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Sample records for sugarcane growth pythium

  1. Exploitation of trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Muthukumar; A., Eswaran; K., Sanjeevkumas.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic eff [...] ects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3) performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli.

  2. Effect of Microbial Antagonists on in vitro Growth of Pythium aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ali Siddiqui

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one isolates of 38 species of fungi and 24 isolates of 8 species of bacteria were tested in dual culture plates. Penicillium sp., 2 unidentified bacteria and a sterile fungus were found to inhibit the growth of Pythium aphanidermatum producing zones of inhibitions of 7, 11,4 and 6 mm respectively, around the colony of the pathogen. One strain each of Rhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa initially producing zones of inhibition of 15, 20 and 2 mm respectively, but later the pathogen grew and colonies met each other. Similarly, G. , virens initially produced a zone of inhibition of 20 mm but later on the pathogen over grew the zone of inhibition and colonies intermingled. A strain of P. aeruginosa also inhibited the growth of P. aphanidermatum without producing zone of inhibition.

  3. Long-Term Effect of a Pythium Elicitor Treatment on the Growth and Alkaloid Production of Catharanthus roseus Cell Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nef-Campa, C; Trouslot, M F; Trouslet, P; Chrestin, H

    1994-04-01

    The treatment of a CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS cell suspension culture with a low concentration of PYTHIUM elicitor stimulated the alkaloid production. When these pretreated cells were resuspended in a medium that did not contain the fungal extract, the positive effects of the treatment on alkaloid synthesis and excretion were lost and, moreover, the standard level of production was not recovered. A second treatment of these cells with PYTHIUM elicitor at day 5 of the second culture cycle greatly impaired growth kinetics, but did not stimulate the alkaloid production observed with standard cultures. Repeated treatments with a low concentration of fungal elicitor seemed to have a negative long-term effect on both growth and alkaloid synthesis and did not appear to be a useful process for production purposes. PMID:17236032

  4. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime; Ravnskov, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reduci...

  5. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reducing Pythium root rot development. To test this hypothesis a fully factorial experiment was performed with AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, G. mosseae, G. claroideum or nonmycorrhizal), Pythium (± P. aphanidermatum) and harvest (7 and 14 days after pathogen inoculation (dapi)) as the main factors. Two weeks after AM fungi inoculation, roots were challenged with P. aphanidermatum. Variables evaluated at each harvest were root colonization levels of the interacting fungi, plant growth responses, and expression of a plant pathogenesis related protein gene (PR-1). All of the tested AM fungi caused marked growth suppressions, but did not affect PR-1 gene expression or the phosphorous concentration in the host plant. Plants singly inoculated with P. aphanidermatum had an increased PR-1 expression and phosphorous concentration. Among the AM fungi included in the study only G. intraradices reduced the pathogen root infection level, measured both in terms of Pythium ELISA and by recovery on selective media and only at the first harvest. Likewise, P. aphanidermatum root infection reduced colonization levels of G. intraradices, but not that of the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, plant growth suppressive AM fungi may offer plant beneficial traits in terms of biocontrol of root cortical pathogens.

  6. Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane De Diana Teixeira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3, cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5 e quatro ao grupo T (T1 a T4 de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia.Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3, whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5 and four to group T (T1-T4 of Pythium. The identification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40 to 40.7ºC, respectively. The optimum temperature ranged from 24 to 37ºC for P. helicoides, from 25 to 35ºC for isolate F4 and 21 to 30ºC for the remaining isolates. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the isolates were evaluated by the inoculation of lettuce seeds plated in water-agar, at 21 and 30ºC. At 30ºC, P. helicoides isolates were clearly the most aggressives, determining 100 % seed mortality soon after germination. At 21ºC, all isolates reduced seedling growth, associated or not with root tissue necrosis. This is the first report of P. helicoides in Brazil and the first world reference of this species in hydroponic systems.

  7. Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica / Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliane De Diana, Teixeira; Carmen Lídia Amorim Pires, Zottarelli; Hiroshi, Kimati.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3), cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5) e quatro ao [...] grupo T (T1 a T4) de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC) sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia. Abstract in english Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3), whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5) and four to group T (T1-T4) of Pythium. The id [...] entification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC) on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40 to 40.7ºC, respectively. The optimum temperature ranged from 24 to 37ºC for P. helicoides, from 25 to 35ºC for isolate F4 and 21 to 30ºC for the remaining isolates. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the isolates were evaluated by the inoculation of lettuce seeds plated in water-agar, at 21 and 30ºC. At 30ºC, P. helicoides isolates were clearly the most aggressives, determining 100 % seed mortality soon after germination. At 21ºC, all isolates reduced seedling growth, associated or not with root tissue necrosis. This is the first report of P. helicoides in Brazil and the first world reference of this species in hydroponic systems.

  8. Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane is one of the most important crops globally, providing most of the world’s sugar and bio-energy (ethanol and electricity). This contribution has been underpinned by the successful introgression of genes from wild germplasm, particularly from Saccharum spontaneum, by breeders in the early 1...

  9. Endophytic bacteria affect sugarcane physiology without changing plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Castro Correia Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate if endophytic bacteria inoculants would be beneficial to the sugarcane varieties IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000, promoting changes in photosynthesis and plant growth. The plants, obtained from mini stalks with one bud, were treated with two bacteria mixtures (inoculum I or II or did not receive any inoculum (control plants. The inocula did not affect shoot and root dry matter accumulation as compared to the control condition (plants with native endophytic bacteria. However, photosynthesis and electron transport rate (ETR increased in IACSP94-2094 treated with the inoculum II, whereas the inoculum I enhanced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in IACSP95-5000. The inoculum II caused increase in leaf sucrose concentration of IACSP94-2094 and decrease in IACSP95-5000 leaves. Leaf nitrogen concentration was not affected by treatments, but bacteria inoculation increased nitrate reductase activity in IACSP95-5000, and the highest activity was found in plants treated with the inoculum II. We can conclude that bacteria inoculation changed sugarcane physiology, improving photosynthesis and nitrate reduction in a genotype-dependent manner, without promoting plant growth under non-limiting conditions.

  10. Sugarcane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase crop water use efficiency, a field study in northern Ivory Coast on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou. The can crop tested was Co 449, an early-maturing genotype of Indian origin. This experiment was conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop (from November, 1991 to December, 1992) first ratoon crop (from December, 1992 to January, 1994) and as second ratoon crop (from January, 1994 to January, 1995). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of plots 54 m2. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratton crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugarcane growth and yield decline owing to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to that during tillering. As a result, the sugarcane crop tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering (assuming that the crop is successfully established) for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency. (author). 15 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Quantitative relationships of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to Pythium root rot and growth in hydroponic peppers / Relações quantitativas de Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 com a podridão radicular causada por Pythium e ao crescimento de pimentão hidropônico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Coralie R., Sopher; John C., Sutton.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A supressão da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum) e a promoção de crescimento de pimentão hidropônico por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 foram avaliadas em plantas predispostas ou não ao patógeno. O bioagente foi introduzido na solução nutritiva 10 dias antes das raízes serem inoculadas com o [...] patógeno. A zona radicular foi mantida a 23ºC, exceto nos três dias antes da inoculação quando as plantas foram expostas a 33ºC. Na temperatura de 23ºC (sem predisposição), P. chlororaphis na concentração de 10(7) UFC mL-1, aplicada na solução nutritiva, atrasou o aparecimento dos sintomas da doença. As concentrações de 10(6), 10(7) e 10(8) UFC mL-1 do bioagente foram mais eficientes em controlar a doença nas plantas inoculadas com o patógeno. A densidade do bioagente nas raízes, nos dois regimes de temperatura, variou de 5,88 a 6,45 log da UFC g-1 de raiz fresca, do sétimo ao 19º dia após a aplicação de 10(7) UFC mL-1 Nas plantas inoculadas ou não, o bioagente atrasou o aparecimento do escurecimento radicular, remediou a predisposição a doença e incrementou o desenvolvimento das plantas. A expansão foliar foi um indicador adequado para a podridão de raiz e a remediação com P. chlororaphis. Conclui-se que P. chlororaphis 63-28 tem potencial para o manejo da podridão da raiz em sistemas hidropônicos, independentemente da predisposição. Abstract in english The ability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to suppress Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) and promote plant growth was investigated in hydroponic peppers that were predisposed or not predisposed to the disease. The biocontrol agent was introduced into the nutrient solution 10 days before t [...] he roots were inoculated with the pathogen. The root zone was maintained at 23ºC except when roots were exposed to 33ºC for three days before inoculation to induce predisposition to root rot. At constant 23ºC (no predisposition) application of P. chlororaphis at 10(7) CFU mL-1 nutrient solution delayed root browning more effectively than did higher or lower densities. In predisposed plants, densities of 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) CFU mL-1 were equally superior. When applied at 10(7) CFU mL-1, the density of P. chlororaphis on roots of the two temperature regimes ranged from log10 5.88 to 6.45 CFU g-1 fresh roots at seven to 19 days after application. The agent delayed root browning, re-mediated predisposition to root rot, and increased growth of inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Leaf expansion was a sensitive marker of root rot and remediation by P. chlororaphis. We conclude that P. chlororaphis 63-28 has substantial potential for managing the disease regardless of predisposition.

  12. Quantitative relationships of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to Pythium root rot and growth in hydroponic peppers Relações quantitativas de Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 com a podridão radicular causada por Pythium e ao crescimento de pimentão hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie R. Sopher

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to suppress Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum and promote plant growth was investigated in hydroponic peppers that were predisposed or not predisposed to the disease. The biocontrol agent was introduced into the nutrient solution 10 days before the roots were inoculated with the pathogen. The root zone was maintained at 23ºC except when roots were exposed to 33ºC for three days before inoculation to induce predisposition to root rot. At constant 23ºC (no predisposition application of P. chlororaphis at 10(7 CFU mL-1 nutrient solution delayed root browning more effectively than did higher or lower densities. In predisposed plants, densities of 10(6, 10(7 and 10(8 CFU mL-1 were equally superior. When applied at 10(7 CFU mL-1, the density of P. chlororaphis on roots of the two temperature regimes ranged from log10 5.88 to 6.45 CFU g-1 fresh roots at seven to 19 days after application. The agent delayed root browning, re-mediated predisposition to root rot, and increased growth of inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Leaf expansion was a sensitive marker of root rot and remediation by P. chlororaphis. We conclude that P. chlororaphis 63-28 has substantial potential for managing the disease regardless of predisposition.A supressão da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento de pimentão hidropônico por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 foram avaliadas em plantas predispostas ou não ao patógeno. O bioagente foi introduzido na solução nutritiva 10 dias antes das raízes serem inoculadas com o patógeno. A zona radicular foi mantida a 23ºC, exceto nos três dias antes da inoculação quando as plantas foram expostas a 33ºC. Na temperatura de 23ºC (sem predisposição, P. chlororaphis na concentração de 10(7 UFC mL-1, aplicada na solução nutritiva, atrasou o aparecimento dos sintomas da doença. As concentrações de 10(6, 10(7 e 10(8 UFC mL-1 do bioagente foram mais eficientes em controlar a doença nas plantas inoculadas com o patógeno. A densidade do bioagente nas raízes, nos dois regimes de temperatura, variou de 5,88 a 6,45 log da UFC g-1 de raiz fresca, do sétimo ao 19º dia após a aplicação de 10(7 UFC mL-1 Nas plantas inoculadas ou não, o bioagente atrasou o aparecimento do escurecimento radicular, remediou a predisposição a doença e incrementou o desenvolvimento das plantas. A expansão foliar foi um indicador adequado para a podridão de raiz e a remediação com P. chlororaphis. Conclui-se que P. chlororaphis 63-28 tem potencial para o manejo da podridão da raiz em sistemas hidropônicos, independentemente da predisposição.

  13. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BENOMYL E PCNB SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO RADIAL DE Fusarium solani E Pythium sp., IN VITRO EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BENOMYL AND PCNB ON THE RADIAL GROWTH OF Fusarium solani AND Pythium sp. IN VITRO

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    Luciana Peliz Machado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os experimentos foram realizado nas dependências do Laboratório de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no ano de 1997. Os fungos Fusarium e Pythium sp. foram cultivados em meio de cultura artificial contendo benomyl e PCNB nas concentrações de 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. Os crescimentos radiais dos fungos demonstraram que o benomyl foi eficiente contra o Fusarium, mas não surtiu efeito contra o Pythium, fato este também observado em relação ao PCNB. Este produto, embora menos eficiente, reduziu em mais de 50% o crescimento radial de Fusarium, obtendo uma redução progressiva com o aumento da concentração.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; quintozene.

    The experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Escola de Agronomia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás, in the year of 1997. The fungi Fusarium moniliforme and Pythium sp. were treated in cultural medium with benomyl and PCNB in the concentrations of 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. The radial growth of the fungi demonstrated that benomyl was efficient against Fusarium, but not against Pythium sp. The same was also observed with PCNB. Although less efficient than benomyl, this product reduced radial growth of Fusarium in more than 50%. The increase of PCNB concentration reduced Fusarium growth progressively.

    KEY-WORDS: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; PCNB.

  14. Induction of catharanthine synthesis and stimulation of major indole alkaloids production by Catharanthus roseus cells under non-growth-altering treatment with Pythium vexans extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nef, C; Rio, B; Chrestin, H

    1991-05-01

    A Catharanthus roseus cell line was selected that synthesised catharanthine exclusively under elicitation.From the first day of culture, treatment with very low concentrations of a Pythium extract did not alter the growth of the suspension but, within 24 hours, induced the synthesis of catharanthine and stimulated the production of ajmalicine. Kinetic analysis showed that serpentine then began to accumulate and that all of these effects lasted more than 7 days. Elicitation also induced changes in the cell/medium distribution of the alkaloids. Higher, although non-lethal, concentrations of the fungal elicitor were shown to impair alkaloid production. This cell line will serve as a model to study the conditions for the expression of catharanthine synthesis at the molecular level. PMID:24226159

  15. Influence of siderurgical slag on productivity and crop growth of irrigated sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleão Esberard de Macêdo Beltrão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of siderurgical slag and irrigation depth on the growth and productivity of sugarcane. The experiment was installed at county of Sao Sebastiao, state of Alagoas, Brazil, on the soil Dystrophic Agrey Argissoil cropped to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum. The experimental design was bend in randomized blocks in 5x2 factorial scheme with five siderurgical slag doses: 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 t ha-1, five irrigation depth 14.1; 9.5; 5.2; 2.3 e 0.0 mm h-1 and four replications. It was evaluated length, diameter mean, stem number and sugarcane weight. The application 15.92 e 9.84 mm irrigation water for hectare results increasing of length, diameter and stem number. Applications of 2.12; 3.17 e 2.78 t ha-1 of siderurgical slag result increasing of length, diameter mean and stem numbers of sugarcane raising values of 154.29 cm, 22.97 cm e 266 stem, respectively. The sugarcane yield raised 89 t ha-1 with 1,233 mm ha-1 of water apllied, so, the application of this waste on the soil increased the growth and productivity of the irrigated sugarcane.

  16. In vitro incorporation of 1-14C-acetate and 32P-orthophosphoric acid into phospholipids at various stages of growth of Pythium irregulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pythium irregulare showed an increase (11.6 to 38.9%) in total lipids and a simultaneous decrease (40.5 to 7.3%) in phospholipid content of total lipids during growth period of 15 days. Incubation of fungus of different ages viz. 2,3,4,5,7,9,11,13 and 15 days old with 32P-orthophosphoric acid for 4 hr showed that the specific activity of mycelium was maximum with the 5-days old fungus. Highest content of total and polar lipids was, however observed with the 3 days old sample. Incubation studies with sodium acetate 1-14C with fungus of various stages of growth showed maxima of specific activity in mycelium, total, polar and non-polar lipids on the 5th day. From specific activity estimation of 32P and 14C in each of the phosphatides, it was concluded that the labels were incorporated at a higher rate into phosphatidyl enthanolamine during early stages of growth. The reverse was true for the later period of growth, indicating that phosphatidyl ethanolamine was possibly converted to phosphatidyl choline. (auth.)

  17. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum) e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica / Biocontrol of root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) and growth promotion with Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 and Bacillus subtilis GB03 in hydroponic lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Élida Barbosa, Corrêa; Wagner, Bettiol; John Clifford, Sutton.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológic [...] o da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%), no número de folhas (4% a 7%) e no teor de clorofila (3%) das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica. Abstract in english Root rot caused by Pythium species is a major problem in hydroponically-grown crops. Symptoms of canopy stunting are noticed in plants colonized by the pathogen and many times they are not diagnosed by the grower. The aim of this work was to evaluate biological control and plant growth promotion by [...] Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 and Bacillus subtilis GB03, known biocontrol agents of plant diseases. Inoculation of plants with P. aphanidermatum decreased lettuce mass by 20%. The introduction of the biocontrol agents to the nutrient solution was beneficial for plant growth increasing the plant mass (6% to 13%), the number of leaves (4% to 7%) and the chlorophyll content (3%) of the lettuce plants. Further studies are needed, however, to improve the effectiveness of disease control and growth promotion by the biological agents in hydroponic lettuce.

  18. Nutrient composition of spent wash and its impact on sugarcane growth and biochemical attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Radha; Srivastava, S

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient composition of crude and digested spent wash and effect of their application on sugarcane growth and biochemical attributes were studied. Higher concentrations of essential nutrients (P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) were present in crude spent wash (CSW) as compared to the digested spent wash (DSW); sulphur content was the highest (765 ?g ml?1 in DSW and 1,609 ?g ml?1 in CSW) among all nutrients analyzed. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid cultivar CoLk 8102)...

  19. Pythium insidiosum: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Gaastra, Wim; Lipman, Len J.A.; de Cock, Arthur W. A. M.; Exel, Tim K.; Pegge, Raymond B.G.; Scheurwater, Josje; Vilela, Raquel; Mendoza, Leonel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete pathogenic in mammals. The infection occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, particularly in horses, dogs and humans. Infection is acquired through small wounds via contact with water that contains motile zoospores or other propagules (zoospores or hyphae). The disease, though described as emerging has in fact already been described since 1884. Depending on the site of entry, infection can lead to different forms of pythiosis i.e....

  20. The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and yield of irrigated sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FC, Olivier; A, Singels.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A layer of harvest residues from the previous crop can reduce wasteful evaporation from the soil surface and thereby increase the efficiency of use of limited water resources for agricultural production. The practice of harvesting sugarcane green and leaving crop residues in the field, as opposed to [...] burning the residue, has been re-adopted in many sugarcane industries worldwide. However, a better understanding of the dynamic impacts of residue layers on various aspects of the cropping system is required to (1) enable the formulation of sets of best management practices for specific production scenarios, and (2) promote the use of residue layers in areas where it is desirable and has not been adopted, such as irrigated sugarcane production in South Africa. The objective of this study, therefore, was to quantify the effect of 2 different types of residue layers on crop growth, cane yield and evapotranspiration of fully irrigated sugarcane. A layer of cane tops and dead leaves (Trash) and a layer of green tops (Tops) were applied to the soil surface of sugarcane crops (plant crop and first ratoon crop of variety N14) grown on lysimeters at Pongola, South Africa. Observations of crop growth (stalk population, stalk height, canopy cover), cane yield and evapotranspiration for these treatments were compared to that of a bare soil treatment. The data were also used to derive values of crop evaporation coefficients for different development phases and these were compared to FAO56 recommendations. Initial stalk population in the plant crop and radiation capture in the plant and ratoon crop were affected negatively by crop residue layers, but without significantly reducing final stalk population and cane yield. Peak stalk population occurred later in crops grown in residue layers, but peak and final stalk populations were unaffected. Evapotranspiration was reduced by both residue layers, mainly due to a slower developing canopy (reduced transpiration) and reduced evaporation from the soil, during the pre-canopy phases. Increased drainage was observed under residue layers, emphasising the importance of accurate irrigation scheduling to avoid water logging. The FAO56 methodology for calculating crop evaporation coefficient values for the initial, development and late season phases are supported by the results obtained here. Crop evaporation coefficient values were significantly reduced by residue layers. It is important that irrigation scheduling practices be adjusted to realise the potential water savings of sugarcane production systems that make use of residue layers. This study provides the information required to do that. The information could also be used to improve the ability of the crop models to accurately simulate crop growth and evapotranspiration in a residue layer cropping system.

  1. Avaliação patogênica in vitro de Pythium middletonii Sparrow e Pythium dissotocum Drechsler em alface / In vitro pathogenic evaluation of Pythium middletonii Sparrow and Pythium dissotocum Drechsler in lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.R., Baptista; C.L.A, Pires-Zottarelli; L.D., Teixeira; N.A., Santos Júnior.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos de alface são frequentes e, na maior parte das vezes, causadas por espécies de Pythium, extremamente bem adaptadas ao ambiente aquático. Este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial patogênico in vitro de Pythium middletonii e P. dissotocum, em quatro cultiv [...] ares de alface: Elisa (lisa), Vera (crespa), Mimosa (mimosa) e Tainá (americana). Sementes de alface, de cada cultivar, foram desinfetadas superficialmente, pré-germinadas por 24 horas, e colocadas na superfície do meio ágar-água. Em seguida, um disco de micélio dos isolados de Pythium, foi disposto no centro de cada placa. Placas contendo apenas as sementes de alface serviram como controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma delas representada por uma placa de Petri. Avaliou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem das plântulas sobreviventes após dez dias de incubação. O experimento foi conduzido na temperatura ideal de crescimento da alface (20ºC), e nas ideais para o crescimento dos isolados, 23ºC para P. middletonii e 27ºC para P. dissotocum. A 20ºC, P. dissotocum foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii, reduzindo significativamente o comprimento dos hipocótilos e, principalmente, das radículas, de praticamente todas as cultivares. Na temperatura de 27ºC, P. dissotocum foi responsável pela mais baixa porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes entre as cultivares, sendo mais patogênico em Vera (54% de sobrevivência). Dentre as cultivares analisadas, a Mimosa mostrou tendência de menor suscetibilidade a este patógeno, apresentando a maior porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes e o maior comprimento das radículas em relação ao controle. P. dissotocum apresentou maior crescimento micelial e foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii em todos os experimentos realizados. Abstract in english Root infections in hydroponic lettuce are frequent and mostly caused by Pythium species, which are extremely well adapted to aquatic environments. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the pathogenic potential of Pythium middletonii and Pythium dissotocum in four cultivars of lettuce, Elisa ( [...] smooth), Vera (curly), Mimosa (mimosa) and Tainá (American). Lettuce seeds from each cultivar were superficially disinfected, pre-germinated for 24 hours and placed on the water agar medium surface. Then, a dish containing mycelium from Pythium isolates was placed in the center of each plate. Control consisted of plates containing lettuce seeds only. Experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates, each one represented by a Petri dish. Hypocotyl and radical length besides surviving seedlings percentage after ten days of incubation were evaluated. The experiment was carried out, at different temperatures, and the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated at the ideal temperature for the lettuce (20ºC), and at the ideal temperatures for the growth of the isolates, 23ºC for P. middletonii and 27ºC for P. dissotocum. At 20ºC, P. dissotocum had higher pathogenicity on lettuce cultivars than P. middletonii, significantly decreasing the length of hypocotyls, especially radicles, of most cultivars. For P. dissotocum, 27ºC was the most suitable temperature for the specimen growth; however, it led to the lowest percentage of surviving seedlings among all cultivars, with the lowest percentage (54%) detected for Vera. Among the cultivars, Mimosa presented higher percentage of survivor seedlings and higher length of radicles in relation to the control, and thus was considered less susceptible to the pathogen. P. dissotocum presented higher mycelium growth and was more pathogenic than P. middletonii in all experiments.

  2. Feasibility of growth and nutrition of Dieffenbachia amoena \\\\\\'Tropic Snow\\\\\\' in pot growth-medium amended with sugarcane bagasse vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahboub Khomami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, introduction of conversion technologies to solve environmental problems in accumulation of sugarcane bagasse, as an alternative to peat, in the ornamental plants industry seems necessary. For this purpose, in an experiment, the effects of substitution of sugarcane bagasse + cow manure vermicompost with peat in 60% peat + 30% vermiculite + 10% perlite medium were examined on growth and nutrition of Dieffenbachia amoena ornamental plant. After production of the vermicompost, rooted cuttings of the plants were cultivated in the control medium (containing 60% peat + 30% vermiculite + 10% perlite and the media in which 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% of vermicompost was replaced with peat in control medium. Factors such as plant height, diameter, fresh and dry weights of shoots and leaves, fresh and dry weights of roots, leaf area, and nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in plants and substrates were measured. Physical properties of the substrates including aerial porosity, water holding capacity, total porosity and bulk density were measured too. Results showed that increasing the level of vermicompost + sugarcane bagasse had a significant effect on nitrogen and potassium content of leaves, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of the substrates. The highest amounts of these elements were measured at 60% vermicompost + bagasse treatment. The substrate containing 60% vermicompost + sugarcane bagasse had maximum plant height (15.91 cm, diameter (9.53 mm, fresh weight of stem and leaf (158.91 g, dry weight of stem and leaf (33.99 g, dry weight of root (25.87 g and leaf area (2680.5 cm². Based on the results, vermicomposting of sugarcane bagasse is in accordance with the environment, and can be used in the growing media for production of flowers and plants.

  3. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-01-01

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops. PMID:26634494

  4. Root growth and distribution in sugarcane cultivars fertigated by a subsurface drip system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augusto Yukitaka Pessinatti, Ohashi; Regina Célia de Matos, Pires; Rafael Vasconcelos, Ribeiro; André Luiz Barros de Oliveira, Silva.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the agronomic importance for water management, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed under field conditions during the crop cycle. The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative root density (LA), root distribution on soil profile and the effective rooting depth (ERD) [...] for three sugarcane cultivars using the minirhizotron method. A field experiment was done with sugarcane cultivars IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 grown under subsurface drip fertigation. Soil chemical and physical characteristics were also evaluated. Root evaluations were taken at 38, 58, 123, 185 and 205 days during the second ratoon, considering the soil profile until 0.8 m depth. The highest LA and root growth rates were found up to 0.4 m soil layer for all cultivars. Root growth rate varied during the crop cycle, with the highest values being found between 38 and 58 days after ratoon (DAR). There was a genotypic variation in root growth, with IACSP94-2101 showing the highest LA of 12.9 mm cm–2. The total root length observed around the tube (0.16892 m2) was 10.8, 5.9 and 2.5 m up to 0.8 m depth for IACSP94-2101, SP79-1011 and IACSP94-2094, respectively at 205 DAR. The effective rooting depth varied during the cycle for IACSP94-2094, but all cultivars presented an effective depth of 0.4 m at 205 DAR.

  5. Root growth and distribution in sugarcane cultivars fertigated by a subsurface drip system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augusto Yukitaka Pessinatti, Ohashi; Regina Célia de Matos, Pires; Rafael Vasconcelos, Ribeiro; André Luiz Barros de Oliveira, Silva.

    Full Text Available Despite of the agronomic importance for water management, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed under field conditions during the crop cycle. The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative root density (LA), root distribution on soil profile and the effective rooting depth (ERD) [...] for three sugarcane cultivars using the minirhizotron method. A field experiment was done with sugarcane cultivars IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 grown under subsurface drip fertigation. Soil chemical and physical characteristics were also evaluated. Root evaluations were taken at 38, 58, 123, 185 and 205 days during the second ratoon, considering the soil profile until 0.8 m depth. The highest LA and root growth rates were found up to 0.4 m soil layer for all cultivars. Root growth rate varied during the crop cycle, with the highest values being found between 38 and 58 days after ratoon (DAR). There was a genotypic variation in root growth, with IACSP94-2101 showing the highest LA of 12.9 mm cm–2. The total root length observed around the tube (0.16892 m2) was 10.8, 5.9 and 2.5 m up to 0.8 m depth for IACSP94-2101, SP79-1011 and IACSP94-2094, respectively at 205 DAR. The effective rooting depth varied during the cycle for IACSP94-2094, but all cultivars presented an effective depth of 0.4 m at 205 DAR.

  6. Complex interaction of deferasirox and Pythium insidiosum: iron-dependent attenuation of growth in vitro and immunotherapy-like enhancement of immune responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Régis A; Bitencourt, Paula E R; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Fighera, Rafael A; Flores, Mariana M; Kommers, Glaucia D; Silva, Priscila S; Ludwig, Aline; Moretto, Maria B; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M

    2015-01-01

    Pythium insidiosum iron acquisition mechanisms are unknown. We previously showed that the iron chelator deferasirox had weak activity in vitro and in rabbits with experimental pythiosis. Here we show that deferasirox causes damage to P. insidiosum hyphae in vitro, but that activity is diminished in the presence of exogenous iron. The tissue activity of the proinflammatory enzyme adenosine deaminase and the histological pattern observed in pythiosis lesions of rabbits treated with deferasirox were similar to the ones in animals treated with immunotherapy. PMID:25738758

  7. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John Clifford, Sutton; Coralie Rachelle, Sopher; Tony Nathaniel, Owen-Going; Weizhong, Liu; Bernard, Grodzinski; John Christopher, Hall; Ruth Linda, Benchimol.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A etiologia e a epidemiologia da podridão radicular causada por Pythium spp. em cultivo hidropônico são revisadas com ênfase em conhecimentos e conceitos considerados importantes para o manejo de doenças em estufas comerciais. A podridão radicular causada por Pythium continuamente ameaça a produtivi [...] dade de diversas culturas em sistemas hidropônicos, incluindo pepino, tomate, pimentão, espinafre, alface, capuchinha, rúcula, rosa, e crisântemo. Os principais agentes causais incluem Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, espécies de Pythium do grupo F e Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. São apresentadas e discutidas as principais fontes do inóculo primário de Pythium spp. em sistemas hidropônicos, os processos de infecção e colonização de raízes pelos patógenos, o desenvolvimento de sintomas, a produção de inóculo em raízes, e a dispersão do inóculo na solução nutritiva. Descobertas recentes da existência de um elicitor produzido especificamente por P. aphanidermatum que pode provocar a necrose (descoloração) das raízes infectadas e a transição da infecção da fase biotrofica para necrotrofica são consideradas. Efeitos de fatores ligados ao hospedeiro (susceptibilidade à doença, estádio fenológico, exsudatos radiculares, compostos fenólicos), ao ambiente radicular (meio de enraizamento, concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e compostos fenólicos na solução nutritiva, comunidades microbianas e temperatura) e as interferências humanas (práticas de cultivo e medidas de controle) sobre as epidemias de podridão radicular causados por Pythium spp. são revistos. Resultados recentes que demostram um aumento da predisposição das raízes ao ataque de Pythium induzida por estresses ambientais são destacados. O impacto das medidas usadas para a desinfestação da solução nutritiva recirculando fora do cultivo sobre a epidemia da doença é comparada com o impacto de tratamentos que suprimem Pythium nas raízes e na zona radicular da cultura. Novas descobertas de que a infeção de raízes por P. aphanidermatum reduz o crescimento da área foliar e o acúmulo de carbono na planta inteira, sem alterar significativamente a eficiência da fotossíntese por unidade de área foliar, são destacadas. O conhecimento e entendimento da etiologia e epidemiologia da podridão radicular, e seus efeitos na fisiologia da planta, são dicutidos em relacão às novas perspectivas das pesquisas e ao desenvolvimento de melhores práticas para o manejo da doença em cultivo hidropônico. Ênfase é dada nos métodos e tecnologias para a detecção de Pythium tanto na solução nutritiva quanto nas raízes e no desenvolvimento, integração e otimização dos tratamentos para suprimir o patógeno na zona radicular e o progresso da podridão das raízes. Abstract in english The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydropon [...] ic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning) of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances), the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dis

  8. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Sutton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances, the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and phenolic substances in the nutrient solution, microbial communities and temperature and human interferences (cropping practices and control measures are reviewed. Recent findings on predisposition of roots to Pythium attack by environmental stress factors are highlighted. The commonly minor impact on epidemics of measures to disinfest nutrient solution as it recirculates outside the crop is contrasted with the impact of treatments that suppress Pythium in the roots and root zone of the crop. New discoveries that infection of roots by P. aphanidermatum markedly slows the increase in leaf area and whole-plant carbon gain without significant effect on the efficiency of photosynthesis per unit area of leaf are noted. The platform of knowledge and understanding of the etiology and epidemiology of root rot, and its effects on the physiology of the whole plant, are discussed in relation to new research directions and development of better practices to manage the disease in hydroponic crops. Focus is on methods and technologies for tracking Pythium and root rot, and on developing, integrating, and optimizing treatments to suppress the pathogen in the root zone and progress of root rot.A etiologia e a epidemiologia da podridão radicular causada por Pythium spp. em cultivo hidropônico são revisadas com ênfase em conhecimentos e conceitos considerados importantes para o manejo de doenças em estufas comerciais. A podridão radicular causada por Pythium continuamente ameaça a produtividade de diversas culturas em sistemas hidropônicos, incluindo pepino, tomate, pimentão, espinafre, alface, capuchinha, rúcula, rosa, e crisântemo. Os principais agentes causais incluem Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, espécies de Pythium do grupo F e Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. São apresentadas e discutidas as principais fontes do inóculo primário de Pythium spp. em sistemas hidropônicos, os processos de infecção e colonização de raízes pelos patógenos, o desenvolvimento de sintomas, a produção de inóculo em raízes, e a dispersão do inóculo na solução nutritiva. Descobertas recentes da existência de um elicitor produzido especificamente por P. aphanidermatum que pode provocar a necrose (descoloração das raízes infectadas e a transição da infecção da fase biotrofica para necrotrofica são consideradas. Efeitos de fatores ligados ao hospedeiro (susceptibilidade à doença, estádio fenológico, exsudatos radiculares, compostos fenólicos, ao ambiente radicular (meio de enraizamento, concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e compostos fenólicos na solução nutritiva, comunidades microbianas e temperatura e as interferências humanas (práticas de cultivo e medidas de controle sobre as epidemias de podridão radicular causados por Pythium spp. são revistos. Resultados recentes

  9. Combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and Zinc(II) ions on the growth and bioaccumulation properties of yeast isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Geetanjali Basak; CHARUMATHI D; NILANJANA DAS

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of zinc(II) ions by yeast isolates viz. Candida rugosa and Cryptococcus laurentii was investigated in different growth media. Both the isolates showed maximum bioaccumulation of zinc(II) in the medium prepared from sugarcane bagasse extract. The growth and zinc(II) bioaccumulation properties of yeasts in sugar cane bagasse extract were tested as a function of pH, temperature and initial metal concentrations. The combined effects of sugar extracted from bagasse and initial zinc...

  10. Weed-crop competition effects on growth and yield of sugarcane planted using two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check (full season weed-crop competition) were randomized in sub-plots. Sugarcane sown by trench method exhibited more leaf area index (LAI), average crop growth rate (ACGR) and yield contributing attributes. Trench sowing by yielding 72.22 and 75.08 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields, significantly showed superiority over the flat sowing, which gave 64.13 and 66.04 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields in 2005-06 and 2006- 07, respectively. Generally, there was an increase in weed population and biomass but decrease in leaf area index, crop growth rate and yield components with an increase in weed-crop competition period. A decrease of 10.06, 17.90, 22.42, 28.65, 37.64 and 56.89% in stripped cane yield was observed for weed-crop competition periods of 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 DAS and weedy check as compared with zero competition in 2005-06, respectively. In 2006-07, the respective decrease in stripped cane yield was 9.84, 18.76, 22.92, 27.98, 38.75, and 54.98%. Trench sowing at 1.2 m row spacing proved better sowing technique and 45 DAS was the critical period of weed-crop competition. (author)

  11. SUBSTITUTION OF AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER ON UPLAND SUGARCANE CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH, NUTRIENT CONTENT AND SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayati; Abdul Basit; Sunawan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the effect of substitution of Ammonium Sulphate (AS) fertilizer on sugarcane growth, nutrient content, and soil chemical properties. This research was conducted on up-land of sugarcane plantation in Tegalweru village, Dau district, Malang regency. This study tested ten treatments consisting of three treatments using AS fertilizer, six treatments using AS substitute fertilizers that used combination of Urea, Gypsum, and bio-compost and one control (no fe...

  12. Efficacy of bio-K fertilizer on the growth and sugar content of sugarcane plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-K- fertilizer has been used as a source of potassium to enhance the concentration of sugar in sugarcane and prevent loss of resources and environmental damage. Potassium sul phate and murate of Potash are K fertilizers. The field experiments were done during 2009-2010 to see the increase of sugar contents in sugarcane by using K- fertilizer. The use of bio-K-fertilizer has been found effective which resulted better yield in terms of both quantity and quality of sugarcane and found an increase in concentration of sucrose in sugarcane up to 28% calculated as 3-7% sugar content increase as a whole. The increase in crop production as whole was recorded as 74% due to Bio-K-fertilizer as compared to control plots. No chemical fertilizer was used during this experiment. (author)

  13. Effects of piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from the venom of red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, on Pythium ultimum Trow growth in vitro and the application of piperideine alkaloids to control cucumber..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pythium ultimum Trow is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical seed treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, the venom alkaloids from red imported fire ant were tested against P. ultimum in vitro and to ...

  14. Two-year growth cycle sugarcane crop parameter attributes and their application in modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production in Hawaii has declined since the 1970s due to a number of factors that include low prices, high labor costs, competition from artificial sweeteners and low-cost production from such countries as Mexico, Brazil, India, and China. Recently, competition ...

  15. Effect of iron, manganese, zinc and their combinations on growth and yield of sugarcane at Kenana sugar scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiments were conducted at two different sites for one season (1992/93) in order to study the effects of iron, manganese, zinc and their combinations on growth and yield of sugarcane at kenana sugar scheme. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block with four replications. Sulfates of iron, manganese and zinc were used as foliar fertilizers at concentrations of 200 ppm for iron and zinc and 100 ppm for manganese. Half of the fertilizer dose was applied when the crop was four months old, and the other half was applied when the crop was six months old, and the control was sprayed with distilled water only. All the treatments received 415 kg/ha urea fertilizer (46% nitrogen) as nitrogen source and 108 kg/ha triple superphosphate(48% P2 O5) as a source of phosphorus. Data were recorded on the growth and yield of sugarcane crop. The results showed that the lowest stalk height was obtained with treatments receiving iron fertilizer. The highest stalk diameter value was obtained in plants sprayed with zinc. The application of manganese or zinc and their combinations resulted in higher values of cane yield than the control. (Author)

  16. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; de Santana, Eliane Silva; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Buckeridge, Marcos; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Background Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G) bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses), must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant. Results Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and ?-glucan (that compose the most external part of the cell wall in sugarcane) are likely the first to be released and assimilated by both species of fungi. At all time points tested, A. niger produced more enzymes (quantitatively and qualitatively) than T. reesei. However, the most important enzymes related to biomass degradation, including cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases, ?-glucosidases, ?-xylosidases, endoxylanases, xyloglucanases, and ?-arabinofuranosidases, were identified in both secretomes. We also noticed that the both fungi produce more enzymes when grown in culm as a single carbon source. Conclusion Our work provides a detailed qualitative and semi-quantitative secretome analysis of A. niger and T. reesei grown on sugarcane biomass. Our data indicate that a combination of enzymes from both fungi is an interesting option to increase saccharification efficiency. In other words, these two fungal species might be combined for their usage in industrial processes. PMID:26053961

  17. A new species of Burkholderia isolated from sugarcane roots promotes plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G. A.; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Webb, Richard I.; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chan, Cheong Xin; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Mark A. Ragan; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants is variable, and their effective formulation remains a knowledge frontier. Here, we take a new approach to investigating diazotrophic bacte...

  18. Process-based simple model for simulating sugarcane growth and production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio R., Marin; James W., Jones.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation models can increase research efficiency and improve risk management of agriculture. Crop models are still little used for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) because the lack of understanding of their capabilities and limitations, lack of experience in calibrating them, difficulties in eva [...] luating and using models, and a general lack of model credibility. This paper describes the biophysics and shows a statistical evaluation of a simple sugarcane processbased model coupled with a routine for model calibration. Classical crop model approaches were used as a framework for this model, and fitted algorithms for simulating sucrose accumulation and leaf development driven by a source-sink approach were proposed. The model was evaluated using data from five growing seasons at four locations in Brazil, where crops received adequate nutrients and good weed control. Thirteen of the 27 parameters were optimized using a Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation algorithm using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Model predictions were evaluated using measured data of leaf area index, stalk and aerial dry mass, and sucrose content, using bias, root mean squared error, modeling efficiency, correlation coefficient and agreement index. The model well simulated the sugarcane crop in Southern Brazil, using the parameterization reported here. Predictions were best for stalk dry mass, followed by leaf area index and then sucrose content in stalk fresh mass.

  19. Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-776 (drought susceptible and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant. Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit. At 0,30 and 60 days after the treatment, gas exchange variables were evaluated for their relationship with water use, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. The SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential and relative water content in the leaves were also analyzed. The genotype HoCP93-776 was more sensitive to drought treatment as indicated by the significantly lower values of SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential (?w and relative water content (RWC variables. The genotype TCP02-4587 had higher water potential, stomatal control efficiency, water use efficiency (WUE, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEintr, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. The highest air vapor pressure deficit during the drought conditions could be due to the stomatal closing in the HoCP93-776, which contributed to its lower photosynthetic capacity.

  20. Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; John Lonfover, Jifon; Claudiana Moura dos, Santos; Cleber Junior, Jadoski; Jorge Alberto Gonçalves da, Silva.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-7 [...] 76 (drought susceptible) and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant). Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit). At 0,30 and 60 days after the treatment, gas exchange variables were evaluated for their relationship with water use, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. The SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential and relative water content in the leaves were also analyzed. The genotype HoCP93-776 was more sensitive to drought treatment as indicated by the significantly lower values of SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential (?w) and relative water content (RWC) variables. The genotype TCP02-4587 had higher water potential, stomatal control efficiency, water use efficiency (WUE), intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEintr), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. The highest air vapor pressure deficit during the drought conditions could be due to the stomatal closing in the HoCP93-776, which contributed to its lower photosynthetic capacity.

  1. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Genotypes Based on the Ability to Regulate Ion Uptake and Transport at Early Stage of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arzani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available   Sugarcane is one of the most important sugar crops in the world. Because of semi-arid climate and salinity of its cultivation area in our country, increasing salt tolerance of sugarcane is signifying. To achieve this goal determining salt tolerant cultivars and understanding salinity mechanisms in sugarcane are very important. This study was conducted to evaluate 8 commercial and promising sugarcane cultivars at early stage of growth. A complete randomized design with three replicates and four salinity treatments (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 % NaCl was used in a hydroponics system. The effect of salinity on absorption, transport and accumulation of Na+, Cl- , K+ and Ca2+ ions in shoot and root was determined. At high level salt concentration, Cl- content in shoot and root increased. Result showed that sodium accumulation in sugarcane plants was more than potassium. By increasing salinity level, sodium uptake and its translocation to shoots increased reducing growth and dry matter yield of plants. With rising salt concentration from medium (0.5% to high (0.75%, content of chloride in shoot and root of NCO-310 was constant showed that this cultivar had genetic ability to avoid Cl- uptake. CP82-1592 with lowest ratio of shoot / root chloride had minimum transport of Cl- to shoots. Also this cultivar had high content of Ca2+ in shoot and low Na+/Ca2+ ratio at all salinity levels. CP48-103 had low sodium in shoot and relatively low sodium in root. Thus it probably has genetic potential to avoid sodium uptake. At last, exclusion of Na+ and Cl- to older leaves and tillers was seen in CP82-1592 and CP72-2086 cultivars. According to results, to avoid once of absorption and transport, and exclusion of harmful Na+ and Cl- ions were mechanisms that could be used in salinity tolerance of sugarcane.

  2. Growth of sugarcane under high input conditions in tropical Australia. 1. Radiation use, biomass accumulation and partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is little detailed information on yield accumulation in sugarcane under high-input conditions, which can be used to quantify the key physiological parameters contributing to yield variation. Sugarcane is grown under plant and ratoon crop conditions. This study analysed canopy development, radiation interception and biomass accumulation of two contrasting cultivars of sugarcane under irrigation during the same season under plant and ratoon crop conditions. Over the 15 month season, 11 crop samplings were conducted. Biomass partitioning to stalk was also measured to determine to what extent differences in partitioning between cultivars under ratoon and plant crop conditions contribute to differential productivity. The key findings were: (1) The ratoon crop accumulated biomass more quickly than the plant crop during the first 100 days of growth due to higher stalk number, faster canopy development and greater radiation interception. For similar reasons, cultivar Q138 had higher early biomass production than cultivar Q117 in the plant crop, (2) Early differences in biomass accumulation due to crop class became negligible at about 220 days because maximum RUE of the plant crop (1.72 +/- 0.01 g MJ-1) was 8% higher than in the first ratoon crop (1.59 +/- 0.08 g MJ-1). The higher maximum RUE in the plant crop was consistent with a higher crop growth rate (35.1 +/- 2.3 versus 31.0 +/- 3.4 g m-2 d-1) during the Linear phase of biomass accumulation. (3) Biomass accumulation, which ceased about 300 days after planting/ratooning and 140 days before final harvest, attained similar levels of 53-58 t ha-1 in all four crops. (4) The plateau in biomass was associated with loss of live millable stalks, and not a cessation in the growth rate of individual stalks. The crops continued to intercept radiation while on the biomass plateau, so that average RUEs at final harvest were much lower than the maximum values. (5) There was no effect of crop class or cultivar on the fraction of biomass in the leaf and millable stalk components. This study emphasizes that maximising early radiation interception and biomass accumulation will not necessarily lead to higher yield in an environment where biomass production reaches a plateau well before final harvest. Loss of live millable stalks late in the crop cycle results in poor utilisation of intercepted radiation

  3. Pythium aphanidermatum Infection following Combat Trauma?

    OpenAIRE

    Calvano, Tatjana P.; Blatz, Peter J.; Vento, Todd J; Wickes, Brian L; Deanna A. Sutton; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; White, Christopher E.; Renz, Evan M.; Hospenthal, Duane R

    2011-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is a fungus-like plant pathogen which has never been reported as a cause of human infection. We report a case of P. aphanidermatum invasive wound infection in a 21-year-old male injured during combat operations in Afghanistan.

  4. The distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Barros de Oliveira Silva, André Luiz; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to reach high yield and to increase longevity of plants. The SDI allows improving the water use efficiency, due to the application of water and nutrients in the root zone plants. It is necessary knowledge of soil and plant parameters, such as root system to improve irrigation system use efficiency. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system. The mentioned equipment enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars root system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars. The irrigation was performed by subsurface drip system and the soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. Three access tubes with 1.05 m-length were used for each cultivar. The images were caught with Root Scanner CI-600™ in two dates, 38 and 58 days after harvest (DAH) of cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon) in five depths and were analyzed by the software RootSnap! ™. The results show that, except for cultivar IACSP94-2094, more than 80% of root length was found in the first 0.40 m of soil profile. Until 38 DAH the root growth of cultivar IACSP94-2101 were approximately fourfold higher than other three ones in the 0 to 0.20 m layer, sevenfold higher to 0.20 to 0.40 m layer and threefold to 0.40 to 0.60 m soil profile layer. However, between 38 and 58 DAH the cultivar SP79-1011 presented higher growth taxes, being almost twofold higher than IACSP94-2101 at 0 to 0.20 m soil profile layer, although its growth rate for the other soil profile layers were between 38 and 57% of IACSP94-2101 rate. Compared to IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011, the other two cultivars presented fivefold and sixfold lower growth rates in root length between 38 and 58 DAH in the first two layers, respectively. The higher root length in minirhizotron surface was with 0.64 cm cm-2, found in the 20-40 cm layer of IACSP94-2101, while the overall average was 0.15 cm cm-2. The percentage of root length in deeper layers increased between the first and second analyses.

  5. Reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar Growth regulators in the development and productivity of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar, resultantes da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no iníco da safra. Ostratamentos consistiram na aplicação de três reguladores vegetais inibidores de crescimento - sulfometuron metil, glifosato e compostos de radicais carboxílicos orgânicos + glifosato - e na maturação natural como testemunha, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Os maturadores retardam o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas, sem afetar o número e o diâmetro de colmos na colheita, e influenciam de forma e intensidade distintas a ocorrência do florescimento e chochamento. O glifosato proporciona elevados índices de brotação lateral e prejudica a rebrota da soqueira. Os maturadores induzem o aumento do teor de açúcares redutores totais, o que contribui para a melhoria da qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar.The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane, due to plant regulators application at the cropping season beginning. The treatments consisted of three plant growth inhibitors - sulfometuron methyl, glyphosate, and compounds of organic carboxilic radicals + glyphosate - and natural ripening as control, in a randomized block design with five replicates. The ripeners hold up the growth process of plant height, without affecting the number and diameter of stems at harvest, however they influence, in different intensities and ways, the flowering and pith process. Glyphosate provide the largest index of bud sprouting and damage of regrowth of the ratoon cane. The ripeners induce increase in sugar reducer total contents, contributing for the improvement in technological quality of sugarcane.

  6. Combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and Zinc(II ions on the growth and bioaccumulation properties of yeast isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Basak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of zinc(II ions by yeast isolates viz. Candida rugosa and Cryptococcus laurentii was investigated in different growth media. Both the isolates showed maximum bioaccumulation of zinc(II in the medium prepared from sugarcane bagasse extract. The growth and zinc(II bioaccumulation properties of yeasts in sugar cane bagasse extract were tested as a function of pH, temperature and initial metal concentrations. The combined effects of sugar extracted from bagasse and initial zinc(II ion concentrations on specific growth rate and bioaccumulation efficiencies of yeasts were investigated. At a constant zinc(II concentration, the growthand zinc(II bioaccumulation increased with increasing concentrations of sugar up to 24 g/L. The inhibition effect of zinc(II ions on the specific growth rate of yeasts was studied by non competitive and uncompetitive inhibition models at various concentrations of zinc(II ranging from 0-50 mg/L at constant sugar concentrations (8- 24 g/L. Bioaccumulation of zinc(II by the yeast isolates followed first-order-reaction kinetics.

  7. Characterization of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Rhizosphere of Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estate and Farmers Landraces of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feredegn Dagnaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of chemical fertilizers apart from its low use efficiency, environmental impact and soil quality degradation, was not cost effective in the Ethiopian sugar sector. Thus, looking attractive opportunities which are environmentally friendly approaches and cost effective for the sustainability of the sector like use of biological fertilizers is of paramount importance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to preliminarily screen effective plant growth promoting bacteria from sugarcane fields. One hundred sixteen rhizosphere isolates was taken from sugarcane fields. The isolates were characterized and tested under laboratory condition for their phosphate solubilizing characteristics. Moreover, 23% and more than 60% of the isolates could produce indole acetic acid and ammonia, respectively. Isolate HWR27 showed significantly (p?0.05 the highest solubilization index (3.32 on solid Pikovskaya media. The lowest solubilization index was recorded for the isolate HWR8 (2.33. Three different isolates (HWR24, HWR27 and HWR48 having plant growth promoting characteristics were evaluated for their solubilization efficiency under three different liquid media (tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Among these isolates, HWR48 solubilized the highest amount of phosphate (88.41 mg L?1 from tricalcium phosphate and the same isolate solubilized 33.57 mg L?1 of phosphate from rock phosphate. The solubilization of phosphorus was complimented with reduction in pH. Further research to evaluate the effectiveness of the isolates on growth of sugarcane under greenhouse and field condition would be recommended.

  8. Solid formulations of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates suppress Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum in potting medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    2000-03-01

    Two isolates of binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., previously selected for efficacy in suppression of Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium spp., as well as plant growth promotion, were incorporated into various solid substrate formulations. These formulated products were assayed at three doses in three glass-house experiments for biocontrol of damping-off diseases in Capsicum annuum. R. solani anastomosis group 4 or Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum were incorporated into pasteurized potting medium with each formulated binucleate Rhizoctonia product. All formulations were effective against both pathogens in at least two experiments, but some formulations of one isolate of binucleate Rhizoctonia did not give consistent control of R. solani in one experiment. The most consistent formulation, which provided control of both pathogens at all doses of binucleate Rhizoctonia, was the simple substrate of rice hulls. The implications for commercialization of a biocontrol product are discussed. PMID:10772155

  9. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann Carvalho; Hélia Harumi Sato

    2011-01-01

    Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and co...

  10. Soil change induced by the application of biodigested vinasse concentrate, and its effects on growth of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse (or stillage is a byproduct from ethanol production, which contains organic matter, K, N, and other plant nutrients that is regularly used as soil fertilizer. However, high transportation costs limits its application in areas far from distilleries. The possibility of biogas production from vinasse, and the direct or indirect advantages of its use, is a way to reduce costs due to its concentration. Biodigested vinasse concentrate (BVC is an alkaline product that is very different from common vinasse. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of BVC with common vinasse (CV or KCl, with or without N fertilization, on soil fertility and growth and nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. plants. Plants were grown in pots containing Oxisol under different treatments and maintained for 60 d under greenhouse conditions; variables related to soil fertility, plant growth, and mineral nutrition were evaluated. It was observed that adding BVC induces higher soil pH (5.9 to 6.3 and lower potential acidity (13 to 10 mmol c dm-3 compared with KCl, and similar soil chemical changes to CV addition. Plants fertilized with BVC and N showed lower root dry matter (DM (4.02 g compared with those fertilized with KCl and CV (6.3 and 5.44 g, respectively. Plants fertilized with BVC have similar total DM (18.25 and 20.31 g accumulation and nutritional conditions compared with those fertilized with CV and KCl. Plants fertilized with BVC had the highest Na accumulation (0.36 and 0.48 g plant-1.

  11. Carbohydrate-active enzymes in pythium and their role in plant cell wall and storage polysaccharide degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerillo, Marcelo M; Adhikari, Bishwo N; Hamilton, John P; Buell, C Robin; Lévesque, C André; Tisserat, Ned

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are involved in the metabolism of glycoconjugates, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides and, in the case of plant pathogens, in the degradation of the host cell wall and storage compounds. We performed an in silico analysis of CAZymes predicted from the genomes of seven Pythium species (Py. aphanidermatum, Py. arrhenomanes, Py. irregulare, Py. iwayamai, Py. ultimum var. ultimum, Py. ultimum var. sporangiiferum and Py. vexans) using the "CAZymes Analysis Toolkit" and "Database for Automated Carbohydrate-active Enzyme Annotation" and compared them to previously published oomycete genomes. Growth of Pythium spp. was assessed in a minimal medium containing selected carbon sources that are usually present in plants. The in silico analyses, coupled with our in vitro growth assays, suggest that most of the predicted CAZymes are involved in the metabolism of the oomycete cell wall with starch and sucrose serving as the main carbohydrate sources for growth of these plant pathogens. The genomes of Pythium spp. also encode pectinases and cellulases that facilitate degradation of the plant cell wall and are important in hyphal penetration; however, the species examined in this study lack the requisite genes for the complete saccharification of these carbohydrates for use as a carbon source. Genes encoding for xylan, xyloglucan, (galacto)(gluco)mannan and cutin degradation were absent or infrequent in Pythium spp.. Comparative analyses of predicted CAZymes in oomycetes indicated distinct evolutionary histories. Furthermore, CAZyme gene families among Pythium spp. were not uniformly distributed in the genomes, suggesting independent gene loss events, reflective of the polyphyletic relationships among some of the species. PMID:24069150

  12. Increasing P-Availability and P-Uptake Using Sugarcane Filter Cake and Rice Husk Ash to Improve Chinesse Cabbage (Brassica Sp) Growth in Andisol, East Java

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Utami; S. Kurniawan; B. Situmorang; N. D. Rositasari

    2012-01-01

    The production potential in Andisols is limited by the high P-retention capacity. Farmers commonly use organic matter. Sugarcane filter cake (blothong, Indonesian, SFC) and rice husk ash (RHA) are locally available in Coban Rondo, Malang, East Java and hence potentially used for soil amendment. To study the effects of SFC and RHA on P availability, P uptake and plant growth (Brassica sp.), soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth, incubated with SFC (21.37 Mg.ha-1) and RHA (44.64 Mg.ha-1). ...

  13. SUBSTITUTION OF AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER ON UPLAND SUGARCANE CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH, NUTRIENT CONTENT AND SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare the effect of substitution of Ammonium Sulphate (AS fertilizer on sugarcane growth, nutrient content, and soil chemical properties. This research was conducted on up-land of sugarcane plantation in Tegalweru village, Dau district, Malang regency. This study tested ten treatments consisting of three treatments using AS fertilizer, six treatments using AS substitute fertilizers that used combination of Urea, Gypsum, and bio-compost and one control (no fertilizer. This research used randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the plant growth between the treatment used AS fertilizer and AS substitute was not significantly different. However, the treatment used 400 kg Urea per ha+938 kg Gypsum per ha tended to have the best plant growth and the highest N uptake. For the treatments using AS substitute fertilizer, the higher the application rate was, the higher the soil N and S contents were. The treatments used AS fertilizer due to lower soil pH than AS substitute fertilizer. Based on this research, it can be concluded that the use of alternative fertilizers as a substitute of the AS fertilizer is recommended to reduce an adverse impact on soil fertility.

  14. Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma / Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katya da Silva, Patekoski; Carmen Lidia Amorim, Pires-Zottarelli.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de [...] alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1) e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings o [...] f Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1), and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

  15. Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya da Silva Patekoski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

  16. Antifungal properties of native Trichoderma isolates against Sclerotium rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K L N Mallikharjuna; Raju, K Siva; Ravisankar, H

    2015-11-01

    Isolates of Trichoderma native to tobacco rhizosphere, were evaluated for their antifungal properties against Sclerotium rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum, fungal pathogens causing collar rot and damping off diseases in tobacco. Isolate TvJt1 showed maximum HCN production (0.14 OD) followed by ThHt1 and minimum by isolates ThJnt and ThRt1 (0.08 and 0.09 OD). Indole acetic acid (IAA) production among the isolates varied from 6.48 to 14.82 pg ml(-1). Isolate ThJO1 produced maximum siderophore (13.48 m mol ml(-1), whereas isolate TvJt1 produced minimum content (6.24 m mol ml(-1)). Isolate ThJt1 showed maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity (62.12 p kat m;(-1)) as compared to other isolates, followed by isolate TvHt2. Isolate TvHt2 showed maximum and significantly higher ?-1, 3-glucanase activity (9.94 n kat ml(-1)) when compared to all other isolates. Isolate ThJt1 showed second highest activity of ?-1, 3-glucanase (6.75 n kat/ml). In dual culture, inhibition of mycelial growth of Pythium by isolate TvHt2 was maximum (72.45%) followed by ThJt1 whereas inhibition of mycelial growth of S. rolfsii by these two isolates was at a par (78.36% and 76.17%) and significantly higher than some isolates. Isolates TvHt2 and ThJt1 showed maximum and significantly higher inhibition of Pythium and Sclerotium growth (80.24% and 76%) by production of non-volatiles. Inhibition of Pythium and Sclerotium growth by production of volatile compounds by Trichoderma isolates ranged from 54.36 to 72.6% and 66.24 to 84.24% respectively. Hence, further investigation with potential isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 in tobacco nursery may help to explore these bioagents for control of collar rot and damping off diseases in tobacco. PMID:26688972

  17. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane production, and reduced greenhouse gas emission. Overall, the conversion of sugarcane harvest residue to biochar as soil amendment improves sugarcane production for both agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane residue biochar also showed the potential of other environmental use for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  18. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans in sugarcane plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H.D. Cançado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology and ecology of the stable fly, including larval habitats and their reproduction sites is extremely important for further development of control programs. This paper aims to report the occurrence and development of S. calcitrans larvae inside sugarcane stems in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane stems give protection against bad weather conditions and insecticide application. In this way, for sustainable sugarcane growth specific research concerning this situation should be conducted.

  19. Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas / Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo A., Ferreira Junior; José L. de, Souza; Gustavo B., Lyra; Iêdo, Teodoro; Marcos A. dos, Santos; Anthony C. S., Porfirio.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB) é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT) e a es [...] timativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA) interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT). A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto) foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados. Abstract in english Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP) is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint) and the estimated accumulative G [...] P. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR) was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART), which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August) was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

  20. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  1. Species of Phytophthora and Pythium as Nematode-destroying Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Tzean, S.S.; Estey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Pythium monospermum,, P. aphanidermatum, and Phytophthora palmivora were found to be capable of destroying certain nonstylet-bearing nematodes through endozoic parasitism by hyphae from ingested zoospores. Hyphae of P. monospermum parasitized nematode eggs but could not capture or otherwise prey upon living nematodes. We suggest that endoparasitism of free-living nematodes may be common among Oomycetes in nature.

  2. Diversity of the Pythium community infecting crown and roots apple in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souli M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pythium is important in agriculture, since it contains many plantpathogenic species. Little is known about the diversity of Pythium species causing appledicline. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize 21 Pythium isolates collectedfrom root and collar rot apple trees in Tunisia from 2006 through to 2009. The isolateswere characterized morphologically as well as through sequence analyze of the internaltranscribed spacer region (ITS. Three Pythium species were identified in this study P.rostratifingens, P. undulatum and P. sterilum. In virulence assays on excised apple twigsand in the fields, representative isolates of the different Pythium species isolated werepathogenic on the Anna, Lorka and Meski varieties and the MM106 rootstock. Resultsobtained show the great susceptibility of the MM106 rootstock to the infections for thedifferent Pythium species tested.

  3. Pythium cederbergense sp. nov. and related taxa from Pythium clade G associated with the South African indigenous plant Aspalathus linearis (rooibos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramisharif, Amirhossein; Lamprecht, Sandra C; Spies, Christoffel F J; Botha, Wilhelm J; McLeod, Adéle

    2013-01-01

    The genus Pythium consists of more than 120 species and is subdivided into 11 phylogenetic clades (A-K) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence data. Pythium clade G contains only seven known species, with most not being well described. Our study characterized 12 Pythium isolates from Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) that fit into clade G. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS region and a combined phylogeny of four gene regions (ITS, ?-tubulin, COX1 and COX2 [cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II]) identified five clade G subclades. The rooibos isolates formed two groups, Pythium Rooibos I (RB I) and II (RB II), that clustered into two separate clades within subclade 1. The nine Pythium RB I isolates formed a distinct clade from P. iwayamai and is described here as a new species, Pythium cederbergense sp. nov. The three Pythium RB II isolates had P. canariense and P. violae as their closest relatives and were genetically diverse, suggesting the presence of several new species or a species complex that cannot be resolved with the current data, thus precluding a species description of this group. Morphological analyses showed that P. cederbergense and Pythium RB II were indistinguishable from each other but distinct from known clade G species. Clade G studies are being hampered by imprecise morphological descriptions of P. violae, P. canariense and P. iwayamai and each species being represented by only one isolate. The P. cederbergense and Pythium RB II isolates all were nonpathogenic toward rooibos, lupin and oats seedlings. One oligonucleotide was developed for each of P. cederbergense and Pythium RB II, which was able to differentiate the isolates with DNA macro-array analyses. PMID:23709523

  4. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyli Czeczuga; Anna Snarska

    2001-01-01

    Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes) were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds) and every three months (lakes) in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, ...

  5. Trehalose Induces Antagonism towards Pythium debaryanum in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400

    OpenAIRE

    Gaballa, A; Abeysinghe, P. D.; Urich, G; Matthijs, S; de Greve, H.; Cornelis, P.; Koedam, N

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 shows in vitro activity against Pythium debaryanum under conditions of iron limitation. A lacZ reporter gene introduced by transposon mutagenesis into the P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 trehalase gene (treA) was induced by a factor released by the phytopathogen Pythium debaryanum. The induction of the lacZ gene was lost upon treatment of the Pythium supernatant with commercial trehalase. A trehalose concentration as low as 1 microM could induce the expression of ...

  6. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  7. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80%. (author)

  8. Influencia del hábito de crecimiento en la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la caña de azúcar / The influence of the growth habit on the velocity of sugarcane manual harvesting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando, De Sousa-Vieira; Rosaura, Briceño Cárdenas; Ramón, Rea; Alida, Díaz; José, George.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. híbrido) es un cultivo de gran trascendencia en Venezuela. Si bien la cosecha de este rubro tiende a mecanizarse, el corte manual es aún muy importante ya que una significativa proporción del cultivo es cosechado de esa manera. El objetivo de este estudio fue conoce [...] r la influencia del hábito de crecimiento de la planta en la velocidad con que se realiza el corte manual de tallos al momento de la cosecha. El ensayo se realizó en los ciclos de planta y soca, y en cada uno se emplearon cinco trabajadores para cosechar cinco cultivares de caña de azúcar cuyos hábitos variaban desde cañas acamadas hasta cañas erectas. Se empleó un diseño en cuadrado latino 5 x 5 para evaluar el tiempo en que cada trabajador cortaba cada uno de los cultivares y los datos fueron convertidos en tiempo necesario para cosechar una tonelada de caña. Adicionalmente, se midió la dureza del tallo de los diferentes cultivares para tratar de establecer el posible efecto de ese factor en la cosecha manual. Los resultados indicaron que el hábito de crecimiento de la caña de azúcar influye en la velocidad del corte de tallos, es decir, cañas acamadas o con tendencia al acame afectan negativamente la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la planta. No se encontró evidencia de que la dureza del tallo de estos cultivares tenga efecto en la velocidad del corte manual. Abstract in english Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) is a main crop in Venezuela. Even thought there is a trend toward mechanization, manual harvesting remains important due to the fact that a significant proportion of the sugarcane produced is harvested that way. The objective of this study was to determine the exten [...] t in which sugarcane growth habit influences the velocity in which manual harvesting is done. The trial was performed during plant and ratoon cycles, and in each of them, five workers were employed to harvest five sugarcane cultivars whose habits ranged from erect to recumbent. A 5 by 5 Latin Square design was used, and time was recorded for each worker as they cut each of the five cultivars. Data were converted in time needed to harvest a ton of cane. The effect of stalk hardness was also considered. Results indicated that the growth habit of the cultivar influenced the speed in which sugarcane stalks are harvested, so lodged and non-erect stalks are features that negatively affected the velocity of manual harvesting. There was no evidence showing that stalk hardness had any effect on the labor speed.

  9. Sugarcane borer in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is one of the most important of the above-ground pests of sugarcane in Florida. This article presents information pertaining to the borer’s biology, damage to cane, scouting, biological control, cultural control and chemical control. ...

  10. Evaluation of Some Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Extracts for Immunostimulatory and Growth Promoting Effects in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad Awais and Masood Akhtar*

    2012-01-01

    Present paper describes the immunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of some sugar cane extracts (SCEs) in broiler chickens. Aqueous extract (AE) from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) juice and ethanolic extract (EE) from bagasse were used to demonstrate their effects on lymphoproliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) and Concanavalin-A (Con-A); antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs); growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in experimental chickens as com...

  11. A new species of Pythium isolated from burgundian vineyards and its antagonism towards Botrytis cinerea, the causative agent of the grey mould disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bernard

    2004-05-15

    During the course of an investigation on the pythiaceous fungi occurring in burgundian vineyards, three isolates of Pythium were found, all of which were characterised by spherical to lemoniform, proliferating sporangia. Only one out of these three isolates produced sexual characters (S-12) after prolonged incubation, but their asexual structures, temperature growth relationship and molecular characteristics were identical. Saprolegnia-type internal proliferation of the sporangia, and Phytophthora-type lemoniform, papillate sporangia were characteristic of all the three isolates. The type specimen is S-12 which is a medium slow growing saprophyte. The sequence of its ITS region of the rDNA shows a close relationship with the genus Phytophthora. Morphological and molecular characteristics of this isolate justifies its description as a new species: Pythium citrinum. When grown together with Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of the grey mould disease of the grapevine, this new species shows a pronounced antagonism and suppresses its growth. This new species is very close to P. montanum, a recently described fungus and constitutes a "border species" linking the genera Pythium and Phytophthora. Morphological features of this new species, its antagonism with B. cinerea, the sequences of the ITS region of its nuclear ribosomal DNA, and its comparison with related species are discussed. PMID:15135532

  12. Categorizing Sugarcane Cultivar Resistance to the Sugarcane Aphid and Yellow Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a disease that has been added to certifica...

  13. Weather variables, water balance, growth, and agro industrial yield of sugarcane / Variáveis meteorológicas, balanço hídrico, crescimento e produtividade agroindustrial da cana-de-açúcar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IÊDO, TEODORO; JOSÉ, DANTAS NETO; LUCAS A. DE, HOLANDA; GIVALDO D., SAMPAIO NETO; JOSÉ L. DE, SOUZA; GERALDO V. DE S., BARBOSA; GUILHERME B., LYRA.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as variáveis meteorológicas, a deficiência hídrica, o crescimento e a produtividade agroindustrial das variedades de cana-de-açúcar: RB72454, RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003, RB951541 e RB971755, em cultivo de sequeiro, em duas safras, na região d [...] e Rio Largo - AL. As variáveis meteorológicas foram obtidas em uma estação automática, e o balanço hídrico foi feito pelo método de Thornthwaite & Mather. No período da pesquisa, a temperatura do ar variou de 16,6 a 35,9º C. No primeiro ciclo de produção, choveu 1.806 mm, e a cultura evapotranspirou 1.775 mm, e, no segundo ciclo, a precipitação pluvial somou 1.632 mm, e a evapotranspiração da cultura foi 1.290 mm. O excesso hídrico médio dos dois ciclos de produção foi 689 mm; e o déficit hídrico, 665 mm. Ou seja, mesmo resultando em uma precipitação pluvial superior à evapotranspiração da cultura, devido à má distribuição das chuvas, houve deficiência hídrica. A temperatura do ar não foi limitante para o crescimento da cana-de-açúcar. A produtividade agrícola média da cana-planta foi 86,8 t ha-1, em cana-soca foi 75,2 t ha-1, e o rendimento agroindustrial médio foi 12,9 e 10,9 toneladas de açúcar por hectare em cana-planta e cana-soca, respectivamente. As variedades mais produtivas foram a RB93509, a RB92579 e a RB863129. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the meteorological variables, water deficiency, growth, and agro-industrial yield of sugarcane varieties: RB72454, RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003, RB951541, and RB971755, in rainfed crop in two harvests in the Rio Largo-AL region. The meteo [...] rological variables were obtained in an automatic station and water balance was done by Thornthwaite & Mather method. During the study period, the air temperature ranged from 16.6 to 35.9 ºC. In the first production cycle rained 1,806 mm and the crop evapotranspiration was 1,775 mm. In the second cycle, the rainfall totaled 1,632 mm and the crop evapotranspiration was 1,290 mm. The average water excess of two production cycles was 689 mm and the water deficit totaled 665 mm. The average agricultural productivity in the plant was 86.8 t ha-1, in the first ratoon was 75.2 t ha-1 and the agro-industrial yield average was 12.9 and 10.9 tons of sugar per hectare in the plant and first ratoon, respectively. The air temperature was not limiting to the growth of sugarcane and the rainfall was higher than the crop evapotranspiration, but due to poor distribution of the rains there was water deficit. The most productive varieties were RB93509, RB92579, and RB863129.

  14. Metabolic profiling of Zingiber zerumbet following Pythium myriotylum infection: investigations on the defensive role of the principal secondary metabolite, zerumbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, D; Geethu, C; Nair, R Aswati; Pillai, Padmesh

    2014-03-01

    Induced biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites constitutes one of the mechanisms of plant basal innate immunity to fungal infection. Metabolic changes were studied in rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet, a wild congener of ginger, after infection with soft rot-causative necrotrophic phytopathogen, Pythium myriotylum, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Infection triggered a considerable alteration in the relative content of zerumbone and ?-caryophyllene (humulene) with enhancement in zerumbone content (81.59%) and that of ?-caryophyllene (11.91%) compared to 9.97 and 1.11%, respectively, in uninfected rhizomes. While zerumbone is the principal secondary metabolite in Z. zerumbet, ?-caryophyllene is its immediate precursor. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the correlations between metabolite changes in Z. zerumbet rhizomes and P. myriotylum infection. Radial diffusion assay with zerumbone indicated a concentration-dependent P. myriotylum growth inhibition with 93.75% inhibition observed at 700 ?g and 50% maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 206 ?g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the mechanistic basis of zerumbone's antagonistic action on P. myriotylum growth involved the induction of aberrant morphology including severe hyphal deformities and membrane disruption. Results are discussed highlighting the critical role played by sesquiterpenoid zerumbone in affording resistance in Z. zerumbet and could expedite the development of appropriate strategies for biocontrol of Pythium spp., thus reducing the usage of broad-spectrum fungicides. PMID:24414941

  15. Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (?g) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ? underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

  16. The chemoattractant potential of ginsenosides in the ginseng - Pythium irregulare pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dimitre A; Georgakopoulos, Jorge R C; Bernards, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Ginsenosides produced by ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) are mildly fungitoxic saponins; however, exposure of the ginseng root pathogen Pythium irregulare Buisman to ginsenosides enhances its growth in a dose dependent manner, leading to speculation that ginsenosides may function as chemoattractants and/or growth regulators in the context of the ginseng - P. irregulare pathosystem. In the present work, it was demonstrated that the treatment of ginseng plants with a relatively high dose of ginsenosides by dipping their roots into a solution of ginsenosides prior to planting results in delayed infection by P. irregulare in pot experiments, as monitored by non-invasive chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. In an attempt to determine whether this observation results from a protective effect of the ginsenosides, or from a modification of P. irregulare growth habit in response to ginsenosides present in the soil, standard in vitro disk diffusion assays were conducted. Here, exposure of P. irregulare to crude ginsenosides or pure ginsenoside Rb1, resulted in delayed hyphal progression, while enhancing aerial hyphae build-up around ginsenoside-treated disks. By contrast, assays with pure ginsenoside F2 resulted in clear zones of inhibition around treated disks. While it remains unclear whether ginsenosides act as chemoattractants for P. irregulare in vivo, the results here suggest that these saponins serve to alter the growth habit of this organism, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26608666

  17. Modelagem do crescimento de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar no período de formação da cultura / Modeling of growth of sugarcane cultivars during the crop formation period

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evandro L. da S., Batista; Sérgio, Zolnier; Aristides, Ribeiro; Gustavo B., Lyra; Thieres G. F. da, Silva; Davi, Boehringer.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo ajustar modelos de crescimento ao acúmulo de matéria seca da parte aérea da cana-de-açúcar durante o período de formação da cultura, para as cultivares RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 e RB855453. Dados de matéria seca foram obtidos durante a execução de experimento em cond [...] ições de campo entre 26/08/11 e 18/05/12. Os dados experimentais foram coletados a partir dos 45 dias após o plantio, em intervalos de uma ou duas semanas, totalizando 17 datas de amostragem. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear para determinação dos parâmetros dos modelos expolinear, logístico e Gompertz. Todos os modelos avaliados foram capazes de simular adequadamente o acúmulo de matéria seca pelas cultivares ao longo do período estudado, com valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados (R²aj) acima de 0,9245. Com base no modelo de crescimento expolinear, constatou-se que, ao final do período experimental, a massa seca foi ligeiramente maior para a cultivar RB855453 em comparação à RB867515, as quais se destacaram em relação às cultivares RB928064 e RB92579. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to adjust growth models to the above-ground accumulated sugarcane dry matter, during the crop formation period, for cultivars RB92579, RB867515, RB928064 and RB855453. Dry matter data were obtained during the execution of experiment under field conditions from [...] October 26, 2011 to May 18, 2012. Experimental data were collected from 45 days after planting, in one or two week time intervals, totalizing 17 sampling dates. The obtained values were subjected to nonlinear regression analysis in order to determine the parameters of the expolinear, logistic and Gompertz models. All evaluated models were capable of adequately simulating the dry matter accumulation by the cultivars during the studied period, with values of the adjusted determination coefficient above 0.9245. Based on the expolinear growth model, it was observed, at the end of the experimental period, that the accumulated dry mass was stightly superior for the cultivar RB855453 as compared to the RB867515, which outperformed the cultivars RB928064 and RB92579.

  18. Enhancement of development and induction of resistance in tomato plants by the antagonist, Pythium oligandrum

    OpenAIRE

    Le Floch, Gaétan; Rey, Patrice; Déniel, Franck; Benhamou, Nicole; Picard, Karine; Tirilly, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Augmentation du développement et induction de résistance chez des plants de tomate par l'agent antagoniste, Pythium oligandrum. Pour que Pythium oligandrum exerce un contrôle biologique optimal, il doit coloniser et persister dans la rhizosphère des plantes durant toute la saison culturale. La présente étude montre qu'après inoculation du système racinaire par Pythium oligandrum, celui-ci colonise 20 à 40 % des racines de plants de tomate cultivés dans un système hydroponique. La présence con...

  19. Evaluation of Some Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Extracts for Immunostimulatory and Growth Promoting Effects in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Muhammad Awais and Masood Akhtar*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Present paper describes the immunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of some sugar cane extracts (SCEs in broiler chickens. Aqueous extract (AE from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum juice and ethanolic extract (EE from bagasse were used to demonstrate their effects on lymphoproliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P and Concanavalin-A (Con-A; antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs; growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR in experimental chickens as compared to control. Results showed significantly higher (P<0.05 in vitro and in vivo lymphoproliferative responses to Con-A and PHA-P, respectively in chickens administered with SCEs as compared to those in control group. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05 lymphoproliferative responses were detected in chickens administered with EE as compared to chickens administered with AE. Anti-SRBC total Igs, IgG and IgM titers were significantly higher (P<0.05 in chickens of experimental groups administered with SCEs as compared to those of control group; whereas titers were comparable among the experimental groups. The organ-body weight ratios of lymphoid organs were statistically similar in experimental and control groups. Both the experimental groups administered with SCEs showed better FCR and significantly higher (P<0.05 weight gains as compared to control. In conclusion, oral administration of SCEs showed immunostimulatory effects in broiler chickens and resulted in improved feed utilization and decreased amount of food needed for unit gain in body weight.

  20. Multi-temporal observations of sugarcane by terrasar-ximages

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, N.; Todoroff, P.; Rabaute, Th.; Tinel, C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island. Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height. The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop ...

  1. Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum in soilless systems : selection of biocontrol agents and modes of action

    OpenAIRE

    Folman, L.B.

    2003-01-01

    De schimmel Pythium aphanidermatum veroorzaakt wortelrot in o.a. komkommer en is een belangrijke ziekteverwekker in de moderne glastuinbouw. Bestrijdingsmiddelen tegen Pythium zijn verboden. Biologische bestrijding met antagonistische bacteriën is een veelbelovend alternatief. Deze antagonisten moeten actief zijn op die plaatsen op de wortels en stadia van plantengroei wáár en wannéér de ziekteverwekker actief is. In dit onderzoek is geprobeerd een selectiestrategie voor dergelijke bacteriën ...

  2. The Role of Nitrogen Fertilizers in Sugarcane Root Biomass under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Carlos Eduardo Faroni; André Cesar Vitti; Emídio Cantidio Almeida de Oliveira; Renata Alcarde Sermarini; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is used worldwide for sugar, ethanol and energy production. In Brazil, the shift from burned to unburned harvest systems resulted in increases in nitrogen fertilization rates, which can impact root architecture and biomass. The expectation is also an increase in sugarcane biomass. The study hypothesized that high N rates applied to sugarcane fields increases root growth and N stored in roots, promoting higher biomass and N accumulated in shoots. Two experiments ...

  3. The sugarcane-biofuel expansion and dairy farmers' responses in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in São Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a dramatically expanding sugarcane economy. Combining different data sets – semi-structured interviews with 34 farmers and baseline data from all memb...

  4. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Bia?e (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pa?acowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

  5. Mechanism for mercury tolerance in fungi. [Aspergillus niger; Rhizoctonia solani; Pythium ultimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, L.J. Jr.; Amin, J.V.

    1964-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was protected from mercury (Hg) poisoning by sulfhydryl (SH) compounds (glutathione and cysteine) in culture experiments, whereas Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum were not protected. Two- to 30-day-old mycelium of A. niger was found to be more tolerant to Hg than either younger or older mycelia. Mycelia of the other fungi were sensitive regardless of age. Mercury tolerance of A. niger mycelium was altered when sulfur nutrition was modified; it was greater after growth on a substrate containing reduced sulfur than after growth on one containing sulfate. The Hg tolerance of A. niger mycelium appears to be due to a pool of intracellular SH that is free of protein and that protects enzyme systems by forming complexes with Hg as it is taken up by the thallus. Potato-dextrose broth-grown mats of A. niger contained about 100 ..mu..g of SH/g of dry mycelia after 36 hr and after 5 days. R.. solani had about 9 ..mu..g of SH/g of mycelia after 5 days; a measurable amount was not recovered from P. ultimum. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  6. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  7. Evaluation of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Manipur as biocontrol agent against Pythium aphanidermatum on common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Th; Indira, S

    2011-12-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is one of the common causal pathogen of damping-off disease of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Manipur. A total of 110 indigenous Trichoderma isolates obtained from North east India were screened for their biocontrol activity which can inhibit the mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum, the causal organism of damping-off in beans. Out of the total isolates, 32% of them showed strong antagonistic activity against P. aphanidermatum under in vitro condition and subsequently 20 best isolates were selected based on their mycelial inhibition capacity against P. aphanidermatum for further analysis. Different biocontrol mechanisms such as protease, chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase activity, cellulase and production of volatile and non-volatile compounds were also assayed. Based on their relative biocontrol potency, only three indigenous Trichoderma isolates (T73, T80 and T105) were selected for pot culture experiment against damping-off diseases in common beans. In greenhouse experiment, Trichoderma isolates T-105 significantly reduced the pre- and post-emergence damping-off disease incidence under artificial infection with P. aphanidermatum and showed highest disease control percentage. PMID:22558540

  8. In vitro susceptibility of Brazilian Pythium insidiosum isolates to essential oils of some Lamiaceae family species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A O S; Pereira, D I B; Jacob, R G; Maia Filho, F S; Oliveira, D H; Maroneze, B P; Valente, J S S; Osório, L G; Botton, S A; Meireles, M C A

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial action of Origanum vulgare, Origanum majorana, Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis on Pythium insidiosum oomycete zoospores. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 documentation adapted to phytopharmaceuticals. Twenty-two P. insidiosum isolates were evaluated, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined at 100% growth inhibition. All P. insidiosum isolates evaluated showed a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.05 to 1.75 mg/mL when O. vulgare oil was used and from 0.11 to 3.5 mg/mL for O. majorana, M. piperita and R. officinalis oils. The results obtained indicate that the essential oils tested showed antimicrobial activity on P. insidiosum, with O. vulgare essential oil showing the best performance. These findings emphasize the potential use of plant essential oils as control agents in P. insidiosum infections; further research, however, is needed so as the in vivo activity of these oils can also be evaluated. PMID:25431090

  9. Antagonistic Potential of Iranian Native Streptomyces Strains in Biocontrol of Pythium aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium aphanidermatum, the major phytopathogen induce damping off, root and stem rots, blights of grasses and fruit and in greenhouse cucurbits growing all areas of the world. Soil Actinomycetes including 178 isolates were assayed for assessing antagonistic activity against P.aphanidermatum. From tested isolates, 43 isolates were effective but 2 isolates strains 311 and 321 showed high anti-fungal activity revealed by bioassays in agar disk and well diffusion methods. For further biological characterizations, the active strains were grown in submerged cultures to determine growth curve and prepare crude extracts. Preliminary greenhouse studies indicated that amending soil with these strains, 311 and 321; reduce crop losses due to the pathogen. Antifungal activities of both antagonists were of fungicidal type on pathogen with complete inhibitory effects.

  10. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  11. Sugarcane micropropagation using light emitting diodes and adjustment in growth-medium sucrose concentration / Micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar com diodos emissores de luz e ajuste da concentração de sacarose do meio de cultivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Sérgio Gomes da, Rocha; Roberto Pedroso de, Oliveira; Walkyria Bueno, Scivittaro.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de diodos emissores de luz (LEDs) em substituição a lâmpadas fluorescentes brancas e adequar a concentração de sacarose na micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.). Brotações da variedade RB 872552 foram avaliadas nas fases de multiplic [...] ação e enraizamento, utilizando as fontes de luz LEDs azuis, LEDs vermelhos, LEDs verdes, lâmpadas Growlux e lâmpadas fluorescentes brancas, e as concentrações de sacarose de 0, 15, 30 e 45g L-1, fixando-se a intensidade luminosa em 20µmol m-2 s-1. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em fatorial 5x4 (fontes de luz x concentrações de sacarose). O desenvolvimento das brotações foi satisfatório sob os três tipos de LEDs estudados. A presença de sacarose no meio de cultivo foi indispensável para multiplicação e enraizamento das brotações, sendo necessário ajuste da concentração para cada fonte de luz. Os LEDs vermelhos não proporcionaram a maior taxa de multiplicação, porém esta foi bastante alta (8,5 brotos por subcultivo, com adição de 34,9g L-1 de sacarose), com maior comprimento dos brotos (33,3mm) e maior eficiência de aclimatização das plantas. Concluiu-se que os LEDs podem ser utilizados como substitutos das lâmpadas fluorescentes em laboratórios de micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) instead of white fluorescent lamps as light source and adequate growth-medium sucrose concentration for sugarcane micropropagation (Saccharum officinarum L.). Sugarcane (RB 872552 variety) bud explants were evaluated du [...] ring the multiplication and rooting phases under controlled growth-room conditions. Different light sources (blue, red and green LEDs; Growlux and white fluorescent lamps) and different medium sucrose concentrations (0; 15; 30 and 45g L-1) were used, maintaining constant light intensity (20µmol m-2 s-1), photoperiod (16h) and temperature (25+2°C). The experiment was a completely randomized design, and treatments were arranged in a 5x4 factorial (five light sources and four medium sucrose concentrations) with six replications. Sugarcane bud growth was satisfactory under the three LED types studied. The presence of sucrose in growth media was essential for bud multiplication and rooting. Nevertheless, each light source requires the respective medium sucrose concentration adjustment for best results. Red LEDs provided a significantly high multiplication rate (although not the highest) with 8.5 buds per sub-culture and 34.9g L-1 of sucrose; also, the highest bud length (33.3mm) and the best plantlet acclimatization. Therefore, LED sources can advantageously substitute fluorescent lamps in laboratories of sugarcane micropropagation.

  12. Molecular phylogenetics and anti-Pythium activity of endophytes from rhizomes of wild ginger congener, Zingiber zerumbet Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, D; Aswati Nair, R; Prasath, D

    2016-03-01

    Zingiber zerumbet, a perennial rhizomatous herb exhibits remarkable disease resistance as well as a wide range of pharmacological activities. Towards characterizing the endophytic population of Z. zerumbet rhizomes, experiments were carried out during two different growing seasons viz., early-June of 2013 and late-July of 2014. A total of 34 endophytes were isolated and categorized into 11 morphologically distinct groups. Fungi were observed to predominate bacterial species with colonization frequency values ranging from 12.5 to 50 %. Among the 11 endophyte groups isolated, molecular analyses based on ITS/16S rRNA gene sequences identified seven isolate groups as Fusarium solani, two as F. oxysporum and one as the bacterium Rhizobium spp. Phylogenetic tree clustered the ITS sequences from Z. zerumbet endophytes into distinct clades consistent with morphological and sequence analysis. Dual culture assays were carried out to determine antagonistic activity of the isolated endophytes against Pythium myriotylum, an economically significant soil-borne phytopathogen of cultivated ginger. Experiments revealed significant P. myriotylum growth inhibition by F. solani and F. oxysporum isolates with percentage of inhibition (PoI) ranging from 45.17 ± 0.29 to 62.2 ± 2.58 with F. oxysporum exhibiting higher PoI values against P. myriotylum. Using ZzEF8 metabolite extract, concentration-dependent P. myriotylum hyphal growth inhibition was observed following radial diffusion assays. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis wherein exposure to ZzEF8 metabolite extract induced hyphal deformities. Results indicate Z. zerumbet endophytes as promising resources for biologically active compounds and as biocontrol agents for soft rot disease management caused by Pythium spp. PMID:26867602

  13. Combat-Related Pythium aphanidermatum Invasive Wound Infection: Case Report and Discussion of Utility of Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Aaron R; Murray, Clinton K; Driscoll, Ian R; Wickes, Brian L; Wiederhold, Nathan; Sutton, Deanna A; Sanders, Carmita; Mende, Katrin; Enniss, Brent; Feig, James; Ganesan, Anuradha; Rini, Elizabeth A; Vento, Todd J

    2015-06-01

    We describe a 22-year-old soldier with 19% total body surface area burns, polytrauma, and sequence- and culture-confirmed Pythium aphanidermatum wound infection. Antemortem histopathology suggested disseminated Pythium infection, including brain involvement; however, postmortem PCR revealed Cunninghamella elegans, Lichtheimia corymbifera, and Saksenaea vasiformis coinfection. The utility of molecular diagnostics in invasive fungal infections is discussed. PMID:25832301

  14. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  15. Life table studies of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Reproductive and life table parameters for E. lignosellus were examined at nine constant temperatures from 13 to 36 °C with sugarcane as the larval food source. The pre- and postoviposition periods decreased with increasing temperatures and reached their minimums at 33 and 36 °C, respectively. The oviposition period was longest at 27 °C. The mean fecundity, stage-specific survival, stage-specific fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were greatest at 30 °C and decreased with increasing or decreasing temperature. The net reproductive rate was greatest at 27 °C. The Logan-6 model best described the relationship between temperature and intrinsic rate of increase. The generation and population doubling times were longest at 13 and shortest at 33 and 30 °C, respectively. The most favorable temperatures for E. lignosellus population growth were between 27 and 33°C. Life table parameters for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane were greater than for the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on an artificial diet at 30 °C. The intrinsic rates of increase for the sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on sugarcane or corn were the same as for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane at 27 °C, but the net reproductive rate was four times higher for the former than the latter borer species. PMID:22182570

  16. Crescimento e produtividade de cana-de-açúcar em função da disponibilidade hídrica dos Tabuleiros Costeiros de Alagoas / Growth and productivity of sugarcane varieties as affected by water availability in the Coastal Tablelands of the Alagoas State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magno Luiz de, Abreu; Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; Iêdo, Teodoro; Lucas Almeida de, Holanda; Givaldo Dantas, Sampaio Neto.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as interações entre variáveis meteorológicas e os componentes de produção e produtividade de seis variedades de cana-de-açúcar nos Tabuleiros Costeiros de Alagoas visando o manejo varietal adequado. O plantio da cana-de-açúcar foi realizado em setembro de 2005 n [...] a região de Rio Largo (AL) e as três colheitas foram feitas em novembro de 2006, novembro de 2007 e novembro de 2008. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com o tratamento constituído pelas variedades RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003 e RB951541, com quatro repetições. As variáveis de crescimento avaliadas foram número, comprimento e produtividade dos colmos, índice de área foliar e produtividade de açúcar. O balanço hídrico da cultura em média apresentou déficit hídrico de 869 mm nos meses de setembro a março e excesso hídrico de 837 mm nos meses de abril a agosto. A irregularidade das precipitações nos Tabuleiros Costeiros de Alagoas promove respostas diferenciais no desenvolvimento e na produtividade das variedades de cana-de-açúcar nos diferentes ciclos de cultivo. As variedades RB93509 e RB931003 são consideradas as melhores opções para o manejo varietal nessa região. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction among meteorological variables and yield components of six sugarcane varieties and to establish appropriate varietal management at the Coastal Tablelands of the Alagoas State (Brazil). The sugarcane planting was carried out in September 2005, and [...] three cane harvests were made in November 2006, 2007 and 2008. The experimental design was in randomized block with six treatments consisting of the varieties RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003 and RB951541, with four replications. The growth variables evaluated were number and length of stalks, leaf area index, and productivity of stalks and sugar. On average, the crop water balance showed water deficit of 869 mm between September and March and excess of 837 mm from April to August. The irregularity of rainfall in the Coastal Tablelands promoted differential responses in the development and productivity of varieties of sugarcane. Varieties RB93509 and RB931003 are considered options for the varietal management in this region.

  17. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  18. Oligandrin. A Proteinaceous Molecule Produced by the Mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum Induces Resistance to Phytophthora parasitica Infection in Tomato Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Karine; Ponchet, Michel; Blein, Jean-Pierre; Rey, Patrice; Tirilly, Yves; Benhamou, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    A low-molecular weight protein, termed oligandrin, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of the mycoparasitic fungus Pythium oligandrum. When applied to decapitated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Prisca) plants, this protein displayed the ability to induce plant defense reactions that contributed to restrict stem cell invasion by the pathogenic fungus Phytophthora parasitica. According to its N-terminal sequence, low-molecular weight, acidic isoelectric point, ultraviolet spectrum, and migration profile, the P. oligandrum-produced oligandrin was found to share some similarities with several elicitins from other Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. However, oligandrin did not induce hypersensitive reactions. A significant decrease in disease incidence was monitored in oligandrin-treated plants as compared with water-treated plants. Ultrastructural investigations of the infected tomato stem tissues from non-treated plants showed a rapid colonization of all tissues associated with a marked host cell disorganization. In stems from oligandrin-treated plants, restriction of fungal growth to the outermost tissues and decrease in pathogen viability were the main features of the host-pathogen interaction. Invading fungal cells were markedly damaged at a time when the cellulose component of their cell walls was quite well preserved. Host reactions included the plugging of intercellular spaces as well as the occasional formation of wall appositions at sites of potential pathogen entry. In addition, pathogen ingress in the epidermis was associated with the deposition of an electron-opaque material in most invaded intercellular spaces. This material, lining the primary walls, usually extended toward the inside to form deposits that frequently interacted with the wall of invading hyphae. In the absence of fungal challenge, host reactions were not detected. PMID:10982451

  19. The antibiotic activity and mechanisms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse extract against food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-10-15

    Sugarcane bagasse contains natural compositions that can significantly inhibit food-borne pathogens growth. In the present study, the phenolic content in sugarcane bagasse was detected as higher than 4 mg/g dry bagasse, with 470 mg quercetin/g polyphenol. The sugarcane bagasse extract showed bacteriostatic activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salomonella typhimurium. Additionally, the sugarcane bagasse extract can increase the electric conductivity of bacterial cell suspensions causing cellular leaking of electrolytes. Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested the antibacterial mechanism was probably due to the damaged cellular proteins by sugarcane bagasse extract. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the sugarcane bagasse extract might change cell morphology and internal structure. PMID:25952848

  20. Status of the Pythiaceae (Straminipila) in Argentina: I. The GenusPythium / Status de la familia Pythiaceae (Reino Straminipila) en Argentina: I. El género Pythium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hemilse E, Palmucci; Silvia M, Wolcan; Pablo E, Grijalba.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes-ex Oomycetes), Straminipila) incluye patógenos que afectan hospedantes de importancia económica, ocasionando damping off en pre y postemergencia de plántulas de almácigo y el declinamiento de plantas herbáceas y adultas por destrucción de las raíces [...] absorbentes. Con la finalidad de conocer el estado actual de la información disponible sobre este género en Argentina, se llevó a cabo una revisión desde los primeros reportes a fines del siglo XIX hasta octubre de 2009. Se consultaron fuentes primarias y secundarias de información escrita y electrónica: presentaciones en congresos nacionales e internacionales, publicaciones periódicas nacionales e internacionales, boletines de instituciones y universidades, libros y bases de datos. La información obtenida fue categorizada y analizada permitiendo conocer el número de especies de este género, su distribución geográfica y por tipo de cultivos, relaciones hospedante-patógeno involucradas y la sintomatología observada. Se encuentran citadas 18 especies que afectan a 247 hospedantes. Un elevado número de hospedantes fueron afectados por P. ultimum y P. debaryanum, seguidos por P. irregulare y P. aphanidermatum. La diversidad de especies de Pythium en el mundo sugiere que un mayor número de especies podrían estar presentes en el país, siendo necesario su relevamiento e identificación. Abstract in english The genus Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes - ex Oomycetes), Kingdom Straminipila) includes important pathogens, affecting a wide range of hosts of economic value, causing damping-off and decline of herbaceous and wooded plants due to rootlets rot. In order to acquire a more comprehensive visi [...] on of Pythium in Argentina, a review and an updated report of recent progress in this matter was carried out since the first reports in the late XIX century till October 2009. Information was taken from printed and on line primary and secondary sources such as Proceedings of national and international Scientific Meetings, Bulletins from National Institutions and Universities, periodical Journals, books and data bases. The information was analyzed and categorized, thus updating the number of species of this genus, their geographical distribution, hosts affected, and symptoms. So far 18 species have been cited affecting, 247 hosts. The greatest number of hosts is affected by P. ultimum and P. debaryanum, followed by P. irregulare and P. aphanidermatum. The diversity of Pythium species in the world suggests that perhaps a wider variety of species, still not cited, could be present in Argentina. Projects dedicated to surveying the presence and identification of Pythium spp are necessary.

  1. Pythium root rot of common bean: biology and control methods. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin, JP.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium root rot constitutes a highly damaging constraint on the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., grown in several areas of Eastern and Central Africa. Here, this food legume is cultivated intensively under poor conditions of crop rotation due to the exiguity of the land in the region. Yield losses of up to 70% in traditional local bean cultivars have been reported in Kenya and Rwanda. In this study, a detailed analysis of the biology and diversity of the Pythium genus was carried out in order to understand the mechanisms leading to the development of the disease. Various control methods for reducing the damage provoked by this disease were analyzed.

  2. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of sugarcane fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phylogenetic positions of Puccinia spp. infecting sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was determined using 42 newly generated rust sequences and 25 sequences from Genbank. Rust specimens on sugarcane were collected from 161 locations in 25 countries and identified based on light micro...

  4. Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Trindade Leal; Janio Morais Santurio; Adriana Bardemaker Monteiro Leal; Alexandre Machado Pinto; Josiane Griebeler; Eduardo Furtado Flores; Laerte Ferreiro; João Batista Catto

    2002-01-01

    O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados c...

  5. Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Alencar Marques; Eduardo Bagagli; Sandra M. G. Bosco; Rosangela M. P. Camargo; Marques, Mariangela E. A.

    2006-01-01

    A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqü...

  6. Produtividade e qualidade tecnológica da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar submetida à aplicação de biorregulador e fertilizantes líquidos Productivity and technological quality of sugarcane ratoon subject to the application of plant growth regulator and liquid fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a aplicação de biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos, na rebrota e na produtividade da soqueira de cinco genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Município de Jaú, São Paulo (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x5, constituído por cinco genótipos (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 e IACSP93-6006 e cinco tratamentos com biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos (Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1 + Cellerate® a 0,5L ha-1; Etefon a 3,0L ha-1 e Testemunha, com quatro repetições. A aplicação dos produtos ocorreu 70 dias após a quarta colheita. Foram avaliados: perfilhamento, produtividade de colmos industrializáveis e de açúcar, fibra, pol % cana e açúcar total recuperável. O etefon proporcionou melhor perfilhamento, mas a resposta foi dependente do genótipo. O maior número de perfilhos promovido pelo etefon não refletiu em maior produtividade. A aplicação de Stimulate® e fertilizantes líquidos não proporcionou efeitos na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar. Houve aumento da produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, independente do genótipo, com o emprego do biorregulador Stimulate®, com ou sem complementação de fertilizante líquido, indicando a possibilidade do aumento da longevidade da cana-de-açúcar.The present work aimed to evaluate the application of plant growth regulators, associate or not to liquid fertilizers, on the ratoon sprouting and productivity of sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú city (SP, in a Eutroferric Red Latosol. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with factorial treatment structure 5x5, constituted by five genotypes (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 and IACSP93-6006 and five plant growth regulators treatments associated or not to liquid fertilizers (Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1, + Cellerate®, 0,5L ha-1; Ethephon, 3,0L ha-1, and control, with four replicates. The application of the products occurred at 70 days after the fourth crop harvest. The attributes tillering, stalk productivity, sugar productivity, fiber, pol % cane and total sugar recoverable were evaluated. Ethephon provided better tillering, but this response was dependent of the genotype. The highest tiller number caused by Ethephon did not mean the highest productivity. The application of Stimulate® and liquid fertilizers did not provide effects on the sugarcane technological quality. There was increase of cane productivity and sugar productivity with the use of plant growth regulator Stimulate® for all genotypes, with or without supplementation of liquid fertilizer, being an indicative for increasing the sugarcane longevity.

  7. Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício dos Santos Simões

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT, yield (TSS, leaf area index (LAI, and number of plants per linear meter (NPM correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2 window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS. No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3 was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT, produtividade (TSS, índice de área foliar (LAI e número de plantas por metro (NPM por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma área comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronômicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados médios do talhão (DMt. Regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de índices de vegetação. As correlações e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variáveis agronômicas não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Os modelos quadráticos e cúbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variáveis espectrais, em função dos dias após o corte e apresentaram significância com os índices de vegetação da razão e por diferença normalizada (NDVI. As correlações entre os dados espectrais médios do talhão e as variáveis agronômicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados médios do talhão (DMt, para primeira safra (1ªS, para a segunda safra (2ªS e ambas juntas geraram regressões múltiplas, com coeficientes determinação (r² variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar.

  8. Transstadial transmission of Pythium in Bradysia impatiens and lack of adult vectoring capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungus gnats have been shown to transmit a variety of plant pathogenic fungi that produce aerial dispersal stages. However, few studies have examined potential interactions between fungus gnats and oomycetes, including Pythium spp. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if ...

  9. Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper su...

  10. Characterisation and detection of Pythium and Phytophthora species associated with grapevines in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replant and decline diseases of grapevines not only cause quantitative and qualitative yield losses, but also results in extra costs when vineyards have to be replanted. This study investigated the role of Pythium and Phytophthora in the decline syndrome in South Africa by determining the (i) speci...

  11. Avaliação do efeito do estresse hídrico no crescimento de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar usando um sistema automático de fertirrigação / Evaluation of the water stress effect on the growth of sugarcane cultivars using an automatic fertigation system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EVANDRO L. DA S., BATISTA; SÉRGIO, ZOLNIER; ARISTIDES, RIBEIRO; GUSTAVO B., LYRA; THIERES G. F., SILVA; DAVI, BOEHRINGER.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de estresse hídrico no crescimento das cultivares RB92579, RB855453, RB867515 e RB928064, utilizando um sistema automático de controle dos eventos de fertirrigação, durante o período de formação da cana-de- -açúcar. No período e [...] xperimental, as plantas foram submetidas a períodos alternados de estresse e de reposição hídrica, por meio de fertirrigações periódicas, cujos limites do potencial matricial de água (Y) foram aqui denominados, para propósitos comparativos, como ausência de estresse, estresse leve, moderado e severo, respectivamente, para os valores críticos de Y de ?10, ?60, ?90 e ?120 kPa. Para avaliação do efeito do estresse hídrico no crescimento da cana-de-açúcar, foi utilizado o modelo sigmoidal com três parâmetros, tendo graus-dia acumulados como variável independente, o qual demonstrou excelente ajuste aos dados de estatura dos colmos (R2aj > 0,95). Na ausência de estresse hídrico, os valores máximos da taxa de elongação dos colmos (TEC) estiveram compreendidos entre 0,23 e 0,26 cm°Cd-1, independentemente da cultivar. Por outro lado, sob estresse severo, os valores máximos da TEC estiveram entre 0,07 e 0,09 cm°Cd-1, também independentemente da cultivar avaliada. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to identify the effect of different water stress levels on crop growth of RB92579, RB855453, RB867515 and RB928064 cultivars, by using an automatic system to control fertigation events, during the sugarcane formative phase. In the experimental period, plants were s [...] ubjected to alternate periods of stress and water supply, by means of periodic fertigations, whose limits of the water matric potential (Y) were denoted, for comparison purposes, as absence of water stress and mild, moderate and severe water stress, respectively for critical Y values of ?10, ?60, ?90 and ?120 kPa. For evaluation of the water stress effect on the sugarcane growth, it was utilized the sigmoid model with three parameters and degree-days as independent variable, which demonstrated excellent adjust to stalk length (R2aj > 0.95). Under the absence of water stress, the maximum values of the stalk elongation rate (SER) ranged from 0.23 to 0.26 cm°Cd-1, regardless of the cultivar. In contrast, under severe water stress, the maximum SER values were between 0.07 and 0.09 cm°Cd-1, also regardless of the evaluated cultivar.

  12. Life cycle assessment of biofuels from an integrated Brazilian algae-sugarcane biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane ethanol biorefineries in Brazil produce carbon dioxide, electricity and heat as byproducts. These are essential inputs for algae biodiesel production. In this paper, we assessed ethanol's life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use produced in an integrated sugarcane and algae biorefinery where biodiesel replaces petroleum diesel for all agricultural operations. Carbon dioxide from cane juice fermentation is used as the carbon source for algae cultivation, and sugarcane bagasse is the sole source of energy for the entire facility. Glycerin produced from the biodiesel plant is consumed by algae during the mixotrophic growth phase. We assessed the uncertainties through a detailed Monte-Carlo analysis. We found that this integrated system can improve both the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and the fossil energy use of sugarcane ethanol by around 10% and 50%, respectively, compared to a traditional Brazilian sugarcane ethanol distillery. - Highlights: • A high diesel consumption is associated to the ethanol sugarcane life-cycle. • Sugarcane industry can provide sources of carbon and energy for the algae growing. • The sugarcane-algae integration can improve the ethanol life-cycle performance. • This integration is a promising pathway for the deployment of algae biodiesel. • There are still significant techno-economic barriers associated with algae biodiesel

  13. Girassol: emergência e crescimento inicial de plantas sob resíduos de cana-de-açúcar Sunflower: emergence and initial plant growth under sugarcane residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Patrícia Ramos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da palha residual da colheita da cana-de-açúcar e da adição de vinhaça sobre o solo na emergência e no crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (5 x 2 x 3, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, combinando-se cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20t ha-1 com aplicação ou não de 150m³ ha-1 de vinhaça residual da indústria sulcroalcooleira, utilizando-se três cultivares de girassol ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio 358". Foram determinadas a velocidade e a porcentagem final de emergência de plântulas, além do comprimento e da biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da palha de cana-de-açúcar e da vinhaça, em quantidade equivalente a 150m³ ha-1, em ação conjunta ou isolada, reduz a emergência de plântulas e o crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Entretanto, essa redução não compromete drasticamente o desempenho das cultivares ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio-358", que não diferiram entre si.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of soil cover with sugarcane mulch residue combined with vinasse application on seedling emergence and initial growth of sunflower cultivars. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in pots with soil, in randomized complete blocks, with four replications. The treatments, arranged in a 5 x 2 x 3 factorial, consisted of the combination of five quantities of sugarcane mulch residue cover (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20t ha-1 followed by application or not of 150m³ ha-1 of vinasse, on soil planted to the sunflower cultivars 'IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio 358'. The variables studied were seedling emergence speed, final emergence, as well as plant height and dry weight of above ground plant biomass. It is concluded that, under greenhouse conditions, the presence of sugarcane mulch residue in any of the quantities studied, and of vinasse in the quantity of 150m³ ha-1, either isolated or in combination, reduce seedling emergence and hamper the initial growth of sunflower, but this effect is not so drastic to endanger the cultivars development ('IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio-358', that do not differ between them.

  14. Comparación del efecto de osmorreguladores e inhibidores del crecimiento en la conservación in vitro de caña de azúcar / Comparison of effect of osmoregulators and growth inhibitors on in vitro conservation of sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jericó, Bello-Bello; Wilberth, Poot-Poot; Lourdes, Iglesias-Andreu; Humberto, Caamal-Velázquez; María, de la Cruz Diaz-Sanchez.

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de conservación in vitro son una alternativa para preservar el germoplasma de la caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp.) y el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de los osmorreguladores manitol y sorbitol (0, 15, 30 y 45 g L-1) y los inhibidores del crecimiento vegetal ácido abscísic [...] o (ABA) y paclobutrazol (PAC) (0, 1, 2 y 3 mg L-1) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de caña de azúcar. Para ello se usaron brotes in vitro de 2 cm de altura de la variedad Mex-69-290 obtenidos en fase de multiplicación y en todos los casos se empleó el medio MS (Murashige y Skoog). El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con 10 explantes por tratamiento, con los datos se realizó un análisis de varianza (ANDEVA) y una comparación de medias con la prueba de Tukey (p?0.05). A los 180 d de cultivo se evaluó el porcentaje de supervivencia, el número y longitud de los brotes, número de hojas, número y longitud de las raíces. El análisis de los resultados mostró que el aumento en las concentraciones de los osmoreguladores causó una reducción dependiente de la concentración en todas las variables evaluadas. Para los inhibidores, los tratamientos con PAC mantuvieron 100 % de supervivencia, promoviendo el número de brotes por explante. Esto contrastó con los tratamientos con ABA donde disminuyeron las variables evaluadas. La reducción en altura y presencia de brotes axilares observada en los tratamientos con PAC sería de interés para la conservación in vitro, y se concluye que el uso de PAC puede ser una nueva alternativa para la conservación in vitro del germoplasma de esta especie. Abstract in english In vitro conservation systems are an option for preserving sugarcane germplasm (Saccharum sp.). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the osmoregulators manitol and sorbitol (0, 15, 30 and 45 g L-1) and the plant growth inhibitors abscisic acid (ABA) and paclobutrazol (PAC) (0, 1, [...] 2 and 3 mg L-1) on in vitro growth of sugarcane. The plants used were 2 cm tall in vitro shoots of the variety Mex-69-290 obtained in the multiplication phase. In all cases MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium was used. The experimental design was completely random with 10 explants per treatment. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were compared with the Tukey test (p? 0.05). After 180 d of culture, survival percentage, number and length of the shoots, number of leaves, and number and length of roots were assessed. Analysis of the results showed that an increase in concentrations of osmoregulators produced a decrease in all of the variables assessed. For the inhibitors, the PAC treatments maintained 100 % survival and promoted more shoots per explant. This contrasted with the ABA treatments in which the assessed variables decreased. Reduction in height and presence of axillary shoots observed in treatments with PAC may be of interest for in vitro conservation, and, it is concluded that the use of PAC would be a new option for in vitro conservation of sugarcane germplasm.

  15. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and <2% ash content. The results show that it is possible to develop a nonfeed application for rendered animal protein by hydrolysis of the protein and feeding to industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds. PMID:22010831

  16. IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO MEASURE SUGARCANE LEAF AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay B. Patil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the average sugarcane yield per acres with minimum cost farmers are adapting precision farming technique. This paper includes the area measurement of sugarcane leaf based on image processing method which is useful for plants growth monitoring, to analyze fertilizer deficiency and environmental stress,to measure diseases severity. In image processing method leaf area is calculated through pixel number statistic. Unit pixel in the same digital images represent the same size hence from known reference area and pixel count, unit pixel size can calculate, so that it is easy to calculate leaf area by counting total pixel in leaf area region. The results are compared with the results of graphical area measurement method. The experimentally it is proved that image processing method for measuring sugarcane leaf area is accurate and strong practicabilitywith small relative error.

  17. Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício dos Santos Simões

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic parameters such as leaf area index (LAI, number of stalks per meter (NPM, yield (TSS and total biomass (BMT. A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4, Simple Ratio (SR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC. After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3 and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79 with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variáveis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF, número de perfilhos por metro (NPM, produtividade (TCH e biomassa total (BMT. Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talhão comercial, localizada no município de Araras/SP foi monitorado em nove campanhas de coleta de dados radiométricos e agronômicos. O comportamento temporal das variáveis espectrais acompanhou o comportamento das variáveis agronômicas. A banda 4 (B4, o índice de vegetação da razão simples (SR, o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI e o índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo (SAVI aumentaram seus valores até o fim da fase de crescimento vegetativo, aproximadamente até os 240 dias após o corte, a partir do qual os valores se estabilizaram e diminuíram em função da entrada da cultura na fase de maturação. A banda 3 (B3 e o índice de vegetação da razão (RVI tiveram queda em seus valores desde o início do ciclo, com posterior estabilização e aumento em seus valores devido ao aumento da quantidade de palha e da queda da biomassa foliar. As variáveis espectrais B3, RVI, NDVI e SAVI tiveram correlações maiores que 0,79 com as variáveis IAF e BMT e de aproximadamente 0,50 com o NPM. Os melhores modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram os com RVI, IAF e NPM e explicaram 0,97 da variação da TCH e 0,99 da BMT.

  18. Photodynamic Therapy in Pythium insidiosum – An In Vitro Study of the Correlation of Sensitizer Localization and Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Layla; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Baptista, Maurício S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Pythiosis is an infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like organism. Due to the lack of ergosterol on its cell membrane, antibiotic therapy is ineffective. The conventional treatment is surgery, but lesion recurrence is frequent, requiring several resections or limb amputation. Photodynamic therapy uses photo-activation of drugs and has the potential to be an attractive alternative option. The in vitro PDT response on the growing of Pythium insidiosum culture was investiga...

  19. Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugar cane growth was about 257,000 ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 75% and 70% respectively were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugar cane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn2+, Cu2+) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

  20. Surface motility in Pseudomonas sp DSS73 is required for efficient biological containment of the root-pathogenic microfungi Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Koch, Birgit

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. DSS73 was isolated from the rhizoplane of sugar beet seedlings. This strain exhibits antagonism towards the root-pathogenic microfungi Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of the cyclic lipopeptide amphisin in combination with expression of flagella enables the growing bacterial culture to move readily over the surface of laboratory media. Amphisin is a new member of a group of dual-functioning compounds such as tensin, viscosin and viscosinamid that display both biosurfactant and antifungal properties. The ability of DSS73 to efficiently contain root-pathogenic microfungi is shown to arise from amphisin-dependent surface translocation and growth by which the bacterium can lay siege to the fungi. The synergistic effects of surface motility and synthesis of a battery of antifungal compounds efficiently contain and terminate growth of the microfungi.

  1. Sugarcane hybrids of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.J.; Stein, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Agricultural products have the potential for providing a renewable source of both energy and raw materials if they can be grown and harvested at high yield and processed efficiently. This paper presents the results of studies into the agricultural aspects of high yielding sugarcane hybrids. In 1975 several selections were made from among hybrid progenies of a cross between CP 52-68 a standard variety of sugarcane and Tianan 96 a wild clone of Saccharum spontaneum L., collected in Argentina. Yields of over 220 Mg/ha /year have been recorded for 8 years. One selection, L 79-1002, has been the most productive. These clones are high in fiber and low in juice content, and are not suited for conventional sugar production. No significant insect or disease problem has occurred. Yields of 240 Mg/ha have been recorded at St Gabriel, Lousiana (30.4 degrees latitute) in conventional 180 cm rows and 265 Mg/ha at Shreveport, Louisiana (32.1 degrees latitute) in 120 cm rows. In small-scale commercial production no difficulties have been encounteded in harvesting or handling. Milling the excess fiber has resulted in the slowing down of the milling process by about one-third with double the excess bagasse. 5 references.

  2. Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

    From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

  3. Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois reguladores vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte.The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulators, applied before the harvest, in the stool regrowth and productivity of three sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú (SP. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in split-plot, with four repetitions, constituted by the genotypes IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 and IAC91-5155, and by three crop management: 20 g ha-1 sulfomethuron-methyl; 480 g a.i. ha-1 ethephon and control. The growth regulators were applied 126 days before harvest. To quantify the action of growth regulators the following variables were evaluated: the number of tillers m-1 at 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 days after the harvest; the final percentage of stalk number by meter in relation to the initial percentage; the mass of 10 stalks, the length and the diameter of stalks; the pol and the fiber% cane, the reducing and total recoverable sugars, and the productivity of stalks and sugar. It was concluded that there was stimulating effect on the emergency of tillering up to six months after the harvest. The ethephon promoted larger productivities of stalks and sugar. There were differences among genotypes in relation to growth regulators for stalk length. There was no effect on the technological quality over the subsequent ratoon crop.

  4. Experiences with the sugarcane aphid as a pest of sugarcane in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), has been a sporadic but sometimes serious problem on sugarcane in Louisiana since its first discovery in 1999. LSU AgCenter and USDA-ARS scientists have studied aspects of sugarcane aphid management on sugarcane, including pest status, varietal re...

  5. Specific Diversity of Metarhizium Isolates Infecting Aeneolamia spp. (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Sugarcane Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Domínguez, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Carrillo-Benítez, M G; Alatorre-Rosas, R; Rodríguez-Leyva, E; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A

    2016-02-01

    Spittlebugs from the genus Aeneolamia are important pests of sugarcane. Although the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizum anisopliae s.l. for control of this pest is becoming more common in Mexico, fundamental information regarding M. anisopliae in sugarcane plantations is practically non-existent. Using phylogenetic analysis, we determined the specific diversity of Metarhizium spp. infecting adult spittlebugs in sugarcane plantations from four Mexican states. We obtained 29 isolates of M. anisopliae s.str. Haplotype network analysis revealed the existence of eight haplotypes. Eight selected isolates, representing the four Mexican states, were grown at different temperatures in vitro; isolates from Oaxaca achieved the greatest growth followed by isolates from Veracruz, San Luis Potosi and Tabasco. No relationship was found between in vitro growth and haplotype diversity. Our results represent a significant contribution to the better understanding of the ecology of Metarhizum spp. in the sugarcane agroecosystem. PMID:26438409

  6. Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar: II. micronutrientes / Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane: I. Micronutrients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar la dinámica de acumulación y distribución de micronutrientes en el cultivo de caña de azúcar variedad RB 85-5035, se condujo un estudio en Fundacaña, ubicada en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Se realizaron 10 muestreos de la parte aérea de la plan [...] ta a través del ciclo de crecimiento. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas, tomadas al azar con una frecuencia mensual, en una superficie de 0,6 m²/cepa, a las cuales se les determinó la concentración de Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B y Mo en tallos y hojas. Las muestras de tejido fueron analizadas por los laboratorios Land Crop en York, Inglaterra. Se determinó que los períodos críticos de absorción de micronutrientes se ubican en la fase vegetativa y en la etapa de maduración del cultivo. Los micronutrientes Fe, Mn, B y Mo se almacenaron en mayor cantidad en el tejido foliar de la planta, mientras que Cu y Zn se acumularon de forma más pronunciada en los tallos a lo largo del ciclo. Los patrones de acumulación mostraron que los requerimientos de micronutrientes fueron: Fe=5241,5 g·ha-1, Cu=121,1 g·ha-1, Zn=875,6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142,4 g·ha-1, B=116,4 g·ha-1 y Mo=33,4 g·ha-1. Abstract in english With the purpose of determining the dynamics of micronutrient accumulation and partitioning of sugarcane var. RB 85-5035, a trial was conducted in Fundacaña, located in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ten samples of the aerial part of the plant were taken through the growing season, and each sam [...] ple consisted of three stumps, taken at random on a monthly basis in an area of 0.6 m²·cepa-1. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B and Mo on stems and leaves were analyzed by Land Crop Laboratories in York, England. It was determined that the critical periods for micronutrient absorption are found in the vegetative phase and crop ripening. The micronutrients Fe, Mn, B and Mo were stored in greater amounts in the leaf tissue of the plant, while Cu and Zn accumulated more pronounced in the stems during the cycle. The accumulation patterns showed that the crop micronutrient requirements were: Fe=5241.5 g·ha-1, Cu=121.1 g·ha-1, Zn=875.6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142.4 g·ha-1, B=116.4 g·ha-1 and Mo=33.4 g·ha-1.

  7. Converting developing and mature sugarcane carbohydrates into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolz, Carlos; De Leon, Roberto [Biochemical Engineering Center, Research Institute, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (Guatemala)

    2010-10-15

    Experiments were performed employing cane particles obtained from sugarcane at different growth stages until maturation measuring the amount of ethanol produced and the carbohydrate consumption in order to estimate the sugarcane growth stage where both parameters were optimized. Two non-flowering commercial cane varieties NA56 and PR752002 were cultivated and samples taken at different time intervals. Two Saccharomyces cerevisae strains were also compared in the trials. Sucrose was poorly consumed in young cane, which was an unexpected result. Fructose on the other hand was the hexose that remained in the medium at the end of the fermentations specially when using mature sugarcane. There was an increasing trend in ethanol production as a function of days after planting (DAP) as expected; however, a plateau was reached after 225 DAP and the maximum value obtained was between 300 and 325 DAP. When these figures were compared with the corresponding DAP used for sugar production, only 25 days less were needed in the field for maximum ethanol production. On the other hand, it was clear from the data that cane harvesting for ethanol production should not be done after the recommended DAP for commercial sugar production. If this is done, the excess fructose present will not be completely utilized by yeast. Finally, it was observed that the yeast with more affinity for sugarcane fibers showed better ethanol yields in all samples tested. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Physical Properties of Sugarcane Pertaining to the Design of a Whole Stalk Sugarcane Harvester

    OpenAIRE

    Joby Bastian *; , B. Shridar

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane crop plays a vital role in nation’s economy, being one of the most commercialised crops in India. The production cost of sugarcane is increasing year after year which reduces the profit margin of sugarcane growers and sugar industry. Harvesting is one of the key operations responsible for increase in sugarcane production cost. Hence a tractor mounted whole stalk sugarcane harvester suitable for small and medium farmers is highly essential. The physical properties of ...

  9. Surface polysaccharides and quorum sensing are involved in the attachment and survival of Xanthomonas albilineans on sugarcane leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Imene; Daugrois, Jean-Heinrich; Pieretti, Isabelle; Gargani, Daniel; Fleites, Laura A; Noell, Julie; Bonnot, Francois; Gabriel, Dean W; Rott, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas albilineans, the causal agent of sugarcane leaf scald, is a bacterial plant pathogen that is mainly spread by infected cuttings and contaminated harvesting tools. However, some strains of this pathogen are known to be spread by aerial means and are able to colonize the phyllosphere of sugarcane before entering the host plant and causing disease. The objective of this study was to identify the molecular factors involved in the survival or growth of X.?albilineans on sugarcane leaves. We developed a bioassay to test for the attachment of X.?albilineans on sugarcane leaves using tissue-cultured plantlets grown in?vitro. Six mutants of strain XaFL07-1 affected in surface polysaccharide production completely lost their capacity to survive on the sugarcane leaf surface. These mutants produced more biofilm in?vitro and accumulated more cellular poly-?-hydroxybutyrate than the wild-type strain. A mutant affected in the production of small molecules (including potential biosurfactants) synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) attached to the sugarcane leaves as well as the wild-type strain. Surprisingly, the attachment of bacteria on sugarcane leaves varied among mutants of the rpf gene cluster involved in bacterial quorum sensing. Therefore, quorum sensing may affect polysaccharide production, or both polysaccharides and quorum sensing may be involved in the survival or growth of X.?albilineans on sugarcane leaves. PMID:25962850

  10. Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Alexandre Trindade; Santurio Janio Morais; Leal Adriana Bardemaker Monteiro; Pinto Alexandre Machado; Griebeler Josiane; Flores Eduardo Furtado; Ferreiro Laerte; Catto João Batista

    2002-01-01

    O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados c...

  11. The wilt of winter cucumber in south eastern Spain caused by Pythium irregulare

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Vázquez, Julio María; Serrano Alonso, Y.; Melero-Vara, José M.

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Pythium irregulare was isolated from adult cucumber plants with stem base necrosis, wilt or, frequently, that were dead; symptoms were particularly observed in crops grown in winter in plastic-houses in south eastern Spain. Damage was often important because symptoms develop during the fruit harvesting period. Cucumber plants cv. Nevada sown in late September were inoculated at the 4-7 leaf stage (mid October) with a suspension of propagules of P. irregulare isolated from diseased cucumb...

  12. In Vitro Activity of Terbinafine Combined with Caspofungin and Azoles against Pythium insidiosum?

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Maboni, Grazieli; de Azevedo, Maria I.; Argenta, Juliana S.; Daniela I.B. Pereira; Spader, Tatiana B.; ALVES Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

    2009-01-01

    In this text we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activities of terbinafine combined with caspofungin, miconazole, ketoconazole, and fluconazole against 17 Pythium insidiosum strains by using the microdilution checkerboard method. Synergistic interactions were observed with terbinafine combined with caspofungin (41.2% of the strains), fluconazole (41.2%), ketoconazole (29.4%), and miconazole (11.8%). No antagonistic effects were observed. The combination of terbinafine plus caspofungin or ter...

  13. Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Pythium insidiosum in horses with pythiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, L.; Nicholson, V; Prescott, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    Reactions to Pythium insidiosum by sera from horses with active pythiosis were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Five strains of P. insidiosum were grown in nutrient broth and then sonicated. After centrifugation, supernatant antigens were separated by SDS-PAGE. An exoantigen of Conidiobolus coronatus was also tested. Bands with molecular weights between 97,000 and 14,000 were identified by Coomassie blue and silver staini...

  14. Potential of Epicoccum purpurascens Strain 5615 AUMC as a Biocontrol Agent of Pythium irregulare Root Rot in Three Leguminous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutb, Mostafa; Ali, Esam H

    2010-12-01

    Epicoccum purpurascens stain 5615 AUMC was investigated for its biocontrol activity against root rot disease caused by Pythium irregulare. E. purpurascens greenhouse pathogenicity tests using three leguminous plants indicated that the fungus was nonpathogenic under the test conditions. The germination rate of the three species of legume seeds treated with a E. purpurascens homogenate increased significantly compared with the seeds infested with P. irregulare. No root rot symptoms were observed on seeds treated with E. purpurascens, and seedlings appeared more vigorous when compared with the non-treated control. A significant increase in seedling growth parameters (seedling length and fresh and dry weights) was observed in seedlings treated with E. purpurascens compared to pathogen-treated seedlings. Pre-treating the seeds with the bioagent fungus was more efficient for protecting seeds against the root rot disease caused by P. irregulare than waiting for disease dispersal before intervention. To determine whether E. purpurascens produced known anti-fungal compounds, an acetone extract of the fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The extract revealed a high percentage of the cinnamic acid derivative (trimethylsiloxy) cinnamic acid methyl ester. The E. purpurascens isolate grew more rapidly than the P. irregulare pathogen in a dual culture on potato dextrose agar nutrient medium, although the two fungi grew similarly when cultured separately. This result may indicate antagonism via antibiosis or competition. PMID:23956668

  15. Development of new formulations of Bacillus subtilis for management of tomato damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraj, J.; Radhakrishnan, N.V.; Kannan, R.; Sakthivel, K.; Suganya, D.; Venkatesan, S.; Velazhahan, R. [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B (Canada). Dept. of Biological Science

    2005-02-15

    Formulations of a strain of Bacillus subtilis AUBS-1 inhibitory to the growth of the damping-off pathogen, Pythium aphanidermatum, were developed for seed treatment. The formulations included a talc-based powder, lignite-based powder, lignite + fly ash-based powder, wettable powder, bentonite-paste, polyethylene glycol (PEG) paste and a water-dispersible tablet. Formulations were stored at room temperature for 2 years and frequently sampled to test their shelf life. Populations of bacteria in the formulations were stable for up to 2 years storage at room temperature (28{degree}C). Viability of propagules in lignite, lignite + fly ash, bentonite paste, wettable powder and water dispersible tablet formulations was 100% for up to 1 year. However, the viability of propagules was significantly reduced in talc, wettable powder, PEG paste and tablet formulations beyond 1 year of storage. Seed treatment of tomato with these formulations resulted in effective control of damping-off caused by P. aphanidermatum, and also enhanced plant biomass under glasshouse and field conditions. Active rhizosphere colonization by the bacterium was observed on tomato plants grown from seeds treated with the above formulations.

  16. Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil / Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Alencar, Marques; Eduardo, Bagagli; Sandra M. G., Bosco; Rosangela M. P., Camargo; Mariangela E. A., Marques.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio [...] de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqüências de P. insidiosum depositadas no GenBank. Abstract in english Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism, Pythium insidiosum, pathogenic to men and animals. A patient with a phagedenic ulcer on the leg is reported. Histopathological examination was suggestive of zygomycosis, response to antifungal drugs was poor and cure was obtained by means of wi [...] de surgical excision. Etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing of colonies isolated in Sabouraud agar. After BLAST analysis, the sequence showed 100% identity with those of P. insidiosum deposited on the GenBank.

  17. Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqüências de P. insidiosum depositadas no GenBank.Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism, Pythium insidiosum, pathogenic to men and animals. A patient with a phagedenic ulcer on the leg is reported. Histopathological examination was suggestive of zygomycosis, response to antifungal drugs was poor and cure was obtained by means of wide surgical excision. Etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing of colonies isolated in Sabouraud agar. After BLAST analysis, the sequence showed 100% identity with those of P. insidiosum deposited on the GenBank.

  18. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  19. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre, E-mail: furtado@ige.unicamp.b [Department of Science and Technology Policy-DPCT, Institute of Geosciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil); Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne, E-mail: mirnags31@globo.co [Bioethanol Science and Technology Center-CTBE, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto, E-mail: cortez@agr.com.b [School of Agriculture (FEAGRI), University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: {yields} The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. {yields} Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. {yields} Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. {yields} Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  20. Development and yield of sugarcane after application of plant growth regulators in the midle of crop season/ Desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar após aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    Full Text Available The supply of technological quality raw material for providing economical return is the most important necessity of sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane stalks due to plant regulators application at half crop. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators of the class of the growth retainers (Ethephon, Ehyl-trinexapac, Potassium nitrate, Potassium nitrate + Boron application and a control (natural ripening. Ethyl-trinexapac and Ethephon treatments were efficient to hold up growth process regarding height of plants, but had no effect on diameter of stalks. The maintenance of bud top integrity made possible the increase in diameter of stalks, without interrupting the growth process regarding height of plants. According to application time the ripeners provided improvement on technological quality of raw material. The ripeners did not affect the number of plants per meter at harvest and did not cause alterations int the amount mass of stalks per hectare. The ripeners did not affect the regrowth of the ratoon cane. O fornecimento de matéria-prima de qualidade tecnológica que garanta retorno econômico é uma das maiores necessidades da indústria sucroalcooleira. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar decorrente da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no meio da safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram utilizados cinco tratamentos constituídos pela aplicação dos reguladores vegetais da classe dos retardantes de crescimento etefon e etil-trinexapac, e de KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. O etil-trinexapac e o etefon atuaram de forma eficiente em retardar o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas de cana-de-açúcar, sem ocasionar alterações no diâmetro dos colmos. A manutenção da integridade da gema apical possibilitou o incremento no diâmetro dos colmos sem interromper o crescimento em altura das plantas. Os maturadores propiciaram, conforme a época de aplicação, melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. Ainda, não afetaram o número de colmos na colheita, não produziram alterações quantitativas na massa de colmos por hectare, e não afetaram a rebrora da soqueira da cana-de-açúcar.

  1. Categorizing sugarcane cultivar resistance to the sugarcane aphid and yellow sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, W; Showler, A T; Reagan, T E; White, W H

    2010-08-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a casual agent of yellow leaf disease whose absence has been added to certification standards for micropropagated sugarcane in Louisiana. Greenhouse studies were conducted to categorize dominant commercial sugarcane cultivars for their ability to tolerate aphid injury and to express antixenotic or antibiotic effects on both aphid species. Antixenosis tests showed no preference among cultivars by either aphid species. Loss of chlorophyll content in tolerance tests also did not show differences among cultivars for both aphid species. However, antibiosis tests revealed that life history parameters such as the duration of the reproductive period and fecundity of both aphid species were negatively affected on 'HoCP 91-555' compared with 'L 97-128'. Estimation of demographic statistics indicated that both aphid species exhibited a significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (1.8-2.8-fold) and longer doubling time (1.7-3.1-fold) on HoCP 91-555 relative to L 97-128. From these tests, cultivars in the current study can be ranked from most to the least susceptible as L 97-128 > 'LCP 85-384' > 'HoCP 96-540' > 'Ho 95-988' > HoCP 91-555 for M. sacchari and L 97-128 > LCP 85-384 > HoCP 91-555 for S. flava. Therefore, antibiosis is an important category of resistance in sugarcane to both aphid species, and HoCP 91-555 might provide useful germplasm for developing aphid resistant cultivars. PMID:20857758

  2. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain sorghum fields using an airborne multi-spectral imaging system was sensitive to injury to sorghum plants caused by sugarcane aphid. PMID:26470276

  3. Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. as influenced by alcohol by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454, cultivadas simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1 no solo dos vasos (22 L, contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações, e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar.This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp., cultivated simultaneously under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v of each by-product and the check treatment (water were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1 to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height, and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and flegmass reduced B. decumbens emergence and growth and S. rhombifolia growth but did not affect sugarcane growth.

  4. Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.121 Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas em relação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0 g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas podendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be the best substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 times greater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass and phycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.

  5. Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production = Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be thebest substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 timesgreater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass andphycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas emrelação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinaspodendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.

  6. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of sugarcane proteins involved in thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane has gained worldwide interest due to its potential to produce ethanol as an alternative energy source. 2 Therefore, it is of general interest to study the physiological and biochemical aspects of sugarcane, especially those involved in stress tolerance, which may be important to understand survival during exposure to high temperatures. In plants, sHsps rank among the most important heat shock proteins expressed during heat stress. They can accumulate up to 1% in leaves and are correlated with the acquisition of thermotolerance. In this context, the study of sHsps proteins may lead to strategies for increasing sugarcane survival and fitness, allowing for its growth in regions where sugarcane has not been produced before. (author)

  7. Effect of silicon soil amendment on performance of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, J K; Stout, M J; Blouin, D C; Datnoff, L E

    2013-12-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a pest of graminaceous crops in the southern USA, including sugarcane, maize, and rice. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) soil amendments on performance of sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis, on two rice cultivars, Cocodrie and XL723. There was a significant increase in the Si content of rice plants supplemented with calcium silicate as compared to non-treated plants. Soil Si amendment led to lower relative growth rates (RGRs) and reduced boring success of sugarcane borer larvae. Effects of soil Si amendments on borer success and RGR appeared to be more pronounced in 'Cocodrie', the cultivar relatively susceptible to borers, than in the moderately resistant cultivar, XL723. Soil Si amendment may contribute to the management of D. saccharalis through reduced feeding injury and increased exposure to adverse environmental conditions and natural enemies arising from reduced boring success. PMID:23830057

  8. Efficacy of Antifungal Metabolites of Bacillus spp. for Controlling Tomato Damping-off Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warin INTANA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4 strains of bacteria were isolated from the leaf surface of the rambutan using a tissue transplanting technique. They were characterized, by a dual culture test, for their efficacy to inhibit mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of the damping-off on tomato. All 4 strains significantly inhibited mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA at room temperature (27 °C. B-NST-02 and B-NST-03 gave values of inhibition of 62.0 % and   57.5 %, respectively. All strains were identified as Bacillus spp. Antifungal metabolites extracted from all 4 strains were tested at 1,000 mg/l. Tomato seedlings treated in the laboratory with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 showed germination of 85.5 % and 82.0 %, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, seedling treated with metabolites from B-NST-03 and B-NST-02 provided seed germination rates were 92.5 % and 92.0 %, respectively, while the controls treated with either sterile water or 2 % methanol had only 28.0 % and 26.5 % seed germination rates, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from 4 strains of Bacillus spp. showed no visible growth, while the control with sterile water or 2 % methanol, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered the whole surface of the PDA in the Petri dish within 5 days.

  9. Mutation Breeding in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)

  10. Crecimiento y acumulación de prolina en dos genotipos de caña de azúcar sometidos a salinización con cloruro de sodio Growth and proline accumulation in two sugarcane genotypes under sodium cloride salinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M García

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron en condiciones de cobertizo, dos genotipos de caña de azúcar con respuesta diferencial ante las sales: PR692176 (tolerante y V78-1 (sensible, a fin de obtener información sobre las causas de ese comportamiento diferencial. Las plantas crecieron en un sustrato artificial (arena irrigado con solución nutritiva y cuando tuvieron dos meses de edad se iniciaron los riegos con solución nutritiva a la que se añadió cloruro de sodio (100 mM. Se determinaron algunos componentes del crecimiento y la acumulación de prolina en raíces y en hojas de diferentes edades. La salinización con NaCl tuvo efecto negativo sobre el crecimiento de ambos genotipos, pero en el genotipo resistente el área foliar, peso seco de raíces y la relación peso seco del sistema radical/peso seco del sistema aéreo, se redujeron menos. La acumulación de prolina aumentó en las plantas salinizadas, especialmente en raíces y en las vainas foliares, siendo ese incremento mayor para el genotipo sensible, excepto en la lámina foliar de la hoja más recientemente expandida (hoja TVD.Two sugarcane genotypes differing in salinity response were evaluated: PR692176 (salt tolerant and V78-1 (salt sensitive, in order to get information about the causes of that differential behavior. The plants grew in an artificial substrate (sand irrigated with nutrient solution and after two months they were subjected to salinization with sodium chloride (100 mM. Some growth parameters and proline accumulation in roots and leaves of different ages were studied. Sodium chloride salinization affected the growth in both genotypes, however, the leaf area, root dry weight and root dry weight/shoot dry weigh ratio were less reducted in the resistant genotype. Proline accumulation was increased in response to salinization, mainly in roots and sheaths. Proline accumulation in the plants under salinization was greater in the sensitive genotype than in the resistant genotype, except in the blade of the leaf forming the top visible dew lap (TVD leaf.

  11. Crecimiento y acumulación de prolina en dos genotipos de caña de azúcar sometidos a salinización con cloruro de sodio / Growth and proline accumulation in two sugarcane genotypes under sodium cloride salinization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, García; E, Medina.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron en condiciones de cobertizo, dos genotipos de caña de azúcar con respuesta diferencial ante las sales: PR692176 (tolerante) y V78-1 (sensible), a fin de obtener información sobre las causas de ese comportamiento diferencial. Las plantas crecieron en un sustrato artificial (arena) irriga [...] do con solución nutritiva y cuando tuvieron dos meses de edad se iniciaron los riegos con solución nutritiva a la que se añadió cloruro de sodio (100 mM). Se determinaron algunos componentes del crecimiento y la acumulación de prolina en raíces y en hojas de diferentes edades. La salinización con NaCl tuvo efecto negativo sobre el crecimiento de ambos genotipos, pero en el genotipo resistente el área foliar, peso seco de raíces y la relación peso seco del sistema radical/peso seco del sistema aéreo, se redujeron menos. La acumulación de prolina aumentó en las plantas salinizadas, especialmente en raíces y en las vainas foliares, siendo ese incremento mayor para el genotipo sensible, excepto en la lámina foliar de la hoja más recientemente expandida (hoja TVD). Abstract in english Two sugarcane genotypes differing in salinity response were evaluated: PR692176 (salt tolerant) and V78-1 (salt sensitive), in order to get information about the causes of that differential behavior. The plants grew in an artificial substrate (sand) irrigated with nutrient solution and after two mon [...] ths they were subjected to salinization with sodium chloride (100 mM). Some growth parameters and proline accumulation in roots and leaves of different ages were studied. Sodium chloride salinization affected the growth in both genotypes, however, the leaf area, root dry weight and root dry weight/shoot dry weigh ratio were less reducted in the resistant genotype. Proline accumulation was increased in response to salinization, mainly in roots and sheaths. Proline accumulation in the plants under salinization was greater in the sensitive genotype than in the resistant genotype, except in the blade of the leaf forming the top visible dew lap (TVD leaf).

  12. A new mycoparasite, Pythium lycopersicum, isolated in Isparta, Turkey: morphology, molecular characteristics, and its antagonism with phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gürsel; Tepedelen, Güliz; Belghouthi, Afef; Paul, Bernard

    2008-11-01

    Pythium lycopersicum sp. nov. has been isolated from soil samples taken in an agricultural land in the Isparta region of Southern Turkey. This oomycete is characterized by its contiguous sporangia having globose to elongated elements linked with hyphal filaments, ornamented oogonia, and monoclinous antheridia with large antheridial cells. The oomycete is reminiscent of Pythium ornamentatum described by the corresponding author in 1987 from soil samples taken in Algeria. Sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA show a close relationship with Pythium oligandrum and other mycoparasites possessing ornamented oogonia. Morphological and molecular features of this isolate justify its description as a new species: P. lycopersicum. When grown together with Botrytis cinerea, this oomycete shows a pronounced antagonism and suppresses the phytopathogen. The morphological details, together with the analysis of the ITS region of its rRNA, and its antagonism with some phytopathogens are discussed in this article. PMID:18795956

  13. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO?3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO?3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO?3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m?2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m?2 rather H-78-3567 (15 kg·m?2 and H-87-4319 (20 kg·m?2 appeared to produce more accumulated carbon in both soil types.

  14. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the potential to detect the impact of climatic effects, such as frost, on crop growth, which is relevant information to evaluate the negative impact on sugarcane production. Thus, the objective of the present study is to detect the impact of the frost occurred on 28 June 2011 in the sugarcane production region of São Paulo state, using MODIS images acquired on board of Terra and Aqua satellites before and after the frost event. Also, Landsat type images were used to map the harvested sugarcane fields up to the frost event based on a sugarcane crop map for year 2011. The remaining sugarcane fields available for harvest in 2011 were monitored with the MODIS images acquired on 17, 19, 27, 28 June and 8 and 9 July, to detect frost damage. Field work was conducted shortly after frost occurrence to identify sugarcane fields with frost damage for training and validation purposes. MODIS images transformed to vegetation indices and morphometric variables extracted from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data are being analyzed to detect and quantify the damage of the frost from 28 July 2011 on sugarcane crop.

  15. Effect of Potassium Damping-off (Pythium sp and Rhizoctonia solani) and Cold Tolerance on Tobacco Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNGÖR, Özlem

    1998-01-01

    Effect of Potassium on damping off tobacco caused by Pythium sp and Rhizoctonia solani were investigated by giving 10, 20, 30 kg/da (5, 10, 15 ppm) K2SO4 as K2O base and pathogen inoculum at the same time at green house experiments. Potassium application did not present disease development at all three rates, but at the rate of 20 kg/da K2O there were a slight seedling cover of 13,75% and 3,75% for Pythium sp. and R.solani especially. Potassium at the rate of 10 kg/da prevented cold shock of...

  16. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  17. Soil Compaction Assessment in Sugarcane Fields under Different Planting Conditions Using Soil Bulk Density, Relative Bulk Density and Cone Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Veisitabar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering soil compaction problem in sugarcane fields due to using heavy harvester and haulout equipment under unsuitable moisture conditions, this research aims to assess soil compaction in sugarcane fields located in Da'balKhazaei Plantation unitofSugarcane Development and By-product Company, Ahvaz. Undisturbed soil samples from the furrow (wheel tracks were collected for measuring soil water content and bulk density. Considering the changes in soil texture of sugarcane fields, for expressing the degree of soilcompactness, in addition to soil bulk density (BD, relative bulk density (BD divided by reference BD was also determined. The change in soil mechanical resistance with depth was determined by a cone penetrometer. Results showed that most of soil BD values measured in the sugarcane fields were in the range of small root development scale (high limitation. Comparingthe calculated RBD values with optimum value (0.85, it was observed that most of the values were higher than the optimum values recommended for root growth. This shows excessivesoil compaction in the sugarcane fields. The values of cone indices measured in soil profiles indicated that most of the values were higher than either limiting (2 MPa or critical (3 MPa values for root growth. Therefore, for improving soil physical fertility and achieving sustainability in crop production, management of farm machinery traffic in sugarcane fields, especially at the harvest time, needs to be reconsidered.

  18. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  19. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Andre Tosi [Department of Science and Technology Policy - DPCT, Institute of Geosciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil); Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne Gaya [Bioethanol Science and Technology Center - CTBE, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [School of Agriculture (FEAGRI), University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. (author)

  20. Podredumbre basal de plantas adultas de tomate causada por Pythium aphanidermatum (Oomycota)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo E, Grijalba; Raul L, Zapata; Hemilse E, Palmucci; Claudio, Baron.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En raíces de plantas adultas de tomate se observó una lesión castaña de aspecto húmedo, que se extendía 2-4 cm por encima del suelo. Las plantas atacadas se marchitaron y murieron. El objetivo del trabajo fue aislar e identificar al organismo causal de esta sintomatología. Se usaron medios de cultiv [...] os generales y selectivos. A las 24 horas desarrollaron colonias con micelio blanco algodonoso. Se evaluó la morfología de la colonia y la producción, morfología y dimensiones de estructuras reproductivas. El rDNA del micelio de un aislamiento fue extraído de cultivos puros con 7-10 días de crecimiento en medios agarizados. La región ITS se amplificó usando primers ITS4 e ITS5, se secuenció y comparó en banco de genes del servidor BLAST- NCBI para verificar su similitud con las secuencias tipo u holotipo disponibles. Al microscopio se observó micelio cenocítico, esporangios esfericos-globulados y oosporas apleroticas característicos del género Pythium. Se efectuaron pruebas de patogenicidad con resultados positivos reaislándose un microorganismo de características idénticas. La caracterización lograda por las técnicas tradicionales, los estudios moleculares y el resultado de las pruebas de patogenicidad permiten concluir que Pythium aphanidermatum es el causante de la Podredumbre basal de plantas adultas de Tomate. Abstract in english In roots of adult tomato plants a wet and brown lesion, extending 2-4 cm above the soil was observed. Diseased plants withered and died. The objective of this paper was to isolate and to identify the causal organism of these symptoms. General and selective culture media were used. After 24 hours col [...] onies with white cottony mycelium were developed. The morphology of the colony and the production, morphology and size of reproductive structures were evaluated. The rDNA extraction was made from mycelium of pure cultures 7-10 days old grown in agarized media. The ITS region was amplified using ITS4 and ITS5 primers, sequenced and compared in gene bank - NCBI BLAST server to verify their sequence similarity to the type or holotype available. Coenocytic mycelium, spherical-globular sporangium and aplerotic oospores, characteristic of the genus Pythium were observed in microscopic slides. Pathogenicity tests were conducted with positive results; a microorganism identical to the original was re-isolated. The characterization achieved by traditional techniques, molecular studies and the results of the pathogenicity tests support the conclusion that Pythium aphanidermatum is the causal agent of basal rot on mature plants of tomato.

  1. Micafungin alone and in combination therapy with deferasirox against Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, R A; Jesus, F P K; Pilotto, M B; Weiblen, C; Pötter, L; Ferreiro, L; Alves, S H; Santurio, J M

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of micafungin alone and in combination with the iron chelator deferasirox against Pythium insidiosum. Micafungin showed a poor in vitro activity when it was used alone, but synergistic interactions were observed for 88.2% of the strains when the drug was combined with deferasirox. Smaller lesions were observed in infected rabbits receiving the combination therapy, although it favored disease dissemination to the lungs. The present results show that micafungin alone is ineffective against P. insidiosum, and the combination micafungin-deferasirox might have deleterious effects for the host. PMID:25459680

  2. Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

  3. Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar. I. macronutrientes / Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane. I. Macronutrients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar el crecimiento y patrones de acumulación de macronutrientes en una variedad de caña de azúcar y contribuir con el manejo racional de su fertilización se evaluó en un tablón plantado con la variedad RB 85-5035, en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. La eva [...] luación consistió en realizar diez muestreos de la parte aérea de la planta con frecuencia mensual a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas o “macollas”, tomadas al azar en una superficie de 0,6 m2 por cepa, y se determinó en tallos y hojas el contenido de materia seca y la concentración de macronutrientes. En los meses 11 y 12 se tomaron muestreos adicionales para determinar el contenido final de materia seca. Hacia el final del ciclo la planta acumuló 43,7 t·ha-1 de biomasa aérea, con un 75,1 % correspondiente a tallos y el restante a tejido foliar. La acumulación de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y S a los 300 días después del corte (ddc) fue de 201,4; 43,2; 149,0; 112,7; 71,1 y 71,6 kg·ha-1, respectivamente. El nitrógeno se acumuló principalmente en las hojas durante una buena parte del ciclo pero al final fue transportado mayoritariamente hacia los tallos; se detectaron dos períodos críticos de absorción, el primero de los cuales abarcó las etapas de macollamiento y crecimiento en la fase vegetativa, y el segundo en la etapa de maduración de la fase reproductiva. Los nutrientes P, K, Mg y S se distribuyeron proporcionalmente en hojas y tallos durante la mayor parte del ciclo del cultivo, pero se diferenciaron radicalmente a partir del día 251 ddc, momento en que la acumulación se dirigió fundamentalmente hacia el tallo. El calcio se almacenó principalmente en las hojas pero al final del ciclo se revirtió la tendencia y los tallos superaron moderadamente a las hojas. Se detectó que durante los cuatro primeros meses del ciclo el cultivo había producido solamente el 16,5 % de su biomasa seca, pero había acumulado entre 20 y 40 % de los macronutrientes, lo cual sugiere la necesidad de su suministro desde las primeras etapas del cultivo. Abstract in english With the purpose of assessing the growth and macronutrient accumulation patterns of the sugar cane plant and promote a rational fertilization management of the crop, an evaluation was carried out in a plot cropped with the RB 85-5035 variety, in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. The trial consiste [...] d on taking ten monthly samplings of the aerial portion of the plant, along the whole crop cycle. Each sample consisted of three stumps, taken at random in a surface of 0.6 m2 per stump, and dry biomass content and macronutrient concentrations were determined on both leaves and stalks. In the months 11 and 12, additional samples were taken to determine the final dry biomass. At the end of cycle the crop accumulated 43.7 t·ha-1 dry biomass, with 75.1 % corresponding to the stalks and the remaining to the leaves. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S at 300 days after cutting (dac) was 201,4; 43,2; 149,0; 112,7; 71,1 y 71,6 kg·ha-1, respectively. Nitrogen accumulated mainly in leaves during a good part of the cycle but at the end the nutrient was mainly translocated to the stems; it were found two critical periods of absorption, the first of which covered the stages of tillering and vegetative growth phase, and the second one was located at the stage of maturation of the reproductive phase. The nutrients P, K, Mg and S were proportionally distributed in leaves and stems for most of the crop cycle, but differed dramatically from 251 dac, when the accumulation was directed mainly towards the stem. Calcium was stored mainly in the leaves but at the end of the cycle the trend was reversed and the nutrient in the stems moderately exceeded that in the leaves. It was found that for the first four months of the plant growth the crop had produced just 16,5 % of its total biomass, but it had accumulated between 20 and 40 % of the macronutrients, which suggests the needs of their supply since the initial

  4. Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de Castro; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Miguel Ângelo Mutton

    2014-01-01

    The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N) fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira,...

  5. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest; biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduce risks of groundwater contamination, eutrophication of surface waters, soil pollution, and acidifi...

  6. Sugarcane cropping and cattle husbandry integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taube-Netto, Miguel; Pinto, Luis Franco de Campos; Castaneda-Ayarza, Juan; Cortez, Luis Augusto B.

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian proposal to replace 5% of gasoline worldwide, mathematical programming and simulation of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, modeling scenario of sugar cane and beef production in Brazil, mathematical modelling of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production, modelling variables and constraints, objective function, optimized results of sugarcane-bioethanol and beef production in Brazil, and further potential applications.

  7. Performance of sugarcane somaclones under different irrigation and fertilizers doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro grown plantlets (somaclones) were regenerated through callus culture. Selected somaclone along with parent were tested under different fertilizer and irrigation levels for agronomic and qualitative traits of parent/clones. Maximum plant height, and internodes (plant-1) was observed in NIA-98 somaclone. The tillers (plant-1), weight plant-1, cane yield, sucrose and purity were greater in AEC82-1026 somaclone and maximum stem girth was obtained in BL4 somaclone from the combination of 150-80-100 NPK (kg ha-1) with 25 irrigations during the growing season. It was concluded that the application of 150-80-100 kg NPK ha-1 and 25 irrigations during the growth period of sugarcane were efficient for achieving better agronomic and qualitative traits of sugarcane somaclones. (author)

  8. Control of Chinese-kale damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum by antifungal metabolites of Trichoderma virens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiradej Chamswarng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven strains of Trichoderma virens were isolated from Chinese-kale planting soil in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Efficacy of those isolates to inhibit mycelial growth and overgrow on mycelia ofPythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of damping-off on Chinese-kale, were determined by a dual culture test. All strains significantly inhibited growth and overgrew on mycelia of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA as compared with the control. Strains T-NST-01, T-NST-05 and T-NST-07 gave high values of inhibition by 85.5, 82.5 and 78.5%, respectively. For efficacy to overgrow on mycelia of pathogen test, strains T-NST-05, T-NST-07 and T-NST-01 provided 48.3, 47.0 and 46.1% of mycelial overgrowth, respectively. Antifungal metabolites were extracted from three promising strains and tested against mycelial growth and sporangium production of P. aphanidermatum. The results showed that 1,000 mg/L of all metabolites completely inhibited mycelial growth and sporangium production. Under laboratory condition, all metabolites (1,000 mg/L significantly increased the number of Chinese-kale seedling germination, especially the metabolites from T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 provided germination of 92.5 and 87.5%, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, Chinese-kale seedlings treated with 1,000 mg/L of metabolites from strains T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 survived by 90.5 and 87.5%, respectively, while the control 1 (sterile water and control 2 (2% methanol had 19.0 and 18.5% of survived seedlings, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from three strains of T. virens showed no visible growth, while the control with 2% methanol or sterile water, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered whole surface of PDA in of the Petri dish within 4 days.

  9. Influence of Pythium oligandrum Biocontrol on Fungal and Oomycete Population Dynamics in the Rhizosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Jessica; Le Floch, Gaétan; Déniel, Franck; Barbier, Georges; Lévesque, C. André; Rey, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Fungal and oomycete populations and their dynamics were investigated following the introduction of the biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum into the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in soilless culture. Three strains of P. oligandrum were selected on the basis of their ability to form oospores (resting structures) and to produce tryptamine (an auxin-like compound) and oligandrin (a glycoprotein elicitor). Real-time PCR and plate counting demonstrated the persistence of large amounts of the antagonistic oomycete in the rhizosphere throughout the cropping season (April to September). Inter-simple-sequence-repeat analysis of the P. oligandrum strains collected from root samples at the end of the cropping season showed that among the three strains used for inoculation, the one producing the smallest amount of oospores was detected at 90%. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis revealed increases in the number of members and the complexity of the fungal community over time. There were no significant differences between the microbial ecosystems inoculated with P. oligandrum and those that were not treated, except for a reduction of Pythium dissotocum (ubiquitous tomato root minor pathogen) populations in inoculated systems during the last 3 months of culture. These findings raise interesting issues concerning the use of P. oligandrum strains producing elicitor and auxin molecules for plant protection and the development of biocontrol. PMID:19447961

  10. Simple detection of Pythium irregulare using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenzhuo; Ishiguro, Yasushi; Hotta, Keisuke; Watanabe, Hideki; Suga, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Koji

    2015-11-01

    Pythium irregulare is an important soil-borne pathogen that causes seed, stem and root rot, and seedling damping-off in various crops. Here, we have developed a rapid and reliable approach for detecting the pathogen using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in combination with primers designed from the sequences of the P. irregulare ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. The specificity of the primers for P. irregulare was tested using 50 isolates of 40 Pythium species, 11 Phytophthora isolates and 8 isolates of 7 other soil-borne pathogens. The assay showed that the limit of sensitivity of the LAMP method was 100 fg of pure DNA, a similar level to that of a polymerase chain reaction. LAMP detected P. irregulare from the supernatant after mixing culture medium (template DNA source) with distilled water. Similarly, positive results were obtained using a 'Plant-LAMP' method applied to a suspension rotted roots in water. A 'Bait-LAMP' method using the supernatant of autoclaved perilla seeds incubated in a soil/water mixture for 1 week at 25°C successfully detected P. irregulare from the soil. The LAMP assay described in this study is therefore a simple and effective way for practical detection of P. irregulare. PMID:26394643

  11. Lack of Pythium aphanidermatum transmission by adult fungus gnats (Bradysia impatiens) and investigation of larval vectoring capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have provided evidence for transmission of plant pathogens by greenhouse-inhabiting fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). The goal of this study was to determine if fungus gnats are vectors of Pythium aphanidermatum. In the first of a series of laboratory experiment, 10 adult gnats were released i...

  12. Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

  13. In Vitro Activities of Voriconazole, Itraconazole, and Terbinafine Alone or in Combination against Pythium insidiosum Isolates from Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Argenta, Juliana S.; Santurio, Janio M.; ALVES Sydney H.; Daniela I.B. Pereira; Cavalheiro, Ayrton S.; Spanamberg, Andréia; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine against 30 clinical isolates of Pythium insidiosum using a checkerboard macrodilution method. The combined activity of terbinafine plus itraconazole or plus voriconazole was synergic against 17% of the strains. Antagonism was not observed.

  14. Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

  15. Cyclic lipopeptide surfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 is not required for suppression of complex Pythium spp. populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, zoosporicidal activity and control of Pythium intermedium by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 was attributed, in part, to the production of the cyclic lipopeptide surfactant massetolide A. In the current study, capacity of SS101 and its surfactant-deficient mutant strain 10.24 to sup...

  16. Isolation of cellulolytic bacteria from the intestine of Diatraea saccharalis larvae and evaluation of their capacity to degrade sugarcane biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantur, Karina I; Enrique, Ramón; Welin, Björn; Castagnaro, Atilio P

    2015-01-01

    As a strategy to find efficient lignocellulose degrading enzymes/microorganisms for sugarcane biomass pretreatment purposes, 118 culturable bacterial strains were isolated from intestines of sugarcane-fed larvae of the moth Diatraea saccharalis. All strains were tested for cellulolytic activity using soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degrading assays or by growing bacteria on sugarcane biomass as sole carbon sources. Out of the 118 strains isolated thirty eight were found to possess cellulose degrading activity and phylogenetic studies of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed that all cellulolytic strains belonged to the phyla ?-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Within the three phyla, species belonging to five different genera were identified (Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Microbacterium, Bacillus and Enterococcus). Bacterial growth on sugarcane biomass as well as extracellular endo-glucanase activity induced on soluble cellulose was found to be highest in species belonging to genera Bacillus and Klebsiella. Good cellulolytic activity correlated with high extracellular protein concentrations. In addition, scanning microscopy studies revealed attachment of cellulolytic strains to different sugarcane substrates. The results of this study indicate the possibility to find efficient cellulose degrading enzymes and microorganisms from intestines of insect larvae feeding on sugarcane and their possible application in industrial processing of sugarcane biomass such as second generation biofuel production. PMID:25852992

  17. Florescimento em cana-de-açúcar Flowering in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilaine Araldi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O florescimento da cana-de-açúcar é um processo fisiológico complexo formado por vários estádios de desenvolvimento, e cada estádio tem a sua própria necessidade ambiental e fisiológica. Os fatores externos relacionados com o florescimento são: fotoperíodo, temperatura, umidade e radiação solar, além da fertilidade do solo. Por outro lado, os fatores internos envolvem fitocromo, hormônios, florígeno, ácidos nucleicos, dentre outros. A intensidade do processo de florescimento e as consequências na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar variam com a variedade e com o clima. A redução do volume de caldo é o principal fator no qual o florescimento interfere, resultante do aumento do teor de fibras. Como as demais Poaceae, a cana-de-açúcar floresce, frutifica e morre, garantindo a perpetuação da espécie. Dessa forma, o homem procura interferir na natureza tentando evitar o florescimento da cana-de-açúcar, seja por meio de melhoramento genético ou por meio de reguladores vegetais. Em áreas comerciais de produção de cana-de-açúcar, onde há condições ideais para o florescimento da cultura, é recomendado o uso de variedade com potencial menos florífero. E, quando não é possível esse manejo varietal, o uso de inibidores do florescimento é a melhor alternativa para evitar mais perdas no conteúdo de sacarose.The sugarcane flowering is a complex physiological process that consists of several stages of development, each stage has its physiological and environmental requisition. The external factors related to flowering are: photoperiod, temperature, humidity, solar radiation in addition to soil fertility. Already the internal factors involved are: phytochrome, hormones, florigene, nucleic acids, among others. The intensity of the flowering and the consequences on the quality of sugarcane vary with the variety and the climate. The reduction of the sugarcane juice is the main factor which affected by the flowering, resulting from due to the increased fiber content. As other Poaceae, the sugarcane flowers, fruit and dies, ensuring the perpetuation of the species. Thus, the man tries to interfere in nature, trying to prevent the flowering sugarcane, either through breeding or through plant growth regulators. In areas of sugarcane commercial production, where there are ideal conditions for the flowering culture, it is recommended the se of variety with lower potential of flowering. And when this varietal management is more difficult, the use of inhibitors of flowering is the best alternative to avoid more losses of sucrose content.

  18. Florescimento em cana-de-açúcar / Flowering in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosilaine, Araldi; Ferdinando Marcos Lima, Silva; Elizabeth Orika, Ono; João Domingues, Rodrigues.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O florescimento da cana-de-açúcar é um processo fisiológico complexo formado por vários estádios de desenvolvimento, e cada estádio tem a sua própria necessidade ambiental e fisiológica. Os fatores externos relacionados com o florescimento são: fotoperíodo, temperatura, umidade e radiação solar, alé [...] m da fertilidade do solo. Por outro lado, os fatores internos envolvem fitocromo, hormônios, florígeno, ácidos nucleicos, dentre outros. A intensidade do processo de florescimento e as consequências na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar variam com a variedade e com o clima. A redução do volume de caldo é o principal fator no qual o florescimento interfere, resultante do aumento do teor de fibras. Como as demais Poaceae, a cana-de-açúcar floresce, frutifica e morre, garantindo a perpetuação da espécie. Dessa forma, o homem procura interferir na natureza tentando evitar o florescimento da cana-de-açúcar, seja por meio de melhoramento genético ou por meio de reguladores vegetais. Em áreas comerciais de produção de cana-de-açúcar, onde há condições ideais para o florescimento da cultura, é recomendado o uso de variedade com potencial menos florífero. E, quando não é possível esse manejo varietal, o uso de inibidores do florescimento é a melhor alternativa para evitar mais perdas no conteúdo de sacarose. Abstract in english The sugarcane flowering is a complex physiological process that consists of several stages of development, each stage has its physiological and environmental requisition. The external factors related to flowering are: photoperiod, temperature, humidity, solar radiation in addition to soil fertility. [...] Already the internal factors involved are: phytochrome, hormones, florigene, nucleic acids, among others. The intensity of the flowering and the consequences on the quality of sugarcane vary with the variety and the climate. The reduction of the sugarcane juice is the main factor which affected by the flowering, resulting from due to the increased fiber content. As other Poaceae, the sugarcane flowers, fruit and dies, ensuring the perpetuation of the species. Thus, the man tries to interfere in nature, trying to prevent the flowering sugarcane, either through breeding or through plant growth regulators. In areas of sugarcane commercial production, where there are ideal conditions for the flowering culture, it is recommended the se of variety with lower potential of flowering. And when this varietal management is more difficult, the use of inhibitors of flowering is the best alternative to avoid more losses of sucrose content.

  19. Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased leaves, percentage severity were measured. Growth and yield parameters such as stalk length, number of leaves, number of tillers and yield parameters such as fresh and dry shoot weights, percentage dry matter at harvest were also measured. Analysis of variance showed that percentage severity of sugarcane mosaic disease, increased in non-weeded plots compared with weeded plots. Twice weeding (52.1% and the weed free plots (53.7% had the significantly lowest severities. Varietal influence significantly influenced severity and variety NCO-270 produced the significantly lowest severity (45.8%.The interaction of weeding regime and variety indicated that variety CB36411 in the weed free plots, produced the lowest severity (33.5%.Yield parameters showed that significantly highest shoot weight was recorded in the weed free plot, while variety NCO-270 gave the highest fresh and dry shoot weights (254.8g and 50.2g respectively. The results indicate that variety NCO-270 was the most tolerant and that weeding at least once in six months is required to mitigate the effect of sugarcane mosaic disease, as witnessed in significantly increased growth and yield attributes of plants in the weeded plots.

  20. Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Trindade Leal

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados com antígeno macerado de micélio (AMM associado a três adjuvantes. Grupo I: hidróxido de alumínio; grupo II: adjuvante de Freund; grupo III: óleo mineral e grupo IV: água destilada -controle. Os tratamentos foram avaliados a diferentes intervalos, quanto à capacidade de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas específicas da classe G, através da técnica de ELISA. Na fase 1, os animais receberam três doses do imunógeno (dias zero, 14 e 28 e foram avaliados sorologicamente nos dias 14, 21, 28 e 35. Nessa fase, os adjuvantes oleosos (GII e III induziram níveis de anticorpos estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos nos grupos I e IV. Durante a fase 2 (dias 42 a 120, cada grupo foi subdividido em dois; sendo um subgrupo mantido em tratamento (imunizações adicionais nos dias 42, 56, 68 e 82 e o outro tendo o tratamento interrompido após a 3ª dose (dia 28. Nos subgrupos mantidos em tratamento, os níveis de anticorpos dos grupos imunizados com adjuvantes foram estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos no grupo GIV (controle. Nos coelhos com tratamento interrompido, os grupos I, II e III apresentaram manutenção nos níveis de IgG e foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo controle, que apresentou declínio nos níveis de anticorpos. Os resultados demonstraram a capacidade dos adjuvantes testados em potencializar e prolongar a resposta humoral aos antígenos do P. insidiosum. O uso de adjuvantes associado aos atuais imunógenos pode aumentar os índices de cura em eqüinos submetidos à imunoterapia, assim como viabilizar sua utilização como preventivo.Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic fungi living in flooded areas which can infect humans and animals. Natural infection in these species results in clinical pythiosis, a granulomatous disease of difficult treatment. Immunotherapy with antigens obtained from cultures of the agent is a promising alternative therapy. In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvants in the immunologic response to P. insidiosum antigens, 24 rabbits were assigned to four groups and immunized with mycelian mass antigen with each of there adjuvants. Group I: aluminum hydroxide; group II: Freund’s adjuvant; group III: mineral oil and group IV: distilled water-control. The effects of the adjavants were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-pythium imunoglobulin G (IgG produced by the immunized rabbits at different time-points after immunization, using an ELISA test. During phase 1, the animals were immunized three times (days zero, 14 and 28 and serologically tested at days 14, 21, 28 and 35. The oil adjuvants (groups II and III were statistically superior to groups I and IV. During phase 2 (from day 42 to 120 each group was subdivided in two, with one subgroup having additional immunizations at days 42, 56, 68 and 82 and the other having the treatment interrupted. Among the rabbits with continued immunizations, groups I, II and III (adjuvants had statistically higher IgG levels than GIV. Among rabbits with interrupted treatment, GI, GII and presented stable IgG levels and were statistically superior to the control group, that presented decrease in the levels. These results demonstrated that the adjuvants were capable of inducing stronger and longer imunologic responses (IgG to P. insidiosum antigens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants associated with P. insidiosum antigens may increase the recovery rates obtained through immunotherapy.

  1. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  2. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  3. Biochemical genetic markers in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaszmann, J C; Fautret, A; Noyer, J L; Feldmann, P; Lanaud, C

    1989-10-01

    Isozyme variation was used to identify biochemical markers of potential utility in sugarcane genetics and breeding. Electrophoretic polymorphism was surveyed for nine enzymes among 39 wild and noble sugarcane clones, belonging to the species most closely related to modern varieties. Up to 114 distinct bands showing presence versus absence type of variation were revealed and used for qualitative characterization of the materials. Multivariate analysis of the data isolated the Erianthus clone sampled and separated the Saccharum spontaneum clones from the S. robustum and S. officinarum clones; the latter two were not differentiated from one another. The analysis of self-progenies of a 2n=112 S. spontaneum and of a commercial variety showed examples of mono- and polyfactorial segregations. Within the progeny of the variety, co-segregation of two isozymes frequent in S. spontaneum led to them being assigned to a single chromosome initially contributed by a S. spontaneum donor. This illustrates how combined survey of ancestral species and segregation analysis in modern breeding materials should permit using the lack of interspecific cross-over to establish linkage groups in a sugarcane genome. PMID:24225682

  4. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcarde André Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and may influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated; yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%.

  5. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia

    2003-12-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  6. Evaluation of aphid resistance among sugarcane cultivars in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane, interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). Five sugarcane cultivars, LCP 85-384, HoCP 91-555, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540, and L 97-128, rep...

  7. Interação de imazapic no sistema integrado palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida e vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca / Interaction of imazapic in the integrated system using sugarcane mulch residue, herbicide and vinasse on purple nutsedge growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C.S.S., Novo; R., Victoria Filho; F.M., Langbeck; A.A., Lago; R., Deuber; G.S., Rolim.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da interação palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida imazapic e diferentes meios de aplicação de vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e em vasos dispostos em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, sendo [...] avaliados os tratamentos: controle; apenas palha; apenas vinhaça; apenas o herbicida imazapic; palha + vinhaça; palha + herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; e palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura. O imazapic foi aplicado na dose de 122,5 g ha-1 e, no tratamento onde a vinhaça foi aplicada em mistura com o herbicida, este foi diluído com água até ¼ do volume necessário e completado com vinhaça. O imazapic foi eficiente no controle da tiririca quando comparado com a testemunha. A aplicação isolada da vinhaça ou a adição de apenas a palha ao solo estimularam o crescimento da tiririca embora tenha reduzido a viabilidade dos tubérculos. Nos tratamentos sem palha, não houve diferença no crescimento da tiririca, quando a aplicação de vinhaça foi realizada antes ou depois do imazapic, sendo observado controle da espécie. Entretanto, quando em mistura com a vinhaça, o produto não controlou a tiririca. A presença da palha no tratamento onde foi aplicada vinhaça antes do herbicida reduziu a ação do imazapic, em comparação com aquele sem palha. O número de brotações e a altura média de plantas de tiririca foram maiores nos tratamentos com palha quando foi aplicado imazapic depois ou mesmo junto com a vinhaça. Sob palha, a aplicação de vinhaça após o herbicida ou em mistura com imazapic aumentou apenas o número de brotações. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to evaluate sugarcane mulch residue, imazapic and vinasse application interaction on the initial development of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). A greenhouse experiment was set up using pots filled with soil, arranged in a randomized complete blocks design, with [...] four replications, with the following treatments: check; straw alone; vinasse alone; imazapic alone; straw + vinasse; straw + herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied before the herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied together; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; and straw + herbicide + vinasse applied together. Imazapic was applied at the rate of 122.5 g ha-1 and in the treatment in which vinasse was applied mixed with the herbicide, this compound was diluted in water until ¼ of the volume needed, the remaining volume being completed with vinasse. Imazapic was efficient for purple nutsedge control when compared to the check. Application of vinasse alone or straw alone stimulated the growth of this weed, though tuber viability was reduced. In the treatments without straw there was no difference in purple nutsedge development when vinasse was applied before or after imazapic, though control of this weed species was attained. However, when mixed with vinasse, the herbicide did not control the weed. The presence of straw in the treatment in which vinasse was applied before imazapic reduced the action of this weed killer when compared with the treatment without straw. The number of sprouts and height of the purple nutsedge plants were enhanced by the treatments with straw when imazapic was applied after or even mixed with vinasse. Only the number of sprouts increased when vinasse was applied after or mixed with the herbicide in soil covered with straw.

  8. Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

  9. Biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber with a combined application of Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8 and chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, J.; Stevens, L. H.; Wiegers, G.L.; Davelaar, E.; Nijhuis, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., causing root and crown rot in cucumber, was successfully managed by Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8. Greenhouse experiments were performed with cucumber plants grown in rockwool blocks up to 5 weeks with a recirculated nutrient solution. Application of L. enzymogenes 3.1T8 in combination with chitosan (the deacetylated derivative of chitin) reduced the number of diseased plants by 50–100% in four independent experiments relative to the Pythium contro...

  10. Influência da densidade do solo infestado por nematoide no desenvolvimento inicial de cana-de-açúcar / Influence of density of soil infested with nematode on initial growth of sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmem C. M. de, Sousa; Elvira M. R., Pedrosa; Mario M., Rolim; João V., Pereira Filho; Marcela A. L. M. de, Souza.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Em áreas cultivadas com cana-de-açúcar no Nordeste do Brasil, a compactação do solo e a presença de altas densidades populacionais de nematoides, principalmente Meloidogyne spp. restringem severamente a produtividade agrícola. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis de [...] densidade do solo infestado por nematoides da espécie M. incognita no desenvolvimento inicial da cana-de-açúcar, variedade RB 863129, em condições de casa de vegetação. As avaliações, realizadas 90 dias após a infestação do solo, se fundamentaram na altura da planta, diâmetro do colmo, número de folhas, biomassa fresca das raízes, biomassa fresca e biomassa seca da parte aérea, número de ovos do nematoide por grama de raiz. O aumento dos níveis de compactação do solo de 1,65 para 1,82 kg dm-3 proporcionou redução na multiplicação de M. incognita e aumento no comprimento do colmo da cana-de-açúcar mas não afetou as outras variáveis de desenvolvimento da planta. Abstract in english In cultivated areas of sugarcane in Northeastern Brazil, soil compaction and infestation of nematodes, mainly Meloidogyne spp., severely restrict crop production. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of four levels of density of soil infested with nematodes of the species M. incognita in t [...] he early development of sugarcane variety RB 863129 in greenhouse conditions. Evaluations were carried out 90 days after soil infestation, based on plant height, stalk diameter, number of leaves, root and shoot fresh biomass, shoot dry biomass and number of nematode eggs. The increase in soil compaction level from 1.65 to 1.82 kg dm-3 decreased M. incognita reproduction and increased sugarcane stalk length, but it did not affect the other plant development variables.

  11. Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) / Seletividade de herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar para imaturos de Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.N., Oliveira; M.R., Antigo; G.A., Carvalho; D.F., Glaeser.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas são frequentemente utilizados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Entretanto, o uso de compostos não seletivos pode prejudicar a eficiência de insetos benéficos no manejo integrado de pragas. Nesse contexto, avaliou-se o efeito desses produtos sobre as fas [...] es imaturas do parasitoide Trichogramma galloi. Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis contendo o parasitoide no período de ovo-larva e nas fases de pré-pupa e pupa foram imersos em caldas dos produtos avaliados (doses máximas recomendadas para a cana-de-açúcar), sendo eles: os herbicidas clomazone e diuron+hexazinone e os reguladores de crescimento de plantas sulfometuron-methyl e trinexapac-ethyl. As características biológicas avaliadas foram a emergência (gerações F1 e F2) e o número de ovos parasitados por T. galloi (F1). Os produtos foram classificados, conforme percentual de redução da emergência e parasitismo, em: inócuo (99%). Os compostos avaliados foram classificados como inócuos ou levemente prejudiciais aos imaturos de T. galloi e, por isso, devem ser preferidos, visando à preservação dessa espécie de parasitoide em programas de manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products o [...] n the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test solutions of the following pesticides (maximum recommended doses for sugarcane): herbicides clomazone and diuron + hexazinone, and plant growth regulators trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl. The biological properties evaluated were emergence (F1 and F2) and number of eggs parasitized by T. galloi (F1). The products were classified according to percentage of reduction in emergence and parasitism: harmless (99%). The pesticides evaluated were considered to be harmless or slightly harmful to immature T. galloi and, thus, their use should be preferred for preserving this parasitoid species in sugarcane management programs.

  12. Biofiltration kinetics of ethylacetate and xylene using sugarcane bagasse based biofilter

    OpenAIRE

    saravanan Viswanathan; Rajasimman Manivasagam; Rajamohan Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and xylene in a sugarcane bagasse biofilter were investigated. Microbial growth rate, biochemical reaction rate and kinetic analysis were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of xylene in the inlet concentration range of 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and ...

  13. Tvbgn3, a beta-1,6-glucanase from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens, is involved in mycoparasitism and control of Pythium ultimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djonovi?, Slavica; Pozo, Maria J; Kenerley, Charles M

    2006-12-01

    Even though beta-1,6-glucanases have been purified from several filamentous fungi, the physiological function has not been conclusively established for any species. In the present study, the role of Tvbgn3, a beta-1,6-glucanase from Trichoderma virens, was examined by comparison of wild-type (WT) and transformant strains in which Tvbgn3 was disrupted (GKO) or constitutively overexpressed (GOE). Gene expression analysis revealed induction of Tvbgn3 in the presence of host fungal cell walls, indicating regulation during mycoparasitism. Indeed, while deletion or overexpression of Tvbgn3 had no evident effect on growth and development, GOE and GKO strains showed an enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to inhibit the growth of the plant pathogen Pythium ultimum compared to results with the WT. The relevance of this activity in the biocontrol ability of T. virens was confirmed in plant bioassays. Deletion of the gene resulted in levels of disease protection that were significantly reduced from WT levels, while GOE strains showed a significantly increased biocontrol capability. These results demonstrate the involvement of beta-1,6-glucanase in mycoparasitism and its relevance in the biocontrol activity of T. virens, opening a new avenue for biotechnological applications. PMID:16997978

  14. In vitro incorporation of 1-14C sodium acetate and U-14C-L-serine into lipids by Pythium irregulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation differential incorporation of 1-14C acetate and U-14C-L-serine into phospholipids as a function of time at different stages of growth of Pythium irregulare has been studied. Incorporation studies with 1-14C acetate in P. irregulare at two stages of growth indicated that there was an increase both in specific activity and percent incorporation in mycelium, total lipids and phospholipid upto 4 hr. The specific activity in various phosphatides increased upto four hours of incubation but the relative percent incorporation into these fractions was the same at all the periods of incubation. This indicates that the turnover of different phosphatides is not changed during the 4 hr of incubation. Equilibrium with 1-14C acetate into nonpolar lipid was observed with 2 hr of incubation. Presence of choline stimulated the incorporation of U-14C-L-serine into phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidyl choline, while methionine inhibited the uptake of labelled carbon from serine into phosphatides. (auth.)

  15. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Danielle Virginio da Silva; Elisangela de Jesus Cândido; Priscila Vaz de Arruda; Silvio Silvério da Silva; Maria das Graças Almeida Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with diff...

  16. Study on Bt Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms in the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose response and growth inhibition of Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, were evaluated with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the Cry1Ab-resistant strain was estimated to be >80- and 45-fold greater than that of...

  17. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  18. In vitro activity of carvacrol and thymol combined with antifungals or antibacterials against Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, F P K; Ferreiro, L; Bizzi, K S; Loreto, É S; Pilotto, M B; Ludwig, A; Alves, S H; Zanette, R A; Santurio, J M

    2015-06-01

    We describe the in vitro activities of the combinations of carvacrol and thymol with antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tigecycline) and antifungal agents (amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole and terbinafine) against 23 isolates of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The assays were based on the M38-A2 technique and checkerboard microdilution. Based on the mean FICI values, the main synergies observed were combinations of carvacrol+itraconazole and thymol+itraconazole (96%), thymol+clarithromycin (92%), carvacrol+clarithromycin (88%), thymol+minocycline (84%), carvacrol+minocycline (80%), carvacrol+azithromycin (76%), thymol+azithromycin (68%), carvacrol+tigecycline (64%) and thymol+tigecycline (60%). In conclusion, we found that combinations of carvacrol or thymol with these antimicrobial agents might provide effective alternative treatments for cutaneous pythiosis due to their synergistic interactions. Future in vivo experiments are needed to elucidate the safety and therapeutic potential of these combinations. PMID:25639921

  19. Determination of Site Specific Fertilizer Requirement of Sugarcane and Intercrops in Sugarcane-based Cropping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Bokhtiar; M.L. Kabir; Alam, M. J.; Alam, M. M.; Rahman, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    The site-specific nutrient requirement of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and companion crops, viz. onion (Allium cipa) and lentil (Lens culinaris) in sugarcane based cropping systems field experiments was determined under two Agro-ecological zones (AEZ), namely High Barind Tract (AEZ 26) and Tista Meander Floodplain soils (AEZ 3). The application of fertilizers for sugarcane and intercrops, onion and lentil as per soil test basis followed by dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) significantl...

  20. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Glaucia Mendes Souza; Ana Carolina Quirino Simoes; Katia Cristina Oliveira; Humberto Miguel Garay; Leonardo Costa Fiorini; Felipe dos Santos Gomes; Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior; Aline Maria da Silva

    2001-01-01

    EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br) that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue (h...

  1. Cultivation of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ítalo Thiago Silveira Rocha, Matos; Luciana Araújo, Cassa-Barbosa; Pedro Queiroz Costa, Neto; Spartaco Astolfi, Filho.

    2012-01-15

    Full Text Available Background: The yeast strain IB09 was isolated from the gut of Calosoma sp. (Carabidae, Coleoptera, Insecta) that were collected in the central Amazon rainforest. First, tolerance of the strain to ethanol and heat was tested. Then, IB09 was cultivated in a medium using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulos [...] ic hydrolyzate as a carbon source, and cell growth (OD600), specific growth rate (µMAX, h-1), biomass yield (Y B, g.g-1) and relative sugar consumption (RSC, %) were evaluated. Taxonomic identification was determined by sequencing the ITS1 region of IB09 and comparing it to sequences obtained from the GenBank database (NCBI). Results: IB09 showed both ethanol tolerance and thermotolerance. Relative sugar consumption indicated that IB09 was able to perform saccharification of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, increasing the total reducing sugar concentration by approximately 50%. The ?MAX value obtained was 0,20, indicating that cell growth was slow under the assessed conditions. Biomass yield was 0,701 g per g of consumed sugar, which is relatively high when compared with other findings in the literature. After 120 hrs of cultivation, 80,1% of total reducing sugar had been consumed. Sequencing of the ITS1 region identified IB09 as Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans. Conclusion: This is the first report to document this species in the central Amazon rainforest at this host. Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans has great biotechnological potential for use in the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and for biomass production with this substrate as carbon source.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

  3. Investigations on Sugarcane De-Trashing Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joby Bastian, B. Shridar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is the second most important industrial crop in India grown in 4.4 million hectares with an average productivity of about 68 tonnes per hectare (Anon.2013. To mitigate the labour scarcity and ensure timely operations mechanization is a must. Mechanisation will also improve the overall energy use efficiency of sugarcane based farming (Duttamajumder et al. 2011. About 45-48% of the total cost of cultivation is accountable to harvesting operation in manual harvesting. Mechanisation of harvesting operations is imperative in increasing the cost effectiveness of sugarcane production system.

  4. Pythium periplocum, an aggressive mycoparasite of Botrytis cinerea causing the gray mould disease of grape-vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B

    1999-12-15

    Pythium periplocum Dreschler has been found to be an aggressive mycoparasite of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of the gray mould disease of the grape-vine. When grown together, the former enters the latter's mycelium, branches freely within, coagulates its cytoplasm and finally tears its hyphae apart, bringing about widespread destruction of the grape-vine pathogen. Extensive coiling around the host, as reported in the case of other mycoparasites belonging to the genus Pythium, has not been observed here. The infected mycelium of B. cinerea fails to infect the grape-vine and does not induce the characteristic gray mould symptoms. Since P. periplocum is not a grape-vine parasite, it could be useful for the biological control of B. cinerea. A brief account of this mycoparasitism is discussed in this article. PMID:10585549

  5. Differential Interference with Pythium ultimum Sporangial Activation and Germination by Enterobacter cloacae in the Corn and Cucumber Spermospheres?

    OpenAIRE

    Windstam, Sofia; Nelson, Eric B

    2008-01-01

    Differential protection of plants by Enterobacter cloacae was studied by investigating early sensing and response behavior of Pythium ultimum sporangia toward seeds in the presence or absence of E. cloacae. Ten percent of P. ultimum sporangia were activated within the first 30 min of exposure to cucumber seeds. In contrast, 44% of the sporangia were activated as early as 15 min after exposure to corn seeds with over 80% sporangial activation by 30 min. Germ tubes emerged from sporangia after ...

  6. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ivan G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  7. Gliotoxin-producing endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale found antagonistic to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-04-01

    Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M?+?H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus. PMID:25820297

  8. Biological Control of Pythium aphanidermatum, the Causal Agent of Damping off Disease of Greenhouse Cucurbits in Kerman Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes enhance soil fertility and have antagonistic activity against wide range of plant root-pathogens. These micro organisms were isolated from agricultural soils of Kerman and Fars Provinces as pure cultures. Pythium aphanidermatum, causes damping off and root and stem rots of cucurbits worldwide. From 178 Actinomycetes isolates, 43 inhibited growth of the pathogen in culture plates and two of the most active isolates exhibited biological control of the pathogen under greenhouse conditions. When plants were grown in sterile soil mix and treated both with Actinomycetes and the pathogen, the number of healthy plants increased dramatically and the symptoms on diseased plants were less severe in comparison with seedlings treated with the pathogen alone. From the collected data it was well conclusive that in greenhouse tests, soil applications of Actinomycetes controlled causal agent of damping off in cucurbit seedlings. Antifungal activity was of fungicidal type on the pathogen mycelia. Regarding biotechnological implications, the results indicate that the active isolates can be investigated for use as biofertilizers, biofungicides and use in future development of recombinant DNA in cucurbits bearing elevated resistance to damping off. Field trials of the active isolates are under investigation.

  9. Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H.P. Ramos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many bacterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.Metaloproteases exercem papéis importantes em muitos processos fisiológicos em mamíferos tais como migração celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas estão envolvidas também na pato-fisiologia de um grande número de doenças humanas como hipertensão e câncer. Muitas bactérias patogênicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactérias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presença e a caracterização de metaloproteases em plantas estão pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi pesquisada a biblioteca de cDNA de etiquetas de seqüências expressas da cana-de-açúcar (SUCEST para identificar, por homologia com seqüências depositadas em outros bancos de dados, famílias gênicas de metaloproteases expressas em diferentes condições. Foram utilizadas seqüências protéicas de Arabidopis thaliana e Glycine max e seqüências de nucleotídeos de Sorghum bicolor. Regiões conservadas correspondentes aos diferentes domínios e motivos de seqüência de metaloproteases foram identificadas nos cDNAs de cana-de-açúcar para caracterizar cada grupo de enzimas. Pelo menos quatro classes de metaloproteases foram identificadas na cana-deaçúcar, a saber, metaloproteases de matriz extracelular, zincinas, inverzincinas e metaloproteases dependentes de ATP. Cada uma destas classes foi analisada quanto a sua expressão nas diferentes condições e tecidos utilizados na construção das bibliotecas de cDNA.

  10. Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.H.P., Ramos; H.S., Selistre-de-Araujo.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metaloproteases exercem papéis importantes em muitos processos fisiológicos em mamíferos tais como migração celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas estão envolvidas também na pato-fisiologia de um grande número de doenças humanas como hipertensão e câ [...] ncer. Muitas bactérias patogênicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactérias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presença e a caracterização de metaloproteases em plantas estão pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi pesquisada a biblioteca de cDNA de etiquetas de seqüências expressas da cana-de-açúcar (SUCEST) para identificar, por homologia com seqüências depositadas em outros bancos de dados, famílias gênicas de metaloproteases expressas em diferentes condições. Foram utilizadas seqüências protéicas de Arabidopis thaliana e Glycine max e seqüências de nucleotídeos de Sorghum bicolor. Regiões conservadas correspondentes aos diferentes domínios e motivos de seqüência de metaloproteases foram identificadas nos cDNAs de cana-de-açúcar para caracterizar cada grupo de enzimas. Pelo menos quatro classes de metaloproteases foram identificadas na cana-deaçúcar, a saber, metaloproteases de matriz extracelular, zincinas, inverzincinas e metaloproteases dependentes de ATP. Cada uma destas classes foi analisada quanto a sua expressão nas diferentes condições e tecidos utilizados na construção das bibliotecas de cDNA. Abstract in english Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many b [...] acterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.

  11. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes agricultural and industrial activities, distribution, cogeneration of electricity and steam, ethanol use during car driving, and industrial by-products recycling to irrigate sugarcane fields. The use of sugarcane by the ethanol agribusiness is one of the foremost financial resources for the economy of the Brazilian rural area, which occupies extensive areas and provides far-reaching potentials for renewable fuel production. But, there are environmental impacts during the fuel ethanol lifecycle, which this paper intents to analyze, including addressing the main activities responsible for such impacts and indicating some suggestions to minimize the impacts. This study is classified as an applied quantitative research, and the technical procedure to achieve the exploratory goal is based on bibliographic revision, documental research, primary data collection, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The lifecycle impact assessment (LCIA) covers the following emission-related impact categories: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. The results of the fuel ethanol LCI demonstrate that even though alcohol is considered a renewable fuel because it comes from biomass (sugarcane), it uses a high quantity and diversity of nonrenewable resources over its lifecycle. The input of renewable resources is also high mainly because of the water consumption in the industrial phases, due to the sugarcane washing process. During the lifecycle of alcohol, there is a surplus of electric energy due to the cogeneration activity. Another focus point is the quantity of emissions to the atmosphere and the diversity of the substances emitted. Harvesting is the unit process that contributes most to global warming. For photochemical ozone formation, harvesting is also the activity with the strongest contributions due to the burning in harvesting and the emissions from using diesel fuel. The acidification impact potential is mostly due to the NOx emitted by the combustion of ethanol during use, on account of the sulfuric acid use in the industrial process and because of the NOx emitted by the burning in harvesting. The main consequence of the intensive use of fertilizers to the field is the high nutrient enrichment impact potential associated with this activity. The main contributions to the ecotoxicity impact potential come from chemical applications during crop growth. The activity that presents the highest impact potential for human toxicity (HT) via air and via soil is harvesting. Via water, HT potential is high in harvesting due to lubricant use on the machines. The normalization results indicate that nutrient enrichment, acidification, and human toxicity via air and via water are the most significant impact potentials for the lifecycle of fuel ethanol. The fuel ethanol lifecycle contributes negatively to all the impact potentials analyzed: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. Concerning energy consumption, it consumes less energy than its own production largely because of the electricity cogeneration system, but this process is highly dependent on water. The main causes for the biggest impact potential indicated by the normalization is the nutrient application, the burning in harvesting and the use of diesel fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agric

  12. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  13. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production

  14. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  15. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  16. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A. [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Department of Mechanics and Aeronautics, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Marcelo, D. [University of Piura, Department of Energy, Av. Ramon Mugica, 131 Piura (Peru)

    2009-05-15

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits. (author)

  17. Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

  18. Effects of traffic control on the soil physical quality and the cultivation of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane with intensive use of machinery, especially for harvest, induces soil compaction, affecting the crop development. The control of agricultural traffic is an alternative of management in the sector, with a view to preserve the soil physical quality, resulting in increased sugarcane root growth, productivity and technological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Oxisol with and without control traffic and the resulting effects on sugarcane root development, productivity and technological quality. The following managements were tested: no traffic control (NTC, traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and sugarcane trailer (TC1 and traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and trailer and use of an autopilot (TC2. Soil samples were collected (layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m in the plant rows, inter-row center and seedbed region, 0.30 m away from the plant row. The productivity was measured with a specific weighing scale. The technological variables of sugarcane were measured in each plot. Soil cores were collected to analyze the root system. In TC2, the soil bulk density and compaction degree were lowest and total porosity and macroporosity highest in the plant row. Soil penetration resistance in the plant row, was less than 2 MPa in TC1 and TC2. Soil aggregation and total organic carbon did not differ between the management systems. The root surface and volume were increased in TC1 and TC2, with higher productivity and sugar yield than under NTC. The sugarcane variables did not differ between the managements. The soil physical quality in the plant row was preserved under management TC1 and TC2, with an improved root development and increases of 18.72 and 20.29 % in productivity and sugar yield, respectively.

  19. Seasonal timing of glyphosate ripener application affects sugarcane’s response in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is applied as a ripener to ratoon sugarcane in Louisiana to increase theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) in harvested sugarcane. While glyphosate is applied as a ripener throughout the harvest season, recommendations for these applications have been based primarily on the response of s...

  20. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23900800

  1. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucymara F., Agnez-Lima; Sílvia R. Batistuzzo de, Medeiros; Bruno S., Maggi; Giovanna A.S., Quaresma.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Danos no DNA podem ser induzidos por um grande número de agentes físicos e químicos presentes no ambiente, como também por compostos produzidos pelo próprio metabolismo celular. Estes danos podem interferir com processos celulares como replicação e transcrição, levando a morte celular e/ou mutações. [...] Os baixos níveis de mutação nas células são devidos à presença de vias enzimáticas, que reparam os danos no DNA. Diversos genes de reparo de DNA têm sido clonados e seus produtos caracterizados, principalmente em bactérias, leveduras e mamíferos. O interesse no estudo de mecanismos de reparo de DNA advém de seu envolvimento com a proteção da integridade da informação genética. A alta conservação observada para a maioria dos genes relacionados ao reparo de DNA, especialmente em eucariotos, aponta para sua importância para a manutenção da vida na terra. Em plantas, o conhecimento sobre os mecanismos de reparo de DNA é ainda reduzido. Os primeiros genes de reparo foram recentemente clonados e o mecanismo de ação de seus produtos está por ser caracterizado. Nosso objetivo neste trabalho de data mining foi identificar, no banco de dados gerados pelo projeto Genoma da Cana de Açúcar (Sugarcane Expressed Tag Project-SUCEST), genes relacionados ao reparo por excisão de bases (BER). Esta busca foi feita através do programa tblastn. Em cana de açúcar, foram identificados clusters homólogos para a maioria das proteínas BER analisadas e um alto grau de conservação foi observado. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com proteínas BER de Arabidopsis thaliana. Para alguns homólogos BER de cana de açúcar, a presença de mais de uma forma de mRNA é possível, como definido pela ocorrência de mais de um cluster homólogo. Abstract in english DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low fr [...] equency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals) have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  2. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan G., Maia; Adilson, Leite.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A N-glicosilação é uma das principais modificações pós-traducionais, sendo responsável por alterações na conformação, estabilidade e conseqüentemente na funcionalidade de proteínas em eucariotos. Com a finalidade de melhor compreender a via de N-glicosilação em plantas foi realizada uma prospecção n [...] o banco de seqüências expressas do projeto genoma da cana de açúcar (SUCEST). Foram identificadas noventa seqüências cujos produtos gênicos apresentam alto grau de similaridade com enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese e processamento de N-glicanos. Dos vinte e três genes da via de N-glicosilação previamente descritos em diferentes espécies, vinte e um foram detectados em cana de açúcar. Abstract in english The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mam [...] mals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  3. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed

  4. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail

    2014-06-09

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70. kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Suhail Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%, catalytic activity (13%, cell growth (10% and transport related proteins (6%. A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane.

  6. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Khraiwesh, Basel; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Gupta, Ram Sagar; Singh, Jyotsnendra; Duttamajumder, Sanjoy Kumar; Kapur, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. PMID:25009768

  7. Modelling response patterns of physico-chemical indicators during high-rate composting of green waste for suppression of Pythium ultimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Martin, Chaney C G; Bekele, Isaac; Eudoxie, Gaius D; Bristol, Dexter; Brathwaite, Richard A I; Campo, Kenia-Rosa

    2014-01-01

    High-rate composting studies on green waste, i.e. banana leaves (BL) and lawn clippings (LC), were conducted in 0.25-m3 rotary barrel composters to evaluate and model changes in key physico-chemical parameters during composting. Time to compost maturity and antagonistic effects and relationships of composts against Pythium ultimum were also investigated. Higher temperatures were achieved in LC compost (LCC), which did not translate to higher total organic carbon (TOC) loss but resulted in lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and a more mature compost. With the exception of electrical conductivity (EC), net decreases were observed in pH, TOC and C:N across compost types. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) showed a net increase in LCC and a net decrease in BLC. With the exception of TOC and pH, the results showed that compost type and time had a significant effect on the respective TKN, EC and C:N models. Compost temperature and TOC were best described by the critical exponential and rectangular hyperbola functions, respectively. Whereas TKN, C:N and pH were described using double Fourier functions and EC using Fourier functions. Composts achieved maturity within 19 days and significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum. Bacterial population was positively related to growth inhibition (GI) across compost types, whereas total microbial population had a positive relationship with GI in LCC. Evidence suggests that multiple groups of microorganisms contributed to GI through antibiosis and competition for resources. Composts were determined to be suitable for use as components of plant growth substrates based on compost maturity indices. PMID:24645438

  8. CRICISE BEFORE SUGARCANE GROWERS: DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM –SOME REMEDIAL MEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    ANIL BARBOLE AND B.B.JAGTAP

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to study the constraints faced by the Sugarcane growers and to suggest some remedial measures for use of Drip Irrigation System. Drip Irrigation may help to solve the most important problem of irrigation to sugarcane- water scarcityandrising electricity bills. Majority of sugarcane growers faced the constraints i.e. the higher initial costs for installation of drip irrigation unit and clogging and cracking of emitters.Mostly the sugarcane grow...

  9. The Large-Scale Sugarcane Stripper with Automatic Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaxiang Lin; Wenjie Yan; Jiaping Lin

    2012-01-01

    This study mainly introduce the large-scale sugarcane stripper with automatic feeding, which including the automatic feeding module, cleaning leaves module, collecting module and control module. The machine is an important part of the segmental type sugarcane harvester, using to solve the highest labor intensity problem of cleaning leaves. Collecting the hilly areas sugarcane and cleaning their leaves, can greatly improve the labor productivity and changing the current mode of sugarcane harvest.

  10. The Large-Scale Sugarcane Stripper with Automatic Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study mainly introduce the large-scale sugarcane stripper with automatic feeding, which including the automatic feeding module, cleaning leaves module, collecting module and control module. The machine is an important part of the segmental type sugarcane harvester, using to solve the highest labor intensity problem of cleaning leaves. Collecting the hilly areas sugarcane and cleaning their leaves, can greatly improve the labor productivity and changing the current mode of sugarcane harvest.

  11. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine Based on Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dehui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a common raw material for sugar, but in the process of machining, there will be suspended solids in the cane juice, in order to process better, the sugarcane should be peeled. Traditional way of peeling is by man, production efficiency is low. In this study, a kind of sugarcane peeling machine was designed based on motion controller, it can realize the automation of input, peeling and output. It can make certain contribution for sugarcane processing.

  12. Bactérias promotoras de crescimento e adubação nitrogenada no crescimento inicial de cana-de-açúcar proveniente de mudas pré-brotadas / Plant growth-promoting bacteria and nitrogen fertilization effect on the initial growth of sugarcane from pre-sprouted seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucas Augusto da Silva, Gírio; Fábio Luis Ferreira, Dias; Veronica Massena, Reis; Segundo, Urquiaga; Nivaldo, Schultz; Denizart, Bolonhezi; Miguel Angelo, Mutton.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento sobre a formação de mudas pré-brotadas de cana-de-açúcar, oriundas de gemas individualizadas, e quantificar o crescimento inicial dessas mudas, em associação à aplicação de nitrogênio, em solo de ba [...] ixa fertilidade. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos: um em casa de vegetação, com duração de 50 dias, e o outro, em vasos no campo, com duração de 180 dias. Em ambos os experimentos, utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2x3, no primeiro experimento - com ou sem inoculante, e com três quantidades de reserva nas gemas -, e 2x2x4, no segundo - com ou sem inoculante, com ou sem nitrogênio, avaliados em quatro épocas: aos 45, 90, 135 e 180 dias. O inoculante produziu efeito na fase inicial de crescimento das mudas pré-brotadas, com aumento na velocidade de brotação e no acúmulo da matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea, independentemente da quantidade de reserva da gema. No segundo experimento, o inoculante promoveu ganhos no crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, até os 180 dias após o transplantio, com aumento em altura, perfilhamento, diâmetro do colmo, produção da matéria seca de colmos e de palha e do comprimento radicular, independentemente da aplicação de nitrogênio. O inoculante tem efeito fisiológico positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria on the formation of sugarcane pre-sprouted seedlings, originated from individual buds, and to quantify the initial growth of these seedlings in association with nitrogen application, in a l [...] ow fertility soil. Two experiments were carried out: one in greenhouse conditions, with a time span of 50 days, and the other in vases under field conditions, with a time span of 180 days. In both experiments, a randomized complete block design was used with a factorial arrangement of 2x3, in the first experiment - with or without inoculation, and with three quantities of bud reserve -, and of 2x2x4, in the second one - with or without inoculation, with or without nitrogen, evaluated in four times: at 45, 90, 135, and 180 days. The inoculant had effect on the initial growth of the pre-sprouted seedlings, increasing sprouting speed and dry matter accumulation on roots and shoots, regardless of the bud reserve amount. In the second experiment, the inoculant increased the initial growth of shoots and root system up to 180 days after transplantation, increasing height, tillering, stalk diameter, dry matter production of stalks and straw, and root length, regardless of nitrogen application. The inoculant has a positive physiological effect on plant growth.

  13. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  14. Characterization and evaluation of coconut aroma produced by Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 in solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hoda Hanem Mohamed, Fadel; Manal Gomaa, Mahmoud; Mohsen Mohamed Selim, Asker; Shereen Nazeh, Lotfy.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Sugarcane bagasse was shown to be an adequate substrate for the growth and aroma production by Trichoderma species. In the present work the ability of Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 to produce high yield of coconut aroma in solid state fermentation (SSF) by using sugarcane bagasse as solid s [...] ubstrate was evaluated. The produced aroma was characterized. Results Total carbohydrates comprised the highest content (43.9% w/w) compared with the other constituents in sugarcane bagasse. The sensory and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the highest odor intensity and maximum yield of volatiles were perceived at the 5th d of induction period. The unsaturated lactone, 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), was the major identified volatile compound. Saturated lactones, ?-octalactone, ?-nonalactone, ?-undecalactone, ?-dodecalactone and ?-dodecalactone, were also identified in the coconut aroma produced during the induction period (12 d). A quite correlation was found between the composition and odor profile of the produced aroma. The effect of varying the concentration of sugarcane bagasse on 6-PP production and biomass growth was evaluated. The results revealed high 6-PP production at 4.5 g sugarcane bagasse whereas the biomass showed significant (P

  15. Disease resistance in sugarcane – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramesh Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops cultivated world-wide both under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. The crop gains economic importance by virtue of its industrial potential in terms of products like crystal white sugar, bagasse, pressmud, power etc. Among the various production constraints of the crop, diseases are seen as a major threat for sustaining the productivity of sugarcane. Conventional Breeding is a lengthy process and it involves almost more than 10 years for the release of a commercial variety. Many varieties with superior agronomical traits have succumbed to diseases like red rot and smut during the course of cultivation, which hitherto at the time of release were rated to be resistant. The breakdown of disease resistance is attributed to the possible emergence of new virulent pathotypes. This situation has warranted a pertinent need to have a thorough understanding on inheritance pattern and mechanism of disease resistance in sugarcane, which would aid for quick screening of disease resistant clones and successful management of the diseases, respectively. Overall, there is a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant disease resistance, thanks to the advent of robust molecular tools. An integration of the tools of “Omics” namely genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc. has further strengthened in deciphering plant-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. With the accomplishments in elucidating sugarcane ESTs, which was ably supported by employing the next generation sequencing platforms to unlock the secrets of pathogenomics in sugarcane, it is now made possible to further improve our understanding on disease resistance in sugarcane. Giving the scenario, the future looks evenmore promising, wherein convincing results are in the offing to thoroughly unravel the enigmatic relationship between sugarcane and its important pathogens.

  16. Detecting sugarcane yellow leaf virus in asymptomatic sugarcane leaves with hyperspectral remote sensing and associated leaf pigment changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) does not produce visual symptoms in most susceptible sugarcane plants until late in the growing season. High-resolution, hyperspectral reflectance data from SCYLV-infected and non-infected leaves of two cultivars, LCP 85-384 and Ho...

  17. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  18. Biochemical and physiological responses of sugarcane cultivars to soil water deficiencies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafaela Josemara Barbosa, Queiroz; Durvalina Maria Mathias dos, Santos; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo; Samira Domingues, Carlin; Marcelo de Almeida, Silva.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops, the effects of an environmental stress, especially water deficiency, may cause severe productivity reduction, inferring negatively in the sugarcane industry. The tolerance of two sugarcane cultivars to a lack of water was made by analyzing the levels of the osmo [...] protectors, trehalose and free proline, and the biometrical variables of their initial growth. Biochemical and physiological responses of the cultivars, when subjected to water stress, were assayed to determine how these plants tolerate drought. The study was conducted in an acclimatized greenhouse (29.7 ± 4.3ºC and 75.0 ± 10.1% relative humidity) during 100 days and was divided into random blocks using a factorial 2 × 3 × 2 design (sugarcane cultivars × water availability × time periods) with four replicates. Forty days after germination, sugarcane was planted in pots (12 dm³) containing topsoil material taken from a medium textured Rhodic Ferralsol, submitted to three levels of water availability (WAS): 55% (control), 40% (moderate stress) and 25% (severe stress), for 60 days. The effect of the WAS on the accumulation of trehalose and free proline was detected in both cultivars, although it was found to be more distinctive for the cv. IAC91-5155. Trehalose and free proline are biochemical and physiological indicators of water deficiency. The cv. IAC91-5155 had altered growth and allocation of biomass when subjected to severe water stress conditions. The univariate and the multivariate analysis of the biochemical and physiological responses, presented by the IAC91-5155 cultivar, indicate relative tolerance to drought conditions.

  19. Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Naureen Chaudhary; Javed I. Qazi

    2006-01-01

    Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI) and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH4)2SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II). The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH4)2SO4, 0.075% MgSO4,...

  20. Development of cassava plants and its mycorrhizal association in soil supplemented with sugarcane agroindustrial residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Messias Leal Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic agroindustrial residues on agriculture can be one way to improve the development and chemical composition of plants, reducing the cost with chemical fertilizers and impacts generated by the excessive use of them. Sugarcane agroindustrial residue has been generated in high quantity in Brazilian semiarid region and can be applied to cassava crop to improve its growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of sugarcane agroindustrial residue on the vegetative development, chemical composition and mycorrhizal association of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta var. Engana ladrão. It was performed an experiment in greenhouse with completely randomized design with four treatments of addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue (0, 5, 10 and 15% with nine replicates. The addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue increased fresh dry root biomass, leaf area, crude protein and mineral matter, without reducing the mycorrhizal colonization and glomerospores number. This type of residue can be one alternative to improve the nutritional value of these fodder.

  1. ITS1 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the mycoparasite Pythium periplocum, its taxonomy, and its comparison with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B; Masih, I

    2000-08-01

    Pythium periplocum Drechsler was isolated from some soil samples taken in the botanical garden of Tenerife, Canary Islands. This fungus has been found to be an aggressive mycoparasite of Botrytis cinerea. It is unique amongst the members of the genus Pythium because of the character combination of inflated filamentous type of sporangia and ornamented oogonia. The taxonomic description of this fungus and its comparison with related species, together with the polymerase chain reaction of the internal transcribed spacer of its nuclear ribosomal DNA, are discussed in this article. PMID:10913866

  2. Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura

    OpenAIRE

    Josilaine A. C. Durange; Margareth R. L. Santos; Marcelo M. Pereira; Luiz A. P. Fernandes Jr.; Marcio N. Souza; Anderson N. Mendes; Liena M. Mesa; Caio G. Sánchez; Elisabete M. S. Sanchez; Juan M. M. Pérez; Carvalho, Nakédia M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500°C, in presence of air. Sugarcane in natura was also pyrolysed as a model for comparison, in order to determine the viability of processing different sources of raw biomass. T...

  3. EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA SERNA-COCK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de microorganismos como fertilizante, ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos sobre el crecimiento de plantas y son una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes guímicos, sin embargo, cada microorganismo difiere en sus efectos benéficos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum y Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento en maceta de plantas de caña de azúcar variedad CC 934418. El crecimiento de las plantas se midió en términos de diámetro del tallo, longitud de tallo y raíces, y número de hojas y raíces a los 15, 30 y 45 días de la siembra. El crecimiento de las plantas mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. Los microorganismos fertilizantes mostraron efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de caña de azúcar, siendo Azospirillum brasilense y Trichoderma lignorum los microorganismos gue ejercieron mayor efecto sobre el diámetro del tallo y los sistemas radical y foliar de la planta. Se observaron los efectos beneficiosos de Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento de la hoja. Este es un nuevo aporte científico, ya que esta especie no ha sido reportada como promotora de crecimiento vegetal.0 uso de microrganismos como fertilizante, tem sido demonstrado gue têm efeitos benéficos no crescimento das plantas e são considerados uma alternativa ao uso de fertilizantes guímicos, no entanto, cada microrganismo possui diferentes efeitos benéficos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da aplicação de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum e Trichoderma lignorum no crescimento de cana-de-açucar da variedade CC 934418 plantadas em vasos. 0 crescimento das plantas foi medido em termos do diâmetro do caule, comprimento de caule e da raiz e número de folhas e raízes nos dias 15, 30 e 45 após a semeadura. 0 crescimento da planta mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal.The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

  4. EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum) / EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum) / EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LILIANA, SERNA-COCK; CAMILO, ARIAS-GARCÍA; LEIDY JOHANA, VALENCIA HERNANDEZ.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 uso de microrganismos como fertilizante, tem sido demonstrado gue têm efeitos benéficos no crescimento das plantas e são considerados uma alternativa ao uso de fertilizantes guímicos, no entanto, cada microrganismo possui diferentes efeitos benéficos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da aplicaçã [...] o de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum e Trichoderma lignorum no crescimento de cana-de-açucar da variedade CC 934418 plantadas em vasos. 0 crescimento das plantas foi medido em termos do diâmetro do caule, comprimento de caule e da raiz e número de folhas e raízes nos dias 15, 30 e 45 após a semeadura. 0 crescimento da planta mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal. Abstract in spanish El uso de microorganismos como fertilizante, ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos sobre el crecimiento de plantas y son una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes guímicos, sin embargo, cada microorganismo difiere en sus efectos benéficos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de microo [...] rganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum y Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento en maceta de plantas de caña de azúcar variedad CC 934418. El crecimiento de las plantas se midió en términos de diámetro del tallo, longitud de tallo y raíces, y número de hojas y raíces a los 15, 30 y 45 días de la siembra. El crecimiento de las plantas mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. Los microorganismos fertilizantes mostraron efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de caña de azúcar, siendo Azospirillum brasilense y Trichoderma lignorum los microorganismos gue ejercieron mayor efecto sobre el diámetro del tallo y los sistemas radical y foliar de la planta. Se observaron los efectos beneficiosos de Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento de la hoja. Este es un nuevo aporte científico, ya que esta especie no ha sido reportada como promotora de crecimiento vegetal. Abstract in english The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azo [...] tobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

  5. Differentiation Between Two Isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum Isolated from Diseased Plants in Two Different Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani M.A. Abdelzaher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the differences between two distinct isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, the diseased organisms of wheat and lettuce in agricultural fields in each of Egypt and Germany, respectively. Morphological study indicated that the Egyptian and German isolates comprised a single taxon, P. ultimum var. ultimum, by the current taxonomical keys. The isolates were morphologically distinguished as having smaller or larger sexual organs by the sizes of their antheridia and oogonia. The German isolate grew faster in the lower temperature range of 4-15°C whereas the Egyptian isolate grew faster in the higher temperature range of 25-37°C. Similarities in the sequence of the r-DNA-ITS including the 5.8S rDNA demonstrated evident genetic similarity at the species level between the two isolates and should be used for confirmation of identification of species of Pythium. The two isolates were not distinguishable by their pathogenicity to cucumber seedlings. The effect of temperature, hydrogen ion concentration and osmotic potential on oospores production and germination were studied. Oospores production and germination showed a similar manner, however, the Egyptian isolate produced more oospores than the German isolate. Identification of the Egyptian and German isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum to the species level can be done using sequencing of r-DNA-ITS including the 5.8S rDNA, however, some morphological and physiological differences might present within the same species. This might be attributed to the effect of environmental factors and cultural conditions.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Brazilian isolates of Pythium insidiosum based on ITS rDNA and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, M I; Botton, S A; Pereira, D I B; Robe, L J; Jesus, F P K; Mahl, C D; Costa, M M; Alves, S H; Santurio, J M

    2012-09-14

    Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that is the causative agent of pythiosis. Advances in molecular methods have enabled increased accuracy in the diagnosis of pythiosis, and in studies of the phylogenetic relationships of this oomycete. To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil, and also regarding to other American and Thai isolates, in this study a total of thirty isolates of P. insidiosum from different regions of Brazil was used and had their ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2 rDNA (ITS) region and the partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase II (COX II) gene sequenced and analyzed. The outgroup consisted of six isolates of other Pythium species and one of Lagenidium giganteum. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and COX II genes were conducted, both individually and in combination, using four different methods: Maximum parsimony (MP); Neighbor-joining (NJ); Maximum likelihood (ML); and Bayesian analysis (BA). Our data supported P. insidiosum as monophyletic in relation to the other Pythium species, and COX II showed that P. insidiosum appears to be subdivided into three major polytomous groups, whose arrangement provides the Thai isolates as paraphyletic in relation to the Brazilian ones. The molecular analyses performed in this study suggest an evolutionary proximity among all American isolates, including the Brazilian and the Central and North America isolates, which were grouped together in a single entirely polytomous clade. The COX II network results presented signals of a recent expansion for the American isolates, probably originated from an Asian invasion source. Here, COX II showed higher levels bias, although it was the source of higher levels of phylogenetic information when compared to ITS. Nevertheless, the two markers chosen for this study proved to be entirely congruent, at least with respect to phylogenetic relationships between different isolates of P. insidiosum. PMID:22483240

  7. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

  8. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalan, Marcelo; Albano, Rodolpho; de Pádua, Vânia; Rouws, Luc; Rojas, Cristian; Hemerly, Adriana; Teixeira, Kátia; Schwab, Stefan; Araujo, Jean; Oliveira, André; França, Leonardo; Magalhães, Viviane; Alquéres, Sylvia; Cardoso, Alexander; Almeida, Wellington; Loureiro, Marcio Martins; Nogueira, Eduardo; Cidade, Daniela; Oliveira, Denise; Simão, Tatiana; Macedo, Jacyara; Valadão, Ana; Dreschsel, Marcela; Freitas, Flávia; Vidal, Marcia; Guedes, Helma; Rodrigues, Elisete; Meneses, Carlos; Brioso, Paulo; Pozzer, Luciana; Figueiredo, Daniel; Montano, Helena; Junior, Jadier; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo; Martin Quintana Flores, Victor; Ferreira, Beatriz; Branco, Alan; Gonzalez, Paula; Guillobel, Heloisa; Lemos, Melissa; Seibel, Luiz; Macedo, José; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; Coelho, Ana; Santos, Eidy; Amaral, Gilda; Neves, Anna; Pacheco, Ana Beatriz; Carvalho, Daniela; Lery, Letícia; Bisch, Paulo; Rössle, Shaila C; Ürményi, Turán; Rael Pereira, Alessandra; Silva, Rosane; Rondinelli, Edson; von Krüger, Wanda; Martins, Orlando; Baldani, José Ivo; Ferreira, Paulo CG

    2009-01-01

    Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications. PMID:19775431

  9. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  10. Induction and isolation of mutants in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the progress made on the induction of mutations in sugarcane at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, is presented. A description of some of the mutants is given. A few disease-resistant mutants have been obtained. Yield of C.C.S./ha of some of the mutants has surpassed the parent variety. Selection based on individual canes has increased the mutation rate and stability of mutants. Different techniques such as decapitation, closer planting and growing vM1 generation at different N levels have been observed to be promising methods to increase mutation rate. Raising of plants from mutated tissues by in vitro culture seems to be a potential tool in induced mutagenesis in sugarcane. (author)

  11. Uso de los grados días acumulados en la estimación de la evapotranspiración de la caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. híbrido) para ciclos de crecimiento monomodal / Using degree days accumulated by monomodal growth cycles in estimating evapotranspiration of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maira, Ferrer Reyes; Guillermo, Gálvez; Carlos, Lamela; Gilda, Jiménez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados preliminares sobre la relación obtenida, entre los grados días acumulados, la evapotranspiración y los rendimientos agrícolas de la caña de azúcar. Se obtuvo una correlación lineal, entre la evapotranspiración y los grados días acumulados por ciclos de crecimiento monomodal. [...] Se realizó un ensayo para estimar los rendimientos agrícolas en siete Unidades Empresariales Básicas (UEB) de Cuba. Los rendimientos potenciales fueron determinados a partir de los grados días. Estos variaron entre 160,2 y 205,7 t de caña.ha-1, los que indican las posibilidades potenciales de este cultivo. En cinco de las siete empresas, el modelo utilizado subestimó los rendimientos agrícolas en porcentajes desde 8,52 (UEB ?Jesús Rabí? hasta 28,81 % (UEB Brasil). El rendimiento agrícola fue sobreestimado en dos UEB ?Primero de Enero? y ?Argeo Martínez? en 8,20 y 13,98 %, respectivamente. Los resultados permiten ratificar el posible uso de los grados días como similar de la evapotranspiración acumulada, para la predicción del rendimiento agrícola, así como cubrir una primera etapa de carácter cuantitativo a nivel general, considerando a la caña de azúcar como especie individual y preparar condiciones para el arribo a una etapa más cualitativa en la predicción de los rendimientos a nivel de variedades comerciales en este cultivo Abstract in english Presents preliminary results about the relationship obtained among degree days, evapotranspiration and agricultural yields of sugarcane. A linear correlation between evapotranspiration and degrees days accumulated by monomodal growth cycles was obtained. A trial to estimate agricultural yields in se [...] ven basic business units (BSU) of Cuba was conducted. Potential yields were determined from the degree days. These ranged from 160,2 to 205,7 t cane.ha-1, indicating the potential possibilities of this crop. In five of the seven companies, used model underestimated farm yields in percentages from 8,52 (UEB ?Jesús Rabí? to 28,81 % (UEB Brazil). Agricultural performance was overestimated in two UEB ?Primero de Enero? and ?Argeo Martinez? at 8,20 and 13,98 %, respectively. The results obtained allow ratify the possible use of the degree days as similar from the accumulated evapotranspiration, for the prediction of agricultural performance, as well as cover the first stage of quantitative character at a general level, whereas the sugarcane as individual species and prepare conditions for the arrival to a more qualitative stage in the yields prediction at of commercial level of varieties in this crop

  12. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group; Esterilizacao quimica da broca da cana-de-acucar Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) atraves de isca com melaco e inseticidas do grupo dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazaki, Catia Sumie Shimatai. E-mail csazaki@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80%. (author)

  13. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research is providing information to elucidate the antibiosis mechanisms and disease suppressive activities of T. afroharzianum and T. gamsii against soilborne fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. PMID:26231513

  14. Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Ferreira Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT e a estimativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT. A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados.Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint and the estimated accumulative GP. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART, which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

  15. O gênero Pythium Pringsheim de áreas de cerrado no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil / The genus Pythium Pringsheim from Brazilian cerrado areas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Filipe R., Baptista; Carmen L.A., Pires-Zottarelli; Maristela, Rocha; Adauto I., Milanez.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de água e solo em áreas de cerrado no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, de fevereiro/1999 a fevereiro/2001. Estas amostras foram trazidas ao laboratório e tratadas segundo a técnica de iscagem múltipla. Dentre os fungos pitiáceos isolados, nove espécies pertencem ao gênero Pythiu [...] m Pringsheim: Pythium echinulatum Matthews, P. graminicolum Subramanian, P. irregulare Buisman, P. rostratum Butler, P. spinosum Sawada, P. torulosum Coker & Patterson, P. ultimum Trow var. ultimum, P. undulatum Petersen e P. vexans de Bary. P. undulatum é mencionado pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Abstract in english Water and soil samples were obtained from cerrado areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from February, 1999 to February, 2001, brought to the laboratory and treated by the multiple baiting technique. Among the pythiaceous fungi isolated, nine species belonging to the genus Pythium Pringsheim: Pyt [...] hium echinulatum Matthews, P. graminicolum Subramanian, P. irregulare Buisman, P. rostratum Butler, P. spinosum Sawada, P. torulosum Coker & Patterson, P. ultimum Trow var. ultimum, P. undulatum Petersen and P. vexans de Bary. P. undulatum is mentioned for the first time to Brazil.

  16. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    OpenAIRE

    Neves Anna; Amaral Gilda; Santos Eidy; Coelho Ana; Sachetto-Martins Gilberto; Alves-Ferreira Marcio; Macedo José; Seibel Luiz; Lemos Melissa; Guillobel Heloisa; Gonzalez Paula; Branco Alan; Ferreira Beatriz; Martin Quintana Flores Victor; de Souza Filho Gonçalo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of...

  17. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) in sugarcane plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo H.D. Cançado; Taciany Ferreira; Eliane M Piranda; CLEBER O SOARES

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology a...

  18. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

  19. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization / Amido de cana-de-açúcar: determinação quantitativa e caracterização

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joelise de Alencar, Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann, Carvalho; Hélia Harumi, Sato.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O amido é encontrado na cana-de-açúcar como um polissacarídeo de reserva. A quantidade depende de diversos fatores. Este trabalho visou a determinação do conteúdo de amido em diferentes variedades de cana-de-açúcar durante o período de Maio a Novembro de 2007; e determinação de algumas característic [...] as do amido de cana-de-açúcar como: estrutura e tamanho dos grânulos de amido; determinação da temperatura de gelificação; determinação da filtrabilidade da solução de amido de cana-de-açúcar; susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar às enzimas glicoamilase, pululanase, -amilases bacterianas e fúngica comerciais. Foi testado também a susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar à enzima amilolítica desramificante isoamilase de Flavobacterium sp. O amido de cana-de-açúcar apresentou forma esférica e diâmetro entre 1-3 µm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar complexado com iodo apresentou maior absorção na faixa de 540 a 620 nm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar in natura mostrou maior susceptibilidade à enzima glicoamilase em relação aos outros amidos testados. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade à enzima amilolítica desramificante pululanase de modo similar ao amido de arroz ceroso. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade às ?-amilases de Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis e Aspergillus oryzae de modo similar aos outros amidos testados produzindo glicose; maltose; maltotriose; maltotetraose e ?- dextrinas limite. Abstract in english Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, [...] and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal ?-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit ?- dextrin.

  20. Quantification of sugarcane yellow leaf virus in sugarcane following transmission through aphid vector, Melanaphis sacchari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnaraja, C; Viswanathan, R

    2015-12-01

    Yellow leaf caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is a serious constraint to sugarcane production in India and currently the disease epidemics occur on many of the susceptible varieties under field conditions. Studies were conducted on the virus transmission by sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari in sugarcane by inoculating virus-free meristem derived from micro- propagated plants of sugarcane cv Co 86032 with viruliferous aphids. Virus transmission was confirmed through RT-PCR assays and subsequently SCYLV population was established through RT-qPCR. A maximum of 22.3 × 10(3), 3.16 × 10(6) and 4.78 × 10(6) copies of SCYLV-RNA targets were recorded in the plants after 7, 180 and 300 days, respectively. This study showed that the aphid species M. sacchari acts as an effective vector of SCYLV. The relative standard curve method in RT-qPCR efficiently detected the increment in SCYLV copy numbers in sugarcane following transmission through M. sacchari. PMID:26645033

  1. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsar Daniel S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus.

  2. Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis of Pythium insidiosum and related oomycete species provides new insights into genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Lohnoo, Tassanee; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Grenville-Briggs, Laura J; Krajaejun, Theerapong

    2016-01-01

    Oomycetes are eukaryotic microorganisms, which are phylogenetically distinct from the true-fungi, which they resemble morphologically. While many oomycetes are pathogenic to plants, Pythium insidiosum is capable of infecting humans and animals. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes are valuable genetic resources for exploring the evolution of eukaryotes. During the course of 454-based nuclear genome sequencing, we identified a complete 54.9kb mt genome sequence, containing 2 large inverted repeats, from P. insidiosum. It contains 65 different genes (including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 25 transfer RNA genes and 38 genes encoding NADH dehydrogenases, cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidases, ATP synthases, and ribosomal proteins). Thirty-nine of the 65 genes have two copies, giving a total of 104 genes. A set of 30 conserved protein-coding genes from the mt genomes of P. insidiosum, 11 other oomycetes, and 2 diatoms (outgroup) were used for phylogenetic analyses. The oomycetes can be classified into 2 phylogenetic groups, in relation to their taxonomic lineages: Saprolegnialean and Peronosporalean. P. insidiosum is more closely related to Pythium ultimum than other oomycetes. In conclusion, the complete mt genome of P. insidiosum was successfully sequenced, assembled, and annotated, providing a useful genetic resource for exploring the biology and evolution of P. insidiosum and other oomycetes. PMID:26299654

  3. Development and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Pythium helicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Reiko; Fukuta, Shiro; Kuroyanagi, Satoru; Miyake, Noriyuki; Nagai, Hirofumi; Kageyama, Koji; Ishiguro, Yasushi

    2014-06-01

    Root rot of poinsettia, caused by Pythium helicoides at high temperatures in hydroponic cultures, has become a serious problem in many parts of the world. We have developed a species-specific, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid diagnosis of this pathogen. The primers were designed using the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. Primer specificity was established using 40 Pythium species including P. helicoides, 11 Phytophthora species, and eight other soil-borne pathogens. A sensitivity test was carried out using genomic DNA extracted from P. helicoides, and the detection limit was c. 100 fg which is comparable to that of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, we tested the ease of pathogen detection in poinsettia roots. The LAMP results were consistent with those from the conventional plating method and showed more sensitivity than the PCR results. Consequently, the LAMP method developed in this study is effective for the rapid and easy detection of P. helicoides. PMID:24797345

  4. Development of SCAR markers and PCR assays for single or simultaneous species-specific detection of Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides in ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonsi, Monday O; Ling, Yin; Kageyama, Koji

    2010-11-01

    Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides are important water-borne oomycete pathogens of irrigated ornamentals particularly ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe in Japan. We developed novel PCR-based sequence characterized amplified region markers and assays for rapid identification and species-specific detection of both pathogens in separate PCR reactions or simultaneously in a duplex PCR. PMID:20826191

  5. Contribución al conocimiento de la relación biológica entre Pythium sp. y raíces y nódulos radicales de Alnus acuminata H.B.K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncada María Amelia

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available En los alrededores del embalse del Neusa (Cundinamarcal, se encontró un hongo del género Pythium asociado frecuentemente a los nódulos radicales del Aliso (Alnus acuminata, especie nativa de gran importancia en programas de reforestación, protección de cuencas y sistemas silviculturales, debido a su rápido crecimiento y al efecto mejorado que ejerce sobre las caracter ísticas nutricionales del suelo. La presente investigación tuvo por objeto conocer algunos aspectos de la relación biológica de Pythium sp, asociado a las raíces y nódulos radicales de Alnus acuminata. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar,
    con tres repeticiones. Para evaluar la relación se inocularon
    plántulas de Aliso con una combinación de cuatro dosis del hongo Pvthium y cuatro dosis del Actinornvcete. La respuesta a los tratamientos fue registrada a los 20, 30, 40 y 60 días de inoculadas, mediante la determinación de peso seco, altura, número de hojas e infección radical de Alnus acuminata.
    Los resultados mostraron que el hongo asociado a los nódulos de Pythium silveticum y que las dosis altas de este inóculo
    causaron la muerte de las plántulas y las dosis menores disminuyeron peso seco, altura y número de hojas por planta. En la interacción del Actinomycete y el hongo, la presencia del primero disminuyó el efecto patogénico de Pythium silvaticum.

  6. MUTATION OF A DEGS HOMOLOG IN ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE DECREASES SEED AND ROOT COLONIZATION BUT DOES NOT AFFECT BIOCONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF CAUSED BY PYTHIUM ULTIMUM ON CUCUMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strains of Enterobacter cloacae show promise as biocontrol agents for Pythium ultimum-induced damping-off on cucumber and other crops. E. cloacae strain C10 is a mini-Tn5 Km transposon mutant of strain 501R3. Strain C10 was reduced in colonization of cucumber, sunflower, and pea seeds, but unaffecte...

  7. Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil, with the sugarcane variety SP81-3250, on soil classified as Acrudox, in a randomized block design with split-split plots and four replications. The main treatments consisted of harvest systems (harvesting green cane or burnt cane, the secondary treatment consisted of the mechanical cultural practices in the interrows and the tertiary treatments were N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg ha-1, using ammonium nitrate (33 % N as N source. The harvest systems did not differ in sugarcane yield (tons of cane per hectare - TCH, but in burnt cane, the pol percent and total sugar recovery (TSR were higher. This could be explained by the higher quantity of plant impurities in the harvested raw material in the system without burning, which reduces the processing quality. Mechanical cultural practices in the interrows after harvest had no effect on cane yield and sugar quality, indicating that this operation can be omitted in areas with mechanical harvesting. The application of N fertilizer at rates of 88 and 144 kg ha-1 N, respectively, increased stalk height and TCH quadratically to the highest values for these variables. For the sugar yield per hectare (in pol %, N fertilization induced a linear increase.

  8. Performance of herbicides in sugarcane straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilaine Araldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of mechanical harvesting of sugarcane generates a large deposition of straw on the soil surface, providing a coverage that several studies have found important for reducing the weed population. Although such coverage reduces weed infestations, additional management, including chemical control, is still needed. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the leaching of atrazine, pendimethalin, metribuzin, clomazone, diuron and hexazinone in sugarcane straw. The experiment was conducted at the School of Agronomic Engineering at UNESP (Sao Paulo State University - Botucatu/SP. The sugarcane straw was collected in the field, cut and placed in quantities of 10t ha-1 in the capsules used as experimental units. The experimental design was completely randomized, using six herbicide treatments and four replications. Within 24 hours after the herbicides were applied in capsules with straw, five different rainfalls (5, 10, 20, 50 and 100mm were simulated. The leached water was collected for chromatographic analysis. The herbicide percentages that crossed the straw layer were statistically correlated with the rainfall amount by the Mitscherlich model that compares the facility of herbicide removal from sugarcane straw. In summary, pendimethalin did not present quantified transposition of the product by sugarcane straw even with a rain simulation of 100 mm. Furthermore, two different profiles of facility to transpose the herbicides in straw were found: one for metribuzin and hexazinone that crossed quickly through the straw layer and another for atrazine, diuron and clomazone that required more rainfall to be leached from coverage to the soil according to the maximum removable amount of each herbicide.

  9. Antifungal Volatile Organic Compounds from the Endophyte Nodulisporium sp. Strain GS4d2II1a: a Qualitative Change in the Intraspecific and Interspecific Interactions with Pythium aphanidermatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, Rosa Elvira; Diaz, Daniel; Duarte, Georgina; Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Sánchez, Sergio; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrates volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production as one of the defense mechanisms of the antagonistic endophyte Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a, and the volatile changes in two times of the fungal growth; and, as result of its intra and interspecific interactions with the plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. The antifungal activity of the volatile and diffusible metabolites was evaluated by means of three types of antagonism bioassays and by organic extract agar dilution. VOCs were obtained by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry from 3- and 5-day Nodulisporium sp. cultures, as well as from its interspecific in vitro antagonistic interaction with the oomycete P. aphanidermatum, and its intraspecific Nodulisporium sp.-Nodulisporium sp. interaction. The GS4d2II1a strain completely inhibited the growth of two fungi and seven oomycetes by replacing their mycelia in simple antagonism bioassays and by producing in vitro volatile and diffusible metabolites that acted synergistically in multiple antagonism bioassays. Additionally, VOCs inhibited the growth of three oomycetes and one fungus in antagonism bioassays using divided plates. A total of 70 VOCs were detected, mainly including mono and sesquiterpenes, especially eucalyptol and limonene. Multiple correspondence analysis revealed four different volatile profiles, showing that volatiles changed with the fungus age and its intra and interspecific interactions. The metabolites produced by Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a could be useful for biological control of fungal and oomycetes plant pathogens of economically important crops. PMID:26408189

  10. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Costa, Estela Araujo; Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to...

  11. Genetic diversity among sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) varieties using molecular markers

    OpenAIRE

    John J. Riascos; Jorge I. Victoria; Fernando Angel

    2007-01-01

    The genetic base of today's sugarcane cultivars appears to be narrow and could be the reason for current slow progress in improving sugarcane crops. Sixty-three primer pairs (producing 263 polymorphic fragments) flanking simple sequence repeats or micro-satellites were used for assessing the genetic variability of five S. officinarum clones and 33 sugarcane cultivars used in CENICAÑA breeding projects, selected for their economic and agronomic im-portance in several Central and South-American...

  12. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Rokhsar Daniel S; Van Sluys Marie-Anne; Bowers John; Wiley Graham; Najar Fares; Chen Cuixia; Tang Haibao; Murray Jan E; Yu Qingyi; Macmil Simone; Roe Bruce; Wang Jianping; Hudson Matthew E; Moose Stephen P; Paterson Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugar...

  13. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater contamination, eutrophication of surface waters, soil pollution and acidification. This paper reviews the effect of commercial sugarcane production on soil chemical, physical and biological properties us...

  14. Evaluation of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrids against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H

    2007-12-01

    A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the CrylAb protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of five non-Bt and seven Bt field corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in a greenhouse study. Larval survival was recorded 21 d after infestation of neonates on potted plants. Larval survival across the three sugarcane borer genotypes and five non-Bt corn hybrids after 21 d ranged from 23.6 +/- 5.2% (mean +/- SEM) to 57.5 +/- 5.2%. Mean survival of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on vegetative and reproductive plant stages was 12 and 21%, respectively. During the vegetative stages, all seven Bt corn hybrids were highly efficacious against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer, with a larval survival rate of <2% for the Bt-susceptible genotype and < or =5% for the heterozygotes. However, 8-18% of the heterozygous genotype survived on reproductive stage plants for four of the seven Bt corn hybrids tested. The variation in performance of Bt corn cultivars at vegetative and reproductive growth stages against Cry1Ab resistant sugarcane borer suggests differential seasonal expression that may hasten resistance in the field. Bt corn hybrids expressing a "high dose" for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), may not produce a sufficient high dose for the sugarcane borer. PMID:18232406

  15. CRICISE BEFORE SUGARCANE GROWERS: DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM –SOME REMEDIAL MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANIL BARBOLE AND B.B.JAGTAP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to study the constraints faced by the Sugarcane growers and to suggest some remedial measures for use of Drip Irrigation System. Drip Irrigation may help to solve the most important problem of irrigation to sugarcane- water scarcityandrising electricity bills. Majority of sugarcane growers faced the constraints i.e. the higher initial costs for installation of drip irrigation unit and clogging and cracking of emitters.Mostly the sugarcane growers suggested that the cost of drip irrigation units should be reduced And there is a need to give technical knowledge about remedies against the clogging of the emitters.

  16. Main trends on sustainability of sugarcane production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Isaias C.

    2012-07-01

    This chapter concerns with the development of sustainability concepts, bio fuels and sustainability, trends in the sustainability of sugarcane based production processes, cane production, and cane processing.

  17. Crescimento e produção de taro 'Chinês' influenciados por tipos de mudas e camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Plant growth and yield of 'Chinês' corms taro influenced by propagation methods and sugar-cane mulch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Puiatti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos consecutivos, numa mesma área, em Viçosa (MG, de 19/11/1997 a 08/08/1998 (experimento I e de 01/09/1998 a 06/06/1999 (experimento II, com o taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7 (tipos de mudas x camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, com três repetições. No experimento I avaliaram-se os efeitos de quatro tipos de mudas (rizoma-mãe e rizomas filhos grande, médio e pequeno, com 80; 55; 35 e 20 g de massa fresca média, respectivamente e sete espessuras de camadas de bagaço em cobertura (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 cm. No experimento II avaliou-se o efeito residual das camadas de bagaço utilizadas no experimento I, mantendo-se os mesmos tipos de mudas, com massas semelhantes. Avaliaram-se o estande e altura de plantas, índice de área foliar (IAF e produção final de classes de rizomas. Menores estandes foram obtidos no experimento I e para o tipo de muda filho pequeno, principalmente na ausência de bagaço. Mudas com maior massa e camadas intermediárias de bagaço proporcionaram plantas mais vigorosas e com maiores valores de IAF. Não houve interação entre camadas de bagaço e tipos de mudas, para produção de rizomas, em ambos experimentos. No experimento I verificou-se efeito significativo para ambos os fatores, isoladamente, com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis obtidas para o tipo de muda rizomas-mãe, seguido de filho grande, e camada de bagaço entre 16,4 a 17,4 cm de espessura. No experimento II houve efeito apenas de tipos de mudas com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis para as mudas tipos rizoma-mãe e filho grande.Two consecutive experiments were carried out, in the same area, from 11/19/1997 to 08/08/1998 (experiment I and from 09/01/1998 to 06/06/1999 (experiment II, with taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928. The experiments consisted of 28 treatments, in a randomized complete block design, arranged in a factorial 4 x 7 (types of seedlings x layers of sugar-cane mulch, with three repetitions. In experiment I the effect of four types of seedlings were evaluated (corm and comels large, medium and small, with 80; 55; 35 and 20 g of medium fresh mass, respectively and seven thickness of mulch layers on covering (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 and 24 cm. In experiment II the residual effect of the mulch layers used in experiment I was evaluated, the same types of seedlings staying with similar masses. The stand and height of plants, leaf area index (LAI and final corm yield and classes of cormels were evaluated. Smaller stands were obtained in experiment I and for the type of seedling graded as small cormel, mainly in the absence of mulch. Seedlings with larger masses and intermediate layers of mulch provided more vigorous plants and with higher values of LAI. There was no interaction between mulch layers x types of seedlings, for yield of corm and cormels, in both experiments. In experiment I significant effect was verified for both factors, separately, with larger yield of total and commercial cormels obtained for the type seedling corm (head, followed by large cormel, and mulch layer from 16.4 to 17.4 cm of thickness. In experiment II, an evident effect of types of seedlings with larger yield of total and commercial cormels for the seedlings types corm and large cormel was observed.

  18. Determination of Site Specific Fertilizer Requirement of Sugarcane and Intercrops in Sugarcane-based Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Bokhtiar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The site-specific nutrient requirement of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum and companion crops, viz. onion (Allium cipa and lentil (Lens culinaris in sugarcane based cropping systems field experiments was determined under two Agro-ecological zones (AEZ, namely High Barind Tract (AEZ 26 and Tista Meander Floodplain soils (AEZ 3. The application of fertilizers for sugarcane and intercrops, onion and lentil as per soil test basis followed by dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata significantly increased cane yield to the extent of 19 % at AEZ 26 and 45 % at AEZ 3 over the sole cane crop. Maximum cane yield (119 t ha?1 with highest BCR of Tk.4.37 was found in High Barind Tract with the application of N190 + P44 + K65 + S25 + Zn3.5 kg ha?1 to sugarcane and N55 + P18 + K25 + S6 kg ha?1 to potato. In Tista Meander Floodplain soils, application of N120 + P40 + K75 + S20 + Zn2 + Mg15 kg ha?1 and N15 + P5 + K6 + S3 kg ha?1to sugarcane and lentil, respectively produced the highest yield of 117 t ha?1 with BCR of Tk.4.25. Green manure Sesbania aculeata increased cane yields about 2 to 9 per cent and contributed 56 - 66 kg N ha?1.

  19. Seed-colonizing bacterial communities associated with the suppression of Pythium seedling disease in a municipal biosolids compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Hsing; Jack, Allison L H; McGuire, I Cristina; Nelson, Eric B

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to characterize seed-colonizing microbial communities that were previously shown to be involved in the suppression of seedling disease caused by Pythium ultimum in a municipal biosolids compost. Selective microbial inhibitors were employed to inactivate portions of the microbial community associated with seed germinated in a compost medium to evaluate their impact on disease suppression. After initial screenings for toxicity to both cucumber and P. ultimum, six selective inhibitors were eventually used to assess the impact of seed treatment on the reduction of bacterial and fungal populations and on disease suppression. Rifampicin was the most effective inhibitor for inactivating disease suppression. Bacterial communities that colonized cucumber seed sown in compost medium for 8 h and seed sown in compost medium for 8 h followed by a 3-h treatment of either rifampicin at 500 ppm or water were dislodged from seed surfaces and subjected to RNA extraction and reverse transcription to cDNA. Differences in the composition of seed-colonizing bacterial communities were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA genes. T-RFLP profiles revealed a diversity of distinct bacterial taxa, a number of which dominate seed surfaces within 8 h of sowing. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) using terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) presence or absence showed that community profiles of nontreated and water-treated seed were quite similar whereas community profiles from rifampicin-treated seed were distinct. Differences in community profiles based on T-RF abundance (peak height and peak area) indicated that all treatments were unique (ANOSIM, all pairwise comparisons P Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., and Bacillus spp.) are known to be suppressive to Pythium diseases. Results of our study have confirmed that Pythium disease suppression in a municipal biosolids compost is mediated by compost-associated bacteria that colonize seed within hours after sowing. By focusing on actively growing microbes in the infection court during important stages of pathogen infection, we believe we can more efficiently determine the mechanisms of disease suppression and the microbes involved. Although specific to this pathosystem and compost, our results have a much broader scope of inference and illustrate the utility of such a targeted approach in identifying a relatively small subset of microbial taxa from complex communities likely to be involved in disease suppression. PMID:22352305

  20. Sugarcane Phenological Date Estimation Using Broad-Band Digital Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobasheri M. Chahardoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agricultural industry, precision farming is the most important task that attracts lots of attentions. The health of the plant depends mostly on the amount of water in its access that can be estimated through vegetation indices. These indices can be extracted from satellite images through Image processing algorithms. The objective of this research was to provide an equation for assessment of the quality of the phenological dates of the sugarcane in Degree-Day (DD which are usually derived using satellite data. Then these calibration equations can be used in the collection of some ground truth data applicable in remote sensing where ever the need arises. A simple way for implementing this task is to develop an algorithm (an equation with which we can (to a limited extent quantify the interaction of light (in the RGB region of spectrum with the plant foliage to have DDs as their outputs. To do this 63 digital photographs were taken in three field campaigns on Sep29, 2006 through Oct1, 2006 from Amirkabir and Dea`bal-Khazaie sugarcane sites located in the south-west of Iran. These photographs included 9 different stages of the sugarcane growth and bare soil. It was found that on the average, the effect of dust on the leaves is an increase in DN values of about 9, 8 and 13 for bands red, green and blue respectively. To find an algorithm for determination of plant phenological date four different methods were used. These were Rectangular Method (RM, Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM, Thresholding Method (TM and Hybrid Method (HM. To test the ability of different methods in the prediction of plants DDs, three photographs with known DDs and vegetation cover percentage were used. Entering these predicted DDs and true values in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the degree of significance level of the predicted value of each method was evaluated. As a result MLM with R2 of 0.987 and TM method with R2 of 0.989 both with significance level of 0.827 were the best methods for estimation of phenological date using broadband digital cameras.

  1. Isolation and partial purification of toxin from colletotrichum falcatum: the causal agent of red rot in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum) spores were isolated from infected stalk pieces of sugarcane and grown on Czapek Dox agar medium to obtain pure culture. Spores were obtained from the pure culture and grown in Czapec Dox liquid medium for further studies. It was observed that the fresh and dry weights of fungal mycellial mat significantly increased with time. In addition, fungal growth resulted in a significant change in the pH of the Czapec Dox growth medium over a period of 35 days and gradually increased from 6.5 in the control medium to 8.4. The fungal toxin was extracted from the growth medium and used to treat cell suspension of a red rot resistant sugarcane cultivar HSF-240. The maximum toxin was produced after 28 days of fungal growth in the growth medium which was ascertained by the dry weight of residue obtained from the ethyl actate fractions, as well as percent mortality of sugarcane cells in suspension. The LD50 value (50% cell mortality) of toxin in ethyl acetate (ETA) fraction was 22.03 days while in water it was 30 days. The fungal toxin extracted in ETA fractions was more effective than the one extracted in water. It was mainly due to high solubility and potency of the toxin in ETA than in water. In general, the maximum toxicity was noted at the 4th week (28 days) which decreased at 5th and 6th week of mycelial growth. (author)

  2. Quantitative genetics of sugarcane : II. Correlation analysis of continuous characters in relation to hybrid sugarcane breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A H; Daniels, J; Latter, B D

    1969-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the genetic, clonal and environmental correlations existing among commercially important characters in a sugarcane breeding population of interspecific hybrid origin. 2. In general, there is a close correspondence between genetic correlation coefficients measuring the extent of association at the level of family means, and clonal correlations measuring genotypic relationships at the level of clone means. Greater weight has therefore been given to the numerical estimates of the clonal correlations, in view of their greater accuracy, and the possibility that atypical family groups may unduly influence the genetic correlations. 3. Many significant environmental correlations, generally of a low order of magnitude, have been detected. These have been found to fall naturally into a pattern based on the operation of factors causing differences from plot-to-plot in either growth rate or the process of ripening. 4. A wide variety of genetic relationships cannot be explained in terms of these same two physiological processes. The signs of the clonal correlation coefficients for these particular associations fall very clearly into a pattern identical with that distinguishing the wild species from Saccharum officinarum. 5. The cytological basis for this partial retention of original parent species associations is almost certainly the segregation of whole chromosomes from the wild species as intact units, with little possibility of gene exchange or recombination with chromosomes from S. officinarum. 6. The magnitudes of the observed clonal correlations in general indicate ample scope for independent genetic manipulation of traits from wild and noble canes, provided selection pressure is maintained on all those of commercial importance. However, the interrelationships involving number of stalks per plot, stalk cross-sectional area and fibre percent fresh weight, are somewhat more restrictive. 7. Attention is drawn to the need for a more extensive sampling of the genetic variation available within the wild species S. spontaneum, S. robustum and S. sinense. PMID:24435213

  3. Different chemical ripeners action on sugarcane yield and technological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Katia Meschede

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study objectified to determine the effect of the ripeners, ethephon, trinexapac ethyl, sulfumeturon metal, fluazifop-p-butil and glyphosate, over technological quality and sugarcane yield. The experiment was carried out in ratoon cane, (RB86 – 7515 genotype at Santa Antonina Farm, in Sertãozinho County, São Paulo State, in 2007 agricultural year. The experimental design used was randomized complete block with four replications. Treatments tested were constituted by: glyphosate at 0.40 L ha-1, sulfumeturon-methyl 20 g ha-1, sulfumeturonmethyl 10 g ha-1 glyphosate + 0.20 L ha-1, fluazifop-p-butyl 75 mL ha-1, trinexapac-ethyl 0.80 L ha- 1 , ethephon 0.67 L ha-1 and a check without ripeners application. Evaluations were made in the moment of application, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after products application (DAA. Application of all used products as ripeners promoted significant effect, in relation to the check, for sugar cane Pol characteristic, since the first period of evaluation (15 DAA until the final (60 DAA. Plant height and ATR were modified by ripeners application inside evaluated periods. Fluazifop-p-butyl application stopped sugarcane growth. Yield was changed by ripeners applications in all evaluated periods. Fluazifop-p-butyl application increased yield immediately after application (15 DAA, however for the other periods, this treatment showed the lowest yield. Sulfumeturon-methyl, sulfumeturon-methyl + glyphosate and ethephon showed the best yield results from 30 and 60 DAA. ATR values were higher with glyphosate and fluazifop-p-butyl application.

  4. Role of mutation breeding in sugarcane improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud setts of a popular sugarcane var. Co-419 irradiated with Co60 gamma rays produced wide genetic variations. It was easy to rapidly multiply and maintain the mutants appearing in the MV1 generation by repeated vegetative propagations. Two promising mutants (TS-1 and TS-8) found stable over 8 vegetative generations show increased cane girth and weight, enhanced sucrose content and possible early maturity, as compared to var. Co-419. Large scale field trials under different agroclimatic conditions for yield and mill tests are in progress in collaboration with some of the leading sugar factories in the country. Simultaneously, they are also being tested for disease resistance and agronomic performance at several Government Sugarcane Research Stations. Results obtained so far are presented. (author)

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  6. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ghislaine V., Fonseca; José Humberto M., Tambor; Marina P., Nobrega; Rafael, Santos; Francisco G., Nobrega.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A mitocôndria funciona como uma usina geradora metabólica por meio da fosforilação oxidativa e tem sido alvo de um renovado interesse devido aos progressos no entendimento de sua biogênese e na descrição de novos papéis ligados à senescência, morte celular e montagem dos centros Fe/S. Uma análise gl [...] obal dos genes de planta ligados à esta organela é agora possível. A base de dados do projeto SUCEST foi examinada para detecção de ESTs com similaridade a genes nucleares relacionados às funções mitocondriais usando-se proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens e Arabidopsis thaliana. Foram utilizadas 869 seqüências de proteínas para varrer o banco de ESTs do projeto SUCEST por meio do programa de busca de similaridade TBLASTN, sendo examinados 81.223 agrupamentos. Encontramos 367 agrupamentos com E-value Abstract in english Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, [...] cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value

  7. Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Niaz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis was studied in sugarcane cultivars CPF-237 and SPF-213. Explants used were leaves, lateral buds and pith. MS medium along with NAA and 2,4-D in various concentrations were used and it was observed that 1.0 mg NAA and 3-mg/l 2,4-D was optimal for embryogenesis. Leaf portion showed maximum embryogenesis and proved a better explant source than pith.

  8. Systematics of rust and associated fungi from sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The systematic positions of rust pathogens infecting sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) were determined using independent and combined sequence data. Rust specimens on sugarcane were sent from 175 locations in 25 countries. In all collections except one, the morphology and nuclear large ...

  9. Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of sugarcane germplasm for juice quality traits such as starch content could encourage their use for germplasm enhancement. Starch content among sugarcane germplasm was evaluated in three experiments. Experiment I had 49 accessions including 5 Saccharum spontaneum, 13 S. barberi, ...

  10. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

  11. Development of salt tolerant potato and sugarcane through in vitro techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of sugarcane and potato in Pakistan is hampered by their intricate flowering behavior under natural day-length conditions. The improvement of these crops for their salt tolerance can be carried out by tissue culture mediated techniques. To induce variation in sugarcane, five-week old white yellow nodular embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5, 20, 40 and 60 Gy gamma rays. After one month, the calli were cultured on regeneration media, and plant hardening procedures were optimized. Irradiated and non-irradiated calli were subjected to various levels of salt stress and plant regeneration was investigated. Although growth of sugarcane calli was observed at 200 mM NaCl, regeneration was inhibited even at 50 mM NaCl in the medium. The regenerants from gamma irradiated material are under field evaluation. Variation was detected in both irradiated and salt treated calli by DNA fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In potato, 6-7 weeks old in vitro grown plants with single shoots having 8-10 buds were irradiated with 20 Gy gamma rays. Shoot formation was successful only from 50% of the axillary buds. The cultures were subjected to four levels of salinity (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM Nacl). Shoot-tip necrosis was observed along with significant reduction in shoot height. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Controlled traffic and soil physical quality of an Oxisol under sugarcane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machinery traffic in sugarcane (Saccharumsp. plantations reduces soil physical quality, and hinders both root development and crop yield. We evaluated the physical quality of an Oxisol and the development of sugarcane roots under controlled traffic. The treatments assessed were: without controlled machinery traffic (WCT, controlled traffic by adjusting the tractor and infield wagons to a 3.0 m track width with the operator guiding the machinery (CT1 and the previous treatment using real time kinematic / global positioning system (RTK / GPS precision auto steer (CT2. Soil samples were collected from the planting rows, seedbed and inter-row center to determine the least limiting water range (LLWR and soil porosity from scanned 2-D images. The root dry mass was sampled from monoliths, separated from the soil by washing through a 2-mm sieve and dried in an oven. A higher LLWR was observed in the planting row under CT1 and CT2 than under WCT. The planting row had a predominance of complex pores with a diameter > 500 µm in the 0.15-0.27 m depth layer under CT1 and CT2. In the planting rows under WCT, the root dry mass was only 44 % of that measured under CT2. Benefits regarding soil physical quality and growth roots were observed when the tractor-wagon track width was adjusted based on the sugarcane spacing using either precision auto steering or manual operation of the machinery.

  13. Controlled traffic and soil physical quality of an Oxisol under sugarcane cultivation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Soares de, Souza; Zigomar Menezes de, Souza; Miguel, Cooper; Cássio Antônio, Tormena.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machinery traffic in sugarcane (Saccharumsp.) plantations reduces soil physical quality, and hinders both root development and crop yield. We evaluated the physical quality of an Oxisol and the development of sugarcane roots under controlled traffic. The treatments assessed were: without controlled [...] machinery traffic (WCT), controlled traffic by adjusting the tractor and infield wagons to a 3.0 m track width with the operator guiding the machinery (CT1) and the previous treatment using real time kinematic / global positioning system (RTK / GPS) precision auto steer (CT2). Soil samples were collected from the planting rows, seedbed and inter-row center to determine the least limiting water range (LLWR) and soil porosity from scanned 2-D images. The root dry mass was sampled from monoliths, separated from the soil by washing through a 2-mm sieve and dried in an oven. A higher LLWR was observed in the planting row under CT1 and CT2 than under WCT. The planting row had a predominance of complex pores with a diameter > 500 µm in the 0.15-0.27 m depth layer under CT1 and CT2. In the planting rows under WCT, the root dry mass was only 44 % of that measured under CT2. Benefits regarding soil physical quality and growth roots were observed when the tractor-wagon track width was adjusted based on the sugarcane spacing using either precision auto steering or manual operation of the machinery.

  14. Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

    2012-01-01

    The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods. PMID:22864427

  15. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Danielle Virginio da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH42SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH42SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH42SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH42SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a for both yeasts (NH42SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.

  16. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Debora Danielle Virginio da, Silva; Elisangela de Jesus, Cândido; Priscila Vaz de, Arruda; Silvio Silvério da, Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida, Felipe.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioproce [...] sses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.

  17. Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes ?-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control or with L. buchneri at a theoretical application rate of 5 × 10(4 cfu/g, 1 × 10(5 cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5 cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 Charolais × Nellore were housed in 20 collective pens and fed diets comprising (dry matter [DM] basis 458 g/kg sugarcane silage and 542 g/kg concentrates for an 84-d period. Treated silages had higher concentrations of acetic acid and lower concentrations of ethanol. Total mixed rations (TMR containing inoculated silages exhibited significantly lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF concentration and, consequently, higher in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD. Thus, animals fed TMR containing treated silages spent less time chewing per day and per kilogram of DM intake (DMI, even at higher DMI levels. Nonetheless, the intake of NDF was similar across treatments (0.77 to 0.79 kg/100 kg BW but markedly lower than the value reported for traditional forages. Average daily gain was significantly greater for animals fed TMR based on inoculated silages due to the higher DMI (14% on average and the higher energy content of the diets, as indicated by the higher feed efficiency (12% on average. The dose of inoculants used and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes had no significant effects on silage parameters or animal performance. Therefore, inoculation of L. buchneri during sugarcane ensilage can alter the fermentation pattern by increasing acetic acid yield, reducing silage nutrient losses, and improving feed efficiency by bulls.

  18. Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrick, Schmidt; Luiz Gustavo, Nussio; Oscar Cézar Müller, Queiroz; Mateus Castilho, Santos; Maity, Zopollatto; Sérgio Gil de, Toledo Filho; João Luiz Pratti, Daniel.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes ?-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control) or with L. buchneri at a theoretical ap [...] plication rate of 5 × 10(4) cfu/g, 1 × 10(5) cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5) cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo) and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 Charolais × Nellore) were housed in 20 collective pens and fed diets comprising (dry matter [DM] basis) 458 g/kg sugarcane silage and 542 g/kg concentrates for an 84-d period. Treated silages had higher concentrations of acetic acid and lower concentrations of ethanol. Total mixed rations (TMR) containing inoculated silages exhibited significantly lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and, consequently, higher in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD). Thus, animals fed TMR containing treated silages spent less time chewing per day and per kilogram of DM intake (DMI), even at higher DMI levels. Nonetheless, the intake of NDF was similar across treatments (0.77 to 0.79 kg/100 kg BW) but markedly lower than the value reported for traditional forages. Average daily gain was significantly greater for animals fed TMR based on inoculated silages due to the higher DMI (14% on average) and the higher energy content of the diets, as indicated by the higher feed efficiency (12% on average). The dose of inoculants used and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes had no significant effects on silage parameters or animal performance. Therefore, inoculation of L. buchneri during sugarcane ensilage can alter the fermentation pattern by increasing acetic acid yield, reducing silage nutrient losses, and improving feed efficiency by bulls.

  19. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH?)?SO?; peptone and yeast extract; (NH?)?SO?, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH?)?SO?, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH?)?SO? and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH?)?SO? was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  20. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes relacionados ao metabolismo secundário da cana de açúcar e investigar o padrão de expressão gênica de enzimas chaves reguladoras das principais vias biossintéticas ativas nos diferentes tipos de tecidos e situações de estresse físico-químico e biológico a que estão submetidas plantas cultivadas em casas de vegetação, campo ou in vitro. A estratégia de mineração dos dados da database de sequências expressas de cana de açúcar, SUCEST, usando ferramentas de bioinformática, focalizou classes de compostos como isoprenóides e fenilpropanóides que comprovadamente desempenham um papel na resposta de plantas a variações ambientais. Foram identificados e caracterizados genes que codificam enzimas chaves para a síntese de terpenóides, como a sesquiterpeno ciclase (SC; (CHS para síntese de flavonóides; isoflavona sintase (IFS envolvida na biossíntese de isoflavonóides que desempenharm importante papel na defesa de plantas e nodulação de raízes; isoflavona redutases (IFR enzimas chaves para a síntese de fenilpropanóide fitoalexinas, bem como enzimas relacionadas à síntese de precursores de lignina, como a enzima ácido caféico- O- metiltransferase. O efeito do estresse causado por bactérias como Herbaspirillum rubri e Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans também foi avaliado tendo sido constatada a indução da expressão de chalcona sintase (CHS em plântulas infectadas com esses agentes, sugerindo a ativação da via de flavonóides em resposta a este estresse biológico. Esses resultados apontam para o fato de que as vias do metabolismo de isopropanóides e de fenilpropanóides em cana de açúcar são ativadas de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento, especificidade de tecidos e em resposta a situações de estresse. Essas observações deverão ser confirmadas por meio de experimentação genética e bioquímica.

  1. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.C., França; P.G., Roberto; M.A., Marins; R.D., Puga; A., Rodrigues; J.O., Pereira.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes relacionados ao metabolismo secundário da cana de açúcar e investigar o padrão de expressão gênica de enzimas chaves reguladoras das principais vias biossintéticas ativas nos diferentes tipos de tecidos e situações de estress [...] e físico-químico e biológico a que estão submetidas plantas cultivadas em casas de vegetação, campo ou in vitro. A estratégia de mineração dos dados da database de sequências expressas de cana de açúcar, SUCEST, usando ferramentas de bioinformática, focalizou classes de compostos como isoprenóides e fenilpropanóides que comprovadamente desempenham um papel na resposta de plantas a variações ambientais. Foram identificados e caracterizados genes que codificam enzimas chaves para a síntese de terpenóides, como a sesquiterpeno ciclase (SC); (CHS) para síntese de flavonóides; isoflavona sintase (IFS) envolvida na biossíntese de isoflavonóides que desempenharm importante papel na defesa de plantas e nodulação de raízes; isoflavona redutases (IFR) enzimas chaves para a síntese de fenilpropanóide fitoalexinas, bem como enzimas relacionadas à síntese de precursores de lignina, como a enzima ácido caféico- O- metiltransferase. O efeito do estresse causado por bactérias como Herbaspirillum rubri e Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans também foi avaliado tendo sido constatada a indução da expressão de chalcona sintase (CHS) em plântulas infectadas com esses agentes, sugerindo a ativação da via de flavonóides em resposta a este estresse biológico. Esses resultados apontam para o fato de que as vias do metabolismo de isopropanóides e de fenilpropanóides em cana de açúcar são ativadas de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento, especificidade de tecidos e em resposta a situações de estresse. Essas observações deverão ser confirmadas por meio de experimentação genética e bioquímica. Abstract in english A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites inv [...] olved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC); chalcone synthase (CHS), the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS), involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR), a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.

  2. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bacci Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres informativos para parcimônia e à homoplasia presentes na região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, não foi possível determinar com segurança a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e alguns dos demais membros da tribo Saccharine. Como alternativa para esta baixa resolução, dezessete regiões gênicas nucleares, cloroplasmáticas ou mitocondriais foram selecionadas a partir do banco de dados SUCEST com o objetivo de encontrar marcadores mais apropriados para a reconstrução da filogenia da cana-de-açúcar. Entre elas, aquelas correspondentes à alfa-tubulina, rpl16, e rpoC2 apresentaram baixa incidência de polimorfismo e taxas de evolução equivalentes ou mesmo maiores do que a observada para a região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2. Estes marcadores são propostos como preferenciais para estudos filogenéticos da subtribo Saccharinae.

  3. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%, no número de folhas (4% a 7% e no teor de clorofila (3% das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica.

  4. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane molasses in Uttar Pradesh, India. A comparative analysis with south-central Brazilian sugarcane ethanol is also presented to compare the performance of sugarcane molasses-based ethanol with sugarcane ju...

  5. Genetic diversity analysis of sugarcane ( Saccharum sp. clones using simple sequence repeat markers of sugarcane and rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Banumathi , V.Krishnasamy, M.Maheswaran, R.Samiyappan, P.Govindaraj and N.Kumaravadivel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers are powerful tools, which help in differentiating plant varieties at the DNA level and have been widelyused for genetic diversity studies in a number of crop species'. Understanding the genetic diversity of available clones of S.officinarum and S. spontaneum will be helpful in breeding programs. In the present study, a set of 48 sugarcane clones fromNational Hybridization Garden, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore was subjected to genetic diversity analysisinvolving 40 SSR markers of sugarcane and rice. SSR analysis involving a set of 20 sugarcane and 20 rice primer pairsgenerated 147 and 114 markers with average polymorphism information content (PIC value of 0.665 and 0.532respectively. Cluster analysis using rice marker across 48 genotypes revealed two major clusters with ISH 23 remaining adeviant from the rest of the cultivars. Cluster analysis based on sugarcane SSR markers were found to be more or lesssimilar to that based on rice SSR markers showing minor difference in grouping. Hence, similar results obtained forcharacterizing the sugarcane clones by using SSR markers from sugarcane and rice reveal that markers with betterdiscriminating power from other cereals can bring out better characterization of sugarcane clones.

  6. SUGARCANE RESISTANCE TO THE SUGARCANE BORER: RESPONSE TO INFESTATION AMONG PROGENY DERIVED FROM RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE PARENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer (SCB), Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana. The deployment of SCB-resistant varieties is an integral part of the integrated pest management approach to minimizing injury from SCB infestation. Our objective was ...

  7. Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naureen Chaudhary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II. The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4, 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comprising of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI. All the four strains grew best at pH 7 and 37°C. Aeration was not required for these bacterial strains. 5% inocula sizes were found optimum for the bacterial isolates except strain No. 23, which yielded best growth with 10% inoculum. After 2nd day of incubation in M-IV medium the bacteria liberated upto 8033 mg/100 mL of total sugar content, which showed reduction in subsequent sampling periods. On the other hand glucose content showed variable response to incubation periods. The strain 11a expressed 1411 mg/100 mL of glucose at 10th day while isolate No. 23 yielded 808 mg/100 mL glucose at 18th day of incubation. Fermentation by ethanologenic yeast of culture fluids saccharification by the isolate 194 and 23 expressed about 0.2 and 1.2% ethanol on 3rd and 7th days, respectively. The bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus cereus based upon their chemical characterization. These isolates appear potential candidates for saccharifying the sugarcane bagasse and production of ethanol employing ethanologenic yeast.

  8. Comparative study on agro-physiology of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum l.) genotypes at different irrigation co-efficient values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought is the primary factor limiting sugarcane growth and physiological development under the climatic conditions of Pakistan; especially in those areas where without supplemental irrigation, productivity is not possible. Lack of detailed information regarding the performance of cane varieties under drought during formative stage and poor selection breeding program played key role in limiting cane productivity. The proposed study was conducted to investigate the genetic response of different cultivars viz., CSSG-676, CSSG-668, HoSG-795, HoSG-529, NSG-59 and HSF- 240 (standard) regarding the physiological development of sugarcane and its productivity at different irrigation co-efficient levels (100%, 80% and 60%). This study elucidates that moisture has a pronounced impact on the physiological attributes of sugarcane and proper irrigation scheduling with 20 no. of irrigations were reported best in-term of better germination (69.65%), leaf area index (7.13), crop growth rate (8.44), net assimilation rate (1.06) and chlorophyll contents (5.98). Similarly in case of genomic response, NSG-59 was reported significant best as compared to all other test cultivars in term of better physiological performance, showing significant higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, chlorophyll contents and water use efficiency that maximized the crop growth and resulted in higher net assimilation rate. Higher proline contents (1.59) produced in NSG-59 also made it best under drought conditions. (author)

  9. Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Water Use and Yield of Irrigated Sugarcane in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.R; Singels, A.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable predictions of climate change impacts on water use, irrigation requirements and yields of irrigated sugarcane in South Africa (a water-scarce country) are necessary to plan adaptation strategies. Although previous work has been done in this regard, methodologies and results vary considerably. The objectives were (1) to estimate likely impacts of climate change on sugarcane yields, water use and irrigation demand at three irrigated sugarcane production sites in South Africa (Malelane, Pongola and La Mercy) for current (1980-2010) and future (2070-2100) climate scenarios, using an approach based on the Agricultural Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) protocols; and (2) to assess the suitability of this methodology for investigating climate change impacts on sugarcane production. Future climate datasets were generated using the Delta downscaling method and three Global Circulation Models (GCMs) assuming atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of 734 ppm(A2 emissions scenario). Yield and water use were simulated using the DSSAT-Canegro v4.5 model. Irrigated cane yields are expected to increase at all three sites (between 11 and 14%), primarily due to increased interception of radiation as a result of accelerated canopy development. Evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements increased by 11% due to increased canopy cover and evaporative demand. Sucrose yields are expected to decline because of increased consumption of photo-assimilate for structural growth and maintenance respiration. Crop responses in canopy development and yield formation differed markedly between the crop cycles investigated. Possible agronomic implications of these results include reduced weed control costs due to shortened periods of partial canopy, a need for improved efficiency of irrigation to counter increased demands, and adjustments to ripening and harvest practices to counter decreased cane quality and optimize productivity. Although the Delta climate data downscaling method is considered robust, accurate and easily-understood, it does not change the future number of rain-days per month. The impacts of this and other climate data simplifications ought to be explored in future work. Shortcomings of the DSSAT-Canegro model include the simulated responses of phenological development, photosynthesis and respiration processes to high temperatures, and the disconnect between simulated biomass accumulation and expansive growth. Proposed methodology refinements should improve the reliability of predicted climate change impacts on sugarcane yield.

  10. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Bacci Jr.; V.F.O., Miranda; V.G., Martins; A.V.O., Figueira; M.V., Lemos; J.O., Pereira; C.L., Marino.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S), com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarca [...] ne Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST). Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres informativos para parcimônia e à homoplasia presentes na região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, não foi possível determinar com segurança a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e alguns dos demais membros da tribo Saccharine. Como alternativa para esta baixa resolução, dezessete regiões gênicas nucleares, cloroplasmáticas ou mitocondriais foram selecionadas a partir do banco de dados SUCEST com o objetivo de encontrar marcadores mais apropriados para a reconstrução da filogenia da cana-de-açúcar. Entre elas, aquelas correspondentes à alfa-tubulina, rpl16, e rpoC2 apresentaram baixa incidência de polimorfismo e taxas de evolução equivalentes ou mesmo maiores do que a observada para a região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2. Estes marcadores são propostos como preferenciais para estudos filogenéticos da subtribo Saccharinae. Abstract in english To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA) region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag ( [...] SUCEST) genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial) from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16) and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2) were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.

  11. Relationships of pre-inoculation high temperature to root browning caused by Pythium aphanidermatum in hydroponically-grown sweet pepper / Relações entre elevadas temperaturas na pré-inoculação e o escurecimento radicular causado por Pythium aphanidermatum em pimentão hidropônico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Coralie R., Sopher; John C., Sutton.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Episódios de elevada temperatura na zona radicular foram analisados em relação à suscetibilidade de pimentão à podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum. As plantas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva aerada em unidades hidropônicas contidas em caixas com controle da temperatura. A tem [...] peratura da zona radicular foi de 23ºC, com exceção dos períodos dos tratamentos com elevada temperatura. As raízes foram expostas a 33ºC por 0 a 216 h, inoculadas com P. aphanidermatum e avaliadas quanto à colonização do patógeno e a severidade do escurecimento (necrose). O patógeno colonizou todas as raízes em 12 h. As raízes escureceram precocemente quando expostas a 33ºC por mais de 9 h, quando comparadas com raízes expostas por 0 a 6 h. O desenvolvimento de escurecimento precoce foi progressivo quando o período a 33ºC aumentou de 9 para 144 h e ocorreu quatro dias antes quando as raízes foram submetidas a temperatura elevada de 144 a 216 h, quando comparadas com 0 a 9 h. O escurecimento precoce também ocorreu quando a inoculação foi realizada por até 216 h após a exposição a 33ºC por 72 h. Conclui-se que elevadas temperaturas predispõem plantas de pimentão ao precoce escurecimento radicular causado por P. aphanidermatum e que a predisposição se mantém por um período mínimo de nove dias. Abstract in english Episodes of high root-zone temperature (33ºC) were investigated in relation to susceptibility of sweet pepper to root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Pepper plants were grown in aerated nutrient solution in hydroponic units positioned in temperature-controlled water baths. Root zone temperatur [...] e was 23ºC except during high temperature treatments. Roots were exposed to 33ºC for 0 to 216 h, inoculated with P. aphanidermatum and assesseda at intervals for colonization by the pathogen and for severity of browning (necrosis). The pathogen colonized all roots within 12 h following inoculation. The roots turned brown earlier when exposed to 33ºC for more than 9 h prior to inoculation compared to those exposed for 0 to 6 h. Browning developed progressively earlier as the period at 33ºC was increased from 9 to 144 h, and was 4 days earlier for exposures of 144 to 216 h compared to 0 to 9 h. Browning was precocious also when inoculation was delayed as long as 216 h following exposure at 33ºC for 72 h. We conclude that high temperature predisposes pepper plants to precocious browning caused by P. aphanidermatum and that predisposition lasts for at least 9 days.

  12. Relationships of pre-inoculation high temperature to root browning caused by Pythium aphanidermatum in hydroponically-grown sweet pepper Relações entre elevadas temperaturas na pré-inoculação e o escurecimento radicular causado por Pythium aphanidermatum em pimentão hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie R. Sopher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodes of high root-zone temperature (33ºC were investigated in relation to susceptibility of sweet pepper to root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Pepper plants were grown in aerated nutrient solution in hydroponic units positioned in temperature-controlled water baths. Root zone temperature was 23ºC except during high temperature treatments. Roots were exposed to 33ºC for 0 to 216 h, inoculated with P. aphanidermatum and assesseda at intervals for colonization by the pathogen and for severity of browning (necrosis. The pathogen colonized all roots within 12 h following inoculation. The roots turned brown earlier when exposed to 33ºC for more than 9 h prior to inoculation compared to those exposed for 0 to 6 h. Browning developed progressively earlier as the period at 33ºC was increased from 9 to 144 h, and was 4 days earlier for exposures of 144 to 216 h compared to 0 to 9 h. Browning was precocious also when inoculation was delayed as long as 216 h following exposure at 33ºC for 72 h. We conclude that high temperature predisposes pepper plants to precocious browning caused by P. aphanidermatum and that predisposition lasts for at least 9 days.Episódios de elevada temperatura na zona radicular foram analisados em relação à suscetibilidade de pimentão à podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum. As plantas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva aerada em unidades hidropônicas contidas em caixas com controle da temperatura. A temperatura da zona radicular foi de 23ºC, com exceção dos períodos dos tratamentos com elevada temperatura. As raízes foram expostas a 33ºC por 0 a 216 h, inoculadas com P. aphanidermatum e avaliadas quanto à colonização do patógeno e a severidade do escurecimento (necrose. O patógeno colonizou todas as raízes em 12 h. As raízes escureceram precocemente quando expostas a 33ºC por mais de 9 h, quando comparadas com raízes expostas por 0 a 6 h. O desenvolvimento de escurecimento precoce foi progressivo quando o período a 33ºC aumentou de 9 para 144 h e ocorreu quatro dias antes quando as raízes foram submetidas a temperatura elevada de 144 a 216 h, quando comparadas com 0 a 9 h. O escurecimento precoce também ocorreu quando a inoculação foi realizada por até 216 h após a exposição a 33ºC por 72 h. Conclui-se que elevadas temperaturas predispõem plantas de pimentão ao precoce escurecimento radicular causado por P. aphanidermatum e que a predisposição se mantém por um período mínimo de nove dias.

  13. INFLUENCE OF SOLID MOISTURE AND BED HEIGHT ON CULTIVATION OF Aspergillus niger FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE WITH VINASSE

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Bastos; D. V. Morais; M. P. C. Volpi

    2015-01-01

    AbstractSolid-state cultivation (SSC) may be defined as growth of microorganisms on a solid support impregnated or not with a nutrient solution in near absence of free-water conditions. The use of sugarcane bagasse as a support for SSC usually demands that the particles are impregnated and moistened with nutrient solution. Vinasse is the main wastewater of ethanol fermentation-distillation. As there are no reports of the use of wastewater for moistening solid supports in SSC, the proposal is ...

  14. Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok A. Nikam; Rachayya M. Devarumath; Akash Ahuja; Harinath Babu; Mahadeo G. Shitole; Penna Suprasanna

    2015-01-01

    Gamma ray-induced in vitro mutagenesis and selection for salt (NaCl) tolerance were investigated in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Embryogenic callus cultures were irradiated (10 to 80 Gy) and subjected to in vitro selection by exposure of irradiated callus to NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol L− 1). Increasing NaCl concentrations resulted in growth reduction and increased membrane damage. Salt-selected callus lines were characterized by the accumulation of proline, glycine beta...

  15. Effect of Various Substrates on the Growth and Quality of Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    P. Ponmurugan; Y. Nataraja Sekhar; T.R. Sreesakthi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different biowastes such as paddy straw, sorghum straw, sugarcane molasses, saw dust and paper waste on the growth and biochemical constituents of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) was studied. Favourable conditions were created to attain the maximum yield of mushrooms. The results reveled that mushroom growth was better in paddy straw followed by sugarcane molasses and least in wood saw dust and paper waste. The growth of mushrooms may be coincided with type of substrates use...

  16. Sugarwin: a sugarcane insect-induced gene with antipathogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Ane H; Franco, Flávia P; Matos, Juliana L; de Castro, Patrícia A; Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Goldman, Gustavo H; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2012-05-01

    In sugarcane fields, colonization of the stalk by opportunistic fungi usually occurs after the caterpillar Diatraea saccharalis attacks the sugarcane plant. Plants respond to insect attack by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN), sugarcane wound-inducible proteins SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2, have been identified in sugarcane by an in silico analysis. Antifungal properties have been described for a number of BARWIN homologues. We report that a SUGARWIN::green fluorescent protein fusion protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the extracellular space of sugarcane plants. The induction of sugarwin transcripts occurs in response to mechanical wounding, D. saccharalis damage, and methyl jasmonate treatment. The accumulation of transcripts is late induced and is restricted to the site of the wound. Although the transcripts of sugarwin genes were strongly increased following insect attack, the protein itself did not show any effect on insect development; rather, it altered fungal morphology, leading to the apoptosis of the germlings. These results suggest that, in the course of evolution, sugarwin-encoding genes were recruited by sugarcane due to their antipathogenic activity. We rationalize that sugarcane is able to induce sugarwin gene expression in response to D. saccharalis feeding as a concerted plant response to the anticipated invasion by the fungi that typically penetrate the plant stalk after insect damage. PMID:22250584

  17. Bioinformatics of the sugarcane EST project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telles Guilherme P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sugarcane EST project (SUCEST produced 291,904 expressed sequence tags (ESTs in a consortium that involved 74 sequencing and data mining laboratories. We created a web site for this project that served as a ?meeting point? for receiving, processing, analyzing, and providing services to help explore the sequence data. In this paper we describe the information pathway that we implemented to support this project and a brief explanation of the clustering procedure, which resulted in 43,141 clusters.

  18. Isolation of a novel peroxisomal catalase gene from sugarcane, which is responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Chen, Shanshan; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Liping; Allan, Andrew C; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an iron porphyrin enzyme, which serves as an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to avoid oxidative damage. In sugarcane, the enzymatic activity of catalase in a variety (Yacheng05-179) resistant to the smut pathogen Sporisorium scitamineum was always higher than that of the susceptible variety (Liucheng03-182), suggesting that catalase activity may have a positive correlation with smut resistance in sugarcane. To understand the function of catalase at the molecular level, a cDNA sequence of ScCAT1 (GenBank Accession No. KF664183), was isolated from sugarcane infected by S. scitamineum. ScCAT1 was predicted to encode 492 amino acid residues, and its deduced amino acid sequence shared a high degree of homology with other plant catalases. Enhanced growth of ScCAT1 in recombinant Escherichia coli Rosetta cells under the stresses of CuCl2, CdCl2 and NaCl indicated its high tolerance. Q-PCR results showed that ScCAT1 was expressed at relatively high levels in the bud, whereas expression was moderate in stem epidermis and stem pith. Different kinds of stresses, including S. scitamineum challenge, plant hormones (SA, MeJA and ABA) treatments, oxidative (H2O2) stress, heavy metal (CuCl2) and hyper-osmotic (PEG and NaCl) stresses, triggered a significant induction of ScCAT1. The ScCAT1 protein appeared to localize in plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Furthermore, histochemical assays using DAB and trypan blue staining, as well as conductivity measurement, indicated that ScCAT1 may confer the sugarcane immunity. In conclusion, the positive response of ScCAT1 to biotic and abiotic stresses suggests that ScCAT1 is involved in protection of sugarcane against reactive oxidant-related environmental stimuli. PMID:24392135

  19. Efecto de la aplicación de abonos orgánicos en la supresión de Pythium myriotylum en plantas de tiquisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia, Artavia; Lidieth, Uribe; Francisco, Saborío; Luis Felipe, Arauz; Leida, Castro.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los abonos orgánicos ejercen efecto supresivo sobre patógenos de planta; su capacidad supresora varía de acuerdo al tipo de abono y al sistema planta-patógeno. Se evaluó el efecto supresor de diferentes abonos orgánicos en el sistema tiquisque-Pythium myriotylum. Se determinó la madurez, estabilidad [...] , y actividad microbiana de los diferentes abonos, así como el efecto del tipo de compostaje (compost vs vermicompost), el material de origen (estiércol vs broza de café) y el grado de madurez, sobre la supresión del patógeno. El efecto supresivo sobre el desarrollo de la enfermedad en plantas de tiquisque se estableció por medio de una escala visual de síntomas a los 3, 6 y 9 días del transplante. Los abonos presentaron relaciones C/N entre 6 y 15 y ninguno afectó la germinación o la longitud de las raíces de plántulas de pepino. Los abonos maduros clasificaron como estables y los inmaduros, con excepción del compost de broza, como inestables. La menor incidencia de pudrición de raíces por P. myriotylum se obtuvo con el uso de vermicompost a base de estiércol maduro, mientras que la menor severidad de la enfermedad ocurrió cuando el suelo se enmendó con el compost y el vermicompost maduro a base de estiércol. En términos generales los abonos obtenidos a partir de estiércol fueron más supresivos, y presentaron una mayor actividad microbiana, que los producidos a base de broza de café. Se concluye que el tipo de compostaje, el origen y el grado de madurez tienen influencia sobre la capacidad supresora. Abstract in english Effect of the application of compost and vermicompost on the suppression of pythium myriotylum in cocoyam plants (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Organic amendments have been used as a substrate which is able to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens. Since these effects vary depending on the type of compos [...] t and the plant-pathogen system, the aim of this work was to evaluate the suppressive effect of different organic fertilizers against cocoyam root rot disease, caused by Pythium myriotylum. For this purpose, the effect of the composting process (compost vs. vermicompost), origin (animal manure vs. coffee fruit-peel pulp) and degree of maturity were tested. Stability and microbial activity of the organic amendment were also determined. The suppressive effect over disease development on cocoyam was established by using a visual severity-scale on days 3, 6, and 9after transplant. The organic fertilizers presented C/N ratios between 6 and 15. Neither affected the germination or root-length of cucumber seedlings. The mature organic fertilizers classified as stable; and the immature ones, with the exception of the coffee-pulp compost, as unstable. The treatment with the best result in reducing root rot disease incidence was the mature, vermicomposted animal manure. The lowest disease severity was obtained when the soil was amended with the mature, composted or vermicomposted, animal manure. In general, the organic amendments based on animal manure were more suppressive than the ones based on coffee pulp. These results indicate that the type of composting, original material and maturity influence the suppressivity of the organic amendments.

  20. Effects of Every-Other Furrow Irrigation on Water Use Efficiency and Sugarcane Characteristics in Southern Ahvaz Sugarcane Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A Kashkuli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been cultivated in an extensive area in Khuzestan and irrigated by hydro-flume or siphon and furrow. In a field experiment during 2005-6 at Amir Kabir Agro-Industry, Khuzestan, the effect of every other-furrow irrigation method was studied on sugarcane in regard to irrigation water volume, water use efficiency and quality and quantity of sugarcane. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three irrigation treatments, including conventional method (blank, variable every other furrow(alternative furrow and fixed every other furrow. This experiment was conducted by cv. Cp69-1062 sugarcane. The results showed that water use efficiency rates were 0.41, 0.58 and 0.7 kg/m3 for conventional, fixing furrow and alternative, respectively. However, water use efficiency rates were not significantly different in treatments. It had minimum amount of water use efficiency in every other furrow treatments. Maximum water use efficiency, quality and quantity of sugarcane were obtained every other irrigation. Maximum irrigation water was used in conventional treatment and resulted in minimum irrigation, quality sugarcane and water use efficiency. It produced 14.5 ton/ha sugar for 20604 m3/ha application of irrigation. Sugarcane quality and quantity characteristics in variable treatments, except for length number per hectare, were not significant.

  1. Identification of active metabolism roots of sugarcane for the isotopic dilution technique with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the sugarcane roots growth dynamics, as well as of the root system architecture of its, better allows to understanding of the relations between the plant and its environment of production, making possible the handling from practical more efficient and sustainable agriculturists who result in increase of productivity and longevity of the culture. In the study of the development of the sugarcane root system has an aggravating one in what the root renewal between cycles is mentioned to it, or in the same cycle, becoming necessary the identification of alive or active metabolism roots in a total mass showed. The present study it had for objective to develop a methodology of sugarcane active metabolism roots identification in the ground, by means of the isotopic dilution technique with 15N. The sugarcane root system study it can be carried through with this isotopic marker saw leaf application, a time that 15N is translocated until the root system. The experiment was carried through in commercial area of sugarcane in the region of Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, in a Oxissoil, with one second sprouts again of cultivating RB85 5156. The urea was the vehicle of supply of the isotopic marker 15N, by means of solution applied to leaves of the plants. After harvest of the aerial part, carried through 96 hours after the application of the urea solution, had been opened trenches, transversally to the line of the culture, with dimensions of 1 m of length and 1,4 m of width. The ground samples had been harvested by means of monoliths (5,6 dm-3) in the depths of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm, in the projection of the line of the culture and laterally in the distances of 14-42 cm and 42-70 cm of the culture line. In each depth of sampling, and the culture line projection, they had been separate samples of visually active roots. These samples had been considered standard for the determination for isotopic dilution technique of roots with active metabolism. The determination of the text of N and abundance of 15N in samples of plant and ground had been carried through in a spectrometer of masses model ANCA-SL of the Europe Scientific Ltd. The results had shown that the isotopic dilution technique with 15N made possible to identify roots with active metabolism and its distribution in the ground. (author)

  2. Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of [14C]fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of [14C] fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant

  3. Preservation of Sugarcane Juice Using Hurdle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishk Rawat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice was subjected following treatmentsviz.pasteurizationat80ºCfor10 min + chemicaltreatm ents(KMS @ 150 ppm and citric acid @0.05%;pasteurizationat80ºCfor10 min + chemicaltreatments (KMS @ 150 ppm and citric acid @ 0.05% + sterilization at 80ºC for 20 min. All the samples were packed in glass bottles, polyethylene Tetrapthelate (PET bottles and low density polyethylene pouches (LDPE and then irradiated at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy and stored for 90 days at room and low temperature. On treatment moisture content, ascorbic acid, viable bacterial count and viable yeast and mold count were decreased significantly (P > 0.05 where as no significant effect was observed on reducing and total sugars in cane juice. Among the three packaging material used glass and PET was found to be at par in increasing the shelf life of sugarcane juice in comparison to LDPE pouches. On storage, ascorbic acid and total sugars were decreased significantly (P > 0.05.

  4. Bioinformatics of the sugarcane EST project

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme P., Telles; Marília D.V., Braga; Zanoni, Dias; Lin, Tzy-Li; José A.A., Quitzau; Felipe R. da, Silva; João, Meidanis.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O projeto SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project) produziu 291.904 ESTs de cana-de-açúcar. Nesse projeto, o Laboratório de Bioinformática criou o web site que foi o "ponto de encontro" dos 74 laboratórios de sequenciamento e data mining que fizeram parte do consórcio para o projeto. O Laboratório de Bioinfor [...] mática (LBI) recebeu, processou, analisou e disponibilizou ferramentas para a exploração dos dados. Neste artigo os dados, serviços e programas implementados pelo LBI para o projeto são descritos, incluindo o procedimento de clustering que gerou 43.141 clusters. Abstract in english The Sugarcane EST project (SUCEST) produced 291,904 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in a consortium that involved 74 sequencing and data mining laboratories. We created a web site for this project that served as a ‘meeting point’ for receiving, processing, analyzing, and providing services to help ex [...] plore the sequence data. In this paper we describe the information pathway that we implemented to support this project and a brief explanation of the clustering procedure, which resulted in 43,141 clusters.

  5. In vitro Propagation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ramin

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in order to micropropagate sugarcane cultivars through shoot tip and auxilliary bud culture. Rinsing of four cultivars of sugarcane, namely CP-48-103, CP-57-614, CP-69-1062, and NCO-310 in 75% alcohol for 60 seconds and their subsequent disinfection with sodium and calcium hypochloride (1.5% active material for 15 minutes decreased a significant amount of infection of explants in the medium. The use of the Murashing and Skoog (MS solid and liquid medium with 1 mg/l Indole Butyric Acid (IBA, 1 mg/l Kinetin, 100 mg/l mio-inositol, 1 mg/l Thiamin HCl, and 2% sucrose had significant superiority (P<0.05 to 1/2 MS solid medium. Also, to increase the multiplication in a sterile medium (In vitro, two kinds of solid and liquid MS medium, with a hormone combination of 1 mg/l IBA, 2 mg/l Kinetin and 1 mg/l 6-(benzylamino-9-(2-tetrahydropyranyl-9H-purine (BAP were applied which yielded the highest amount of proliferation. The plants formed roots in Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH medium with a hormone combination of 5 mg/l IBA and 1 mg/l Kinetin. When activate charcoal was used in the medium, a higher percentage of the plants became rooted and a larger number of adventitious roots were produced than in the dark-light or light treatments.

  6. Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo D. Drummond

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The biochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.Alumínio (Al é um dos principais fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento de plantas em solos ácidos, reduzindo substancialmente a produtividade agrícola. Na América do Sul, cerca de 66% da superfície do solo apresenta acidez, onde a alta saturação de alumínio é uma das maiores limitações à prática agrícola. Apesar do crescente número de estudos, uma compreensão completa das bases bioquímicas e moleculares da tolerância ao alumínio em plantas está longe de ser alcançada. No caso da cana-de-açúcar, não há nada publicado sobre a regulação gênica induzida durante o stress por alumínio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genes de cana-de-açúcar relacionados com as várias vias metabólicas reconhecidamente envolvidas na resposta à toxidez do alumínio em outras espécies de plantas e leveduras. Para a maioria dos genes relacionados com alumínio em outras espécies foram identificados similares em cana-de-açúcar, tais como aqueles que codificam enzimas que combatem o stress oxidativo ou a infestação por patógenos, proteínas responsáveis pela exudação de ácidos orgânicos e pela transdução de sinais. O papel desses genes na tolerância ao alumínio é revisado. Devido ao alto grau de conservação do genoma entre espécies próximas de gramíneas como milho, cevada, sorgo e cana-de-açúcar, esses genes serão uma ferramenta valiosa para a melhor compreensão e manipulação da tolerância ao alumínio nestas espécies.

  7. Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo D., Drummond; Claudia T., Guimarães; Juliana, Felix; Fernando E., Ninamango-Cárdenas; Newton P., Carneiro; Edilson, Paiva; Marcelo, Menossi.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Alumínio (Al) é um dos principais fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento de plantas em solos ácidos, reduzindo substancialmente a produtividade agrícola. Na América do Sul, cerca de 66% da superfície do solo apresenta acidez, onde a alta saturação de alumínio é uma das maiores limitações à prática agr [...] ícola. Apesar do crescente número de estudos, uma compreensão completa das bases bioquímicas e moleculares da tolerância ao alumínio em plantas está longe de ser alcançada. No caso da cana-de-açúcar, não há nada publicado sobre a regulação gênica induzida durante o stress por alumínio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genes de cana-de-açúcar relacionados com as várias vias metabólicas reconhecidamente envolvidas na resposta à toxidez do alumínio em outras espécies de plantas e leveduras. Para a maioria dos genes relacionados com alumínio em outras espécies foram identificados similares em cana-de-açúcar, tais como aqueles que codificam enzimas que combatem o stress oxidativo ou a infestação por patógenos, proteínas responsáveis pela exudação de ácidos orgânicos e pela transdução de sinais. O papel desses genes na tolerância ao alumínio é revisado. Devido ao alto grau de conservação do genoma entre espécies próximas de gramíneas como milho, cevada, sorgo e cana-de-açúcar, esses genes serão uma ferramenta valiosa para a melhor compreensão e manipulação da tolerância ao alumínio nestas espécies. Abstract in english Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The b [...] iochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.

  8. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of...... study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The...... harvesting and the use of diesel fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial...

  9. Processing of porcelain stoneware tile using sugarcane bagasse ash waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian A.S. Schettino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of waste materials are discarded in the sugarcane industry. This work investigates the reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as an alternative raw material for porcelain stoneware tile bodies, replacing natural quartz by up to 5 wt.%. The tile pieces were fired at 1230 °C using a fast-firing cycle (< 60 min. The technological properties of the fired tile pieces (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength were determined. The sintering process was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. The results show that up to 2.5 wt.% sugarcane bagasse ash waste can be used as a partial replacement for quartz in porcelain stoneware tile (group BIa, ISO 13006 standard, providing excellent technical properties. Hence, its application in high-quality ceramic tile for use in civil construction as a low-cost, alternative raw material could be an ideal means of managing sugarcane bagasse ash waste.

  10. Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

    2006-06-01

    This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

  11. The type III secretion system of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens KD targets the phytopathogenic Chromista Pythium ultimum and promotes cucumber protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Binder, Christian; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2005-09-01

    The type III secretion system (TTSS) is used by Proteobacteria for pathogenic or symbiotic interaction with plant and animal hosts. Recently, TTSS genes thought to originate from the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae were evidenced in Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, which protects cucumber from the oomycete Pythium ultimum (kingdom Chromista/Stramenopila). However, it is not known whether the TTSS contributes to plant protection by the bacterium and, if so, whether it targets the plant or the phytopathogen. Inactivation of TTSS gene hrcV following the insertion of an omega cassette strongly reduced the biocontrol activity of the pseudomonad against P. ultimum on cucumber when compared with the wild type, but had no effect on its root-colonization ability. Analysis of a plasmid-based transcriptional hrpJ'-inaZ reporter fusion revealed that expression in strain KD of the operon containing hrcV was strongly stimulated in vitro and in situ by the oomycete and not by the plant. In vitro, both strain KD and its hrcV mutant reduced the activity level of the pectinase polygalacturonase (a key pathogenicity factor) from P. ultimum, but the reduction was much stronger with the wild type. Together, these results show that the target range of bacterial TTSS is not restricted to plants and animals but also can include members of Chromista/Stramenopila, and suggest that virulence genes acquired horizontally from phytopathogenic bacteria were functionally recycled in biocontrol saprophytic Pseudomonas spp., resulting in enhanced plant protection by the latter. PMID:16167769

  12. A Novel Protein Elicitor (PaNie) from Pythium aphanidermatum Induces Multiple Defense Responses in Carrot, Arabidopsis, and Tobacco1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Stefan; Wörle, Jörg Manfred; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Koch, Wolfgang; Seitz, Hanns Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    A novel protein elicitor (PaNie234) from Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. was purified, microsequenced, and the corresponding cDNA was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative eukaryotic secretion signal with a proteinase cleavage site. The heterologously expressed elicitor protein without the secretion signal of 21 amino acids (PaNie213) triggered programmed cell death and de novo formation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota). Programmed cell death was determined using the tetrazolium assay and DNA laddering. Infiltration of PaNie213 into the intercellular space of leaves of Arabidopsis (Columbia-0, wild type) resulted in necroses and deposition of callose on the cell walls of spongy parenchyma cells surrounding the necrotic mesophyll cells. Necroses were also formed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Wisconsin W38, wild type) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) but not in maize (Zea mays), oat (Avena sativa), and Tradescantia zebrina (Bosse), indicating that monocotyledonous plants are unable to perceive the signal. The reactions observed after treatment with the purified PaNie213 were identical to responses measured after treatment with a crude elicitor preparation from the culture medium of P. aphanidermatum, described previously. The availability of the pure protein offers the possibility to isolate the corresponding receptor and its connection to downstream signaling-inducing defense reactions. PMID:11706166

  13. A novel protein elicitor (PaNie) from Pythium aphanidermatum induces multiple defense responses in carrot, Arabidopsis, and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, S; Wörle, J M; Nürnberger, T; Koch, W; Seitz, H U

    2001-11-01

    A novel protein elicitor (PaNie(234)) from Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. was purified, microsequenced, and the corresponding cDNA was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative eukaryotic secretion signal with a proteinase cleavage site. The heterologously expressed elicitor protein without the secretion signal of 21 amino acids (PaNie(213)) triggered programmed cell death and de novo formation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota). Programmed cell death was determined using the tetrazolium assay and DNA laddering. Infiltration of PaNie(213) into the intercellular space of leaves of Arabidopsis (Columbia-0, wild type) resulted in necroses and deposition of callose on the cell walls of spongy parenchyma cells surrounding the necrotic mesophyll cells. Necroses were also formed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Wisconsin W38, wild type) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) but not in maize (Zea mays), oat (Avena sativa), and Tradescantia zebrina (Bosse), indicating that monocotyledonous plants are unable to perceive the signal. The reactions observed after treatment with the purified PaNie(213) were identical to responses measured after treatment with a crude elicitor preparation from the culture medium of P. aphanidermatum, described previously. The availability of the pure protein offers the possibility to isolate the corresponding receptor and its connection to downstream signaling-inducing defense reactions. PMID:11706166

  14. Influence of Pythium oligandrum on the bacterial communities that colonize the nutrient solutions and the rhizosphere of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, J; Déniel, F; Barbier, G; Guerin-Dubrana, L; Benhamou, N; Rey, P

    2012-09-01

    The influence exerted by the biocontrol oomycete Pythium oligandrum on the bacterial populations proliferating in the rhizosphere of tomato plants grown in a hydroponic system and in the circulating solutions is studied in the present experiment. Quantitative PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism were used to investigate the genetic structure and dynamics of the bacterial communities colonizing the root systems and the various circulating solutions. Quantitative PCR assays showed that bacteria heavily colonized the rhizosphere of tomato plants with, however, no significant density changes throughout the cultural season (April-September). Single strand conformation polymorphism fingerprints revealed the occurrence of transient perturbations in the rhizospheric indigenous bacterial communities following P. oligandrum introduction in the root system of plants. This effect was, however, transient and did not persist until the end of the cropping season. Interestingly, the genetic structure of the bacterial microflora colonizing either the roots or the nutrient solutions evolved throughout the cropping season. This temporal evolution occurred whatever the presence and persistence of P. oligandrum in the rhizosphere. Evidence is also provided that bacterial microflora that colonize the root system are different from the ones colonizing the circulating solutions. The relationships between these 2 microflora (at the root and solution levels) are discussed. PMID:22913267

  15. Biotechnological interventions in sugarcane improvement: strategies, methods and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work has been conducted towards employing in vitro culture system combined with radiation induced mutagenesis in the improvement of sugarcane. Several radiation induced mutants with agronomically desirable traits were isolated and evaluated under field conditions, besides studying abiotic stress responses using biochemical, physiological and molecular tools. This article describes the developments in the in vitro culture systems and related biotechnologies that are evolving as novel strategies in the recent years for use in sugarcane improvement

  16. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Amandeep Singh; Uma Ranjan Lal; Hayat Muhammad Mukhtar; Prabh Simran Singh; Gagan Shah; Ravi Kumar Dhawan

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary produ...

  17. SUGARCANE BAGASSE PULPING AND BLEACHING: THERMAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Henrique Fernandes Pereira; Herman Cornelis Jacobus Voorwald; Maria Odila Hilário Cioffi; Daniella Regina Mullinari; Sandra Maria Da Luz; Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto Da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse in three stages. Initially sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a pre-treatment process with hydrolyzed acid to eliminate hemicellulose. Whole cellulosic fibers thus obtained were then subjected to a two-stage delignification process and finally to a bleaching process. The chemical structure of the resulting cellulose fibers was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractio...

  18. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Baggase without Enzymatic Saccharification

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Boopathy; Letha Dawson

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane processing generates a large volume of bagasse. Disposal of bagasse is critical for both agricultural profitability and environmental protection. Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable resource that can be used to produce ethanol and many other value added products. In this study, we demonstrate that cane processed bagasse could be used to produce fuel grade ethanol without saccharification. A chemical pre-treatment process using alkaline peroxide and acid hydrolysis was applied to re...

  19. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether), which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorg...

  20. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US$1=R$2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. - Research highlights: ?The relative cost of ethanol produced in the US and imported from Brazil is shown to depend on currency exchange rate, feedstock costs, and co-product credits. ?In 2006-2008, the cost of corn ethanol is estimated to be 15% lower than the cost of imported sugarcane ethanol at US ports. ?A carbon pricing policy could affect relative costs in favor of sugarcane ethanol, but only at a high carbon price.

  1. Evaluating sugarcane diets for dairy cows using a digestion model

    OpenAIRE

    Kebreab, E.; Assis, A.G.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.

    2001-01-01

    To eliminate unnecessary feeding trials, a mechanistic model of sugarcane digestion was used in the search for suitable supplements to improve milk production. Milk production simulated by the model was compared with data observed in four feeding trials published in the tropical literature where crossbred dairy cows were fed sugarcane/urea diets with different types of supplements. The predicted effects of the supplements on the ruminal microbial population, concentrations of ammonia and vola...

  2. Impulsive Biological Pest Control Strategies of the Sugarcane Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Marat Rafikov; Alfredo Del Sole Lordelo; Elvira Rafikova

    2012-01-01

    We propose an impulsive biological pest control of the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) by its egg parasitoid Trichogramma galloi based on a mathematical model in which the sugarcane borer is represented by the egg and larval stages, and the parasitoid is considered in terms of the parasitized eggs. By using the Floquet theory and the small amplitude perturbation method, we show that there exists a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution when some conditions ho...

  3. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.; R. Secchi, Argimiro; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol produc...

  4. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Duli Zhao; Yang-Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems ...

  5. Biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio por biomassas de Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann) R.L. Seym. e Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes) / Copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption by Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann) R.L. Seym. and Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes) biomass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ivanildo de, Souza; Iracema Helena, Schoenlein-Crusius; Carmen Lídia Amorin, Pires-Zottarelli; Norberto Carlos, Schoenlein.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas secas dos fungos zoospóricos Saprolegnia subterranea e Pythium torulosum foram avaliadas quanto a biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio de soluções aquosas por meio da determinação dos índices "q" (mg de metal adsorvido por g de biomassa) e "R%" (remoção percentual). Os mais elevados í [...] ndices q foram obtidos quando as biomassas foram colocadas em contato com elevadas concentrações de metais, enquanto que os maiores índices R% foram obtidos em condições de baixas concentrações (p Abstract in english Dried biomass of the zoosporic fungi Saprolegnia subterranea and Pythium torulosum was evaluated for copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption from aqueous solutions using the "q" (mg of adsorbed metal per g of biomass) and the "R%" (percent removal) indices. The highest q values were observed when [...] the biomass was placed in contact with high metal concentrations, whereas the highest R% values were observed at low concentrations (p

  6. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera are being evaluated as candidates for intensive production of solar-dried biomass. Categories of candidate grasses include short, intermediate, and long-rotation crops for co-production with conventional food commodities. The hybrid forage grass Sordan 70A (Northrup King Seeds) is the outstanding short-rotation plant tested to date. Napier grass (var. Common Merker) is a promising intermediate-rotation crop which possibly may be exceeded by several napier grass hybrids. Candidate clones from the Saccharum species sinense and spontaneum are being investigated for use in both long-rotation and minimum-tillage production regimes. Direct comparisons of sugarcane hybrids with napier grass indicate that sugarcane is an inferior candidate for tropical forage production. Sugarcane responded well to narrow row centers at 2 months but the response diminished at 4 and 6 months. For both crops, greater biomass yields were obtained from a single harvest at 6 months than from three 2-month harvests combined. The ability to convert early succulent growth to dry matter is a decisive feature for candidates to be handled as frequently-recut forages. Progress has been made in chemical growth regulation studies. A series of intergeneric hybrid clones are being imported for evaluation as biomass sources. Limited progress was made in biomass candidate breeding. A revised work plan for year 2 is discussed.

  7. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera are being evaluated as candidates for intensive production of solar-dried biomass. Categories of candidate grasses include short, intermediate, and long-rotation crops for co-production with conventional food commodities. The hybrid forage grass Sordan 70A (Northrup King Seeds) is the outstanding short-rotation plant tested to date. Napier grass (var. Common Merker) is a promising intermediate-rotation crop which possibly may be exceeeded by several napier grass hybrids. Candidate clones from the Saccharum species sinense and spontaneum are being investigated for use in both long-rotation and minimum-tillage production regimes. Direct comparisons of sugarcane hybrids with napier grass indicate that sugarcane is an inferior candidate for tropical forage production. Sugarcane responded well to narrow row centers at 2 months but the response diminished at 4 and 6 months. For both crops, greater biomass yields were obtained from a single harvest at 6 months than from three 2-month harvests combined. The ability to convert early succulent growth to dry matter is a decisive feature for candidates to be handled as frequently-recut forages. Progress has been made in chemical growth regulation studies. A series of intergeneric hybrid clones are being imported for evaluation as biomass sources. Limited progress was made in biomasscandidate breeding. A revised work plan for year 2 is discussed.

  8. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. First quarterly report, June 1--August 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    Research was initiated on the intensive production of sugarcane and other tropical grasses as solar-dried forages. Greenhouse experiments designed to screen candidate clones and to evaluate growth curves were the first to get underway. Chemical growth control tests were also initiated. Plant materials at this stage consist of commercial sugarcane hybrids, progeny from the AES-UPR cane breeding program, Saccharum clones from the species officinarum, spontaneum, sinense, and robustum, Erianthus clones, a commercial tropical forage grass, napier grass, and forms of S. spontaneum plus Arundo donax growing wild in Puerto Rico. Initial stages of cane breeding and progeny selection for the high tonnage attribute were begun during August. Foliar tissue analyses for N, P, K, S, and Si were started together-with assays for acid invertase and other components of expanding stem tissue. The first field experiment was initiated during July at the semi-arid Lajas Substation. Four clones (three sugarcane hybrids plus napier grass var. Merker) are being evaluated incident to row spacing and harvest frequency in field-plots.

  9. Factors that Interfere in Dextran Production By Sugarcane Contaminating Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia Oliveira Hauly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dextrans are polysaccharides produced by microorganisms, specially bacterias from the Leuconostoc genus. Dextrans have a high molecular weigh and most of the glycosidic bonds are a(1®6. For the sugar manufacture, dextran is a problem which changes the quality of sugar and the industry efficiency. Dextrans are synthesized when the sugarcane is spoiled before the harvest period, through the sugarcane fissures, which permit the penetration of microorganisms that deteriorate the sugarcane. This work aims at improving the sugar quality and the industry efficiency by isolating dextran producing microorganisms, comparing the time of burning with the infection index and the dextran concentration in the sugarcane juice. Dextran producing microorganisms were isolated from sugarcane juice during the 97/98; 99/00 and 2001 harvests. The isolated strains were maintained in MRS agar at the temperature of 4°C. The fermentation was carried out in MRS broth for 72 hours at 28°C with 180 rpm. Dextran was analyzed by spectrophotometry at 485 nm. Only three isolated strains showed good dextran production. The average of dextran production in MRS broth was 390 mg%. It was observed that a burning period above 72 hours increases the sugarcane contamination and causes high dextran production, and consequently the reduction of the industry efficiency of the sugar factory.

  10. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  11. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  12. Effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation in sugarcane by 15N isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    15N stable-isotope dilution technique was used to study effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains inoculation on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in sugarcane varieties B8 and ROC22. The results showed that there were significant differences of % Ndfa (Nitrogen-fixing percentage) at different development stages between B8 and ROC22. The % Ndfa of B8 was obviously higher than that of ROC22 at young shoot stage, tillering stage and early elongation stage, and the highest % Ndfa of B8 reached 31.28% Ndfa. BNF was found in root, stem and leaf but the maximum BNF was in leaf at 60d. Inoculation with L03 could increase total nitrogen content in both B8 and ROC22. The leaf of ROC22 and the stem of B8 were found benefited most from the inoculation. BNF varied significantly in different varieties, organs and growth stages of sugarcane. (authors)

  13. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOPHILIC CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULASE SYNTHESIZED BY Bacillus sp. GROWING ON SUGARCANE BAGASSE IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. Q. M., Padilha; L. C. T., Carvalho; P. V. S., Dias; T. C. S. L., Grisi; F. L. Honorato da, Silva; S. F. M., Santos; D. A. M., Araújo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The production and characterization of cellulase from thermophilic strain Bacillus sp. C1AC5507 was studied. For enzyme production, sugarcane bagasse was used as carbon source. The produced carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) had a molecular weight around 55 kDa and its activity varied between [...] 0.14 and 0.37 IU mL-1 in conditions predicted by Response Surface Methodology. The optimum temperature and pH for the CMCase production were 70 °C and 7.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited mostly by Cu+2 and activated mostly by Co+2, Mn2+, Ca+2 and Fe+3. Our findings provide a contribution to the use of natural wastes such as sugarcane bagasse as substrate for growth and production of thermophilic CMCase. Further optimization to increase the production of cellulase enables the use in industrial applications.

  14. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOPHILIC CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULASE SYNTHESIZED BY Bacillus sp. GROWING ON SUGARCANE BAGASSE IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Q. M. Padilha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The production and characterization of cellulase from thermophilic strain Bacillus sp. C1AC5507 was studied. For enzyme production, sugarcane bagasse was used as carbon source. The produced carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase had a molecular weight around 55 kDa and its activity varied between 0.14 and 0.37 IU mL-1 in conditions predicted by Response Surface Methodology. The optimum temperature and pH for the CMCase production were 70 °C and 7.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited mostly by Cu+2 and activated mostly by Co+2, Mn2+, Ca+2 and Fe+3. Our findings provide a contribution to the use of natural wastes such as sugarcane bagasse as substrate for growth and production of thermophilic CMCase. Further optimization to increase the production of cellulase enables the use in industrial applications.

  15. Mathematical modeling of enzyme production using Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and sugarcane bagasse as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Lucas; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of enzyme production by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 was developed using a low cost substrate as main carbon source (pretreated sugarcane bagasse). The model describes the cell growth, variation of substrate concentration and production of three kinds of enzymes (cellulases, beta-glucosidase and xylanase) in different sugarcane bagasse concentrations (5; 10; 20; 30; 40gL(-1)). The 10gL(-1) concentration was used to validate the model and the other to parameter estimation. The model for enzyme production has terms implicitly representing induction and repression. Substrate variation was represented by a simple degradation rate. The models seem to represent well the kinetics with a good fit for the majority of the assays. Validation results indicate that the models are adequate to represent the kinetics for a biotechnological process. PMID:26378961

  16. INFLUENCE OF SOLID MOISTURE AND BED HEIGHT ON CULTIVATION OF Aspergillus niger FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE WITH VINASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Bastos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSolid-state cultivation (SSC may be defined as growth of microorganisms on a solid support impregnated or not with a nutrient solution in near absence of free-water conditions. The use of sugarcane bagasse as a support for SSC usually demands that the particles are impregnated and moistened with nutrient solution. Vinasse is the main wastewater of ethanol fermentation-distillation. As there are no reports of the use of wastewater for moistening solid supports in SSC, the proposal is the development of an innovative process, with valuation of these by-products. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate SSC of Aspergillus niger using sugarcane bagasse and vinasse for citric acid production. The results indicate that citric acid production and glucose consumption are dependent on oxygen availability, which can be modulated by selection of bed height and air-flow in packed-bed bioreactors.

  17. Efecto del tratamiento de semilla con zinc y ácido giberélico sobre la emergencia y el crecimiento inicial de las plantas de caña de azúcar / EFFECT OF SEED TREATMENT WITH ZINC AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE EMERGENCY AND INITIAL GROWTH OF SUGARCANE PLANTS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de comparar la aplicación de una suspensión concentrada a base de zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, con el uso de ácido giberélico (ÁG3) en el tratamiento de semilla y evaluar su efecto sobre emergencia y crecimiento inicial de plantas de caña de azúcar, Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, se co [...] ndujo un ensayo en la Fundación Azucarera para el Desarrollo, la productividad y la Investigación (FUNDAcAñA), ubicada en chivacoa, municipio Bruzual, estado Yaracuy. Para tal fin se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones, donde el primero de ellos correspondió al testigo sin aplicación (T0). los tratamientos T1, T2 y T3 consistieron en sumergir secciones de tallo de 5 cm de longitud con una yema viable (mini esquejes) por 10 min en soluciones de Teprosyn Zn® al 1%, 2% y 3%, respectivamente, mientras que en el último tratamiento (T4) la semilla se sometió a inmersión en una solución de 1 g Activol® 100 l agua-1 durante el mismo tiempo. la siembra se realizó en bolsas plásticas negras, utilizando un sustrato obtenido a través de una mezcla de suelo y compost de cachaza en una proporción 1:1. los datos fueron analizados con el programa Statistix 8. Los resultados indican que el tratamiento de semilla con Teprosyn Zn® promovió la emergencia, el crecimiento inicial de raíces, el peso aéreo seco y la producción de materia seca (MS) total de las plantas, favoreciendo el establecimiento del cultivo. la utilización de ÁG3 sólo afectó la longitud total de raíces Abstract in english In order to compare the application of a concentrated suspension based on zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, with the use of gibberellic acid (GA3) in the treatment of seed and evaluate its effect on emergence and early growth of sugarcane plants , Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, a trial was conducted in the [...] Sugar Development Foundation, productivity and Research (FUNDAcAñA), located in chivacoa, municipality Bruzual, Yaracuy. For this purpose was used a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications, the first one corresponded to the control application (T0). Treatments T1, T2 and T3 consisted in immersing stem sections 5 cm long with a viable bud (mini cuttings) for 10 min in solutions of Teprosyn Zn® 1%, 2% and 3% respectively, while in the last treatment (T4) seed was subjected to immersion in a solution of 1 g Activol®/ 100 l water during the same time. The sowing was performed in black plastic bags using a substrate obtained from a mixture of soil and filter cake compost in a 1:1 proportion. Data were analyzed with the program Statistix 8. The results indicate that seed treatment with Teprosyn Zn® promoted the emergence, initial growth of roots, the dry weight and dry matter production (MS) in whole plants, favoring the crop establishment. GA3 using only affected the total length of roots

  18. Antimicrobial Activity Of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated From sugarcane And Banana Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes - “Microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without carrying any immediate over negative effects". In this present investigation the endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from root, stem and leaf of Sugarcane and Banana for their antimicrobial activity. Totally 6 endophytic actinomycetes were obtained from all the samples. Population enumeration, phenotypic characters like substrate mycelium, aerial mycelium, aerial mass colour, reverse side pigment, melanoid pigment, spore chain morphology, salt tolerance on growth, growth on different pH, effect of different temperature on growth, Biochemical characteristics, and enzymatic activity were studied. For antimicrobial activity 7 bacterial pathogens and 4 fungal pathogens were used. Up on the 6 isolate 1 endophytic actinomycetes isolate (BAR1 shows good activity against all the isolates. Based on the above characteristics the potential isolate BAR1 is identified as Streptomyces sp.

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of sugarcane ( Saccharum sp.) clones using simple sequence repeat markers of sugarcane and rice

    OpenAIRE

    G.Banumathi , V.Krishnasamy, M.Maheswaran, R.Samiyappan, P.Govindaraj and N.Kumaravadivel

    2010-01-01

    Molecular markers are powerful tools, which help in differentiating plant varieties at the DNA level and have been widelyused for genetic diversity studies in a number of crop species'. Understanding the genetic diversity of available clones of S.officinarum and S. spontaneum will be helpful in breeding programs. In the present study, a set of 48 sugarcane clones fromNational Hybridization Garden, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore was subjected to genetic diversity analysisinvolving 40...

  20. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. First annual report, June 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.; Gonzalez-Molina, C.; Ortiz-Velez, J.

    1978-01-01

    Tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera are being evaluated as candidates for intensive production of solar-dried biomass. Categories of candidate grasses include short-, intermediate-, and long-rotation species for intensive co-production with conventional food commodities. Minimum-tillage candidates are also sought for extensive production on marginal lands. The hybrid forage grass Sordan 70-A (Northrup-King Company) is the outstanding short-rotation plant tested to date. It completes both the tissue-expansion and maturation phases within 10 weeks, yielding at least 4 tons of oven-dry biomass per acre. Napier grass (var. Common Merker) is a promising intermediate-rotation crop which possibly may be exceeded by several napier grass hybrids. Interspecific Saccharum hybrids and the Saccharum species S. spontaneum and S. sinense are being investigated for both long-rotation and minimum tillage cropping. Direct comparisons of sugarcane hybrids with napier grass indicate that sugarcane is an inferior candidate for short-term production of tropical forages. Sugarcane responded well to narrow spacing for about 6 months after seeding. Napier grass failed to respond to close spacing. Both species increased yields with decreasing frequency of harvest. Fertilization rates based on conventional sugar and forage production data were inadequate to sustain maximum biomass yields. Candidate grasses have shown two discrete biomass production phases, ie , tissue expansion which is highly visible but consists mainly of water, and tissue maturation which has little visibility but yields the bulk of the plants' dry matter. Additional progress was made in sugarcane growth control with chemical growth regulators.

  1. Obtaining lactic acid through discontinuing fermentation using sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product meal, fructose and cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Vanin dos Santos Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The lactic acid presents its larger application in the Food Industry. It is also used in the Textile, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Cosmetic and Packaging Industries. Due to this wide applicability, the acquisition of lactic acid through fermentation is a widely studied process, searching for alternatives for the increase in productivity and the decrease in the production costs. Therefore, this work has the purpose of evaluating the influence of different types of cultivation, proceeding from the agro-industry, regarding the production of lactic acid through fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei. In order to do that, it was used as the cultivation media, sugarcane molasses, cassava by-product crumbs, fructose and cassava starch, previously hydrolyzed when necessary and supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 2% peptone. Fermentations were performed at 37º for 48 hours under constant agitation. The fermentation processes were followed by analysis such as: lactic acid dosage; reductive sugar decrease; biomass; cellular viability and pH. When the results were analyzed it was noticed a larger decrease of the reductive sugar and a larger production of lactic acid when the sugarcane molasses were used as cultivation media. Therein it may be suggested that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presented itself more efficient in promoting the microorganism growth. Such result has also been observed by other authors in the researched literature and it can be explained by the fact that the hydrolyzed sugarcane molasses presents in its composition, besides glucose and fructose, other nutrients able to favor the growth of the microorganism and, consequently, the production of the lactic acid when compared to other medias used in this work.

  2. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation contribution in sugarcane plants originated from seeds and inoculated with nitrogen-fixing endophytes Avaliação da contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar originada de sementes e inoculada com endófitos fixadores de nitrogênio

    OpenAIRE

    Erineudo de Lima Canuto; André Luis Martinez de Oliveira; Verônica Massena Reis; José Ivo Baldani

    2003-01-01

    The inoculation technique with endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in sugarcane has been shown as an alternative practice to plant growth promotion. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) contribution by different strains of Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane plant inoculated from seeds. The seeds were planted in pots filled with non-sterile soil, inoculated with the bacterial strains and grown 10 months outside of th...

  3. Free amino acids - determinant of sugarcane resistance/susceptibility to stalk borer and sap feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two relatively new key species in Louisiana that conform to the plant stress hypothesis are the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). High performance liquid chromatography differentiated insect resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultiva...

  4. Soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period: influence on soil chemical and physical properties and on sugarcane productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roniram Pereira da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planting of diversified crops during the sugarcane fallow period can improve the chemical and physical properties and increase the production potential of the soil for the next sugarcane cycle. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period on soil chemical and physical properties and productivity after the first sugarcane harvest. The experiment was conducted in two areas located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º 14' 05'' S, 48º 17' 09'' W with two different soil types, namely: an eutroferric Red Latosol (RLe with high-clay texture (clay content = 680 g kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol (RLa with clayey texture (clay content = 440 g kg-1. A randomized block design with five replications and four treatments (crop sequences was used. The crop sequences during the sugarcane fallow period were soybean/millet/soybean, soybean/sunn hemp/soybean, soybean/fallow/soybean, and soybean. Soil use was found not to affect chemical properties and sugarcane productivity of RLe or RLa. The soybean/millet/soybean sequence improved aggregation in the acric Latosol.

  5. ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PESSOA JR.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL and semi-pilot (25 L reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140ºC for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%; 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9% and 150ºC for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%. These conditions were also used for hydrolysis in a semi-pilot reactor, and the highest xylose recovery yield (83.3% was obtained at 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm

  6. Resistance of sugarcane cultivars to Diatraea saccharalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the oviposition preference of Diatraea saccharalis and the effect of ten sugarcane cultivars on larval development. Oviposition preference was assessed under greenhouse conditions by three releases of couples of moths, with subsequent counting of egg masses and eggs per plant. In order to evaluate the effect of the cultivars on larval development, each plant was infected with about 150 eggs, and, 29 days later, the total number of internodes, number of bored internodes, number of life forms found, larval and pupal weight and length, and the width of larval head capsule were evaluated. The cultivars IACSP94-2101 and IACSP96-2042, the least preferred by D. saccharalis for oviposition, and IACSP94-2094, the most unfavorable for larvae entrance and development, show resistance to the pest.

  7. Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Potgieter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

  8. A Global View of Transcriptome Dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum Challenge in Sugarcane by RNA-seq

    OpenAIRE

    Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and “ROC”22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitat...

  9. Manejo de Pythium sp. y Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn en bancos de enraizamiento de Gypsophila paniculata L. Management of Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonía solaní kuhn in rooting benches of Gypsophíla paniculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés de Granada Emira

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo, se evaluó el efecto que sobre los patógenos Pythium sp. Y Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., tienen los aislamientos de Trichoderma harzianum (T 17 y T 13 y Trichoderma sp. (T18, lo mismo que tratamientos químicos aplicados en bancos de enraizamiento de Gypsophila paniculata L., con altos índices de contaminación. Para evaluar el control de la pudrición del cuello de la raíz de Gypsophila paniculata L., se realizaron observaciones semanales en las cuales se tuvieron en cuenta los porcentajes de esquejes sanos, de esquejes muertos y de esquejes en los cuales se desarrollaban raíces. Los resultados muestran que es más efectivo el control de la pudrición con la aplicación semanal de fungicidas. Sin embargo, se recomienda el empleo de cepas de Trichoderma sp., pero aplicadas con una frecuencia, por lo menos igual, a la empleada con los fungicidas, ya que se observa su efecto inmediato, pero no permanente y, además, porque parecen influir sobre el desarrollo de las plantas.

  10. Louisiana sugarcane entomology: A look at the back and a peek at the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling insect pests is an important consideration for sugarcane farmers seeking to minimize losses and maximize profits. Research in managing insects has been conducted for almost as long as sugarcane has been grown in Louisiana. This presentation reviews Louisiana sugarcane entomology from the...

  11. Radiation Induced In Vitro Mutagenesis, Selection for Salt Tolerance and Characterization in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one the major environmental stresses affecting plant productivity. Combined use of mutagenesis and tissue culture can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt-stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane damage (electrolyte leakage) was threefold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of better water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress, indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. In addition, plantlets regenerated form irradiated calli of sugarcane cv. CoC-671, Co 86032 and Co 94012 were field planted and agronomically desirable variants were identified for economic traits like cane yield and sucrose (Brix). The genetic stability of the variants is being evaluated at field level in M3 generation. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

  12. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Luís Nunes, Carvalho; Rafael, Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon s [...] upply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes) were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM) production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1) and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1) of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

  13. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Nunes Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crops provide carbon (C for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves and from root system (rhizomes and roots were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1 of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

  14. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiebaut Flávia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

  15. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical, physical and biological processes within the soil. Our SQ evaluations also suggest that current approaches for expanding Brazilian sugarcane production by converting degraded pasture land to cropland can be a sustainable strategy for meeting increasing biofuel demand. However, management practices that alleviate negative impacts on soil physical and biological indicators must be prioritized within sugarcane producing areas to prevent unintentional SQ degradation over time. PMID:26938642

  16. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical, physical and biological processes within the soil. Our SQ evaluations also suggest that current approaches for expanding Brazilian sugarcane production by converting degraded pasture land to cropland can be a sustainable strategy for meeting increasing biofuel demand. However, management practices that alleviate negative impacts on soil physical and biological indicators must be prioritized within sugarcane producing areas to prevent unintentional SQ degradation over time. PMID:26938642

  17. Sugarcane spirit market share simulation: an application of conjoint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Deus Souza Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of packaging and labeling attributes of sugarcane spirit on consumers' behavior by applying the results of conjoint analysis in sugarcane spirit market share simulation. Firstly, a conjoint analysis was performed aiming to estimate the part-worths of each consumer for some sugarcane spirit packaging and labeling attributes. These part-worths were used in the market share simulation using the maximum utility model. It was observed that some packaging and labeling attributes affected consumer's purchase intention and that most consumers showed a similar preference pattern regarding these attributes. These consumers showed preference for the Seleta brand, which was bottled in 700 mL clear glass bottles with a metal screw cap that bore a label illustration unrelated to sugarcane spirit production process and had the information "aged 36 months in oak barrels". This study also showed that conjoint analysis and the use of its results in the market share simulation proved important tools to better understand consumer behavior towards intention to purchase sugarcane spirit.

  18. Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

  19. Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga-Vicente, A.

    2011-12-01

    The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

  20. [(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

    2014-10-01

    In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

  1. Mutator System Derivatives Isolated from Sugarcane Genome Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetti, M E; Rossi, M; Cruz, G M Q; Saccaro, N L; Nakabashi, M; Altebarmakian, V; Rodier-Goud, M; Domingues, D; D'Hont, A; Van Sluys, M A

    2012-09-01

    Mutator-like transposase is the most represented transposon transcript in the sugarcane transcriptome. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from sequenced transcripts provided evidence that at least four distinct classes exist (I-IV) and that diversification among these classes occurred early in Angiosperms, prior to the divergence of Monocots/Eudicots. The four previously described classes served as probes to select and further sequence six BAC clones from a genomic library of cultivar R570. A total of 579,352 sugarcane base pairs were produced from these "Mutator system" BAC containing regions for further characterization. The analyzed genomic regions confirmed that the predicted structure and organization of the Mutator system in sugarcane is composed of two true transposon lineages, each containing a specific terminal inverted repeat and two transposase lineages considered to be domesticated. Each Mutator transposase class displayed a particular molecular structure supporting lineage specific evolution. MUSTANG, previously described domesticated genes, are located in syntenic regions across Sacharineae and, as expected for a host functional gene, posses the same gene structure as in other Poaceae. Two sequenced BACs correspond to hom(eo)logous locus with specific retrotransposon insertions that discriminate sugarcane haplotypes. The comparative studies presented, add information to the Mutator systems previously identified in the maize and rice genomes by describing lineage specific molecular structure and genomic distribution pattern in the sugarcane genome. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12042-012-9104-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22905278

  2. Supply and demand: sink regulation of sugar accumulation in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, A J; Watt, D A; Cramer, M D

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) accumulates sucrose to high concentrations and, as a result, has been the focus of extensive research into the biochemistry and physiology of sucrose accumulation. Despite this, the relationship between source leaf photosynthetic activity and sucrose accumulation in the culm sink is not well understood. The observations that photosynthetic activity declines during culm maturation in commercial cultivars and that high-sucrose-accumulating noble ancestral genotypes (Saccharum officinarum L.) photosynthesize at rates two-thirds of those of low-sucrose ancestors (Saccharum spontaneum L.) indicate that source-sink communication may play a pivotal role in determining sucrose yield. Although maturation of the culm results in a decreased demand for sucrose, recent evidence from partial leaf shading, defoliation, and transgenic studies indicates that sugarcane cultivars are capable of further increases in sugar content. Furthermore, sugarcane leaves appear to retain the capacity to increase the supply of assimilate to culm tissues under conditions of increased assimilate demand. The relationship between source and sink tissues in sugarcane should be viewed within a supply-demand paradigm; an often neglected conceptual approach in the study of this crop. Uncoupling of the signalling pathways that mediate negative feedback between source and sink tissues may result in improved leaf assimilation rates and, consequently, lead to increased sugarcane sucrose yields. PMID:19050062

  3. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

  4. Tolerance and compensatory response of rice to sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Longnecker, M T

    2008-06-01

    A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), as affected by cultivar (Cocodrie, Francis, and Jefferson), stage of crop growth during which the injury occurred (third tiller stage, panicle differentiation stage, and heading stage), and sugarcane borer density. The proportion of rice tillers with sugarcane borer injury (leaf and leaf sheath injury and/or stem injury) was lower when injury occurred at the third tiller stage (0.05) than at panicle differentiation (0.19) and heading (0.18). When injury occurred at the two latter stages, both the proportion of tillers with injury and the proportion of tillers with stem injury were negatively correlated with rainfall. Rainfall resulted in dislodgement and mortality of sugarcane borer eggs and larvae before the larvae entered the stems. Rice plant density in this study (111.1 plants/m2) was higher than recorded for previous research on rice compensation using potted rice or conducted in low-density hill production systems (26.7-51.3 plants/m2). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were observed. Stem injured plants produced approximately 0.69 more tillers than uninjured plants, whereas tillers with leaf and leaf sheath injury produced larger panicles, up to 39.5 and 21.0% heavier than uninjured tillers, when injury occurred at third tiller stage and at panicle differentiation, respectively. Rice yield was not reduced with up to 23% injured tiller and up to 10% injured stems at the third tiller stage, 42% injured tillers and 17% injured stems at panicle differentiation, and 28% injured tillers and 14% injured stems at heading. Significant between-plant compensation was not detected, suggesting competition between adjacent plants is not significantly reduced by injury. Our results suggest that rice can tolerate and/or compensate for a level of stem borer injury previously considered to be economically damaging. PMID:18559187

  5. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

  6. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndorfer, A.P.; Grisoto, E.; Vendramim, J.D., E-mail: korndorfer@hotmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

  7. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AP, Korndörfer; E, Grisoto; JD, Vendramim.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon [...] in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used.

  8. Mutagenesis and selection in vitro for salinity tolerance and molecular characterization in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50 Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane stability (electrolyte leakage) was 3-fold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that of retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of an ample water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20 Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

  9. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant against Fusarium sacchari--the causal organism of pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debahuti; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Deka, Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane caused by the fungus Fusarium sacchari results considerable damage to the crop leading to top rot, the most serious and advanced stage of pokkah boeng, where the growing point is killed and the entire top of the plant dies. In the present study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant as an antifungal agent against F. sacchari to control pokkah boeng disease was investigated. On the basis of surface tension reduction, 12 bacterial isolates were selected as potent biosurfactant producers and eight of them showed antagonistic effect against F. sacchari. Among the eight, the isolate DS9 was found as the effective inhibitor of the fungus in vitro which was further evaluated using its biosurfactant present in whole culture, cell-free culture supernatant and crude biosurfactant at various concentrations. Reductions of fungal growths were found more with crude biosurfactant. By sequencing 16S rRNA, DS9 was identified as P. aeruginosa and the produced biosurfactant was characterized as rhamnolipid by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant inhibits phytopathogenic fungi F. sacchari and therefore seems to be a good biocontrol agent to control pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane. PMID:23687052

  10. Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

  11. Water use efficiency of different sugarcane genotypes irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. L. B. O.; Pires, R. C. M.; Ribeiro, R. V.; Machado, E. C.; Rolim, G. S.; Magalhães Filho, J. R.; Marchiori, P. E. R.

    2012-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supplying should be take into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The aim of this work was to evaluate water consumption and the water use efficiency of two sugarcane genotypes irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000 and SP79-1011 varieties. Those varieties have different canopy characteristics and development, with IACSP95-5000 being more responsive to soil water availability and presenting higher light interception when compared to SP79-1011. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was calculated through field water balance from August 2010 to March 2011. Soil water content was evaluated by using a capacitance probe, sampling different depths in soil profile until 1-m. IACSP95-5000 had higher water consumption than SP79-1011. The mean ETc value of IACSP95-5000 was 5.0 mm day-1, whereas SP79-1011 showed 3.7 mm day-1. ETc values were positively correlated to biomass production, with IACSP95-5000 exhibiting higher growth and water use efficiency than SP79-1011.

  12. Simulation of cotton rat population dynamics and response to rodenticide applications in Florida sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Clay L.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1990-01-01

    Alternative deterministic simulation models were compared to test the management consequences of present uncertainty about the degree of density dependence involved in cotton rat population cycles in southern Florida sugarcane fields. Efficacy of rodenticide applied in different months was explored under six different scenarios of density dependence and independence in two population parameters: fecundity and juvenile survival. Output from the six models differed considerably in the number of rats produced, but was remarkably consistent in the most effective months to apply rodenticide. Since models without density-dependent fecundity were inherently unstable and an inverse relationship between fecundity and population size is apparent in field data, such a population-growth mechanism seems possible in Florida sugarcane fields. The model in which fecundity was density-dependent at all times produced rat densities closest to field data. Output from this model was most sensitive to changes in the amount litter size declines as population size increases. Field tests are necessary to validate the general agreement among the models about the most effective months to apply rodenticide.

  13. Diversity of 16S rRNA genes from bacteria of sugarcane rhizosphere soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Pisa; G.S., Magnani; H., Weber; E.M., Souza; H., Faoro; R.A., Monteiro; E., Daros; V., Baura; J.P., Bespalhok; F.O., Pedrosa; L.M., Cruz.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important agricultural product of Brazil, with a total production of more than 500 million tons. Knowledge of the bacterial community associated with agricultural crops and the soil status is a decisive step towards understanding how microorganisms influence crop productivity. Howeve [...] r, most studies aim to isolate endophytic or rhizosphere bacteria associated with the plant by culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent approaches allow a more comprehensive view of entire bacterial communities in the environment. In the present study, we have used this approach to assess the bacterial community in the rhizosphere soil of sugarcane at different times and under different nitrogen fertilization conditions. At the high taxonomic level, few differences between samples were observed, with the phylum Proteobacteria (29.6%) predominating, followed by Acidobacteria (23.4%), Bacteroidetes (12.1%), Firmicutes (10.2%), and Actinobacteria (5.6%). The exception was the Verrucomicrobia phylum whose prevalence in N-fertilized soils was approximately 0.7% and increased to 5.2% in the non-fertilized soil, suggesting that this group may be an indicator of nitrogen availability in soils. However, at low taxonomic levels a higher diversity was found associated with plants receiving nitrogen fertilizer. Bacillus was the most predominant genus, accounting for 19.7% of all genera observed. Classically reported nitrogen-fixing and/or plant growth-promoting bacterial genera, such as Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Burkholderia were also found although at a lower prevalence.

  14. Improved Citric Acid Production by Radiation Mutant Aspergillus niger Using Sugarcane Bagasse Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to huge demand of citric acid, attempts are taking to introduce its efficient production either by using low cost substrates or by improving the potency of the fermentation microorganisms. In this study, sugarcane bagasse extract was used for citric acid production using wild type Aspergillus niger CA16 and its radiation mutant 79/20 by submerged fermentation. Fermentation was carried out up to 15 days using 5, 10, 15 and 20% of sugarcane bagasse extract which contained 21.06, 32.60, 43.50 and 53.20 g L-1 sugar, respectively. The fermentation medium was supplemented with prescott salt. With the increasing concentration of baggase extract, total titratable acidity and citric acid production was increased. Moreover, radiation mutant A. niger 79/20 had higher citric acid production than A. niger CA16. Maximum amount of citric acid (12.81 g L-1 was produced in the 20% bagasse extract medium by A. niger 79/20, whereas, CA16 produced 10.25 g L-1 citric acid in the same fermentation medium. Maximum substrate uptake, growth yield co-efficient and productivity were also found higher in case of the strain 79/20. Thus, radiation mutation induced improved citric acid production in A. niger 79/20.

  15. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium?1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  16. Tracking soil transport to sugarcane industry using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil as mineral impurity in sugarcane loads impacts the Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry with rising production and maintenance costs as well as decreased productivity. The mechanical harvesting of sugarcane was conceived as a technology with potential to increase the raw material quality thereby has been gradually replacing manual harvesting throughout the country. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for determination of soil tracers in order to compare the performance of both harvesting systems in terms of mineral impurities. There were no significant differences in the amount of soil transported to sugarcane industry despite the technological progress aggregated to mechanical harvesting. However, for both harvesting systems there were significant differences on the amount of such mineral impurity between clay and sandy soils. (author)

  17. SUGARCANE BAGASSE PULPING AND BLEACHING: THERMAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Fernandes Pereira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse in three stages. Initially sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a pre-treatment process with hydrolyzed acid to eliminate hemicellulose. Whole cellulosic fibers thus obtained were then subjected to a two-stage delignification process and finally to a bleaching process. The chemical structure of the resulting cellulose fibers was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to analyze the effects of hydrolysis, delignification, and bleaching on the structure of the fibers. Two different thermal analysis techniques were used to study the bleaching cellulose fibers. These techniques confirmed that cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse. A future goal is to use these fibers as reinforcement elements in composites, organic-inorganic hybrid, and membranes for nanofiltration.

  18. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Baggase without Enzymatic Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Boopathy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane processing generates a large volume of bagasse. Disposal of bagasse is critical for both agricultural profitability and environmental protection. Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable resource that can be used to produce ethanol and many other value added products. In this study, we demonstrate that cane processed bagasse could be used to produce fuel grade ethanol without saccharification. A chemical pre-treatment process using alkaline peroxide and acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin, which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC strain 765 was used in the experiment. The pre-treatment process effectively removed lignin. Ethanol production in the culture sample was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicate that ethanol can be made from the sugarcane bagasse.

  19. Preparation and characterization of super absorbent polymer from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane bagasse is a source of biomass which large enough numbers and has not been fully exploited. At this time has developed a super absorbent polymer material of sugarcane bagasse that can absorb water up to several times of its own weight and keep this water. Super absorbent polymers can be used as a soil conditioner that can be used as an absorber and storage of ground water, the giver of nutrients for plants, and can improve soil properties. The purpose of this study is to make and characterization of super absorbent polymer (PCS) from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation of super absorbent polymers (PCS) has been done by grafting method using ionizing radiation from Electron Beam Engineering (MBE) 350 mA keV/10. Irradiation process carried out with a dose variation of 20, 35, and 50 kGy. Increasing doses of radiation will increase the percentage fraction of transplantation (grafting) and the fraction of water absorption ability (swelling ratio). (author)

  20. Pretreatment strategies for delignification of sugarcane bagasse: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susan Grace, Karp; Adenise Lorenci, Woiciechowski; Vanete Thomaz, Soccol; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The valorization of agro-residues by biological routes is a key technology that contributes to the development of sustainable processes and the generation of value-added products. Sugarcane bagasse is an agro-residue generated by the sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil (186 million tons per year), [...] composed essentially of cellulose (32-44%), hemicellulose (27-32%) and lignin (19-24%). The conversion of sugarcane bagasse into fermentable sugars requires essentially two steps: pretreatment and hydrolysis. The aim of the pretreatment is to separate the lignin and break the structure of lignocellulose, and it is one of the most critical steps in the process of converting biomass to fermentable sugars. The aim of this review is to describe different pretreatment strategies to promote the delignification of the sugarcane bagasse by thermo-chemical and biological processes.

  1. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  2. OPTIMIZED AGRICULTURAL PLANNING OF SUGARCANE USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Salles Scarpari* and Edgar Gomes Ferreira de Beauclair**

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimized agricultural planning is a fundamental activity in business profitability because it can increase the returns from an operation with low additional costs. Nonetheless, the use of operations research adapted to sugarcane plantation management is still limited, resulting in decision-making at management level being primarily empirical. The goal of this work was to develop an optimized planning model for sugarcane farming using a linear programming tool. The program language used was General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS as this system was seen to be an excellent tool to allow profit maximization and harvesting time schedule optimization in the sugar mill studied. The results presented support this optimized planning model as being a very useful tool for sugarcane management.

  3. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kajihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  4. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, Kajihara; Fabiana de, Godoy; Thais Alves, Hamaji; Silvia Regina, Blanco; Marie-Anne, Van Sluys; Magdalena, Rossi.

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “m [...] olecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  5. Nitrate paradigm does not hold up for sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil. PMID:21552564

  6. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior cultivar information.

  7. Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major corn borer pest and a target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in South America and the U.S. mid-southern region. With a major role in dietary protein digestion, midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. ...

  8. Isozyme Analysis on Different Varieties of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Isozymic and protein diversity among five sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 85019, Co 8371, Co 89003 and Co 91010 were studied to understand the varietal interrelationship and to identify the biochemical marker for the disease resistance and stress tolerance. The standard technique of vertical gel electrophoresis PAGE was employed for size separation of isozymes. The gel was stained with different staining solutions for different isozyme systems viz. peroxidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and proteins. Rf values of the banding profiles, similarity index and variation between the varieties were analysed. Among the four enzyme systems, peroxidase profile reveals the difference between the disease resistant / susceptible and abiotic stress tolerant / non tolerant varieties. The two isoperoxidase bands with Rf values 0.62 and 0.66 showed their presence in disease resistant and abiotic tolerant varieties. The presence of two marker bands (0.62, 0.66 of resistant and stress tolerant varieties suggest that the variety Co 6304 may also be resistant to smut, wilt and moderately resistant to red rot and tolerant to drought.

  9. Liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, F M; Kreke, T; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S; Ximenes, E; Ladisch, M R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to report liquefaction of pretreated and sterilized sugarcane bagasse for enhancing endoglucanase production through submerged fermentation by Aspergillus niger. After initial solid state fermentation of steam pretreated bagasse solids by A. niger, fed-batch addition of the substrate to cellulase in buffer over a 12h period, followed by 36h reaction, resulted in a liquid slurry with a viscosity of 0.30±0.07Pas at 30% (w/v) solids. Addition of A. niger for submerged fermentation of sterile liquefied bagasse at 23% w/v solids resulted in an enzyme titer of 2.5IUmL(-1) or about 15× higher productivity than solid-state fermentation of non-liquefied bagasse (final activity of 0.17IUmL(-1)). Bagasse not treated by initial solid-state fermentation but liquefied with enzyme gave 2IUmL(-1). These results show the utility of liquefied bagasse as a culture medium for enzyme production in submerged fermentations. PMID:25265329

  10. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.; R. Secchi, Argimiro; Woodley, John M.

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary....

  11. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g-1. The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  12. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio, E-mail: rosolen@ffclrp.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g{sup -1}. The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  13. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of...... study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The...

  14. Biofiltration kinetics of ethylacetate and xylene using sugarcane bagasse based biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saravanan Viswanathan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and xylene in a sugarcane bagasse biofilter were investigated. Microbial growth rate, biochemical reaction rate and kinetic analysis were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of xylene in the inlet concentration range of 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and xylene in this concentration range. The half-saturation constant Ks values of ethyl acetate and xylene were 1.8489 and 1.784 g.m-3, respectively. The maximum reaction rate Vm values of ethyl acetate and xylene were 0.8073and 0.8438 g C h-1 kg-1 packed material, respectively at a concentration of 0.2 g.m-3. For the biochemical reaction process, the biochemical reaction rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of xylene in the inlet concentration range of 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3. The inhibitive effect for ethyl acetate was more pronounced than that for 0.2 - 1.2 g.m-3 in this concentration range. The EAX concentration profiles along the depth were also determined by using diffusion reaction model. It was observed that at low concentration and low flow rate, the model is in good agreement with the experimental values for ethylacetate and xylene.

    Keywords: Xylene, ethyl acetate, sugarcane bagasse, biofilter, biochemical reaction

    DOI = 10.3329/cerb.v14i1.4683

    Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin 14 (2010 51-57

  15. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  16. Breeding for resistance to the sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis sacchari] (SCA) was first reported to damage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in the United States in Louisiana and Texas in 2013, and was subsequently detected in Oklahoma and the Mississippi Delta. In 2014, the aphid spread and was eventually reported in state...

  17. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether, which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorghum, etc. The popular raw materials used in ethanol production in Thailand are molasses and cassava. Molasses are a by-product of sugar production process. They are the sugarcane residues that can no longer be extracted for more sugar. In many countries including Thailand, molasses are used as raw material to produce ethanol (1 ton of molasses can produce 260 liters of ethanol used in gasohol production. In this research, the researcher found that the problem of excess supply and low price of sugarcane can be solved if gasohol E20 or higher was used to replace the Octane 91 gasoline and Octane 95 gasoline.

  18. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leila Luci, Dinardo-Miranda; Juliano Vilela, Fracasso.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand ou [...] t the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  19. Phylogenetic diversity of Brazilian Metarhizium associated with sugarcane agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of spittlebug with Metarhizium in sugarcane is an example of the successful application of sustainable pest management in Brazil. However little is known about the richness, distribution and ecology of Metarhizium species in the agroecosystems and natural environments of Brazil. W...

  20. Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse was investigated in pilot-scale with the aim of obtaining the highest possible sugar yield after pretreatment. The temperatures used were 155, 170, 185 and 200 C with or without addition of oxygen (0.6 MPa pressure). Enzymatic hydrolysis of washed...

  1. Comparative analysis of Mutator -like transposases in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Araujo, P G; de Jesus, E M; Varani, A M; Van Sluys, M-A

    2004-09-01

    The maize Mutator ( Mu) system has been described as the most active and mutagenic plant transposon so far discovered. Mu -like elements (MULEs) are widespread among plants, and many and diverse variants can coexist in a particular genome. The autonomous regulatory element MuDR contains two genes: mudrA encodes the transposase, while the function of the mudrB gene product remains unknown. Although mudrA -like sequences are ubiquitous in plants, mudrB seems to be restricted to the genus Zea. In the SUCEST (the Brazilian Sugarcane EST Sequencing Project) database, several mudrA -like cDNAs have been identified, suggesting the presence of a transcriptionally active Mu system in sugarcane. Phylogenetic studies have revealed the presence in plants of four classes of mudrA -like sequences, which arose prior to the monocot/eudicot split. At least three of the four classes are also found in the progenitors of the sugarcane hybrid (Saccharum spp.), Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum. The frequency of putatively functional transposase ORFs varies among the classes, as revealed at both cDNA and genomic levels. The predicted products of some sugarcane mudrA -like transcripts contain both a DNA-binding domain and a transposase catalytic-site motif, supporting the idea that an active Mu system exists in this hybrid genome. PMID:15338280

  2. RB002504 - New early-maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Marcos, Iaia; Ricardo Augusto de, Oliveira; Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de, Melo; Edelclaiton, Daros; Djalma Euzébio, Simões Neto; Gerson Quirino, Bastos; Francisco José de, Oliveira; Andrea, Chaves; Tassia Taiana Abreu Tavares de, Melo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high sucrose content, RB002504 is indicated for harvesting in the early harvest period, from September to November, in the Northeastern region of Brazil. Planting on medium texture soils is recommended. The cultivar is highly responsive to ideal production environments and resistant to th [...] e major sugarcane diseases.

  3. Optimizing hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  4. Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars for resistance to colletotrichum falcatum went

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for resistance against Colletotrichum falcatum was performed In 96 test lines of sugarcane by artificially inoculation method under field conditions for two consecutive years (1998-99). Out of these 96 cultivars, 43 were graded intermediately resistant and 53 intermediately susceptible on the basis of 0-9 scale. (author)

  5. Straw influence on chemical weed control in raw sugarcane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vinicius da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the mechanical harvesting system of sugarcane, without previously burning (raw sugarcane, a straw layer is left over the soil, that may overcome up to 20 t ha-1, what  represents a difficulty for germination and emergence of some weed species being possible to  affect herbicides leaching and efficacy. This way, considering this environmental change, herbicides used for weeds control in pre-emergence conditions, in raw sugarcane system, must present some specific physicochemical characteristics to be effective on weeds control such as high solubility in water, low vapor pressure and low Kow. Furthermore, it is important to consider straw amount and distribution in the field and rainfall intensity after herbicide application, since these factors determine how much of the applied product is intercepted by straw, do not reaching the soil, its final destination. According to this information, the present review aims to elucidate how straw presence on soil surface may influence the chemical weeds control and herbicides behavior in areas cultivated with sugarcane crop.

  6. Sugarcane Stemborers and their parasites in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 40,000 stemborer larvae, pupae, and parasite cocoons were collected during 1982-1995 from commercial sugarcane fields and allowed to complete development under laboratory conditions. Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F) comprised 92.4% (36,897/39,945) and 5.2% (2,057/...

  7. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  8. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de, Melo; Edelclaiton, Daros; Djalma Euzébio, Simões Neto; Andrea, Chaves; Leonam José da, Silva; Amaro Epifânio Pereira, Silva; Tassia Taiana Abreu Tavares de, Melo.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops [...] .

  9. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo; Edelclaiton Daros; Djalma Euzébio Simões Neto; Andrea Chaves; Leonam José da Silva; Amaro Epifânio Pereira Silva; Tassia Taiana Abreu Tavares de Melo

    2014-01-01

    In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  10. RB002504 – New early-maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Iaia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high sucrose content, RB002504 is indicated for harvesting in the early harvest period, from September to November, in the Northeastern region of Brazil. Planting on medium texture soils is recommended. The cultivar is highly responsive to ideal production environments and resistant to the major sugarcane diseases.

  11. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  12. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Glaucia Mendes, Souza; Ana Carolina Quirino, Simoes; Katia Cristina, Oliveira; Humberto Miguel, Garay; Leonardo Costa, Fiorini; Felipe dos Santos, Gomes; Milton Yutaka, Nishiyama-Junior; Aline Maria da, Silva.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O sequenciamento de ESTs (etiquetas de sequencias transcritas) tem possibilitado a descoberta de muitos novos genes em uma ampla variedade de organismos. Um aumento do aproveitamento desta informação pela comunidade científica tem sido possível graças ao desenvolvimento de base de dados contendo seq [...] üências completamente anotadas. O trabalho aqui relatado teve como objetivo a identificação de ESTs de cana de açúcar seqüenciadas através do projeto SUCEST (http://sucest.lad.ic. unicamp.br) que codificam para proteínas envolvidas em mecanismos de transdução de sinal. Nós também preparamos um catálogo dos componentes de transdução de sinal da cana de açúcar (SUCAST) englobando as principais categorias e vias conhecidas (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp. br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm). ESTs codificadoras de enzimas envolvidas nas rotas de biossíntese de hormônios (giberelinas, etileno, auxinas, ácido abscíssico, ácido jasmônico) foram encontradas e sua expressão específica nos tecidos foi inferida a partir de seu enriquecimento nas diferentes bibliotecas. Quando possível, transmissores do sinal hormonal e da resposta a peptídeos produzidos pela planta foram associados a suas respectivas vias. Mais de 100 receptores foram encontrados na cana de açúcar, entre os quais uma grande família de receptores Ser/Thr quinase e também de fotoreceptores, receptores do tipo histidina quinase e seus respectivos reguladores da resposta. Proteínas G e GTPases pequenas foram também analisadas e comparadas com membros destas famílias já conhecidos em mamíferos e plantas. As vias principais que envolvem a participação de proteínas quinases e fosfatases foram mapeadas, em especial as vias da quinase MAP quinase e do inositol que são bem estudadas em plantas. Abstract in english EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane [...] expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br) that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm) that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.

  13. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Mendes Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.O sequenciamento de ESTs (etiquetas de sequencias transcritas tem possibilitado a descoberta de muitos novos genes em uma ampla variedade de organismos. Um aumento do aproveitamento desta informação pela comunidade científica tem sido possível graças ao desenvolvimento de base de dados contendo seqüências completamente anotadas. O trabalho aqui relatado teve como objetivo a identificação de ESTs de cana de açúcar seqüenciadas através do projeto SUCEST (http://sucest.lad.ic. unicamp.br que codificam para proteínas envolvidas em mecanismos de transdução de sinal. Nós também preparamos um catálogo dos componentes de transdução de sinal da cana de açúcar (SUCAST englobando as principais categorias e vias conhecidas (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp. br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm. ESTs codificadoras de enzimas envolvidas nas rotas de biossíntese de hormônios (giberelinas, etileno, auxinas, ácido abscíssico, ácido jasmônico foram encontradas e sua expressão específica nos tecidos foi inferida a partir de seu enriquecimento nas diferentes bibliotecas. Quando possível, transmissores do sinal hormonal e da resposta a peptídeos produzidos pela planta foram associados a suas respectivas vias. Mais de 100 receptores foram encontrados na cana de açúcar, entre os quais uma grande família de receptores Ser/Thr quinase e também de fotoreceptores, receptores do tipo histidina quinase e seus respectivos reguladores da resposta. Proteínas G e GTPases pequenas foram também analisadas e comparadas com membros destas famílias já conhecidos em mamíferos e plantas. As vias principais que envolvem a participação de proteínas quinases e fosfatases foram mapeadas, em especial as vias da quinase MAP quinase e do inositol que são bem estudadas em plantas.

  14. Effects of Water-Logging on Juice Quality and Yield of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fida Hasan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical quality and yield performance were studied in six new sugarcane genotypes at normal and water-logging condition. The highest chemical indices, Brix % (22.20 and pol % (20.53 were found in January’ 2002 in I-93/93 and I-110/93 respectively and the lowest in I-39/94 (Brix %: 14.93; pol %: 12.52 at water-logged cultivated cane in all months. The highest of purity % (95.79 and recovery % (13.05 were found in I-110/93 in the month December 2001 and January’ 2002 respectively and the lowest in Isd 20 (purity % : 77.44; recovery % 6.49 in September 2001 at water-logged and normal cultivated cane respectively. The highest R.S. % (1.51 was found in I-39/94 in all months and the lowest in I-110/93 (0.09 at water-logged cultivated cane. Result showed that the highest tiller (183.3×1000 ha?1 in I-110/93, millable cane (117.8×1000 ha?1 in I-8/95, Yield (162.8 t ha?1 in I-8/95 and TSH (16.63 ton sugar ha?1 in I-110/93 were found in normal cultivated and the lowest were found in water-logged cultivated sugarcane (tiller 107.6×1000 ha?1 in Isd 20; millable cane 73.38×1000 ha?1 in Isd 30; yield 59.4 t ha?1 in Isd 20 and TSH 6.75 ton sugar ha?1 in Isd 20. It is concluded that the highest percentage in juice quality were found in water-logged condition cultivated cane, on the other hand growth & yield performance were also found in highest in normal cultivated cane. In aspect of sugar production some tested cultivars showed (Isd-20, I-93/93 and I-8/95 similar performance in normal and water-logged cultivated sugarcane due to genetic potentiality and environmental adaptation on quality, yield and growth.

  15. Impacts of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) on the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Renata A; Feliciano, Julia R; Solter, Leellen F; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is controlled with massive releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); over 3 million hectares of sugarcane are treated annually with 18 billion parasitoids. In order to meet this demand, parasitoids are produced in D. saccharalis under laboratory conditions where a Nosema sp. is reported to be an important problem in mass rearing of the host. The goals for this work were to study the pathogenicity of the Nosema sp. and the progression of the disease in the host under laboratory conditions. The average median lethal time (LT??) of Nosema sp. in first instar D. saccharalis varied from 9 ± 0.3 to 42 ± 2.3 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10 spores/?l). For third instar, the average of LT50 ranged from 32 ± 0.7 to 37 ± 0.7 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-5 × 10(2) spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10(4) spores/?l in saline). The concentration necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC??) of first instar larvae was 5.6 (0.9-17.6) spores/?l and the estimated LC50 for third instar larvae was 1,200 (200-4700) spores/?l. The impacts of Nosema sp. on D. saccharalis were analyzed for first instar larvae fed 0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet. Duration and viability of the larval and pupal stages, adult longevity, pupal weight and fertility life table were measured for offspring of mating pairs composed of infected females and uninfected males or infected males and uninfected females and compared to offspring of uninfected pairs. Nosema sp. infection resulted in adverse effects on all biological parameters measured except for the duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight of the male pupae, which did not differ statistically between infected and uninfected groups. The intrinsic rates of growth (rm) were greater for uninfected pairs compared to pairs with either male or female infected. The growth rate of individual larvae produced by uninfected adults was 48.2% faster than of larval offspring of infected females and it was negative (-0.003) when males were infected. Our study confirms the negative impact of the Nosema sp. in mass rearing of D. saccharalis for parasitoid production but shows potential for use as a microbial control agent of the sugarcane borer. PMID:25981134

  16. Study of elemental variations during somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane using photon induced X-ray probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) has been extensively used to characterize trace element profiles during plant growth under stress and development. In this study, elemental accumulation was analyzed using EDXRF technique during somatic embryogenesis, from de-differentiated callus (S1) to proembryogenic callus (S2), embryogenic callus with developing embryos (S3) and embryo converted plantlets (S4, S5). There was much variation in Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Higher Mg (4.6%) K (1068 ppm) and Fe accumulation was observed in proembryogenic callus (S2) stage compared to other stages suggesting specific elemental accumulation in embryogenic callus. The results suggest that the information on the accumulation of elements during developmental stages in vitro could be useful for formulating a media for induction of high frequency of embryogenesis in sugarcane

  17. Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The increase of stem yield due to irrigation was observed in the ratoon sugarcane cycle and promoted significant effect in RTR in the last two ratoons sugarcane cycles. There were no negative effects in technological attributes by using irrigation. On the other hand in second ratoon the irrigation improved Brix, Pol and ATR in relation to non irrigated plants. The use of double planting spacing provided higher of stem yield when compared to simple spacings, with an average gain per cycle of 13.4 and 11.1 Mg ha-1 in relation to treatments S1 and S2 respectively. The double rows planting improved RTR in plant-sugarcane and also in second ratoon sugarcane cycles in relation to other spacings. There was no interaction between irrigation and spacing on production of stems. The stem production presented positive interaction between irrigation and spacing only in the second cycle of sugarcane ratoon. In this case higher RTR yield occurred in irrigated plots in double spacing cultivation (S3). The irrigation promoted higher yield when compared to rainfed cultivation, with average values of 141.3 and 132.4 Mg ha-1, respectively. The irrigated sugarcane plants provided higher RTR compared to non irrigated ones averaging 1.5 Mg ha-1, representing an increase of approximately 6 Mg ha-1 in four yields cycles. In general, results showed beneficial use of irrigation by SDI in sugarcane over the four years of production.

  18. Cross-resistance between the Mexican Rice Borer and the Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A Case Study Using Sugarcane Breeding Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer (SCB) (Diatraea saccharalis) and Mexican rice borer (MRB) (Eoreuma loftini) are two economically important pests of sugarcane in the USA. Because of similarities in larval feeding behavior, selecting for resistance to one species could provide resistance to the other, a phenomeno...

  19. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D were tested in their respective commercial doses regarding their impact on the growth of the bacteria in liquid medium DIGs. For this, we determined the duration of lag phase, generation time and maximum cell density of H. seropedicae, calculated from optical density data obtained at regular intervals during the incubation of cultures for 33 h at 32oC. We also evaluated the impact of herbicides on nitrogenase activity of H. seropedicae grown in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium. The effects of herbicides on the growth variables and the ARA were compared with the untreated control by Dunnett test. A completely randomized design was used. The herbicides paraquat, imazapyr, ametryne, glyphosate and oxyfluorfen inhibited the growth of H. seropedicae in vitro. Ametryne, oxyfluorfen and glyphosate caused a small reduction in the duration of the lag phase of diazotrophic bacteria H. seropedicae. Oxyfluorfen, ametryne and imazapyr resulted in increased the generation time by H. seropedicae. Glyphosate promoted drastic reduction in biological nitrogen fixation in vitro by H. seropedicae. The other tested herbicides did not affect the growth or the same BNF by H. seropedicae.

  20. Experimental assessment of the accuracy of genomic selection in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, M; Rousselle, Y; Bastianelli, D; Lecomte, P; Bonnal, L; Roques, D; Efile, J-C; Rocher, S; Daugrois, J; Toubi, L; Nabeneza, S; Hervouet, C; Telismart, H; Denis, M; Thong-Chane, A; Glaszmann, J C; Hoarau, J-Y; Nibouche, S; Costet, L

    2013-10-01

    Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids with an aneuploid, highly heterozygous polyploid genome. The complexity of the sugarcane genome is the main obstacle to the use of marker-assisted selection in sugarcane breeding. Given the promising results of recent studies of plant genomic selection, we explored the feasibility of genomic selection in this complex polyploid crop. Genetic values were predicted in two independent panels, each composed of 167 accessions representing sugarcane genetic diversity worldwide. Accessions were genotyped with 1,499 DArT markers. One panel was phenotyped in Reunion Island and the other in Guadeloupe. Ten traits concerning sugar and bagasse contents, digestibility and composition of the bagasse, plant morphology, and disease resistance were used. We used four statistical predictive models: bayesian LASSO, ridge regression, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and partial least square regression. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed through the correlation between observed and predicted genetic values by cross validation within each panel and between the two panels. We observed equivalent accuracy among the four predictive models for a given trait, and marked differences were observed among traits. Depending on the trait concerned, within-panel cross validation yielded median correlations ranging from 0.29 to 0.62 in the Reunion Island panel and from 0.11 to 0.5 in the Guadeloupe panel. Cross validation between panels yielded correlations ranging from 0.13 for smut resistance to 0.55 for brix. This level of correlations is promising for future implementations. Our results provide the first validation of genomic selection in sugarcane. PMID:23907359

  1. Sugarcane Brown and Orange Rusts: Their Impact in Florida and the USDA-ARS Sugarcane field Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane brown rust has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust, caused Puccinia kuehnii, was confirmed in Florida in 2007 by morphological and molecular techniques. Both brown and orange rusts have impacted both the commercial production and cultivar development programs in Florida. Sin...

  2. Use of cross-flow membrane filtration in a recirculating hydroponic system to suppress root disease in pepper caused by Pythium myriotylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C; Hammer, William

    2009-05-01

    Zoosporic pathogens in the genera Pythium and Phytophthora cause extensive root disease epiphytotics in recirculating hydroponic vegetable-production greenhouses. Zoospore cysts of Pythium myriotylum Drechsler were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cross-flow membrane filters to control pythiaceous pathogens in recirculating hydroponic systems. Four membrane filter brands (Honeycomb, Polypure, Polymate, and Absolife) were tested alone or in combination to determine which filters would effectively remove infective propagules of P. myriotylum from solutions and reduce disease incidence and severity. Zoospore cysts of P. myriotylum generally measured 8 to 10 microm, and it was hypothesized that filters with pore-sizespepper plants from root infection. Single-filter assays with Honeycomb and Polypure brands removed 85 to 95% of zoospore cysts when pore sizes were rated at 1, 5, 10, 20, or 30 microm. Single-filter assays of Polymate and Absolife brands were more effective, exhibiting apparently 100% removal of zoospore cysts from nutrient solutions on filters rated at 1 to 10 microm. However, plant bioassays with Honeycomb and Polymate single filters failed to give long-term protection of pepper plants. Double-filter assays with 1- and 0.5-microm Polymate filters significantly increased the protection of pepper plants grown in nutrient film technique systems but, eventually, root disease and plant wilt could be observed. Insect transmissions by shore flies were not factors in disease development. Scanning electron microscopy images of zoospore cysts entrapped on Polymate filters revealed zoospore cysts that were either fully encysted, partially encysted, or of unusually small size (3 microm in diameter). It was concluded that either the atypically small or pliable pleomorphic zoospore cysts were able to penetrate filter membranes that theoretically should have captured them. PMID:19351256

  3. Recombinant cellulase accumulation in the leaves of mature, vegetatively propagated transgenic sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, R Jason; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Palupe, Anthony; Sainz, Manuel B; Dale, James L

    2014-09-01

    The cost of enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars needs to be reduced to make cellulosic ethanol a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel. Sugarcane is a perennial crop and the successful integration of cellulase transgenes into the sugarcane production system requires that transgene expression is stable in the ratoon. Herein, we compared the accumulation of recombinant fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), fungal cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II), and bacterial endoglucanase (EG) in the leaves of mature, initial transgenic sugarcane plants and their mature ratoon. Mature ratoon events containing equivalent or elevated levels of active CBH I, CBH II, and EG in the leaves were identified. Further, we have demonstrated that recombinant fungal CBH I and CBH II can resist proteolysis during sugarcane leaf senescence, while bacterial EG cannot. These results demonstrate the stability of cellulase enzyme transgene expression in transgenic sugarcane and the utility of sugarcane as a biofactory crop for production of cellulases. PMID:24793894

  4. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1?months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment. PMID:26090363

  5. Biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio por biomassas de Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann R.L. Seym. e Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes Copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption by Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann R.L. Seym. and Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ivanildo de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas secas dos fungos zoospóricos Saprolegnia subterranea e Pythium torulosum foram avaliadas quanto a biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio de soluções aquosas por meio da determinação dos índices "q" (mg de metal adsorvido por g de biomassa e "R%" (remoção percentual. Os mais elevados índices q foram obtidos quando as biomassas foram colocadas em contato com elevadas concentrações de metais, enquanto que os maiores índices R% foram obtidos em condições de baixas concentrações (pDried biomass of the zoosporic fungi Saprolegnia subterranea and Pythium torulosum was evaluated for copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption from aqueous solutions using the "q" (mg of adsorbed metal per g of biomass and the "R%" (percent removal indices. The highest q values were observed when the biomass was placed in contact with high metal concentrations, whereas the highest R% values were observed at low concentrations (p<0.05. S. subterranea SPC 1244 biomass surpassed the others for copper biosorption (q = 7.48 mg/g; R% = 49.03, P. torulosum SPC 1425 biomass was the best for manganese biosorption (q = 4.13 mg/g; R% = 26.71, and S. subterranea SPC 1431 biomass was the best for cadmium biosorption (q = 6.75 mg/g; R% = 42.26. This is the first report on copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption by the biomass of these zoosporic fungi, indicating the potential to remove ions from diluted solutions.

  6. Intercropping of Sugarcane with Onion and Potato Followed by Sesame in Paired Row System

    OpenAIRE

    G.M.A Hossain; S.M. Bokhtiar; S.K. Paul; M.R. Anam

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was made to evaluate the agronomic and economic performance of different intercrops viz. Onion (Allium cepa), Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum) with sugarcane in paired row system. Sugarcane with potato followed by second intercrop sesame produced the highest yield of cane, potato and sesame. Maximum number of tiller, millable cane, cane diameter and unit stalk weight were observed in the same crop combination. On the contrary, sugarcane with onion followed...

  7. Burnt Sugarcane Harvesting – Cardiovascular Effects on a Group of Healthy Workers, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Cristiane Maria Galvão; Terra-Filho, Mário; de Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Di Giorgi, Dante; Grupi, Cesar; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Rondon, Maria Urbana Pinto Brandão; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Marcourakis, Tânia; dos Santos, Fabiana Almeida; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; ZANETTA Dirce Maria Trevisan; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2012-01-01

    Background Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugarcane. Harvest is predominantly manual, exposing workers to health risks: intense physical exertion, heat, pollutants from sugarcane burning. Design Panel study to evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on blood markers and on cardiovascular system. Methods Twenty-eight healthy male workers, living in the countryside of Brazil were submitted to blood markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cardiopulmonary exercise t...

  8. Optimization of pretreatment and fermentation conditions for production of extracellular cellulase complex using sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaque, Mohammad; Solomon, Sushil; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a lignocellulosic byproduct of juice extraction from sugarcane, is rich in cellulose (40-42%). This could be used as a substrate for the production of cellulase complex. Fermentation conditions were optimized for production of cellulase complex (CMCase, Cellulobiase and FPase) by wild type Trichoderma sp. using sugarcane bagasse as sole carbon source. Alkaline treatment (2% NaOH) of bagasse (AlSCB) was found suitable for the production of reducing sugar over ...

  9. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a com...

  10. Analysis of Cellulose Degrading Enzymes in Genetically Modified Sugarcane Juice Using Capillary Electrophoretic Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ruchi

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) sugarcane expressing cellobiohydrolase (CBH), endo-?-glucosidase (EG) and ? glucosidase (BG) have a potential to provide low cost enzymes required for commercially viable production of ethanol from waste such as bagasse. The expression of enzymes in GM sugarcane is likely to be dependent on the variety of the plant and its growing conditions. In this project, reliable, rapid and easy-to-use methods capable of on-site analysis of cellulases in every batch of sugarcane...

  11. Ethanol from Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Residues - Opportunities for Process Improvement and Production Cost Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Macrelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, and the increasing demand for fuel ethanol has prompted studies on the use of the lignocellulosic residues of sugarcane, namely bagasse and leaves, as new feedstock. This thesis describes various process designs and the economic feasibility of producing second generation (2G) ethanol from bagasse and leaves via the enzymatic route in an integrated sugarcane biorefinery, where first-generation (1G) ethanol is produced from...

  12. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    João Andrade de Carvalho; Turibio Gomes Soares Neto; José Carlos Santos; Saulo R Freitas; BERNARDO F. T. RUDORFF; Daniela de Azeredo França; Edson Anselmo; Ely Vieira Cortez; Karla Maria Longo

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due...

  13. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid Caio TCC; Piccolo Marisa C; Leite Deborah Catharine A; Balieiro Fabiano C; Coutinho Heitor Luiz C; van Elsas Jan; Peixoto Raquel S; Rosado Alexandre S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the di...

  14. Oxidative enzymes activity in sugarcane juice as a function of the planting system

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeu Alcides Marques; Érick Malheiros Rampazo; Patricia Angélica Alves Marques

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the largest producer of sugarcane in the world, the industrial process transforms this crop into ethanol and/or granulated sugar. Some cultivars exhibit enzymatic browning in the extracted sugarcane juice at levels harmful to the manufacturing process of white granulated sugar. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sugarcane straw used as soil coverage, the use of different planting systems, and treatments with hydrogel polymer on enzymatic activity. The cultivar ...

  15. Relationship between endogenous ethylene production and natural defoliation traits during the maturation of sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Xin Gao; Xian Fan; Jing Mei Dao; Jun Deng; Ru Dan Li; Yue Bin Zhang; Jia Wen Guo; Shao Chun Liu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between endogenous ethylene production and natural defoliation rate was examined in sugarcane cultivars with different natural defoliation traits. Ethylene production was examined at different positions on leaf sheaths and leaf scars at various sugarcane maturation stages using gas chromatography as an external standard method. During the sugarcane maturation process, ethylene production was greatest in the 2nd leaf sheath scar, followed by the 5th and 10th, in that order. It...

  16. Dispersal of Cotesia flavipes in sugarcane field and implications for parasitoid releases

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda; Juliano Vilela Fracasso; Viviane Pereira da Costa; Diego Olympio Teixeira Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis Fabr. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major sugarcane pest in Brazil. The management of infested areas is based on the release of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of D. saccharalis larvae, but there are doubts about the effectiveness of C. flavipes, primarily regarding its rate of dispersal in sugarcane fields. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the dispersal of C. flavipes in a sugarcane field and suggest a release method th...

  17. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  18. Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    D. Dzaba; D. Nganga; L. Moundzeo; J. Pandzou

    2011-01-01

    This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E). The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane pla...

  19. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carvalho Basilio de Azevedo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning. Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

  20. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade, Landell; Maximiliano Salles, Scarpari; Mauro Alexandre, Xavier; Ivan Antônio dos, Anjos; Antônio Sampaio, Baptista; Cláudio Lima de, Aguiar; Daniel Nunes da, Silva; Márcio Aurélio Pitta, Bidóia; Sandro Roberto, Brancalião; José Antônio, Bressiani; Marcelo Ferraz de, Campos; Paulo Eduardo Martins, Miguel; Thiago Nogueira da, Silva; Victor Hugo Pavelqueires da, Silva; Luciana Oliveira Souza, Anjos; Bruna Harumi, Ogata.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy produ [...] ction. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  1. Sugarcane proteomics: An update on current status, challenges, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ramadass, Ashwin; Amalraj, Ramesh Sundar; Palaniyandi, Malathi; Rasappa, Viswanathan

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated worldwide for the production of crystal sugar, ethanol, and other related by-products. Unlike other comparable monocots like sorghum, maize, and rice, sugarcane genome by virtue of its polyploidy nature remains yet to be fully deciphered. Proteomics-an established complementary tool to genomics is at its infancy in sugarcane as compared to the other monocots. However, with the surge in genomics research accomplished by next-generation sequencing platforms, sugarcane proteomics has gained momentum. This review summarizes the available literature from 1970 to 2014, which ensures a comprehensive coverage on sugarcane proteomics-a topic first of its kind to be reviewed. We herewith compiled substantial contributions in different areas of sugarcane proteomics, which include abiotic and biotic stresses, cell wall, organelle, and structural proteomics. The past decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the pace with which sugarcane proteomics is progressing, as evident by the number of research publications. In addition to extensively reviewing the progress made thus far, we intend to highlight the scope in sugarcane proteomics, with an aspiration to instigate focused research on sugarcane to harness its full potential for the human welfare. PMID:25641866

  2. Predaceous ant fauna in new sugarcane fields in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Nogueira Rossi; Harold Gordon Fowler

    2004-01-01

    Predaceous ant fauna present in natural sugarcane field plantations in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was evaluated by using sardine baits sampling technique. Three-month-old sugarcane plants were used for ant fauna estimation in two sugarcane mills, São João and Barra Mill. Twelve 30m X 30 m (900 m²) plots were previously delimited in each sugarcane mill for ant sampling. Ants were sampled in each plot by placing nine sardine baits in 12 mm X 75 mm plastic tubes. In the São João Mill, the p...

  3. Field Screening of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Mutant and Commercial Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyan CHA-UM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and physiological attributes and sugar quality parameters are considered key criteria for screening sugarcane cultivars for salt tolerance. Maximum cane growth and yield were found in a positive check (‘K88-92’ as well as in cv. ‘(A3AE1-18’ when subjected to salt affected soil. Percent reduction in Fv/Fm, quantum efficiency of PSII (?PSII and water use efficiency (WUE due to salt stress was considerably low in ‘K88-92’, ‘(A3AE1-18’ and ‘KK3’ which was associated with very low salt-induced reduction in net photosynthetic rate and growth characters such as shoot length, number of internodes, and internodal length as well as yield traits. In addition, brix, polarlization, fiber, purity and commercial cane sugar (CCS in ‘(A18AE2-15’ and ‘(A3AE1-18’ were well maintained under saline stress. By subjecting the data for various physiological, growth, yield and sugar quality parameters to the Ward’s cluster analysis ‘K88-92’ (positive check, ‘(A3AE1-18’ and ‘KK3’ were identified as salt tolerant, whereas ‘(A11AE1-114’ and ‘K97-32’ as salt sensitive.

  4. Production of antifungal compounds by Lysobacter enzymogenes isolate 3.1.T8 under different conditions in relation to its efficacy as a biocontrol agent of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Folman, L.B.; Klein, M.J.E.I.M., de; Postma, J.; Veen, J.A., van

    2004-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes strain 3.1T8 is a potential biocontrol agent of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.). It showed in vitro antagonistic activity, hemolytic activity, and the production of a surface active compound, which decreased in media of increasing strength. One or more low molecular compounds, present in culture filtrates of 3.1T8, caused rapid immobilization of zoospores of P. aphanidermatum and inhibited cyst germination. Bioassays for suppression...

  5. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ranst, E.; Debaveye, J.; Mahop, F.

    1999-01-01

    The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as...

  6. In vitro mutagenesis and selection for salinity tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) is a highly polyploid plant (2n=36-170) grown in different parts of the world from the tropics to subtropics, and accounts for around 60% of the world's sugar. It is also one of the important cash crops in many developing/developed countries, with a high trade value. In this study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerance in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars CoC- 671, Co 86032 and Co 94012. Embryogenic callus cultures were subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50). Radio sensitivity estimation indicated that 20 Gy irradiated cultures exhibited almost 50 per cent survival response. Relative growth rate and cell mass accumulation were recorded after irradiation and 30 days of post- irradiation culture. The plants regenerated from the calli irradiated at 20, 30 and 40 Gy were hardened and field planted to study their performance. The embryogenic callus cultures were also exposed to inhibitory levels of NaCl (42.8, 85.6, 128.3, 171.1, 213.9, 256.7 mM). The biochemical responses to the salt stress were studied in terms of proline, glycine betaine accumulation, membrane stability and cell viability. The variegated plants were also observed following gamma irradiation and were analyzed by different molecular markers (RAPD and Ac homologous transposons). The salt selected plants were further field evaluated and the desirable clones are now being evaluated in the second generation for their genetic stability. The proper evaluation of these induced variants with desirable traits may prove useful for cultivation under stress conditions

  7. Lethal and sublethal effects of lufenuron on sugarcane borer Diatraea flavipennella and its parasitoid Cotesia flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana Paula Pereira; Marques, Edmilson Jacinto; Torres, Jorge Braz; Silva, Liliane Marques; Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro Abreu

    2015-11-01

    The combination of chemical and biological controls is a historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved due to lethal and sublethal impact of insecticides on natural enemies altering their performance. In this context, the susceptibility of the yellow sugarcane borer, Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to the insect growth regulator lufenuron and the consequent effects upon its endoparasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) encountering exposed but surviving larvae were studied. Neonate and 10-day-old larvae were subjected to one of seven concentrations of lufenuron (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100 mg a.i./L). Further, effects of lufenuron to the host larvae and to the parasitoid were assessed using low lethal LC20 and LC50. Lufenuron at concentrations up to 12.5 mg a.i./L allowed partial survival of borer larvae; and concentrations over 12.5 mg a.i./L caused 100 % larval mortality before pupation in both ages. Neonate larvae exhibited lower pupal weights only at concentrations 12.5 mg a.i./L; while 10-day-old larvae treated with the LC50 exhibited delayed development. Egg viability was reduced for adult borers from surviving larvae of both ages treated with low lethal concentrations. The parasitoid C. flavipes successfully parasitized surviving low lethal treated larvae. Among the studied life history characteristics of C. flavipes, only a delayed development was observed. The results showed that lufenuron can be effective against D. flavipennella at concentrations over 25 mg a.i./L, and that surviving larvae can be successfully parasitized by C. flavipes. The insecticide lufenuron and the parasitoid C. flavipes seem to be compatible for sugarcane borer control. PMID:26250937

  8. Management of sugarcane insect pests through environment-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment ecofriendly techniques like cultural and biological control are effective to manage sugarcane insects like borers and sucking pests on an area-wide basis in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. Among the cultural practices for the management of shoot borer of sugarcane (Chilo infuscatellus Snell), a major pest of this region, planting in the early season of December-January proves to be more efficient, followed by a system of trash mulching on the ridges or raising intercrop pulses like green gram or black gram immediately after planting. The benefit-cost ratio in the trash mulching and intercropping systems was higher than in the sugarcane monocrop. The reduction of shoot borer in the intercropped system ranged from 45.8% to 51.4% while the reduction was 50.5% in the trash mulched system. Early season planted sugarcane was minimally infested by shoot borer and stray incidence was only recorded. Another cultural practice of increasing the sugarcane sett/seed rate, while planting at 20% over and above the normal recommended rate during the late season when the incidence of shoot borer is highest in this region, recorded reduction in infestation to the extent of 26.8% during the two seasons trials conducted from 2002-2004. Another effective cultural practice of removal of older and dried up leaves of sugarcane twice during 5th and 7th months after planting reduced sucking pests likes white fly (Aleurolobus barodensis Mask) nymphs by 42.1% and puparia by 63.9%; and leaf hopper (Pyrilla perpusilla Wlk.) to the extent of 66% respectively. Among the biocontrol techniques the release of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) reared under artificial conditions, at fortnightly intervals at 2.5cc/ha six times commencing from 5th month stage of crop reduced internode borer (Chilo sacchariphagus indicus Kapur) only to the extent of 20%, which is the least among the other practices tested. The natural field parasitisation of another egg parasitoid, Telenomus beneficiens Zehnt. (Scelionidae: Hymenoptera) was more predominant from September to March (32.3 to 73.5%), though rearing under artificial conditions as for T. chilonis was not successful. The sugarcane leafhopper Pyrilla perpusilla was managed by the release of its nymphal-adult ecto-parasitoid Epiricania melanoleuca Fletcher, twice after the onset of infestation, which reduced the overall mean nymphal parasitisation by 28.4% (500 egg masses/ha) or 47.2% (1,000 cocoons /ha). The IPM demonstration trials carried out during the two seasons of 2002-2004 incorporating the cultural components of trash mulching on ridges immediately after planting, detrashing of older leaves on 5th and 7th months and biological component of release of egg parasitoid T. chilonis during vegetative phase of the crop, resulted in increased cane yield of 23.3 and 17.3% over and above the plots where these practices were not followed up during 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 respectively. The incidence of shoot borer was reduced by 33.6 and 42.4% during these two years, while the internode borer incidence was reduced by 19.69 and 13.74% respectively. The experiments on eco-friendly techniques for warding off insect pests of sugarcane and subsequent demonstrations in the field prove that cultural practices coupled with biological control techniques could reduce borers and sucking pest infestation and result in subsequent yield increase

  9. Genetic instability of sugarcane plants derived from meristem cultures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Imaculada, Zucchi; Hideto, Arizono; Vicente Alberto, Morais; Maria Helena Pelegrinelli, Fungaro; Maria Lúcia Carneiro, Vieira.

    Full Text Available The RADP (Random amplified polymorphic DNA) technique was used to detect tissue-culture-induced variations in sugarcane. Plants of the Brazilian variety RB83-5486 propagated via rhizomes and via meristem cultures were studied. The polymorphism rate for 98 RAPD loci was 6.93% when the plants derived [...] from meristems. Besides, in order to evaluate the influence of the number of subcultures on the generation of somaclonal variation, field-grown RB83-5486 plants derived from 10 meristems were studied after five subcultivations. Although different rates of polymorphism were observed, there was no direct association with the stage of subcultivation. The analysis of plants of two sugarcane varieties cultivated in vitro from meristems showed that variety RB83-5486 was more unstable than variety SP80-185.

  10. Evaluation of sugarcane genotypes for theoretical yield of alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Shanthi Priya, K.H.P.Reddy, M.Hemanth Kumar, V.Rajarajeswari, G.Mohan Naidu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy seven genotypes of sugarcane were evaluated in second clonal stage for theoretical yield of alcohol. The genotypes viz., 2010T-72 (14.67 g/100ml, 2010T-16 (14.01 g/100ml and 2010T-88 (13.93 g/100ml showed significantly higher performance over the best check Co 7219 (12.80 g/100ml for theoretical yield of alcohol. Path analysis revealed that the characters viz., total sugars per cent, pol per cent cane and CCS per cent exhibited positive direct effects on theoretical yield of alcohol and the other characters also exhibited their indirect positive effects on theoretical yield of alcohol via total sugars per cent, pol per cent cane and CCS per cent, indicating that these were the major contributing characters to theoretical yield of alcohol in sugarcane

  11. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS; high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with 60% of DDS. Spittlebug attack caused significant losses in cane quality, reducing total soluble solids, sucrose content, total reducing sugars, and pH, and increasing total phenolic compounds, and total and volatile juice acidity. The fermentation process was also significantly affected, resulting in lower ethanol content in wine. There was an increase in acetaldehyde concentration in the distillate. The spittlebug attack caused negative impacts on sugarcane quality and fermentation process, and these impacts are stronger in late season harvests.

  12. Fabrication and Mechanical Performance Investigation of Sisal and Sugarcane Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E.Narentharan*

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers, such as sisal, flax and jute, possess good reinforcing capability when properly compounded with polymers. These fibers are relatively inexpensive, originate from renewable resources and possess favorable values of specific strength and specific modulus. Thermoplastic polymers have a shorter cycle time as well as reprocessability despite problems with high viscosities and poor fiber wetting. The renewability of natural fibers and the recyclability of thermoplastic polymers provide an attractive ecofriendly quality to the resulting natural fiberreinforced thermoplastic composite materials. Common methods for manufacturing natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites, injection moulding and extrusion, tend to degrade the fibers during processing. Development of a simple manufacturing technique for sisal fiber, sugarcane baggage-reinforced polypropylene composites, that minimizes fiber degradation and can be used in developing countries, is the main objective of this study. Combination of sisal and sugarcane baggage fibers possesses good reinforcing capability when properly compounded with polymers.

  13. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  14. Efficiency of selection within sugarcane families via simulated individual BLUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lopes da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of the simulated individual BLUP (BLUPIS method in selecting genotypes within full-sib families of sugarcane in ratoon stage, through comparison with selection using the individual BLUP method. The optimal number of genotypes to be selected in the best families were established for mean stems mass, total soluble solids assay (BRIX, ton of stalks per hectare, and BRIX tons per hectare traits. Seventeen full-sib families were assessed in the Centre for Experimentation in Sugarcane, located in Oratórios, MG, Brazil. Mixed model methodology was used to predict the genotypic effects of each family and the genotypic values of each individual within family. BLUPIS method is efficient for individual selection. The optimal number of genotypes to be selected in the best family for obtaining higher efficiency of the BLUPIS method is 100 in the majority of cases.

  15. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

  16. IMPROVING ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BY BIOLOGICAL/PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PRETREATMENT USING TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND BACILLUS SP.