina R G; Marchiori, Paulo E R; Silveira, Neidiquele M; Machado, Eduardo C; Ribeiro, Rafael V

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential sensitivity of sugarcane genotypes to H2O2 in root medium. As a hypothesis, the drought tolerant genotype would be able to minimize the oxidative damage and maintain the water transport from roots to shoots, reducing the negative effects on photosynthesis. The sugarcane genotypes IACSP94-2094 (drought tolerant) and IACSP94-2101 (drought sensitive) were grown in a growth chamber and exposed to three levels of H2O2 in nutrient solution: control; 3 mmol L(-1) and 80 mmol L(-1). Leaf gas exchange, photochemical activity, root hydraulic conductance (Lr) and antioxidant metabolism in both roots and leaves were evaluated after 15 min of treatment with H2O2. Although, root hydraulic conductance, stomatal aperture, apparent electron transport rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency have been reduced by H2O2 in both genotypes, IACSP94-2094 presented higher values of those variables as compared to IACSP94-2101. There was a significant genotypic variation in relation to the physiological responses of sugarcane to increasing H2O2 in root tissues, being root changes associated with modifications in plant shoots. IACSP94-2094 presented a root antioxidant system more effective against H2O2 in root medium, regardless H2O2 concentration. Under low H2O2 concentration, water transport and leaf gas exchange of IACSP94-2094 were less affected as compared to IACSP94-2101. Under high H2O2 concentration, the lower sensitivity of IACSP94-2094 was associated with increases in superoxide dismutase activity in roots and leaves and increases in catalase activity in roots. In conclusion, we propose a general model of sugarcane reaction to H2O2, linking root and shoot physiological responses. PMID:25703773

  14. [Effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit under low nitrogen condition].

    Yang, Jian-bo; Peng, Dong-hai; Qin, Liu-dong; Xing, Yong-xiu; Li, Yang-rui; Yang, Li-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit, three sugarcane cultivars (B8, ROC22 and GT21) planted under sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-soybean intercropping with low nitrogen fertilization (urea application of 150 kg · hm(-2)). The field design was a split-plot with the cropping pattern being the principal factor and the sugarcane cultivar being the secondary factor. The results showed that the millable stalks, stalk diameter, cane yield and sugar production were significantly affected by sugarcane-soybean intercropping while the cane quality wasn' t changed obviously. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, the stalk diameter, millable stalks, cane yield and sugar production in the intercropping system were increased by 5.1%-8.7%, 7.9%-31.0%, 9.0%-40.5% and 5.6%-39.5%, respectively. The total incomes of cane and soybean, and sugar and soybean were increased by 58900-79300 yuan · hm(-2) and 58300-77200 yuan · hm(-2), respectively. Among the three sugarcane cultivars in the sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern, the economic benefit was the highest in ROC22, while the ratoon cane yields of GT21 and B8 were higher than that of ROC22. The results also indicated that sugarcane-soybean intercropping is an effective planting method to reduce nitrogen fertilizer application and increase economic income in sugarcane production. PMID:26571661

  15. Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Ashok A. Nikam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray-induced in vitro mutagenesis and selection for salt (NaCl tolerance were investigated in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Embryogenic callus cultures were irradiated (10 to 80 Gy and subjected to in vitro selection by exposure of irradiated callus to NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol L− 1. Increasing NaCl concentrations resulted in growth reduction and increased membrane damage. Salt-selected callus lines were characterized by the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine, and Na+ and K+ concentration. Higher accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was observed in NaCl stressed callus irradiated at 20 Gy. Na+ concentration increased and K+ concentration decreased with increasing salt level. Irradiated callus showed 50–60% regeneration under NaCl stress, and in vitro-regenerated plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse, with 80–85% survival. A total of 138 irradiated and salt-selected selections were grown to maturity and their agronomic performance was evaluated under normal and saline conditions. Of these, 18 mutant clones were characterized for different agro-morphological characters and some of the mutant clones exhibited improved sugar yield with increased Brix%, number of millable canes, and yield. The result suggest that radiation-induced mutagenesis offers an effective way to enhance genetic variation in sugarcane.

  16. cDNA cloning, Phylogenic Analysis and Gene Expression Pattern of Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

    Mahmoud, Hashemitabar; Maryam, Kolahi; Mohammad Reza, Tabandeh; Parisa, Jonoubi; Ahmad, Majd.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to clone and characterize a full length cDNA of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (SoPAL). Differential tissue expression pattern of the SoPAL transcript and its enzyme activity was also analyzed during the tillering stage of growth. The f [...] ull-length of SoPAL cDNA was 2118 bp long and contained a protein with 706 amino acids, determined by encoding technique. The amino acid sequence and phylogenic analysis of the cloned SoPAL showed high similarity to PAL from other monocotyledonous such as sorghum (96%), maize (93%) and Bamboos (87.12%). The highest levels of SoPAL transcript were observed in the root and stem, while its minimal gene expression levels were in the leaves and sheath, respectively. The highest level of SoPAL enzyme activity was in the leaves. These results helped to understanding the characteristics of PAL biosynthesis and its regulation at the molecular level in sugarcane. This information could be critical for the manipulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in the plant using biotechnological processes.

  17. Effect of trash mulch and nitrogen application on the cane yield and quality of sugarcane variety thatta

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of trash mulching and nitrogen application on the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane variety Thatta-10 at NSCRI, farm Thatta during 2008-09. The data revealed that the plots received 225 N kg ha-1+ trash mulch showed better results for cane yield, yield components and quality. It was further observed that that the plots with mulching and varying doses of nitrogen application had low weed occurrence as compared to control plots receiving 175 N kg ha-1 + no mulch. Economic analysis data revealed that there could be no additional income from the control treatment, which received low levels of N fertilizer (175 N kg/ha) with no mulching. However, all fertilizer levels with trash mulching proved profitable over control. Moreover, better response was observed at 225 N kg/ha+ trash mulch. It is recommended that 225 N kg ha-1 application with trash mulch was profitable for obtaining maximum production of sugarcane. (author)

  18. Assessment of contender sugarcane clones for morphological traits and biotic tolerance under agro-climatic conditions of tando jam

    Sugarcane germplasm comprises different phases (Advance and station yield trial) were planted at the experimental farm of NIA, Tando Jam to evaluate the growth and biotic tolerance performance during September, 2012-13. The selected clones were originated from 09 tissue culture, 7 Canal Point USA, 4 Australia, 3 Barbados and 6 local germplasm sources. Considerable differences for all traits among the advanced lines tested were observed, two clones originated through In vitro mutagenesis showed better performance in term of cane yield as compared to other clones and local checks. In station yield trial only three clones, CSSG-2453, BNIA-87 and soma-clone NIA-1026-P3 produced higher cane yield than the control, Thatta-10. Sugarcane germplasm were evaluated for 09-characters and analyzed for genotypic and phenotypic correlation. These characters revealed that cane yield was associated positively with most of the agronomic traits such as cane height, internodes length and cane thickness. The study of path analysis for yield related traits the highest positive direct effect on cane yield was exerted by cane height. Study of diseases scoring only 05 lines produced disease symptoms. (author)

  19. Biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio por biomassas de Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann) R.L. Seym. e Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes) Copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption by Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann) R.L. Seym. and Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes) biomass

    José Ivanildo de Souza; Iracema Helena Schoenlein-Crusius; Carmen Lídia Amorin Pires-Zottarelli; Norberto Carlos Schoenlein

    2008-01-01

    As biomassas secas dos fungos zoospóricos Saprolegnia subterranea e Pythium torulosum foram avaliadas quanto a biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio de soluções aquosas por meio da determinação dos índices "q" (mg de metal adsorvido por g de biomassa) e "R%" (remoção percentual). Os mais elevados índices q foram obtidos quando as biomassas foram colocadas em contato com elevadas concentrações de metais, enquanto que os maiores índices R% foram obtidos em condições de baixas concentrações (p...

  20. Biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio por biomassas de Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann R.L. Seym. e Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes Copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption by Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann R.L. Seym. and Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes biomass

    José Ivanildo de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas secas dos fungos zoospóricos Saprolegnia subterranea e Pythium torulosum foram avaliadas quanto a biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio de soluções aquosas por meio da determinação dos índices "q" (mg de metal adsorvido por g de biomassa e "R%" (remoção percentual. Os mais elevados índices q foram obtidos quando as biomassas foram colocadas em contato com elevadas concentrações de metais, enquanto que os maiores índices R% foram obtidos em condições de baixas concentrações (pDried biomass of the zoosporic fungi Saprolegnia subterranea and Pythium torulosum was evaluated for copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption from aqueous solutions using the "q" (mg of adsorbed metal per g of biomass and the "R%" (percent removal indices. The highest q values were observed when the biomass was placed in contact with high metal concentrations, whereas the highest R% values were observed at low concentrations (p<0.05. S. subterranea SPC 1244 biomass surpassed the others for copper biosorption (q = 7.48 mg/g; R% = 49.03, P. torulosum SPC 1425 biomass was the best for manganese biosorption (q = 4.13 mg/g; R% = 26.71, and S. subterranea SPC 1431 biomass was the best for cadmium biosorption (q = 6.75 mg/g; R% = 42.26. This is the first report on copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption by the biomass of these zoosporic fungi, indicating the potential to remove ions from diluted solutions.

  1. Evaluation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Somaclonals Tolerance to Salinity Via In Vitro and In Vivo

    HAMID RAJABI MEMARI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture technique was used to obtain salt tolerant variants from embryogenic calluses of sugarcane (Saccharum sp. var. CP48-103 that cultured on a selective medium containing different levels of NaCl (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8% NaCl. A total of four plants regenerated from the tolerant calluses were selected but the best of them in vigor grown in in vitro and hydroponic systems under salinity stress to comparison with source variety. With increasing supply of NaCl in both systems, root growth was more adversely affected than was shoot growth. Chlorophyll contents showed a decreasing trend and dry matter yield of plants reduced but in a slow rate in tolerant somaclonal than source variety. The biochemical analysis showed that at high salt concentration, Cl- and Na+ content in shoot and root increased. With rising salt concentration from 0 to 0.8%, content of Cl- in shoot and root of tolerant variant changed lower than parent showed that this variant had genetic lowest ratio of shoot/root chloride and had minimum transport of Cl- to shoots. Also this variant had high content of Ca2+ in shoot and high K+/Na+ ratio at all salinity levels. Thus it probably has genetic potential to avoid harmful ions uptake.

  2. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    Mario A. Jancso

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3 of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.A via de síntese de purino nucleotídeos é considerada uma via de central importância para todas as células. Na maioria dos organismos, os purino nucleotídeos são sintetizados ''de novo'' a partir de precursores não-nucleotídicos como amino ácidos, amônia e dióxido de carbono. O conhecimento das enzimas envolvidas na via de síntese de purinas da cana-de-açúcar vai abrir a possibilidade do uso dessas enzimas como alvos no desenho racional de inibidores no combate a agentes fitopatogênicos, como esta sendo feita com diversos parasitos e células cancerosas. A seguinte estratégia esta sendo utilizada na identificação de genes de cana-de-açúcar para cada membro da via de síntese de purinas: Seqüências representativas dos genes que compões a via foram escolhidas do banco de dados NCBI. Essas seqüências de peptídeos estão sendo utilizadas em buscas ao banco de dados gerado pelo SUCEST pelo programa BLAST (implementação tBLASTn. Alinhamentos com os clusters de cana-de-a��úcar são posteriormente analisados para sua significância estatística pela implementação PRSS3 do algoritmo conhecido como Monte Carlo shuffling. Para calibrar a análise dos resultados de PRSS3, foram empregadas seqüências conhecidas de diferentes taxas ao longo da arvore filogenética. Essas seqüências são comparadas duas a duas e com o cluster da cana-de-açúcar. A tabela de valores-p resultante indica o grau estatístico de similaridade e divergência entre as seqüências já descritas e entre essas e os clusters de cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados obtidos dessas análises estão descritos neste artigo.

  3. In vitro reproduction of the life cycle of Pythium insidiosum from kunkers' equine and their role in the epidemiology of pythiosis.

    Fonseca, Anelise Oliveira da Silva; Botton, Sônia de Avila; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Corrêa, Bruna Ferraz; Silveira, Júlia de Souza; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Maroneze, Beatriz Persici; Santurio, Janio Morais; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2014-02-01

    Pythium insidiosum is an important pathogen of mammals' species, including humans. Equine is the main species affected by this oomycete. P. insidiosum requires an aquatic environment to develop its life cycle, and the susceptible hosts are contaminated when they contact the microorganism in swampy areas. The equine pythiosis is characterized by the formation of irregular masses within the cutaneous lesions, called kunkers, which easily detach from the lesion. From these structures, it is possible to isolate P. insidiosum in pure cultures. The present study aimed to reproduce in vitro the life cycle of P. insidiosum from kunkers of equine clinical lesions. Fifteen kunkers from different horses were tested. It was observed that the discharge of zoospores occurred after 24-48 h of incubation at 37 °C in, respectively, 40 and 47 % of the kunkers evaluated. Only two samples showed no development of the asexual cycle of P. insidiosum under the conditions tested. It was possible to demonstrate that kunkers are able to restart the asexual cycle of P. insidiosum. Based on our in vitro results, we highlight the importance of these structures in the epidemiology of the pythiosis, since kunkers can be a potential source of contamination of this oomycete for aquatic environments. PMID:24326464

  4. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA3, 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  5. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    Lima D.U.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they came. The only significant correlations that we found between cell wall genes and/or their expression within particular libraries were neutral or synergetic. Genes related to cellulose biosynthesis were from the CesA family, and were found to be the most abundant cell wall related genes in the SUCEST database. We found that the highest number of CesA reads came from the root and stem libraries. The genes with the greatest number of reads were those involved in cell wall hydrolases (e.g. beta-1,3-glucanases, xyloglucan endo-beta-transglycosylase, beta-glucosidase and endo-beta-mannanase. Correlation analyses by surface mapping revealed that the expression of genes related to biosynthesis seems to be associated with the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, pectin hydrolases being mainly associated with xyloglucan hydrolases. The patterns of cell wall related gene expression in sugarcane based on the number of reads per cluster reflected quite well the expected physiological characteristics of the tissues. This is the first work to provide a general view on plant cell wall metabolism through the expression of related genes in almost all the tissues of a plant at the same time. For example, developing flowers behaved similarly to both meristematic tissues and leaf-root transition zone tissues. Besides providing a basis for future research on the mechanisms of plant development which involve the cell wall, our findings will provide valuable tools for plant engineering in the near future.

  6. Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.

    Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3 years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217 mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns. PMID:21895946

  7. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  8. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to char formation by aromatization and repolymerization.

  9. Contribution of sugarcane bioenergy to the Brazilian energy matrix

    Walter, Arnaldo

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter the contribution of sugar bioenergy to the Brazilian energy matrix is assessed. The text is divided into two parts, the first being devoted to an overview of historic facts and to the current contribution of sugarcane while the second part deals with the perspective lading up to 2030. The first part is based on data from 1979 to 2010, presented by the Brazilian Energy Balance (EPE-MME, 2011), and the second part is based on official forecast for the years 2020 and 2030 (EPE, 2011; EPE, 2002)

  10. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  11. Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling

    Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti; José Pavan Neto; André Luiz Veiga Conrado; Carolina Tobias Marino; Paula Marques Meyer; Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%), plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2)+1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH), limestone (CaCO3), urea (CO(NH2)2), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), quicklime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). The m...

  12. Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces

    Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

    2013-07-01

    Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

  13. Erianthus arundinaceus HSP70 (EaHSP70) Acts as a Key Regulator in the Formation of Anisotropic Interdigitation in Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) in Response to Drought Stress.

    Augustine, Sruthy Maria; Cherian, Anoop V; Syamaladevi, Divya P; Subramonian, N

    2015-12-01

    Plant growth during abiotic stress is a long sought-after trait especially in crop plants in the context of global warming and climate change. Previous studies on leaf epidermal cells have revealed that during normal growth and development, adjacent cells interdigitate anisotropically to form cell morphological patterns known as interlocking marginal lobes (IMLs), involving the cell wall-cell membrane-cortical actin continuum. IMLs are growth-associated cell morphological changes in which auxin-binding protein (ABP), Rho GTPases and actin are known to play important roles. In the present study, we investigated the formation of IMLs under drought stress and found that Erianthus arundinaceus, a drought-tolerant wild relative of sugarcane, develops such growth-related cell morphological patterns under drought stress. Using confocal microscopy, we showed an increasing trend in cortical F-actin intensity in drought-tolerant plants with increasing soil moisture stress. In order to check the role of drought tolerance-related genes in IML formation under soil moisture stress, we adopted a structural data mining strategy and identified indirect connections between the ABPs and heat shock proteins (HSPs). Initial experimental evidence for this connection comes from the high transcript levels of HSP70 observed in drought-stressed Erianthus, which developed anisotropic interdigitation, i.e. IMLs. Subsequently, by overexpressing the E. arundinaceus HSP70 gene (EaHSP70) in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid), we confirm the role of HSP70 in the formation of anisotropic interdigitation under drought stress. Taken together, our results suggest that EaHSP70 acts as a key regulator in the formation of anisotropic interdigitation in drought-tolerant plants (Erianthus and HSP70 transgenic sugarcane) under moisture stress in an actin-mediated pathway. The possible biological significance of the formation of drought-associated interlocking marginal lobes (DaIMLs) in sugarcane plants upon drought stress is discussed. PMID:26423958

  14. A global view of transcriptome dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum challenge in sugarcane by RNA-Seq.

    Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and "ROC"22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In total, transcriptome sequencing of eight samples revealed gene annotations of 65,852 unigenes. Correlation analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after S. scitamineum infection, most differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways in both sugarcane genotypes were common, covering most biological activities. However, expression of resistance-associated genes in Yacheng05-179 (24-48 h) occurred earlier than those in "ROC"22 (48-120 h), and more transcript expressions were observed in the former, suggesting resistance specificity and early timing of these genes in non-affinity sugarcane and S. scitamineum interactions. Obtained unigenes were related to cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. From these data, functional annotations associated with resistance were obtained, including signal transduction mechanisms, energy production and conversion, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and defense mechanisms. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes are involved in plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, cell wall fortification pathway and other resistance-associated metabolic pathways. Disease inoculation experiments and the validation of in vitro antibacterial activity of the chitinase gene ScChi show that this sugarcane chitinase gene identified through RNA-Seq analysis is relevant to plant-pathogen interactions. In conclusion, expression data here represent the most comprehensive dataset available for sugarcane smut induced by S. scitamineum and will serve as a resource for finally unraveling the molecular mechanisms of sugarcane responses to S. scitamineum. PMID:25171065

  15. Enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis by subcritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

    2014-04-01

    Most biomass pretreatment processes for sugar production are run at low-solid concentration (sugarcane bagasse to the solid and glucan recoveries at different pretreatment conditions were investigated. Subsequently, enzymatic hydrolysis at different hydrolysis time was applied to obtain maximal glucose yield, which can be used for ethanol fermentation. The maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 38.5 g based on 100g raw material after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, representing 93.0% glucose in sugarcane bagasse. The enhanced digestibilities of subcritical CO2 pretreated sugarcane bagasse were due to the removal of hemicellulose, which were confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA analyses. PMID:24603488

  16. INFLUENCE OF SETT SIZE, SEED RATE AND SETT TREATMENT ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGARCANE

    DARPANA PATEL; RINKU PATEL

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Regional Sugarcane Research Station, Navsari, Gujarat (India) during 2008- 09 to 2010-11 to study the influence of sett size, seed rate and sett treatment on yield, of sugarcane. The results of the experiment indicated that, planting of sugarcane with two bud sett found significantly superior in increasing number of millable canes (110250 ha-1), cane yield (110.42 t ha-1) as compared to three and single bud setts during all the three years of ex...

  17. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Minussi Rosana Cristina; Soares-Ramos Juliana Rocha Lopes; Coelho Jorge Luiz Cavalcante; Silva Daison Olzany

    1998-01-01

    The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG) by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3) in a rotary shaker (150 rpm) for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium pro...

  18. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Y. C. Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples were prepared to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol yield, the pH was kept constant at 4.5. The ethanol concentrations were determined by running the samples in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that at highest ethanol concentration was obtained pH 4.5 and temperature 350C. This indicated that pH 4.5 and 350C was the optimum parameter for the yeast to produce ethanol.

  19. Microwave-induced torrefaction of rice husk and sugarcane residues

    This study utilized microwave irradiation to induce torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) of rice husk and sugarcane residues by varying different parameters, including microwave power level, processing time, water content, and particle size of biomass. Proper microwave power levels are suggested to be set between 250 and 300 W for the torrefaction of these two agricultural residues. With proper processing time, the caloric value can increase 26% for rice husk and 57% for sugarcane residue. Compared to dry rice husk, both maximum reaction temperature and mass reduction ratio increased with higher water content (not over 10%). Moreover, the particle size of biomass needs not to be very small. The mass reduction ratios were 65 wt.%, 69 wt.%, and 72 wt.%, when the sizes were 50/100 mesh, 100/200 mesh, and >200 mesh, respectively. Microwave-induced torrefaction reduces more oxygen/carbon ratio of biomass in comparison with traditional torrefaction. Microwave-induced torrefaction is considered as an efficient and promising technology with great potential. -- Highlights: ► Microwave-induced torrefaction is promising compared to conventional methods. ► Neither high microwave power nor small particle size is needed. ► High energy yield can be met under mild microwave power. ► Caloric value can increase up to about 60%.

  20. Process integration and pinch analysis in sugarcane industry

    Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Process integration techniques were applied, particularly through the Pinch Analysis method, to sugarcane industry. Research was performed upon harvest data from an agroindustrial complex which processes sugarcane plant in excess of 3.5 million metric tons per year, producing motor fuel grade ethanol, standard quality sugar, and delivering excess electric power to the grid. Pinch Analysis was used in assessing internal heat recovery as well as external utility demand targets, while keeping the lowest but economically achievable targets for entropy increase. Efficiency on the use of energy was evaluated for the plant as it was found (the base case) as well as for five selected process and/or plant design modifications, always with guidance of the method. The first alternative design (case 2) was proposed to evaluate equipment mean idle time in the base case, to support subsequent comparisons. Cases 3 and 4 were used to estimate the upper limits of combined heat and power generation while raw material supply of the base case is kept; both the cases did not prove worth implementing. Cases 5 and 6 were devised to deal with the bottleneck of the plant, namely boiler capacity, in order to allow for some production increment. Inexpensive, minor modifications considered in case 5 were found unable to produce reasonable outcome gain. Nevertheless, proper changes in cane juice evaporation section (case 6) could allow sugar and ethanol combined production to rise up to 9.1% relative to the base case, without dropping cogenerated power. (author)