WorldWideScience

Sample records for sugarcane growth pythium

  1. Exploitation of trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Muthukumar; A., Eswaran; K., Sanjeevkumas.

    1598-16-01

    Full Text Available Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic eff [...] ects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3) performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli.

  2. Effect of Microbial Antagonists on in vitro Growth of Pythium aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ali Siddiqui

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one isolates of 38 species of fungi and 24 isolates of 8 species of bacteria were tested in dual culture plates. Penicillium sp., 2 unidentified bacteria and a sterile fungus were found to inhibit the growth of Pythium aphanidermatum producing zones of inhibitions of 7, 11,4 and 6 mm respectively, around the colony of the pathogen. One strain each of Rhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium sp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa initially producing zones of inhibition of 15, 20 and 2 mm respectively, but later the pathogen grew and colonies met each other. Similarly, G. , virens initially produced a zone of inhibition of 20 mm but later on the pathogen over grew the zone of inhibition and colonies intermingled. A strain of P. aeruginosa also inhibited the growth of P. aphanidermatum without producing zone of inhibition.

  3. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BENOMYL E PCNB SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO RADIAL DE Fusarium solani E Pythium sp., IN VITRO EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BENOMYL AND PCNB ON THE RADIAL GROWTH OF Fusarium solani AND Pythium sp. IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Peliz Machado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os experimentos foram realizado nas dependências do Laboratório de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no ano de 1997. Os fungos Fusarium e Pythium sp. foram cultivados em meio de cultura artificial contendo benomyl e PCNB nas concentrações de 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. Os crescimentos radiais dos fungos demonstraram que o benomyl foi eficiente contra o Fusarium, mas não surtiu efeito contra o Pythium, fato este também observado em relação ao PCNB. Este produto, embora menos eficiente, reduziu em mais de 50% o crescimento radial de Fusarium, obtendo uma redução progressiva com o aumento da concentração.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; quintozene.

    The experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Escola de Agronomia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás, in the year of 1997. The fungi Fusarium moniliforme and Pythium sp. were treated in cultural medium with benomyl and PCNB in the concentrations of 10, 25, 50 e 100ppm. The radial growth of the fungi demonstrated that benomyl was efficient against Fusarium, but not against Pythium sp. The same was also observed with PCNB. Although less efficient than benomyl, this product reduced radial growth of Fusarium in more than 50%. The increase of PCNB concentration reduced Fusarium growth progressively.

    KEY-WORDS: Fusarium; Pythium; benomyl; PCNB.

  4. Glyphosate Effects on Sugarcane Metabolism and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Antonio Carbonari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world. In sugarcane, it is used as a herbicide when applied at its field rate, but it is also used as ripener when applied as low doses. However, the effects of glyphosate on plant metabolism and sugarcane growth are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic changes and the effects on sugarcane plant growth caused by the application of different doses of glyphosate. Sugarcane plants were grown in a greenhouse and subjected to glyphosate applications at doses of 7.2; 18; 36; 72; 180; 360 and 720 g a.e. ha-1. Plants grown without an herbicide application were used as a control. Plants from each treatment were collected at 2, 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment (DAT application to quantify the levels of shikimic acid, quinic acid, shikimate-3-phosphate, glyphosate, ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were performed at the same time as the collection of plants, and the quantification of their shoot dry biomass was performed at 21 DAT. At doses of glyphosate greater than 72 g a.e. ha-1, increases in the levels of shikimic acid, quinic acid, and shikimate-3-phosphate occurred and AMPA was detected in the plants. Initially, glyphosate caused increases in the plant levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine at doses of 72 and 180 g a.e. ha-1, although a decrease in the levels of aromatic amino acids subsequently occurred at and above the doses of 72 or 180 g a.e. ha-1. The doses ranging from 7.2 to 36 g a.e. ha-1 promoted an increase in plant shoot biomass, and doses greater than 72 g a.e. ha-1 caused significant reductions in dry mass.

  5. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reducing Pythium root rot development. To test this hypothesis a fully factorial experiment was performed with AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, G. mosseae, G. claroideum or nonmycorrhizal), Pythium (± P. aphanidermatum) and harvest (7 and 14 days after pathogen inoculation (dapi)) as the main factors. Two weeks after AM fungi inoculation, roots were challenged with P. aphanidermatum. Variables evaluated at each harvest were root colonization levels of the interacting fungi, plant growth responses, and expression of a plant pathogenesis related protein gene (PR-1). All of the tested AM fungi caused marked growth suppressions, but did not affect PR-1 gene expression or the phosphorous concentration in the host plant. Plants singly inoculated with P. aphanidermatum had an increased PR-1 expression and phosphorous concentration. Among the AM fungi included in the study only G. intraradices reduced the pathogen root infection level, measured both in terms of Pythium ELISA and by recovery on selective media and only at the first harvest. Likewise, P. aphanidermatum root infection reduced colonization levels of G. intraradices, but not that of the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, plant growth suppressive AM fungi may offer plant beneficial traits in terms of biocontrol of root cortical pathogens.

  6. Effect of Benomyl Treated Garlic on Growth and Sporulation of Pythium aphanidermatum and Achlya americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamalat A. Abd-Elaah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen species belonging to six genera of zoosporic fungi, yielding 356 fungal colonies were isolated from 30 soil samples collected from Sohag city. The effect of different levels (0.0, 50.0, 100.0, 150.0 and 300.0 ppm of the fungicide benomyl on the morphological structures of mycelial, zoosporangia, sexual organs and gemmae of Pythium aphanidermatum and Achlya americana was studied on malt extract medium and callus cultures of garlic. Steroles was determined in garlic callus cultures treated with different levels of benomyl fungicide. GLC analysis showed differences in sterol contents between treated calli of garlic and control ones, which did not meet Achlya americana and Pythium aphanidermatum fungi requirements.

  7. Pythium blight of turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Allen (University of Georgia, Griffen Campus; )

    2005-01-01

    This plant disease lesson on Pythium blight of turfgrass (caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium ultimum) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  8. Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica / Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliane De Diana, Teixeira; Carmen Lídia Amorim Pires, Zottarelli; Hiroshi, Kimati.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3), cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5) e quatro ao [...] grupo T (T1 a T4) de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC) sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia. Abstract in english Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3), whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5) and four to group T (T1-T4) of Pythium. The id [...] entification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC) on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40 to 40.7ºC, respectively. The optimum temperature ranged from 24 to 37ºC for P. helicoides, from 25 to 35ºC for isolate F4 and 21 to 30ºC for the remaining isolates. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the isolates were evaluated by the inoculation of lettuce seeds plated in water-agar, at 21 and 30ºC. At 30ºC, P. helicoides isolates were clearly the most aggressives, determining 100 % seed mortality soon after germination. At 21ºC, all isolates reduced seedling growth, associated or not with root tissue necrosis. This is the first report of P. helicoides in Brazil and the first world reference of this species in hydroponic systems.

  9. Efeito da temperatura no crescimento micelial e patogenicidade de Pythium spp. que ocorrem em alface hidropônica Temperature effects on mycelial growth and pathogenicity of Pythium spp. occuring in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane De Diana Teixeira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doze isolados de Pythium foram obtidos de raízes de alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos comerciais, apresentando ou não sintomas de apodrecimento. Três desses isolados foram identificados como Pythium helicoides Drechsler (H1, H2 e H3, cinco como pertencentes ao grupo F (F1 a F5 e quatro ao grupo T (T1 a T4 de Pythium. A identificação das espécies foi realizada baseando-se nas características morfológicas. O efeito da temperatura (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 e 40ºC sobre o crescimento micelial foi determinado para todos os isolados. As temperaturas mínima e máxima, estimadas pela função beta generalizada, variaram de 3,5 a 10ºC e de 40 a 40,7ºC, respectivamente. A temperatura ótima foi de 24 a 37ºC para P. helicoides, de 25 a 35ºC para o isolado F4 e de 21 a 30ºC para os demais isolados. A patogenicidade e a agressividade dos isolados foram avaliadas, inoculando-se sementes de alface cv. Verônica, semeadas em ágar-água, a 21 e 30ºC. A 30ºC, os isolados de P. helicoides foram notadamente os mais agressivos, ocasionando 100 % de mortalidade das sementes logo após sua germinação. A 21ºC, todos os isolados induziram subdesenvolvimento de plântulas, acompanhado ou não de necrose dos tecidos radiculares. Trata-se do primeiro relato de P. helicoides para o Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em hidroponia.Twelve Pythium isolates were obtained from lettuce roots grown hydroponically in commercial systems, showing or not symptoms of rotting. Three of them were identified as P. helicoides (H1, H2 and H3, whereas five were shown to belong to group F (F1-F5 and four to group T (T1-T4 of Pythium. The identification of the species was based on morphological characteristics. The effect of temperature (10, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 37 and 40ºC on the mycelial growth was determined for all isolates. Minimum and maximum temperatures, estimated by the generalized beta function, varied from 3.5 to 10ºC and 40 to 40.7ºC, respectively. The optimum temperature ranged from 24 to 37ºC for P. helicoides, from 25 to 35ºC for isolate F4 and 21 to 30ºC for the remaining isolates. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the isolates were evaluated by the inoculation of lettuce seeds plated in water-agar, at 21 and 30ºC. At 30ºC, P. helicoides isolates were clearly the most aggressives, determining 100 % seed mortality soon after germination. At 21ºC, all isolates reduced seedling growth, associated or not with root tissue necrosis. This is the first report of P. helicoides in Brazil and the first world reference of this species in hydroponic systems.

  10. Pythium litorale sp. nov., a new species from the littoral of Lake Constance, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechwatal, Jan; Mendgen, Kurt

    2006-02-01

    A description is given of Pythium litorale sp. nov., a new species from reed stands in Germany. Pythium litorale was among the most abundant species when the oomycete community of littoral soils of Lake Constance was studied. It was consistently isolated from flooded as well as from drier reed sites. The species is characterized by subglobose, papillate and internally proliferating sporangia, globose hyphal swellings, the absence of oogonia in single culture and a high optimum growth temperature. It proved to be nonpathogenic to Phragmites australis, the predominating plant in the investigated sites. Molecular analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions placed Pythium litorale in a clade together with its closest relatives Pythium megacarpum, Pythium boreale, Pythium montanum and Pythium carbonicum. The generic status of this basal clade in Pythium is currently under discussion, as it possibly represents a separate genus that is distinct from Pythium, and shares several characteristics with Phytophthora. PMID:16436067

  11. Hormone Dependent Growth Promotion and Growth Retardation of Sugarcane Tissue Cultures for Germplasm Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Saira Pervaiz; Ghulam Mustafa Sajid; Rashid Anwer; Hidayat-ur-Rahman

    2005-01-01

    Two sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum L) varieties namely, Katha and BL4 were used in this study in order to compare their response for culture establishment, shoot proliferation, root induction and growth retardation. Shoot number, mass and length were the growth parameters measured. Genotype dependent response was found against different growth conditions such as growth media composition and growth regulators. Liquid Murashige-Skoog (MS) media was found to be more suitable for culture prolif...

  12. Quantitative relationships of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to Pythium root rot and growth in hydroponic peppers Relações quantitativas de Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 com a podridão radicular causada por Pythium e ao crescimento de pimentão hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie R. Sopher

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 to suppress Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum and promote plant growth was investigated in hydroponic peppers that were predisposed or not predisposed to the disease. The biocontrol agent was introduced into the nutrient solution 10 days before the roots were inoculated with the pathogen. The root zone was maintained at 23ºC except when roots were exposed to 33ºC for three days before inoculation to induce predisposition to root rot. At constant 23ºC (no predisposition application of P. chlororaphis at 10(7 CFU mL-1 nutrient solution delayed root browning more effectively than did higher or lower densities. In predisposed plants, densities of 10(6, 10(7 and 10(8 CFU mL-1 were equally superior. When applied at 10(7 CFU mL-1, the density of P. chlororaphis on roots of the two temperature regimes ranged from log10 5.88 to 6.45 CFU g-1 fresh roots at seven to 19 days after application. The agent delayed root browning, re-mediated predisposition to root rot, and increased growth of inoculated and non-inoculated plants. Leaf expansion was a sensitive marker of root rot and remediation by P. chlororaphis. We conclude that P. chlororaphis 63-28 has substantial potential for managing the disease regardless of predisposition.A supressão da podridão de raiz (Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento de pimentão hidropônico por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 foram avaliadas em plantas predispostas ou não ao patógeno. O bioagente foi introduzido na solução nutritiva 10 dias antes das raízes serem inoculadas com o patógeno. A zona radicular foi mantida a 23ºC, exceto nos três dias antes da inoculação quando as plantas foram expostas a 33ºC. Na temperatura de 23ºC (sem predisposição, P. chlororaphis na concentração de 10(7 UFC mL-1, aplicada na solução nutritiva, atrasou o aparecimento dos sintomas da doença. As concentrações de 10(6, 10(7 e 10(8 UFC mL-1 do bioagente foram mais eficientes em controlar a doença nas plantas inoculadas com o patógeno. A densidade do bioagente nas raízes, nos dois regimes de temperatura, variou de 5,88 a 6,45 log da UFC g-1 de raiz fresca, do sétimo ao 19º dia após a aplicação de 10(7 UFC mL-1 Nas plantas inoculadas ou não, o bioagente atrasou o aparecimento do escurecimento radicular, remediou a predisposição a doença e incrementou o desenvolvimento das plantas. A expansão foliar foi um indicador adequado para a podridão de raiz e a remediação com P. chlororaphis. Conclui-se que P. chlororaphis 63-28 tem potencial para o manejo da podridão da raiz em sistemas hidropônicos, independentemente da predisposição.

  13. The Selection of Sugarcane Families That Display Better Associations with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Vieira Rodrigues; Luiza Maria de Araujo; Bespalhok-filho, Joao C.; Valeria Rosa Lopes; Edelclaiton Daros; Ricardo Augusto Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of the sugarcane plant to respond to Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) is associated with both the efficiency of the bacterial strain and the capacity of the plant to respond to inoculation. For this reason, the appropriate selection of both the bacterial strain and the sugarcane genotype is required for generating optimal results from PGPR inoculations. To address this issue, this study sought to evaluate the response of 54 sugarcane families to inoculation with ...

  14. Sugarcane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase crop water use efficiency, a field study in northern Ivory Coast on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou. The can crop tested was Co 449, an early-maturing genotype of Indian origin. This experiment was conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop (from November, 1991 to December, 1992) first ratoon crop (from December, 1992 to January, 1994) and as second ratoon crop (from January, 1994 to January, 1995). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of plots 54 m2. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratton crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugarcane growth and yield decline owing to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to that during tillering. As a result, the sugarcane crop tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering (assuming that the crop is successfully established) for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency. (author). 15 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Population dynamics of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane cultivars and its effect on plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, J; Caballero-Mellado, J

    2003-11-01

    Different experiments have estimated that the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is largely variable among sugarcane cultivars. Which bacteria are the most important in sugarcane-associated BNF is unknown. However, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been suggested as a strong candidate responsible for the BNF observed. In the present study, bacteria-free micropropagated plantlets of five sugarcane cultivars were inoculated with three G. diazotrophicus strains belonging to different genotypes. Bacterial colonization was monitored under different nitrogen fertilization levels and at different stages of plant growth. Analysis of the population dynamics of G. diazotrophicus strains in the different sugarcane varieties showed that the bacterial populations decreased drastically in relation to plant age, regardless of the nitrogen fertilization level, bacterial genotype or sugarcane cultivars. However, the persistence of the three strains was significantly longer in some cultivars (e.g., MEX 57-473) than in others (e.g., MY 55-14). In addition, some strains (e.g., PAl 5(T)) persisted for longer periods in higher numbers than other strains (e.g., PAl 3) inside plants of all the cultivars tested. Indeed, the study showed that the inoculation of G. diazotrophicus may be beneficial for sugarcane plant growth, but this response is dependent both on the G. diazotrophicus genotype and the sugarcane variety. The most positive response to inoculation was observed with the combination of strain PAl 5(T) and the variety MEX 57-473. Although the positive effect on sugarcane growth apparently occurred by mechanisms other than nitrogen fixation, the results show the importance of the sugarcane variety for the persistence of the plant-bacteria interaction, and it could explain the different rates of BNF estimated among sugarcane cultivars. PMID:14722690

  16. Influence of Early Post Emergence Sulfonylurea Herbicides on Growth, Yield Parameters, Yield and Weed Control Efficiency in Sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnusamy, C.; Muthukrishnan, P.; Suganthi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane is a slow growing long duration crop. Inefficient weed control is the major and important threat to sugarcane productivity. Weed control at early stage is important to increase the yield of the crop. Hence, the field study was conducted from October 2011 to August 2012 in sugarcane at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to find out the influence of early post emergence Sulfonylurea herbicides on growth, yield parameters, yield and weed control efficiency in Sugarcan...

  17. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica Biocontrol of root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum and growth promotion with Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 and Bacillus subtilis GB03 in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%, no número de folhas (4% a 7% e no teor de clorofila (3% das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica.Root rot caused by Pythium species is a major problem in hydroponically-grown crops. Symptoms of canopy stunting are noticed in plants colonized by the pathogen and many times they are not diagnosed by the grower. The aim of this work was to evaluate biological control and plant growth promotion by Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 and Bacillus subtilis GB03, known biocontrol agents of plant diseases. Inoculation of plants with P. aphanidermatum decreased lettuce mass by 20%. The introduction of the biocontrol agents to the nutrient solution was beneficial for plant growth increasing the plant mass (6% to 13%, the number of leaves (4% to 7% and the chlorophyll content (3% of the lettuce plants. Further studies are needed, however, to improve the effectiveness of disease control and growth promotion by the biological agents in hydroponic lettuce.

  18. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum) e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica / Biocontrol of root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) and growth promotion with Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 and Bacillus subtilis GB03 in hydroponic lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Élida Barbosa, Corrêa; Wagner, Bettiol; John Clifford, Sutton.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológic [...] o da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%), no número de folhas (4% a 7%) e no teor de clorofila (3%) das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica. Abstract in english Root rot caused by Pythium species is a major problem in hydroponically-grown crops. Symptoms of canopy stunting are noticed in plants colonized by the pathogen and many times they are not diagnosed by the grower. The aim of this work was to evaluate biological control and plant growth promotion by [...] Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 and Bacillus subtilis GB03, known biocontrol agents of plant diseases. Inoculation of plants with P. aphanidermatum decreased lettuce mass by 20%. The introduction of the biocontrol agents to the nutrient solution was beneficial for plant growth increasing the plant mass (6% to 13%), the number of leaves (4% to 7%) and the chlorophyll content (3%) of the lettuce plants. Further studies are needed, however, to improve the effectiveness of disease control and growth promotion by the biological agents in hydroponic lettuce.

  19. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

  20. Hormone Dependent Growth Promotion and Growth Retardation of Sugarcane Tissue Cultures for Germplasm Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Pervaiz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum L varieties namely, Katha and BL4 were used in this study in order to compare their response for culture establishment, shoot proliferation, root induction and growth retardation. Shoot number, mass and length were the growth parameters measured. Genotype dependent response was found against different growth conditions such as growth media composition and growth regulators. Liquid Murashige-Skoog (MS media was found to be more suitable for culture proliferation as compared to the solid media of the same composition, suggesting a positive and favorable effect of aeration and homogenization on culture performance. A better organogenesis response i.e. maximum shoot length, shoot mass and shoot number was observed when explants were cultured on the media containing 4.4 ?M BAP for both the varieties but BL4 appeared to be more responsive genotype to shoot proliferation as compared to katha at any given level of growth regulator. Growth retardation was best achieved on the media containing 4 g L -1 mannitol among the concentrations used and degree of growth retardation was also found to be genotype dependent. There was a linear relationship between degree of growth retardation and concentration of the osmotica used. Root induction response (root number and root length was the highest in katha cultures grown on half strength MS media containing 1.9 ?M Indole butyric acid among the auxins, Indol butyric acid, indole acetic acid and naphthalene acetic acid, that were used in this study.

  1. Avaliação patogênica in vitro de Pythium middletonii Sparrow e Pythium dissotocum Drechsler em alface / In vitro pathogenic evaluation of Pythium middletonii Sparrow and Pythium dissotocum Drechsler in lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.R., Baptista; C.L.A, Pires-Zottarelli; L.D., Teixeira; N.A., Santos Júnior.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos de alface são frequentes e, na maior parte das vezes, causadas por espécies de Pythium, extremamente bem adaptadas ao ambiente aquático. Este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial patogênico in vitro de Pythium middletonii e P. dissotocum, em quatro cultiv [...] ares de alface: Elisa (lisa), Vera (crespa), Mimosa (mimosa) e Tainá (americana). Sementes de alface, de cada cultivar, foram desinfetadas superficialmente, pré-germinadas por 24 horas, e colocadas na superfície do meio ágar-água. Em seguida, um disco de micélio dos isolados de Pythium, foi disposto no centro de cada placa. Placas contendo apenas as sementes de alface serviram como controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma delas representada por uma placa de Petri. Avaliou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem das plântulas sobreviventes após dez dias de incubação. O experimento foi conduzido na temperatura ideal de crescimento da alface (20ºC), e nas ideais para o crescimento dos isolados, 23ºC para P. middletonii e 27ºC para P. dissotocum. A 20ºC, P. dissotocum foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii, reduzindo significativamente o comprimento dos hipocótilos e, principalmente, das radículas, de praticamente todas as cultivares. Na temperatura de 27ºC, P. dissotocum foi responsável pela mais baixa porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes entre as cultivares, sendo mais patogênico em Vera (54% de sobrevivência). Dentre as cultivares analisadas, a Mimosa mostrou tendência de menor suscetibilidade a este patógeno, apresentando a maior porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes e o maior comprimento das radículas em relação ao controle. P. dissotocum apresentou maior crescimento micelial e foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii em todos os experimentos realizados. Abstract in english Root infections in hydroponic lettuce are frequent and mostly caused by Pythium species, which are extremely well adapted to aquatic environments. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the pathogenic potential of Pythium middletonii and Pythium dissotocum in four cultivars of lettuce, Elisa ( [...] smooth), Vera (curly), Mimosa (mimosa) and Tainá (American). Lettuce seeds from each cultivar were superficially disinfected, pre-germinated for 24 hours and placed on the water agar medium surface. Then, a dish containing mycelium from Pythium isolates was placed in the center of each plate. Control consisted of plates containing lettuce seeds only. Experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates, each one represented by a Petri dish. Hypocotyl and radical length besides surviving seedlings percentage after ten days of incubation were evaluated. The experiment was carried out, at different temperatures, and the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated at the ideal temperature for the lettuce (20ºC), and at the ideal temperatures for the growth of the isolates, 23ºC for P. middletonii and 27ºC for P. dissotocum. At 20ºC, P. dissotocum had higher pathogenicity on lettuce cultivars than P. middletonii, significantly decreasing the length of hypocotyls, especially radicles, of most cultivars. For P. dissotocum, 27ºC was the most suitable temperature for the specimen growth; however, it led to the lowest percentage of surviving seedlings among all cultivars, with the lowest percentage (54%) detected for Vera. Among the cultivars, Mimosa presented higher percentage of survivor seedlings and higher length of radicles in relation to the control, and thus was considered less susceptible to the pathogen. P. dissotocum presented higher mycelium growth and was more pathogenic than P. middletonii in all experiments.

  2. Avaliação patogênica in vitro de Pythium middletonii Sparrow e Pythium dissotocum Drechsler em alface In vitro pathogenic evaluation of Pythium middletonii Sparrow and Pythium dissotocum Drechsler in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Baptista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos de alface são frequentes e, na maior parte das vezes, causadas por espécies de Pythium, extremamente bem adaptadas ao ambiente aquático. Este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial patogênico in vitro de Pythium middletonii e P. dissotocum, em quatro cultivares de alface: Elisa (lisa, Vera (crespa, Mimosa (mimosa e Tainá (americana. Sementes de alface, de cada cultivar, foram desinfetadas superficialmente, pré-germinadas por 24 horas, e colocadas na superfície do meio ágar-água. Em seguida, um disco de micélio dos isolados de Pythium, foi disposto no centro de cada placa. Placas contendo apenas as sementes de alface serviram como controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma delas representada por uma placa de Petri. Avaliou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem das plântulas sobreviventes após dez dias de incubação. O experimento foi conduzido na temperatura ideal de crescimento da alface (20ºC, e nas ideais para o crescimento dos isolados, 23ºC para P. middletonii e 27ºC para P. dissotocum. A 20ºC, P. dissotocum foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii, reduzindo significativamente o comprimento dos hipocótilos e, principalmente, das radículas, de praticamente todas as cultivares. Na temperatura de 27ºC, P. dissotocum foi responsável pela mais baixa porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes entre as cultivares, sendo mais patogênico em Vera (54% de sobrevivência. Dentre as cultivares analisadas, a Mimosa mostrou tendência de menor suscetibilidade a este patógeno, apresentando a maior porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes e o maior comprimento das radículas em relação ao controle. P. dissotocum apresentou maior crescimento micelial e foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii em todos os experimentos realizados.Root infections in hydroponic lettuce are frequent and mostly caused by Pythium species, which are extremely well adapted to aquatic environments. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the pathogenic potential of Pythium middletonii and Pythium dissotocum in four cultivars of lettuce, Elisa (smooth, Vera (curly, Mimosa (mimosa and Tainá (American. Lettuce seeds from each cultivar were superficially disinfected, pre-germinated for 24 hours and placed on the water agar medium surface. Then, a dish containing mycelium from Pythium isolates was placed in the center of each plate. Control consisted of plates containing lettuce seeds only. Experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates, each one represented by a Petri dish. Hypocotyl and radical length besides surviving seedlings percentage after ten days of incubation were evaluated. The experiment was carried out, at different temperatures, and the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated at the ideal temperature for the lettuce (20ºC, and at the ideal temperatures for the growth of the isolates, 23ºC for P. middletonii and 27ºC for P. dissotocum. At 20ºC, P. dissotocum had higher pathogenicity on lettuce cultivars than P. middletonii, significantly decreasing the length of hypocotyls, especially radicles, of most cultivars. For P. dissotocum, 27ºC was the most suitable temperature for the specimen growth; however, it led to the lowest percentage of surviving seedlings among all cultivars, with the lowest percentage (54% detected for Vera. Among the cultivars, Mimosa presented higher percentage of survivor seedlings and higher length of radicles in relation to the control, and thus was considered less susceptible to the pathogen. P. dissotocum presented higher mycelium growth and was more pathogenic than P. middletonii in all experiments.

  3. Sugarcane Initial Growth with Vinasse Application in Latosol under Gradual Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Viglio, Larissa; Leal Varanda, Leticia; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Casagrande, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    One of the strategies for overcoming the high acidity of soils and the consequent toxicity of aluminum (Al) is based on the use of varieties adapted to these conditions. In Brazil, the application of vinasse is routine practice in the cultivation of sugarcane due to its fertilizing effect, mainly because of high potassium content. However, the vinasse may also attenuate the toxic effects of Al in the soil by forming complexes with low molecular weight organic acids providing greater depth of the root of sugarcane. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of vinasse on the initial growth of three cultivars of sugarcane (RB855453, RB966928 and RB867515), as well as its influence on root depth in a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Typic Hapludox) with gradient of saturation by Al. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in totally randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications. Seedlings of sugarcane were transplanted to PVC columns 0.8 m high, built by stacking four rings (0.2 m high), filled with soil samples, which offered an increasing gradient of saturation by Al (m%) at depth (0-0.2 m (m% = 0,7); 0.2-0.4 m (m% = 7,9); 0.4-0.6 m (m %= 40.8); 0.6-0.8 m (m%= 62.6)). The collection of the experiment was conducted 120 days after planting, with the determination of the stalk diameter (DC), plant height (ALT), leaf nutrient content, dry matter of the aerial part (MSPA) and dry matter of the root system (MSSR). Cultivars of sugarcane and the application of vinasse had effect on DC and the MSSR. Cultivar RB867515 showed higher DC than in other cultivars, with 20.8 mm. The increase of MSSR by sugarcane cultivars varied due to depth. There were no effects of sugarcane cultivars and vinasse application in MSPA. The vinasse application resulted in plants with higher ALT. With the exception of the foliar content of Fe, the N, Ca, Mg, S and Mn content were below those considered appropriate for sugarcane. Unlike other cultivars, the application of vinasse provided adequate foliar content of P for RB867515.

  4. The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and yield of irrigated sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FC, Olivier; A, Singels.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A layer of harvest residues from the previous crop can reduce wasteful evaporation from the soil surface and thereby increase the efficiency of use of limited water resources for agricultural production. The practice of harvesting sugarcane green and leaving crop residues in the field, as opposed to [...] burning the residue, has been re-adopted in many sugarcane industries worldwide. However, a better understanding of the dynamic impacts of residue layers on various aspects of the cropping system is required to (1) enable the formulation of sets of best management practices for specific production scenarios, and (2) promote the use of residue layers in areas where it is desirable and has not been adopted, such as irrigated sugarcane production in South Africa. The objective of this study, therefore, was to quantify the effect of 2 different types of residue layers on crop growth, cane yield and evapotranspiration of fully irrigated sugarcane. A layer of cane tops and dead leaves (Trash) and a layer of green tops (Tops) were applied to the soil surface of sugarcane crops (plant crop and first ratoon crop of variety N14) grown on lysimeters at Pongola, South Africa. Observations of crop growth (stalk population, stalk height, canopy cover), cane yield and evapotranspiration for these treatments were compared to that of a bare soil treatment. The data were also used to derive values of crop evaporation coefficients for different development phases and these were compared to FAO56 recommendations. Initial stalk population in the plant crop and radiation capture in the plant and ratoon crop were affected negatively by crop residue layers, but without significantly reducing final stalk population and cane yield. Peak stalk population occurred later in crops grown in residue layers, but peak and final stalk populations were unaffected. Evapotranspiration was reduced by both residue layers, mainly due to a slower developing canopy (reduced transpiration) and reduced evaporation from the soil, during the pre-canopy phases. Increased drainage was observed under residue layers, emphasising the importance of accurate irrigation scheduling to avoid water logging. The FAO56 methodology for calculating crop evaporation coefficient values for the initial, development and late season phases are supported by the results obtained here. Crop evaporation coefficient values were significantly reduced by residue layers. It is important that irrigation scheduling practices be adjusted to realise the potential water savings of sugarcane production systems that make use of residue layers. This study provides the information required to do that. The information could also be used to improve the ability of the crop models to accurately simulate crop growth and evapotranspiration in a residue layer cropping system.

  5. Pythium litorale sp. nov., a new species from the littoral of Lake Constance,Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nechwatal, Jan; Mendgen, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    A description is given of Pythium litorale sp. nov., a new species from reed stands in Germany. Pythium litorale was among the most abundant species when the oomycete community of littoral soils of Lake Constance was studied. It was consistently isolated from flooded as well as from drier reed sites. The species is characterized by subglobose, papillate and internally proliferating sporangia, globose hyphal swellings, the absence of oogonia in single culture and a high optimum growth tempe...

  6. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John Clifford, Sutton; Coralie Rachelle, Sopher; Tony Nathaniel, Owen-Going; Weizhong, Liu; Bernard, Grodzinski; John Christopher, Hall; Ruth Linda, Benchimol.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A etiologia e a epidemiologia da podridão radicular causada por Pythium spp. em cultivo hidropônico são revisadas com ênfase em conhecimentos e conceitos considerados importantes para o manejo de doenças em estufas comerciais. A podridão radicular causada por Pythium continuamente ameaça a produtivi [...] dade de diversas culturas em sistemas hidropônicos, incluindo pepino, tomate, pimentão, espinafre, alface, capuchinha, rúcula, rosa, e crisântemo. Os principais agentes causais incluem Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, espécies de Pythium do grupo F e Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. São apresentadas e discutidas as principais fontes do inóculo primário de Pythium spp. em sistemas hidropônicos, os processos de infecção e colonização de raízes pelos patógenos, o desenvolvimento de sintomas, a produção de inóculo em raízes, e a dispersão do inóculo na solução nutritiva. Descobertas recentes da existência de um elicitor produzido especificamente por P. aphanidermatum que pode provocar a necrose (descoloração) das raízes infectadas e a transição da infecção da fase biotrofica para necrotrofica são consideradas. Efeitos de fatores ligados ao hospedeiro (susceptibilidade à doença, estádio fenológico, exsudatos radiculares, compostos fenólicos), ao ambiente radicular (meio de enraizamento, concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e compostos fenólicos na solução nutritiva, comunidades microbianas e temperatura) e as interferências humanas (práticas de cultivo e medidas de controle) sobre as epidemias de podridão radicular causados por Pythium spp. são revistos. Resultados recentes que demostram um aumento da predisposição das raízes ao ataque de Pythium induzida por estresses ambientais são destacados. O impacto das medidas usadas para a desinfestação da solução nutritiva recirculando fora do cultivo sobre a epidemia da doença é comparada com o impacto de tratamentos que suprimem Pythium nas raízes e na zona radicular da cultura. Novas descobertas de que a infeção de raízes por P. aphanidermatum reduz o crescimento da área foliar e o acúmulo de carbono na planta inteira, sem alterar significativamente a eficiência da fotossíntese por unidade de área foliar, são destacadas. O conhecimento e entendimento da etiologia e epidemiologia da podridão radicular, e seus efeitos na fisiologia da planta, são dicutidos em relacão às novas perspectivas das pesquisas e ao desenvolvimento de melhores práticas para o manejo da doença em cultivo hidropônico. Ênfase é dada nos métodos e tecnologias para a detecção de Pythium tanto na solução nutritiva quanto nas raízes e no desenvolvimento, integração e otimização dos tratamentos para suprimir o patógeno na zona radicular e o progresso da podridão das raízes. Abstract in english The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydropon [...] ic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning) of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances), the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dis

  7. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Sutton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances, the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and phenolic substances in the nutrient solution, microbial communities and temperature and human interferences (cropping practices and control measures are reviewed. Recent findings on predisposition of roots to Pythium attack by environmental stress factors are highlighted. The commonly minor impact on epidemics of measures to disinfest nutrient solution as it recirculates outside the crop is contrasted with the impact of treatments that suppress Pythium in the roots and root zone of the crop. New discoveries that infection of roots by P. aphanidermatum markedly slows the increase in leaf area and whole-plant carbon gain without significant effect on the efficiency of photosynthesis per unit area of leaf are noted. The platform of knowledge and understanding of the etiology and epidemiology of root rot, and its effects on the physiology of the whole plant, are discussed in relation to new research directions and development of better practices to manage the disease in hydroponic crops. Focus is on methods and technologies for tracking Pythium and root rot, and on developing, integrating, and optimizing treatments to suppress the pathogen in the root zone and progress of root rot.A etiologia e a epidemiologia da podridão radicular causada por Pythium spp. em cultivo hidropônico são revisadas com ênfase em conhecimentos e conceitos considerados importantes para o manejo de doenças em estufas comerciais. A podridão radicular causada por Pythium continuamente ameaça a produtividade de diversas culturas em sistemas hidropônicos, incluindo pepino, tomate, pimentão, espinafre, alface, capuchinha, rúcula, rosa, e crisântemo. Os principais agentes causais incluem Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, espécies de Pythium do grupo F e Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. São apresentadas e discutidas as principais fontes do inóculo primário de Pythium spp. em sistemas hidropônicos, os processos de infecção e colonização de raízes pelos patógenos, o desenvolvimento de sintomas, a produção de inóculo em raízes, e a dispersão do inóculo na solução nutritiva. Descobertas recentes da existência de um elicitor produzido especificamente por P. aphanidermatum que pode provocar a necrose (descoloração das raízes infectadas e a transição da infecção da fase biotrofica para necrotrofica são consideradas. Efeitos de fatores ligados ao hospedeiro (susceptibilidade à doença, estádio fenológico, exsudatos radiculares, compostos fenólicos, ao ambiente radicular (meio de enraizamento, concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido e compostos fenólicos na solução nutritiva, comunidades microbianas e temperatura e as interferências humanas (práticas de cultivo e medidas de controle sobre as epidemias de podridão radicular causados por Pythium spp. são revistos. Resultados recentes

  8. Root growth and distribution in sugarcane cultivars fertigated by a subsurface drip system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augusto Yukitaka Pessinatti, Ohashi; Regina Célia de Matos, Pires; Rafael Vasconcelos, Ribeiro; André Luiz Barros de Oliveira, Silva.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the agronomic importance for water management, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed under field conditions during the crop cycle. The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative root density (LA), root distribution on soil profile and the effective rooting depth (ERD) [...] for three sugarcane cultivars using the minirhizotron method. A field experiment was done with sugarcane cultivars IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 grown under subsurface drip fertigation. Soil chemical and physical characteristics were also evaluated. Root evaluations were taken at 38, 58, 123, 185 and 205 days during the second ratoon, considering the soil profile until 0.8 m depth. The highest LA and root growth rates were found up to 0.4 m soil layer for all cultivars. Root growth rate varied during the crop cycle, with the highest values being found between 38 and 58 days after ratoon (DAR). There was a genotypic variation in root growth, with IACSP94-2101 showing the highest LA of 12.9 mm cm–2. The total root length observed around the tube (0.16892 m2) was 10.8, 5.9 and 2.5 m up to 0.8 m depth for IACSP94-2101, SP79-1011 and IACSP94-2094, respectively at 205 DAR. The effective rooting depth varied during the cycle for IACSP94-2094, but all cultivars presented an effective depth of 0.4 m at 205 DAR.

  9. Root growth and distribution in sugarcane cultivars fertigated by a subsurface drip system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augusto Yukitaka Pessinatti, Ohashi; Regina Célia de Matos, Pires; Rafael Vasconcelos, Ribeiro; André Luiz Barros de Oliveira, Silva.

    Full Text Available Despite of the agronomic importance for water management, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed under field conditions during the crop cycle. The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative root density (LA), root distribution on soil profile and the effective rooting depth (ERD) [...] for three sugarcane cultivars using the minirhizotron method. A field experiment was done with sugarcane cultivars IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 grown under subsurface drip fertigation. Soil chemical and physical characteristics were also evaluated. Root evaluations were taken at 38, 58, 123, 185 and 205 days during the second ratoon, considering the soil profile until 0.8 m depth. The highest LA and root growth rates were found up to 0.4 m soil layer for all cultivars. Root growth rate varied during the crop cycle, with the highest values being found between 38 and 58 days after ratoon (DAR). There was a genotypic variation in root growth, with IACSP94-2101 showing the highest LA of 12.9 mm cm–2. The total root length observed around the tube (0.16892 m2) was 10.8, 5.9 and 2.5 m up to 0.8 m depth for IACSP94-2101, SP79-1011 and IACSP94-2094, respectively at 205 DAR. The effective rooting depth varied during the cycle for IACSP94-2094, but all cultivars presented an effective depth of 0.4 m at 205 DAR.

  10. Unsteady-state transfer of impurities during crystal growth of sucrose in sugarcane solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, P. M.; Ferreira, A.; Polanco, S.; Rocha, F.; Damas, A. M.; Rein, P.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we present growth rate data of sucrose crystals in the presence of impurities that can be used by both sugar technologists and crystal growth scientists. Growth rate curves measured in a pilot-scale evaporative crystallizer suggest a period of slow growth that follows the seeding of crystals into supersaturated technical solutions. The observed trend was enhanced by adding typical sugarcane impurities such as starch, fructose or dextran to the industrial syrups. Maximum growth rates of sucrose resulted at intermediate rather than high supersaturation levels in the presence of the additives. The effects of the additives on the sucrose solubility and sucrose mass transfer in solution were taken into account to explain the observed crystal growth kinetics. A novel mechanism was identified of unsteady-state adsorption of impurities at the crystal surface and their gradual replacement by the crystallizing solute towards the equilibrium occupation of the active sites for growth. Specifically designed crystallization experiments at controlled supersaturation confirmed this mechanism by showing increasing crystal growth rates with time until reaching a steady-state value for a given supersaturation level and impurity content.

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the interaction between the endophytic plant-growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lery, Letícia M S; Hemerly, Adriana S; Nogueira, Eduardo M; von Krüger, Wanda M A; Bisch, Paulo M

    2011-05-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a plant-growth-promoting bacterium that colonizes sugarcane. In order to investigate molecular aspects of the G. diazotrophicus-sugarcane interaction, we performed a quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis by (15)N metabolic labeling of bacteria, root samples, and co-cultures. Overall, more than 400 proteins were analyzed and 78 were differentially expressed between the plant-bacterium interaction model and control cultures. A comparative analysis of the G. diazotrophicus in interaction with two distinct genotypes of sugarcane, SP70-1143 and Chunee, revealed proteins with fundamental roles in cellular recognition. G. diazotrophicus presented proteins involved in adaptation to atypical conditions and signaling systems during the interaction with both genotypes. However, SP70-1143 and Chunee, sugarcane genotypes with high and low contribution of biological nitrogen fixation, showed divergent responses in contact with G. diazotrophicus. The SP70-1143 genotype overexpressed proteins from signaling cascades and one from a lipid metabolism pathway, whereas Chunee differentially synthesized proteins involved in chromatin remodeling and protein degradation pathways. In addition, we have identified 30 bacterial proteins in the roots of the plant samples; from those, nine were specifically induced by plant signals. This is the first quantitative proteomic analysis of a bacterium-plant interaction, which generated insights into early signaling of the G. diazotrophicus-sugarcane interaction. PMID:21190439

  12. Software tools that facilitate kinetic modelling with large data sets: an example using growth modelling in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, L; Hofmeyr, J H S; Snoep, J L; Rohwer, J M

    2006-09-01

    A solution to manage cumbersome data sets associated with large modelling projects is described. A kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugarcane is used to predict changes in sucrose metabolism with sugarcane internode maturity. This results in large amounts of output data to be analysed. Growth is simulated by reassigning maximal activity values, specific to each internode of the sugarcane plant, to parameter attributes of a model object. From a programming perspective, only one model definition file is required for the simulation software used; however, the amount of input data increases with each extra interrnode that is modelled, and likewise the amount of output data that is generated also increases. To store, manipulate and analyse these data, the modelling was performed from within a spreadsheet. This was made possible by the scripting language Python and the modelling software PySCeS through an embedded Python interpreter available in the Gnumeric spreadsheet program. PMID:16986323

  13. Four new Pythium species from aquatic environments in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Okada, Gen; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2015-02-01

    Four new species of Pythium s.str., namely Pythium utonaiense, Pythium brachiatum, Pythium biforme and Pythium junctum, were described based on their morphology and molecular phylogeny. These species were isolated from freshwater samples collected from aquatic environments (pond and lake) in Japan. They were identified as belonging to the genus Pythium s.str. by their morphology, such as filamentous hyphal inflated structures, and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. The new species are compared to closely related Pythium species regarding their phylogenetic positions and morphological features. PMID:25411087

  14. Patogenicidade in vitro de Pythium aphanidermatum e Pythium dissotocum em variedades de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) / Pathogenicity in vitro of Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium dissotocum in varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katya da Silva, Patekoski; Carmen Lidia Amorim Pires, Zottarelli.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Pythium spp. são importantes causadoras de infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos, tendo sido objetivo deste estudo avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum e P. dissotocum, em alface. Placas de Petri contendo ágar-água e micélio dos isolados foram incubadas de 15 a 45 ºC, para ve [...] rificação da temperatura ótima de crescimento, estabelecendo-se 31 ºC para P. aphanidermatum e, 26 ºC para P. dissotocum. Avaliou-se, então, a patogenicidade dos espécimes nas suas temperaturas ótimas e, em 20 ºC, ideal para a alface, colocando-se sementes em ágar-água e um disco com micélio no centro das placas. Placas contendo somente sementes em meio de cultura serviram como controle. Verificou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes, selecionando-se P. aphanidermatum como mais patogênico; as variedades Vera e Tainá como menos suscetíveis e, Elisa, como mais suscetível. Abstract in english Pythium species are responsible for root rot in hydroponically grown, being the aims of this study to evaluate the Pythium aphanidermatum and P. dissotocum pathogenicity, in lettuce. Petri dishes contained water-agar and the mycelium of the isolates were incubated at 15 to 45 ºC to verify the optimu [...] m temperature of growth, which were 31 ºC for P. aphanidermatum and 26 ºC for P. dissotocum. It was evaluated the pathogenicity of the isolates in the optimum temperatures, and 20 ºC ideal to lettuce, placing the seeds in water-agar and the mycelium in the center of the dishes. Petri dishes contained only the seeds in media as controls. It was evaluated the hypocotyl and primary root length and the percentage of survivors seedlings, selecting P. aphanidermatum as more pathogenic; Vera and Tainá varieties as less susceptible and Elisa most susceptible.

  15. Growth indices ans productivity in sugarcane / Indicadores de crescimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do desenvolvimento temporal de variáveis agronômicas da cultura da cana-de-açúcar é um aspecto preponderante, e ainda pouco explorado, para o desenvolvimento de modelos de entendimento e predição da produção em estudos de sensoriamento remoto. O presente descreve a análise da evolução [...] temporal de variáveis agronômicas da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT), produtividade (TCH), índice de área foliar (IAF) e número de plantas por metro (NPM). Durante duas safras um talhão comercial em Araras/SP cultivado com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes foi acompanhado em oito campanhas de campo para a coleta de dados. O IAF, o NPM, a TCH e a BMT foram coletados em 18 amostras de 2 m em três linhas de cana-de-açúcar. Análise de regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise do crescimento da cultura e para o estudo da correlação e ajuste de modelos entre as variáveis agronômicas e a BMT e a TCH. O modelo Gompertz, de curva sigmoidal, foi o modelo que melhor se ajustou para a curva de BMT e para a TCH com r² = 0,8987 e r² = 0,9682, respectivamente. A BMT e o IAF tiveram melhores ajustes com curvas exponencial cúbica e exponencial quadrática, respectivamente. A BMT e a TCH foram bem relacionadas com o IAF nas duas primeiras fases do ciclo, ajustando-se regressões lineares. Para a fase de maturação, a BMT e a TCH foram mais relacionadas com o NPM que com o IAF e as curvas obtiveram valores menores de que r² que as demais fases do ciclo. Abstract in english A knowledge about the temporal development of agronomic variables in sugarcane is a very important aspect for the development of crop yield prediction models using remote sensing, and further studies are still needed. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugarcane biophysical parameters, s [...] uch as total biomass, leaf area index, number of plants per meter, and productivity. During two seasons, a commercial field in Araras/SP, planted with variety SP80-1842, on the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored on eight different dates, and data were obtained for 2 m of sugarcane in three crop rows at 18 sampling points. Linear and multiple regression analyses were used to study growth analysis and to correlate agronomic variables (leaf area index and number of plants per meter) with biomass and productivity. Gompertz model, a sigmoidal curve, was the best adjustment curve for total biomass and yield in relation to days after cutting (r² = 0.8987 and r² = 0.9682, respectively); number of plants and leaf area index showed best fit with a cubic exponential model and a quadratic exponential model, respectively. Total biomass and cane productivity were well correlated with LAI in the first two stages of the sugarcane cycle using linear regression. At the end of the cycle, total biomass and cane productivity were more related to number of plants, and lower r² values than in other stages were obtained by the models.

  16. Weed-crop competition effects on growth and yield of sugarcane planted using two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check (full season weed-crop competition) were randomized in sub-plots. Sugarcane sown by trench method exhibited more leaf area index (LAI), average crop growth rate (ACGR) and yield contributing attributes. Trench sowing by yielding 72.22 and 75.08 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields, significantly showed superiority over the flat sowing, which gave 64.13 and 66.04 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields in 2005-06 and 2006- 07, respectively. Generally, there was an increase in weed population and biomass but decrease in leaf area index, crop growth rate and yield components with an increase in weed-crop competition period. A decrease of 10.06, 17.90, 22.42, 28.65, 37.64 and 56.89% in stripped cane yield was observed for weed-crop competition periods of 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 DAS and weedy check as compared with zero competition in 2005-06, respectiwith zero competition in 2005-06, respectively. In 2006-07, the respective decrease in stripped cane yield was 9.84, 18.76, 22.92, 27.98, 38.75, and 54.98%. Trench sowing at 1.2 m row spacing proved better sowing technique and 45 DAS was the critical period of weed-crop competition. (author)

  17. SUBSTITUTION OF AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER ON UPLAND SUGARCANE CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH, NUTRIENT CONTENT AND SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayati; Abdul Basit; Sunawan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the effect of substitution of Ammonium Sulphate (AS) fertilizer on sugarcane growth, nutrient content, and soil chemical properties. This research was conducted on up-land of sugarcane plantation in Tegalweru village, Dau district, Malang regency. This study tested ten treatments consisting of three treatments using AS fertilizer, six treatments using AS substitute fertilizers that used combination of Urea, Gypsum, and bio-compost and one control (no fe...

  18. System and climate related pythium problems in mobile chrysanthemum growing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, C. de; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.; Vermeulen, T.; Campen, J.B.; Paternotte, S.J.; Shao, H.

    2011-01-01

    One Dutch greenhouse company started to grow chrysanthemums in a mobile system. The system’s basic unit is a sub-irrigated V-shaped gully of 8.0 m long and 5 cm wide, filled with a peat-coir mix. The system is hampered by growth differences along the length profile of the gullies and Pythium related yield reductions of up to 10% during the summer period. A series of experiments aimed to mimic the problems, explain causes and to advice on improvements. A Pythium ultimum pathogen from the growe...

  19. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  20. Effects of purified piperidine and piperideine alkaloids from the venom of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta on Pythium ultimum growth in vitro and on cucumber damping-off in the greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pythium ultimum Trow is a plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses on many economically important crops. Chemical seed treatment has been used for disease control. In searching for alternatives, the venom alkaloids from red imported fire ant were tested against P. ultimum in vitro and to ...

  1. Growth and Xylose consumption of Candida guilliermondii in the submerse fermentation using sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário César Jucoski Bier et al.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The xylitol has been seen as a product with a great commercial value for the food and pharmaceutical industries as well the odontological sector for its notable characteristics like its sweet taste and prevention of caries, while is recommended to the obese and is tolerated by the diabetics. The xylitol may be obtained through chemical and biotechnological reactions. According to the literature the chemical production of xylitol involves an expensive and unproductive process in response to its purification. On the other hand the biotechnological has become an excellent alternative for its production, using submerse fermentative processes made by microorganisms. In the present research was studied the use of the biotechnological reaction, using the yeast Candida guilliermondii and sugarcane bagasse, a low cost agroindustrial residue used for xilose fermentation, as the substrate. Tests were made in duplicate and it was verified the fermentative capacity of three lineages of the C. guilliermondii at the times of 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. For the conversion of the xylana into xylose it was made an acid hydrolysis. Then it was used activated coal for the purification of the hydrolysate and supplementation of the fermentation medium with ammonium sulphate and rice bran. The fermentative process occurred in the shaker at 150rpm at 30ºC. This study intends to estimate through the yeast growth and the xylose consumption the best fermentative parameters to xylitol production. Among the lineages used the best one results were obtained by the LBP018, where it was obtained the highest biomass and faster xylose consumption..

  2. Soluble silicates and uv-B radiation effects on the growth, nutrient concentration, and yield of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of several soluble silicates and supplemental uv-B irradiance on the growth and yield of sugarcane grown in an organic soil. Application of soluble silicates increased millable stalks, plant height, stalk diameter, chlorophyll content of the leaf, and cane and sugar yields in both plant and ratoon crops. The yield data tend to support the idea of the essentiality of Si, and point to its role in the production of more tillers, more efficient photosynthesis, and correction of leaf freckling. There were no differences in cane and sugar yields among the three materials in spite of their different Si contents

  3. Effect of iron, manganese, zinc and their combinations on growth and yield of sugarcane at Kenana sugar scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiments were conducted at two different sites for one season (1992/93) in order to study the effects of iron, manganese, zinc and their combinations on growth and yield of sugarcane at kenana sugar scheme. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block with four replications. Sulfates of iron, manganese and zinc were used as foliar fertilizers at concentrations of 200 ppm for iron and zinc and 100 ppm for manganese. Half of the fertilizer dose was applied when the crop was four months old, and the other half was applied when the crop was six months old, and the control was sprayed with distilled water only. All the treatments received 415 kg/ha urea fertilizer (46% nitrogen) as nitrogen source and 108 kg/ha triple superphosphate(48% P2 O5) as a source of phosphorus. Data were recorded on the growth and yield of sugarcane crop. The results showed that the lowest stalk height was obtained with treatments receiving iron fertilizer. The highest stalk diameter value was obtained in plants sprayed with zinc. The application of manganese or zinc and their combinations resulted in higher values of cane yield than the control. (Author)

  4. Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in sugarcane genotypes subject to water deficit during early growth phase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; John Lonfover, Jifon; Claudiana Moura dos, Santos; Cleber Junior, Jadoski; Jorge Alberto Gonçalves da, Silva.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the gas exchange, photosynthetic capacity and water potential of sugarcane genotypes cultivated under water deficit conditions imposed during the initial growth phase. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse using two sugarcane genotypes namely: HoCP93-7 [...] 76 (drought susceptible) and TCP02-4587 (drought tolerant). Sixty days after planting, two different water treatments were applied (i.e., with or without water deficit). At 0,30 and 60 days after the treatment, gas exchange variables were evaluated for their relationship with water use, intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. The SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential and relative water content in the leaves were also analyzed. The genotype HoCP93-776 was more sensitive to drought treatment as indicated by the significantly lower values of SPAD index, photosynthetic pigments, water potential (?w) and relative water content (RWC) variables. The genotype TCP02-4587 had higher water potential, stomatal control efficiency, water use efficiency (WUE), intrinsic instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEintr), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and photosynthetic capacity. The highest air vapor pressure deficit during the drought conditions could be due to the stomatal closing in the HoCP93-776, which contributed to its lower photosynthetic capacity.

  5. Process-based simple model for simulating sugarcane growth and production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio R., Marin; James W., Jones.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation models can increase research efficiency and improve risk management of agriculture. Crop models are still little used for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) because the lack of understanding of their capabilities and limitations, lack of experience in calibrating them, difficulties in eva [...] luating and using models, and a general lack of model credibility. This paper describes the biophysics and shows a statistical evaluation of a simple sugarcane processbased model coupled with a routine for model calibration. Classical crop model approaches were used as a framework for this model, and fitted algorithms for simulating sucrose accumulation and leaf development driven by a source-sink approach were proposed. The model was evaluated using data from five growing seasons at four locations in Brazil, where crops received adequate nutrients and good weed control. Thirteen of the 27 parameters were optimized using a Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation algorithm using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Model predictions were evaluated using measured data of leaf area index, stalk and aerial dry mass, and sucrose content, using bias, root mean squared error, modeling efficiency, correlation coefficient and agreement index. The model well simulated the sugarcane crop in Southern Brazil, using the parameterization reported here. Predictions were best for stalk dry mass, followed by leaf area index and then sucrose content in stalk fresh mass.

  6. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Genotypes Based on the Ability to Regulate Ion Uptake and Transport at Early Stage of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arzani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available   Sugarcane is one of the most important sugar crops in the world. Because of semi-arid climate and salinity of its cultivation area in our country, increasing salt tolerance of sugarcane is signifying. To achieve this goal determining salt tolerant cultivars and understanding salinity mechanisms in sugarcane are very important. This study was conducted to evaluate 8 commercial and promising sugarcane cultivars at early stage of growth. A complete randomized design with three replicates and four salinity treatments (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 % NaCl was used in a hydroponics system. The effect of salinity on absorption, transport and accumulation of Na+, Cl- , K+ and Ca2+ ions in shoot and root was determined. At high level salt concentration, Cl- content in shoot and root increased. Result showed that sodium accumulation in sugarcane plants was more than potassium. By increasing salinity level, sodium uptake and its translocation to shoots increased reducing growth and dry matter yield of plants. With rising salt concentration from medium (0.5% to high (0.75%, content of chloride in shoot and root of NCO-310 was constant showed that this cultivar had genetic ability to avoid Cl- uptake. CP82-1592 with lowest ratio of shoot / root chloride had minimum transport of Cl- to shoots. Also this cultivar had high content of Ca2+ in shoot and low Na+/Ca2+ ratio at all salinity levels. CP48-103 had low sodium in shoot and relatively low sodium in root. Thus it probably has genetic potential to avoid sodium uptake. At last, exclusion of Na+ and Cl- to older leaves and tillers was seen in CP82-1592 and CP72-2086 cultivars. According to results, to avoid once of absorption and transport, and exclusion of harmful Na+ and Cl- ions were mechanisms that could be used in salinity tolerance of sugarcane.

  7. The distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Barros de Oliveira Silva, André Luiz; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to reach high yield and to increase longevity of plants. The SDI allows improving the water use efficiency, due to the application of water and nutrients in the root zone plants. It is necessary knowledge of soil and plant parameters, such as root system to improve irrigation system use efficiency. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system. The mentioned equipment enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars root system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars. The irrigation was performed by subsurface drip system and the soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. Three access tubes with 1.05 m-length were used for each cultivar. The images were caught with Root Scanner CI-600™ in two dates, 38 and 58 days after harvest (DAH) of cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon) in five depths and were analyzed by the software RootSnap! ™. The results show that, except for cultivar IACSP94-2094, more than 80% of root length was found in the first 0.40 m of soil profile. Until 38 DAH the root growth of cultivar IACSP94-2101 were approximately fourfold higher than other three ones in the 0 to 0.20 m layer, sevenfold higher to 0.20 to 0.40 m layer and threefold to 0.40 to 0.60 m soil profile layer. However, between 38 and 58 DAH the cultivar SP79-1011 presented higher growth taxes, being almost twofold higher than IACSP94-2101 at 0 to 0.20 m soil profile layer, although its growth rate for the other soil profile layers were between 38 and 57% of IACSP94-2101 rate. Compared to IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011, the other two cultivars presented fivefold and sixfold lower growth rates in root length between 38 and 58 DAH in the first two layers, respectively. The higher root length in minirhizotron surface was with 0.64 cm cm-2, found in the 20-40 cm layer of IACSP94-2101, while the overall average was 0.15 cm cm-2. The percentage of root length in deeper layers increased between the first and second analyses.

  8. Reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar Growth regulators in the development and productivity of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar, resultantes da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no iníco da safra. Ostratamentos consistiram na aplicação de três reguladores vegetais inibidores de crescimento - sulfometuron metil, glifosato e compostos de radicais carboxílicos orgânicos + glifosato - e na maturação natural como testemunha, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Os maturadores retardam o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas, sem afetar o número e o diâmetro de colmos na colheita, e influenciam de forma e intensidade distintas a ocorrência do florescimento e chochamento. O glifosato proporciona elevados índices de brotação lateral e prejudica a rebrota da soqueira. Os maturadores induzem o aumento do teor de açúcares redutores totais, o que contribui para a melhoria da qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar.The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane, due to plant regulators application at the cropping season beginning. The treatments consisted of three plant growth inhibitors - sulfometuron methyl, glyphosate, and compounds of organic carboxilic radicals + glyphosate - and natural ripening as control, in a randomized block design with five replicates. The ripeners hold up the growth process of plant height, without affecting the number and diameter of stems at harvest, however they influence, in different intensities and ways, the flowering and pith process. Glyphosate provide the largest index of bud sprouting and damage of regrowth of the ratoon cane. The ripeners induce increase in sugar reducer total contents, contributing for the improvement in technological quality of sugarcane.

  9. Combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and Zinc(II ions on the growth and bioaccumulation properties of yeast isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Basak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of zinc(II ions by yeast isolates viz. Candida rugosa and Cryptococcus laurentii was investigated in different growth media. Both the isolates showed maximum bioaccumulation of zinc(II in the medium prepared from sugarcane bagasse extract. The growth and zinc(II bioaccumulation properties of yeasts in sugar cane bagasse extract were tested as a function of pH, temperature and initial metal concentrations. The combined effects of sugar extracted from bagasse and initial zinc(II ion concentrations on specific growth rate and bioaccumulation efficiencies of yeasts were investigated. At a constant zinc(II concentration, the growthand zinc(II bioaccumulation increased with increasing concentrations of sugar up to 24 g/L. The inhibition effect of zinc(II ions on the specific growth rate of yeasts was studied by non competitive and uncompetitive inhibition models at various concentrations of zinc(II ranging from 0-50 mg/L at constant sugar concentrations (8- 24 g/L. Bioaccumulation of zinc(II by the yeast isolates followed first-order-reaction kinetics.

  10. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Vegetative and Root Growth of three Sugarcane Genotypes (Smoocher officinarum L.) In vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane explants of three genotypes namely CO.J.64, CO.J.86 and Missan were exposed to 0,10, 20, 30,40,Gray of gamma rays,and cultured in MS medium supplemented with hormones for vegetative and root growth. The cultures were including in growth room at 25±2 degree centigrade and 16th photo period with light intensity of 1000 Lux. Results of vegetative explants of three genotypes namely Co. J.64, Co.J.86 and Missan growth revealed gradual reductions in the number of shoots, fresh, and dry weights as with the increased of gamma doses, The reduction percentage were 59.40, 59.70 and 54.40% at 40 Gray respectively, as compared with control treatment, while the dose 10 Gray increased the shoot length by 10.90%.Mean time, gamma rays were significantly affected the root formation,no roots were developed when plants treated with 40 Gray,while 10 Gray reduced the number of root formation, lengths, fresh and dry weights of roots by 28.80, 12.30, 78.30 and 58. 60% respectively as compared with the control. However the genotype Co.J.86 was significantly superior than others in numbers and lengths of the shoots with the root lengths while higher fresh and dry weights of vegetative growth were obtained in Missan genotypes. (author)

  11. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris on sugarcane vinasse: the effect of anaerobic digestion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sheyla Santa Isabel; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Chinalia, Fábio Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    Microalgae farming has been identified as the most eco-sustainable solution for producing biodiesel. However, the operation of full-scale plants is still limited by costs and the utilization of industrial and/or domestic wastes can significantly improve economic profits. Several waste effluents are valuable sources of nutrients for the cultivation of microalgae. Ethanol production from sugarcane, for instance, generates significant amounts of organically rich effluent, the vinasse. After anaerobic digestion treatment, nutrient remaining in such an effluent can be used to grow microalgae. This research aimed to testing the potential of the anaerobic treated vinasse as an alternative source of nutrients for culturing microalgae with the goal of supplying the biodiesel industrial chain with algal biomass and oil. The anaerobic process treating vinasse reached a steady state at about 17 batch cycles of 24 h producing about 0.116 m(3)CH4 kgCODvinasse (-1). The highest productivity of Chlorella vulgaris biomass (70 mg l(-1) day(-1)) was observed when using medium prepared with the anaerobic digester effluent. Lipid productivity varied from 0.5 to 17 mg l(-1) day(-1). Thus, the results show that it is possible to integrate the culturing of microalgae with the sugarcane industry by means of anaerobic digestion of the vinasse. There is also the advantageous possibility of using by-products of the anaerobic digestion such as methane and CO2 for sustaining the system with energy and carbon source, respectively. PMID:24013860

  12. Characterization of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Rhizosphere of Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estate and Farmers Landraces of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feredegn Dagnaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of chemical fertilizers apart from its low use efficiency, environmental impact and soil quality degradation, was not cost effective in the Ethiopian sugar sector. Thus, looking attractive opportunities which are environmentally friendly approaches and cost effective for the sustainability of the sector like use of biological fertilizers is of paramount importance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to preliminarily screen effective plant growth promoting bacteria from sugarcane fields. One hundred sixteen rhizosphere isolates was taken from sugarcane fields. The isolates were characterized and tested under laboratory condition for their phosphate solubilizing characteristics. Moreover, 23% and more than 60% of the isolates could produce indole acetic acid and ammonia, respectively. Isolate HWR27 showed significantly (p?0.05 the highest solubilization index (3.32 on solid Pikovskaya media. The lowest solubilization index was recorded for the isolate HWR8 (2.33. Three different isolates (HWR24, HWR27 and HWR48 having plant growth promoting characteristics were evaluated for their solubilization efficiency under three different liquid media (tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Among these isolates, HWR48 solubilized the highest amount of phosphate (88.41 mg L?1 from tricalcium phosphate and the same isolate solubilized 33.57 mg L?1 of phosphate from rock phosphate. The solubilization of phosphorus was complimented with reduction in pH. Further research to evaluate the effectiveness of the isolates on growth of sugarcane under greenhouse and field condition would be recommended.

  13. Protein expression profile of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5, a sugarcane endophytic plant growth-promoting bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lery, Leticia M S; Coelho, Ana; von Kruger, Wanda M A; Gonçalves, Mayla S M; Santos, Marise F; Valente, Richard H; Santos, Eidy O; Rocha, Surza L G; Perales, Jonas; Domont, Gilberto B; Teixeira, Katia R S; Bertalan, Marcelo; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Bisch, Paulo M

    2008-04-01

    This is the first broad proteomic description of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, an endophytic bacterium, responsible for the major fraction of the atmospheric nitrogen fixed in sugarcane in tropical regions. Proteomic coverage of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 was obtained by two independent approaches: 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF or TOF-TOF MS and 1-DE followed by chromatography in a C18 column online coupled to an ESI-Q-TOF or ESI-IT mass spectrometer. The 583 identified proteins were sorted into functional categories and used to describe potential metabolic pathways for nucleotides, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, cofactors and energy production, according to the Enzyme Commission of Enzyme Nomenclature (EC) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) databases. The identification of such proteins and their possible insertion in conserved biochemical routes will allow comparisons between G. diazotrophicus and other bacterial species. Furthermore, the 88 proteins classified as conserved unknown or unknown constitute a potential target for functional genomic studies, aiming at the understanding of protein function and regulation of gene expression. The knowledge of metabolic fundamentals and coordination of these actions are crucial for the rational, safe and sustainable interference on crops. The entire dataset, including peptide sequence information, is available as Supporting Information and is the major contribution of this work. PMID:18340630

  14. Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya da Silva Patekoski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

  15. Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma / Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katya da Silva, Patekoski; Carmen Lidia Amorim, Pires-Zottarelli.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de [...] alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1) e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings o [...] f Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1), and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31ºC. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31ºC, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.

  16. Soil physical properties and sugarcane root growth in a red oxiso / Propriedades físicas de solo e crescimento radicular de cana-de-açúcar em um latossolo vermelho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Euripides, Baquero; Ricardo, Ralisch; Cristiane de Conti, Medina; João, Tavares Filho; Maria de Fátima, Guimarães.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar é, na atualidade, uma das culturas de maior importância no agronegócio brasileiro, a qual envolve o uso de máquinas agrícolas em todas as fases do cultivo - do preparo do solo até a colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os atributos físicos e o crescimento de raízes em Lat [...] ossolo Vermelho eutroférrico cultivado com cana-de-açúcar por diferentes períodos de tempo. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área de produção de cana-de-açúcar em Rolândia, Paraná, com diferentes tratamentos (número de cortes: 1, 3, 8, 10 e 16); a colheita foi realizada com cana queimada e corte manual, determinando-se: densidade, macro e microporosidade, resistência do solo à penetração, densidade do solo, densidade de comprimento e área de raízes. Conclui-se que as práticas de manejo na cultura da cana-de-açúcar promovem alterações na resistência, densidade e porosidade do solo, em comparação com a mata nativa; essas alterações nos atributos físicos foram impeditivas ao pleno desenvolvimento radicular da cana-de-açúcar além de 10 cm de profundidade, em todos os períodos de cultivo analisados. Abstract in english Sugarcane, which involves the use of agricultural machinery in all crop stages, from soil preparation to harvest, is currently one of the most relevant crops for agribusiness in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to investigate soil physical properties and root growth in a eutroferric red Oxisol [...] (Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico) after different periods under sugarcane. The study was carried out in a cane plantation in Rolândia, Paraná State, where treatments consisted of a number of cuts (1, 3, 8, 10 and 16), harvested as green and burned sugarcane, at which soil bulk density, macro and microporosity, penetration resistance, as well as root length, density and area were determined. Results showed that sugarcane management practices lead to alterations in soil penetration resistance, bulk density and porosity, compared to native forest soil. These alterations in soil physical characteristics impede the full growth of the sugarcane root system beneath 10 cm, in all growing seasons analyzed.

  17. Crescimento e produtividade da cana planta cultivada em diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita / Sugarcane growth and productivity under different tillage and crop systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando Carlos Huertas, Tavares; Eduardo, Lima; Everaldo, Zonta.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita sobre o crescimento e produtividade da cana planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Linhares, Estado do Espírito Santo. Trata-se de um dos ensaios mais antigos no país que investiga os efeitos da [...] Cana crua e queimada. Instalados num Argissolo Amarelo textura arenosa/média, os tratamentos consistiram de parcelas (preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo) e subparcelas (Cana crua e Cana queimada). Foi avaliado o crescimento da cultura, o aporte de matéria orgânica e a quantificação do rendimento da cana-de-açúcar. O diâmetro foi maior para o cultivo mínimo, e o perfilhamento foi maior para o preparo convencional. A altura e o perfilhamento foram superiores no corte sem queima. Para produtividade de colmos, os tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças significativas. As folhas foram maiores em cultivo mínimo e pontas em Cana crua. O cultivo mínimo propicia, inicialmente, aumento do diâmetro e maior produtividade de folhas na colheita. O perfilhamento é favorecido pelo preparo convencional. A Cana crua não apresentou influência negativa da palhada na rebrota. Após 16 anos de cultivo da cana-de-açúcar com e sem queima do palhiço, observou-se maior produtividade de ponteiros, incrementando o rendimento dos colmos em Cana crua. Abstract in english This study had as its objective to evaluate the effects of different tillage and crop systems on the growth and productivity of sugarcane plants. The experiment was conducted in Linhares, ES. It is one of the oldest assays in the country investigating the effects of unburned and burned sugarcane. In [...] stalled in a Yellow Latosol with sandy/medium texture, the treatments consisted of plots (conventional and minimum tillage) and subplots (raw and burned sugarcane). Plant growth, contribution of organic matter and quantification of sugarcane yield were evaluated. The diameter was larger for minimum tillage, and tillering was greater for conventional tillage. The height and tillering were superior in the cut without burning. For stems productivity, the treatments did not present significant differences. The leaves were larger in minimum tillage and tips in unburned cane. The minimum tillage propitiates the increase in diameter initially and largest productivity of leaves in the crop. Tillering is favored by conventional tillage. The unburned cane did not present negative influence of straw in the regrowth. After 16 years of sugarcane cultivation with and without straw burning, it resulted in larger productivity of pointers increasing the productivity of the stems in unburned cane.

  18. Control of Pythium Damping-off of Squash (Cucurbita pepo by Seed Treatment with Crop Straw and Soil by the Biocontrol Agent Trichodema harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Z. Haikal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment by non-sterilized powdered straw from 4 crops was tested for Pythium damping-off of squash. The tested straws including wheat, faba bean, soybean and sorghum were effective in controlling the disease in soil artificially infested with Pythium ultinum. Sterilizing straws eliminated the efficacy of these straw, faba bean and soybean straws inhibit the mycelial growth of Pythium more than wheat and sorghum on potato dextrose agar when the straws were mixed with sterilized distilled water and left to ferment for 3 days. The soil treatment by the biocontrol agent T. harzianum control the damping-off disease in artificially infested soil and combination between seed treatment by straw powder and soil treatment by T. harzianum improve the efficacy of the biocontrol agent.

  19. Pythium oligandrum in the control of Fusarium rot on some bulbous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, C

    2001-01-01

    Pythium oligandrum was applied as tulip bulbs or gladiolus corms soak prior or after inoculation with formae speciales Fusarium oxysporum. The mycoparasite used before inoculation with pathogen suppressed the development of Fusarium rot. This effect was not observed, however, when P. oligandrum was used 24 hr after bulb inoculation. Soaking of forced tulip bulbs in oospore suspension of P. oligandrum may reduce Fusarium rot spread and increase number of flowers, but at conc. 2.5 x 10(3)-10(4)/cm3 caused inhibition of tulip root growth. PMID:12425035

  20. SUBSTITUTION OF AMMONIUM SULFATE FERTILIZER ON UPLAND SUGARCANE CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH, NUTRIENT CONTENT AND SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare the effect of substitution of Ammonium Sulphate (AS fertilizer on sugarcane growth, nutrient content, and soil chemical properties. This research was conducted on up-land of sugarcane plantation in Tegalweru village, Dau district, Malang regency. This study tested ten treatments consisting of three treatments using AS fertilizer, six treatments using AS substitute fertilizers that used combination of Urea, Gypsum, and bio-compost and one control (no fertilizer. This research used randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the plant growth between the treatment used AS fertilizer and AS substitute was not significantly different. However, the treatment used 400 kg Urea per ha+938 kg Gypsum per ha tended to have the best plant growth and the highest N uptake. For the treatments using AS substitute fertilizer, the higher the application rate was, the higher the soil N and S contents were. The treatments used AS fertilizer due to lower soil pH than AS substitute fertilizer. Based on this research, it can be concluded that the use of alternative fertilizers as a substitute of the AS fertilizer is recommended to reduce an adverse impact on soil fertility.

  1. Crescimento e produtividade da cana planta cultivada em diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita = Sugarcane growth and productivity under different tillage and crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Carlos Huertas Tavares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita sobre o crescimento e produtividade da cana planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Linhares, Estado do Espírito Santo. Trata-se de um dos ensaios mais antigos no país que investiga os efeitos da Cana crua e queimada. Instalados num Argissolo Amarelo textura arenosa/média, os tratamentos consistiram de parcelas (preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo e subparcelas (Cana crua e Cana queimada. Foi avaliado o crescimento da cultura, o aporte de matéria orgânica e a quantificação do rendimento da cana-de-açúcar. O diâmetro foi maior para o cultivo mínimo, e o perfilhamento foi maior para o preparo convencional. A altura e o perfilhamento foram superiores no corte sem queima. Para produtividade de colmos, os tratamentos nãoapresentaram diferenças significativas. As folhas foram maiores em cultivo mínimo e pontas em Cana crua. O cultivo mínimo propicia, inicialmente, aumento do diâmetro e maior produtividade de folhas na colheita. O perfilhamento é favorecido pelo preparo convencional. A Cana crua não apresentou influência negativa da palhada na rebrota. Após 16 anos de cultivo da cana-de-açúcar com e sem queima do palhiço, observou-se maior produtividade de ponteiros, incrementando o rendimento dos colmos em Cana crua. This study had as its objective to evaluate the effects of different tillage and crop systems on the growth and productivity of sugarcane plants. The experiment was conducted in Linhares, ES. It is one of the oldest assays in the country investigating the effects ofunburned and burned sugarcane. Installed in a Yellow Latosol with sandy/medium texture, the treatments consisted of plots (conventional and minimum tillage and subplots (raw and burned sugarcane. Plant growth, contribution of organic matter and quantification ofsugarcane yield were evaluated. The diameter was larger for minimum tillage, and tillering was greater for conventional tillage. The height and tillering were superior in the cut without burning. For stems productivity, the treatments did not present significantdifferences. The leaves were larger in minimum tillage and tips in unburned cane. The minimum tillage propitiates the increase in diameter initially and largest productivity of leaves in the crop. Tillering is favored by conventional tillage. The unburned cane did not present negative influence of straw in the regrowth. After 16 years of sugarcane cultivation with and without straw burning, it resulted in larger productivity of pointers increasing theproductivity of the stems in unburned cane.

  2. Antifungal activity of Tagetes patula extracts on some phytopathogenic fungi: ultrastructural evidence on Pythium ultimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, D; Tosi, B; Poli, F; Andreotti, E; Romagnoli, C

    2004-01-01

    Methanol extract, obtained from Tagetes patula plant, was assayed against three phytopathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme and Pythium ultimum. The antifungal activity was tested both in the dark and in the light, using two different lighting systems. The data showed that the extract proved to have a dose-dependent activity on all the fungi with a marked difference between treatments in the light than in the dark. Good growth inhibition was observed in fungi only when these were treated with the highest dose of the extract and irradiated, whereas the same dose gave only a modest inhibition when the experiment was conducted in the dark. At 5 and 10 microg/ml in the dark, growth increased. The results indicated that the presence of a luminous source enhances the antifungal activity, with small differences between UV-A and solar spectrum light. SEM and TEM observations on Pythium ultimum revealed that the Tagetes patula extract induced alterations on cell fungal membranes with a photoactivation mechanism possibly involving the production of free radicals and leading to a premature aging of the mycelium. PMID:15462529

  3. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane production, and reduced greenhouse gas emission. Overall, the conversion of sugarcane harvest residue to biochar as soil amendment improves sugarcane production for both agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane residue biochar also showed the potential of other environmental use for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  4. Zoosporogênese in vitro entre isolados do oomiceto Pythium insidiosum / In vitro zoosporogenesis among oomycetes Pythium insidiosum isolates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Isabel Brayer, Pereira; Janio Morais, Santurio; Sydney Hartz, Alves; Juliana Siqueira, Argenta; Ayrton Sydnei, Cavalheiro; Laerte, Ferreiro.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto aquático, responsável pela etiologia da pitiose, uma enfermidade crônica, observada freqüentemente em eqüinos. A produção de zoósporos móveis por este microrganismo se constitui no fator determinante da ocorrência da enfermidade. Este estudo avaliou a zoosporogênese [...] e quantificou a produção de zoósporos de 32 amostras de Pythium insidiosum isoladas de eqüinos naturalmente infectados. Pythium insidiosum foi cultivado em meio Corn Meal Agar acrescido de fragmentos de grama, durante 5 dias, a 37°C. Posteriormente, os fragmentos de grama parasitados foram incubados em Meio de Indução a 37°C, por 24 horas. Observou-se que 16 amostras (50%) produziram 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, 12 isolados (37,5%) produziram acima de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1, enquanto quatro amostras (12,5%) produziram menos de 20.000 zoósporos mL-1. O período de maior produção de zoósporos foi entre 6 e 8 horas de incubação. O protocolo utilizado na indução da zoosporogênese mostrou-se eficiente e representa uma importante ferramenta, tanto para a identificação do Pythium insidiosum, como para a obtenção de zoósporos em quantidades suficientes para a inoculação em animais experimentais e aplicação no desenvolvimento de testes de suscetibilidade. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete and the etiology of a chronic disease called pythiosis, commonly found in the skin of horses. The production of mobile zoospores by this microorganism is the determinant factor of this disease. This study evaluated the zoosporogenesis and quantification of z [...] oospores in 32 samples of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses with pythiosis. The assay used culture of the Pythium insidiosum in Corn Meal Agar plus grass blades for 5 days at 37°C. The grass blades were incubated in Induction Medium at 37°C for 24 hours. The findings showed 16 samples (50%) yielded 20,000 zoospores mL-1, 12 (37.5%) samples yielded over 20,000 zoospores mL-1 and 4 samples (12.5%) yielded less than 20,000 zoospores mL-1. The zoospores production was higher between 6 and 8 hours of incubation. The protocol used in the zoosporogenesis induction was efficient and represents an important tool for Pythium insidiosum identification and the attainment of zoospores in adequate amounts for inoculation in experimental animals and application in the development of susceptibility tests.

  5. Species of Phytophthora and Pythium as Nematode-destroying Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Tzean, S. S.; Estey, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Pythium monospermum,, P. aphanidermatum, and Phytophthora palmivora were found to be capable of destroying certain nonstylet-bearing nematodes through endozoic parasitism by hyphae from ingested zoospores. Hyphae of P. monospermum parasitized nematode eggs but could not capture or otherwise prey upon living nematodes. We suggest that endoparasitism of free-living nematodes may be common among Oomycetes in nature.

  6. Girassol: emergência e crescimento inicial de plantas sob resíduos de cana-de-açúcar / Sunflower: emergence and initial plant growth under sugarcane residues

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nilza Patrícia, Ramos; Maria do Carmo de Salvo Soares, Novo; Antônio Augusto, Lago; Maria Regina Gonçalves, Ungaro.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da palha residual da colheita da cana-de-açúcar e da adição de vinhaça sobre o solo na emergência e no crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (5 x 2 x 3), em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, [...] combinando-se cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20t ha-1) com aplicação ou não de 150m³ ha-1 de vinhaça residual da indústria sulcroalcooleira, utilizando-se três cultivares de girassol ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio 358"). Foram determinadas a velocidade e a porcentagem final de emergência de plântulas, além do comprimento e da biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da palha de cana-de-açúcar e da vinhaça, em quantidade equivalente a 150m³ ha-1, em ação conjunta ou isolada, reduz a emergência de plântulas e o crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Entretanto, essa redução não compromete drasticamente o desempenho das cultivares ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio-358"), que não diferiram entre si. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of soil cover with sugarcane mulch residue combined with vinasse application on seedling emergence and initial growth of sunflower cultivars. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in pots with soil, in randomized complete block [...] s, with four replications. The treatments, arranged in a 5 x 2 x 3 factorial, consisted of the combination of five quantities of sugarcane mulch residue cover (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20t ha-1) followed by application or not of 150m³ ha-1 of vinasse, on soil planted to the sunflower cultivars 'IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio 358'. The variables studied were seedling emergence speed, final emergence, as well as plant height and dry weight of above ground plant biomass. It is concluded that, under greenhouse conditions, the presence of sugarcane mulch residue in any of the quantities studied, and of vinasse in the quantity of 150m³ ha-1, either isolated or in combination, reduce seedling emergence and hamper the initial growth of sunflower, but this effect is not so drastic to endanger the cultivars development ('IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio-358'), that do not differ between them.

  7. Girassol: emergência e crescimento inicial de plantas sob resíduos de cana-de-açúcar Sunflower: emergence and initial plant growth under sugarcane residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Patrícia Ramos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da palha residual da colheita da cana-de-açúcar e da adição de vinhaça sobre o solo na emergência e no crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (5 x 2 x 3, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, combinando-se cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20t ha-1 com aplicação ou não de 150m³ ha-1 de vinhaça residual da indústria sulcroalcooleira, utilizando-se três cultivares de girassol ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio 358". Foram determinadas a velocidade e a porcentagem final de emergência de plântulas, além do comprimento e da biomassa seca da parte aérea de plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. Verificou-se que a presença da palha de cana-de-açúcar e da vinhaça, em quantidade equivalente a 150m³ ha-1, em ação conjunta ou isolada, reduz a emergência de plântulas e o crescimento inicial de cultivares de girassol. Entretanto, essa redução não compromete drasticamente o desempenho das cultivares ("IAC-iarama", "Catissol" e "Helio-358", que não diferiram entre si.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of soil cover with sugarcane mulch residue combined with vinasse application on seedling emergence and initial growth of sunflower cultivars. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in pots with soil, in randomized complete blocks, with four replications. The treatments, arranged in a 5 x 2 x 3 factorial, consisted of the combination of five quantities of sugarcane mulch residue cover (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20t ha-1 followed by application or not of 150m³ ha-1 of vinasse, on soil planted to the sunflower cultivars 'IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio 358'. The variables studied were seedling emergence speed, final emergence, as well as plant height and dry weight of above ground plant biomass. It is concluded that, under greenhouse conditions, the presence of sugarcane mulch residue in any of the quantities studied, and of vinasse in the quantity of 150m³ ha-1, either isolated or in combination, reduce seedling emergence and hamper the initial growth of sunflower, but this effect is not so drastic to endanger the cultivars development ('IAC-iarama', 'Catissol' e 'Helio-358', that do not differ between them.

  8. Sensitivity of Pythium irregulare, P. sylvaticum, and P. ultimum from forest nurseries to mefenoxam and fosetyl-al, and control of Pythium damping-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides are often used to supplement soilborne disease control in Pacific Northwest forest nurseries. Mefenoxam and fosetyl-Al are the most commonly used fungicides to suppress Pythium damping-off of tree seedlings. However, it is not known whether fungicide resistant Pythium isolates are present...

  9. Diversity of the Pythium community infecting crown and roots apple in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souli M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pythium is important in agriculture, since it contains many plantpathogenic species. Little is known about the diversity of Pythium species causing appledicline. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize 21 Pythium isolates collectedfrom root and collar rot apple trees in Tunisia from 2006 through to 2009. The isolateswere characterized morphologically as well as through sequence analyze of the internaltranscribed spacer region (ITS. Three Pythium species were identified in this study P.rostratifingens, P. undulatum and P. sterilum. In virulence assays on excised apple twigsand in the fields, representative isolates of the different Pythium species isolated werepathogenic on the Anna, Lorka and Meski varieties and the MM106 rootstock. Resultsobtained show the great susceptibility of the MM106 rootstock to the infections for thedifferent Pythium species tested.

  10. Dynamic distribution of potassium in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the distribution of potassium in sugarcane has been studied during its growth. The soil was prepared with natural fertilizers prepared with sugarcane bagasse. For the measurement of potassium concentration in each part of the plant, gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure gamma-rays emitted from the radioisotope 40K. The concentrations of potassium in roots, stems and leaves were measured every two to three months beginning about five months after planting the sugarcane. The results show a higher concentration of potassium at the beginning of plant development and over time, there is an oscillatory behavior in this concentration in each part of the plant, reaching a lower concentration in the adult plant. To describe the evolution of potassium distribution in sugarcane we proposed a phenomenological model assuming that the potassium incorporation rate is proportional to the difference between the element concentration in the plant and a very long term equilibrium value and it is coupled to a resource-limited growth model. The proposed model succeeded in interpreting the results for the potassium distribution in stems and leaves during the sugarcane growth. -- Highlights: • Sugar-cane. • Distribution of potassium from root to aerial parts of the plant. • Gamma-ray spectrometry. • Phenomenological model to describe potassium distribution

  11. Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas / Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo A., Ferreira Junior; José L. de, Souza; Gustavo B., Lyra; Iêdo, Teodoro; Marcos A. dos, Santos; Anthony C. S., Porfirio.

    1229-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB) é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT) e a es [...] timativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA) interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT). A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto) foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados. Abstract in english Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP) is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint) and the estimated accumulative G [...] P. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR) was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART), which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August) was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

  12. Crescimento e fotossíntese de cana-de-açúcar em função de variáveis biométricas e meteorológicas Growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane based on biometric and meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Ferreira Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da cana-de-açúcar pode ser obtido por modelos biofísicos em que a fotossíntese bruta (FB é obtida em função da radiação solar. O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar variedades de canas-de-açúcar em regime irrigado em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa interceptada (RFAINT e a estimativa da FB acumulada. Para isto, conduziu-se um estudo na Universidade Federal de Alagoas, entre 2008 e 2009, com variedades de cana RB. Foram realizadas medidas biométricas, variáveis de produção e dos elementos meteorológicos. A irradiância fotossintética (RFA interceptada foi obtida pela diferença entre RFA e RFA transmitida (RFAT. A RFAT foi determinada pela Lei de Beer. Na estimativa da FB diária usou-se uma integração numérica, com uma abordagem trapezoidal. As variáveis de produção tiveram correlações com a RFAINT acumulada e com a FB acumulada durante o ciclo. A média da irradiação solar global diária do período chuvoso da região (maio - agosto foi igual a 14,9 MJ m-2. A variedade RB92579 teve os maiores variáveis de produção, como também maiores RFA interceptada e FB acumuladas no ciclo, devido à sua maior capacidade de rebrotação e conversão de energia em fotoassimilados.Sugarcane growth can be obtained by biophysical models in which gross photosynthesis (GP is obtained as a function of solar radiation. This work aims to evaluate sugarcane varieties under irrigation in relation to intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (PARint and the estimated accumulative GP. To achieve that, a study was conducted at the Federal University of Alagoas during 2008 and 2009, with RB sugarcane varieties. Biometric measurements, production variables and meteorological elements were made. The intercepted photosynthetic irradiance (PAR was obtained by the difference between PAR and transmitted PAR (PART, which was determined by Beer's Law. The daily GP was estimated numerically by the trapezoidal approach. The production variables had correlations with accumulated PARint and accumulated GP during the crop cycle. The average global solar radiation in the region for rainy season (May-August was 14.9 MJ m-2. The variety RB92579 had the highest production variables as well as higher intercepted PAR and accumulated GP in the cycle due to its greater capacity for regrowth and energy conversion in photoassimilate.

  13. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  14. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80%. (author)

  15. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arencibia, Ariel D; Carmona, Elva R

    2006-01-01

    We describe the procedures for recovering transgenic sugarcane from co-cultivation of both calli and in vitro plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The correct tissue culture strategies and the use of super-binary vector or super-virulent strain are crucial for the successful sugarcane transformation. Both plant regeneration via calli culture and micropropagation strategies can be optimized to a wide spectrum of sugarcane genotypes, thus the procedures presented here could be applied to genetic engineering of Saccharum spp. after minor modifications. For the case of sugarcane transformation using in vitro plants, four selective micropropagation steps must be sufficient to eliminate chimera plants. PMID:17033066

  16. Microbes - friends and foes of sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnaz, Samina

    2013-12-01

    Sugarcane is an important cash crop for many countries because it is a major source of several products including sugar and bioethanol. To obtain maximum yields there is a need to apply large quantities of chemical fertilizers.Worldwide yields are also severely affected by more than sixty diseases, mostly caused by fungi but viruses, phytoplasmas, nematodes and other pests can also damage this crop. For most of these diseases, chemical control is not available and breeders are struggling with the development of pest resistant varieties. Many members of the grass family Poaceae establish associations with beneficial microbes which promote their growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. They can be used as means to reduce the need for chemical fertilizer and to minimize the impacts of pathogen invasion. This review highlights the diversity of the microbes associated with sugarcane and the role of beneficial microbes for growth promotion and biocontrol. More extensive use of beneficial microbes will help the sugarcane grower not only to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers but also minimize the disease. In this paper, a brief description of both the non-pathogenic and pathogenic microbes associated with sugarcane is provided. Future prospects for the expanded use of beneficial microbes for sugarcane are also discussed and detailed herein. PMID:23322584

  17. Influencia del hábito de crecimiento en la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la caña de azúcar / The influence of the growth habit on the velocity of sugarcane manual harvesting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando, De Sousa-Vieira; Rosaura, Briceño Cárdenas; Ramón, Rea; Alida, Díaz; José, George.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. híbrido) es un cultivo de gran trascendencia en Venezuela. Si bien la cosecha de este rubro tiende a mecanizarse, el corte manual es aún muy importante ya que una significativa proporción del cultivo es cosechado de esa manera. El objetivo de este estudio fue conoce [...] r la influencia del hábito de crecimiento de la planta en la velocidad con que se realiza el corte manual de tallos al momento de la cosecha. El ensayo se realizó en los ciclos de planta y soca, y en cada uno se emplearon cinco trabajadores para cosechar cinco cultivares de caña de azúcar cuyos hábitos variaban desde cañas acamadas hasta cañas erectas. Se empleó un diseño en cuadrado latino 5 x 5 para evaluar el tiempo en que cada trabajador cortaba cada uno de los cultivares y los datos fueron convertidos en tiempo necesario para cosechar una tonelada de caña. Adicionalmente, se midió la dureza del tallo de los diferentes cultivares para tratar de establecer el posible efecto de ese factor en la cosecha manual. Los resultados indicaron que el hábito de crecimiento de la caña de azúcar influye en la velocidad del corte de tallos, es decir, cañas acamadas o con tendencia al acame afectan negativamente la velocidad de la cosecha manual de la planta. No se encontró evidencia de que la dureza del tallo de estos cultivares tenga efecto en la velocidad del corte manual. Abstract in english Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) is a main crop in Venezuela. Even thought there is a trend toward mechanization, manual harvesting remains important due to the fact that a significant proportion of the sugarcane produced is harvested that way. The objective of this study was to determine the exten [...] t in which sugarcane growth habit influences the velocity in which manual harvesting is done. The trial was performed during plant and ratoon cycles, and in each of them, five workers were employed to harvest five sugarcane cultivars whose habits ranged from erect to recumbent. A 5 by 5 Latin Square design was used, and time was recorded for each worker as they cut each of the five cultivars. Data were converted in time needed to harvest a ton of cane. The effect of stalk hardness was also considered. Results indicated that the growth habit of the cultivar influenced the speed in which sugarcane stalks are harvested, so lodged and non-erect stalks are features that negatively affected the velocity of manual harvesting. There was no evidence showing that stalk hardness had any effect on the labor speed.

  18. Ocorrência de Pythiella vernalis em Pythium aphanidermatum de cultura hidropônica de agrião no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen Lidia Amorim, Pires-Zottarelli; Amaury da Silva dos, Santos; Adauto Ivo, Milanez; Matheus Aparecido Pereira, Cipriano.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pythiella vernalis foi isolada de Pythium aphanidermatum de cultura hidropônica de agrião, no município de Taubaté, SP, Brasil. É a primeira citação de Pythiella vernalis no Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em Pythium aphanidermatum. [...] Abstract in english Pythiella vernalis have been isolated from Pythium aphanidermatum on hydroponic culture of Lepidium sativum, in the municipality of Taubaté, São Paulo State, Brazil. It is the first report of the Pythiella vernalis in Brazil and the first world reference of the occurrence of this species in P. aphan [...] idermatum.

  19. Ocorrência de Pythiella vernalis em Pythium aphanidermatum de cultura hidropônica de agrião no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Amorim Pires-Zottarelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pythiella vernalis foi isolada de Pythium aphanidermatum de cultura hidropônica de agrião, no município de Taubaté, SP, Brasil. É a primeira citação de Pythiella vernalis no Brasil e a primeira referência mundial da espécie em Pythium aphanidermatum.Pythiella vernalis have been isolated from Pythium aphanidermatum on hydroponic culture of Lepidium sativum, in the municipality of Taubaté, São Paulo State, Brazil. It is the first report of the Pythiella vernalis in Brazil and the first world reference of the occurrence of this species in P. aphanidermatum.

  20. Evaluation of Some Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Extracts for Immunostimulatory and Growth Promoting Effects in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad Awais and Masood Akhtar*

    2012-01-01

    Present paper describes the immunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of some sugar cane extracts (SCEs) in broiler chickens. Aqueous extract (AE) from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) juice and ethanolic extract (EE) from bagasse were used to demonstrate their effects on lymphoproliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) and Concanavalin-A (Con-A); antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs); growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in experimental chickens as com...

  1. Physcomitrella patens auxin conjugate synthetase (GH3) double knockout mutants are more resistant to Pythium infection than wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Jennifer; Šola, Ivana; Rusak, Gordana; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Auxin homeostasis is involved in many different plant developmental and stress responses. The auxin amino acid conjugate synthetases belonging to the GH3 family play major roles in the regulation of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels and the moss Physcomitrella patens has two GH3 genes in its genome. A role for IAA in several angiosperm - pathogen interactions was reported, however, in a moss - oomycete pathosystem it had not been published so far. Using GH3 double knockout lines we have investigated the role of auxin homeostasis during the infection of P. patens with the two oomycete species, Pythium debaryanum and Pythium irregulare. We show that infection with P. debaryanum caused stronger disease symptoms than with P. irregulare. Also, P. patens lines harboring fusion constructs of an auxin-inducible promoter from soybean (GmGH3) with a reporter (ß-glucuronidase) showed higher promoter induction after P. debaryanum infection than after P. irregulare, indicating a differential induction of the auxin response. Free IAA was induced upon P. debaryanum infection in wild type by 1.6-fold and in two GH3 double knockout (GH3-doKO) mutants by 4- to 5-fold. All GH3-doKO lines showed a reduced disease symptom progression compared to wild type. Since P. debaryanum can be inhibited in growth on medium containing IAA, these data might indicate that endogenous high auxin levels in P. patens GH3-doKO mutants lead to higher resistance against the oomycete. PMID:26102574

  2. Weather variables, water balance, growth, and agro industrial yield of sugarcane / Variáveis meteorológicas, balanço hídrico, crescimento e produtividade agroindustrial da cana-de-açúcar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IÊDO, TEODORO; JOSÉ, DANTAS NETO; LUCAS A. DE, HOLANDA; GIVALDO D., SAMPAIO NETO; JOSÉ L. DE, SOUZA; GERALDO V. DE S., BARBOSA; GUILHERME B., LYRA.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as variáveis meteorológicas, a deficiência hídrica, o crescimento e a produtividade agroindustrial das variedades de cana-de-açúcar: RB72454, RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003, RB951541 e RB971755, em cultivo de sequeiro, em duas safras, na região d [...] e Rio Largo - AL. As variáveis meteorológicas foram obtidas em uma estação automática, e o balanço hídrico foi feito pelo método de Thornthwaite & Mather. No período da pesquisa, a temperatura do ar variou de 16,6 a 35,9º C. No primeiro ciclo de produção, choveu 1.806 mm, e a cultura evapotranspirou 1.775 mm, e, no segundo ciclo, a precipitação pluvial somou 1.632 mm, e a evapotranspiração da cultura foi 1.290 mm. O excesso hídrico médio dos dois ciclos de produção foi 689 mm; e o déficit hídrico, 665 mm. Ou seja, mesmo resultando em uma precipitação pluvial superior à evapotranspiração da cultura, devido à má distribuição das chuvas, houve deficiência hídrica. A temperatura do ar não foi limitante para o crescimento da cana-de-açúcar. A produtividade agrícola média da cana-planta foi 86,8 t ha-1, em cana-soca foi 75,2 t ha-1, e o rendimento agroindustrial médio foi 12,9 e 10,9 toneladas de açúcar por hectare em cana-planta e cana-soca, respectivamente. As variedades mais produtivas foram a RB93509, a RB92579 e a RB863129. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the meteorological variables, water deficiency, growth, and agro-industrial yield of sugarcane varieties: RB72454, RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB93509, RB931003, RB951541, and RB971755, in rainfed crop in two harvests in the Rio Largo-AL region. The meteo [...] rological variables were obtained in an automatic station and water balance was done by Thornthwaite & Mather method. During the study period, the air temperature ranged from 16.6 to 35.9 ºC. In the first production cycle rained 1,806 mm and the crop evapotranspiration was 1,775 mm. In the second cycle, the rainfall totaled 1,632 mm and the crop evapotranspiration was 1,290 mm. The average water excess of two production cycles was 689 mm and the water deficit totaled 665 mm. The average agricultural productivity in the plant was 86.8 t ha-1, in the first ratoon was 75.2 t ha-1 and the agro-industrial yield average was 12.9 and 10.9 tons of sugar per hectare in the plant and first ratoon, respectively. The air temperature was not limiting to the growth of sugarcane and the rainfall was higher than the crop evapotranspiration, but due to poor distribution of the rains there was water deficit. The most productive varieties were RB93509, RB92579, and RB863129.

  3. Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (?g) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ? underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

  4. Pythium insidiosum: morphological and molecular identification of Brazilian isolates Pythium insidiosum: identificação morfológica e molecular de isolados brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel de Azevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete belonging to the kingdom Stramenipila and it is the etiologic agent of pythiosis. Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease characterized by the development of chronic lesions on cutaneous and subcutaneous, intestinal, and bone tissues in humans and many species of animals. The identification of P. insidiosum is important in order to implement a rapid and definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment. This study reports the identification of 54 isolates of P. insidiosum of horses, dogs and sheep that presented suspicious clinical lesions of pythiosis from different regions in Brazil, by using morphological and molecular assays. Throughout the PCR it was possible to confirm the identity of all Brazilian isolates as being P. insidiosum.Pythium insidiosum é um oomiceto pertencente ao Reino Stramenopila e agente etiológico da pitiose, uma doença infecciosa com riscos de morte. A pitiose é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento de lesões crônicas sobre os tecidos cutâneos, subcutâneas, intestinal e ósseo em humanos e muitas espécies de animais. A identificação de P. insidiosum é importante, a fim de se obter um diagnóstico rápido e definitivo, bem como um tratamento eficaz. Este estudo relata a identificação de 54 isolados de P. insidiosum de cavalos, cães e ovelhas que apresentavam lesões compatíveis e suspeita clínicas de pitiose, provenientes de diferentes regiões do Brasil, através de métodos morfológicos e moleculares. Através da PCR foi possível confirmar a identidade de todos os isolados brasileiros como sendo P. insidiosum.

  5. Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production = Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be thebest substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 timesgreater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass andphycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas emrelação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinaspodendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.

  6. Mechanism for mercury tolerance in fungi. [Aspergillus niger; Rhizoctonia solani; Pythium ultimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, L.J. Jr.; Amin, J.V.

    1964-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was protected from mercury (Hg) poisoning by sulfhydryl (SH) compounds (glutathione and cysteine) in culture experiments, whereas Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum were not protected. Two- to 30-day-old mycelium of A. niger was found to be more tolerant to Hg than either younger or older mycelia. Mycelia of the other fungi were sensitive regardless of age. Mercury tolerance of A. niger mycelium was altered when sulfur nutrition was modified; it was greater after growth on a substrate containing reduced sulfur than after growth on one containing sulfate. The Hg tolerance of A. niger mycelium appears to be due to a pool of intracellular SH that is free of protein and that protects enzyme systems by forming complexes with Hg as it is taken up by the thallus. Potato-dextrose broth-grown mats of A. niger contained about 100 ..mu..g of SH/g of dry mycelia after 36 hr and after 5 days. R.. solani had about 9 ..mu..g of SH/g of mycelia after 5 days; a measurable amount was not recovered from P. ultimum. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  7. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Bia?e (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pa?acowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

  8. Biological activity of Pythium oligandrum against Phytophthora species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, L B

    2001-01-01

    Influence of Pythium oligandrum as an a.i. of Polyversum on population dynamic of Phytophthora cryptogea in peat and development of Phytophtora rot on gerbera, Lawson cypress and yew-tree were evaluated. Drenching of peat, artificially infested with P. cryptogea, with Polyversum immediatelly after gerbera planting resulted in significant decrease of colony forming units number within 4 weeks. Concentrations of the biopreparate used had no significant influence on its greater, biological activity. Drenching of plants with Polyversum at conc. 0.05 or 0.1%, after planting into peat infested with P. cryptogea or P. cinnamomi, resulted in the strong suppression of Phytophthora foot or root and stem rot of gerbera, cypress and yew-tree. PMID:12425033

  9. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of sugarcane has a tremendous potential to complement traditional breeding in crop improvement and will likely transform sugarcane into a bio-factory for value-added products. We describe here Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sugarcane. Embryogenic callus induced from immature leaf whorls was used as target for transformation with the hypervirulent Agrobacterium strain AGL1 carrying a constitutive nptII expression cassette in vector pPZP200. Selection with 30 mg/L geneticin during the callus phase and 30 mg/L paromomycin during regeneration of shoots and roots effectively suppressed the development of non-transgenic plants. This protocol was successful with a commercially important sugarcane cultivar, CP-88-1762, at a transformation efficiency of two independent transgenic plants per g of callus. PMID:25416267

  10. Evaluation of Some Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Extracts for Immunostimulatory and Growth Promoting Effects in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Muhammad Awais and Masood Akhtar*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Present paper describes the immunostimulatory and growth promoting effects of some sugar cane extracts (SCEs in broiler chickens. Aqueous extract (AE from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum juice and ethanolic extract (EE from bagasse were used to demonstrate their effects on lymphoproliferative responses to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P and Concanavalin-A (Con-A; antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs; growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR in experimental chickens as compared to control. Results showed significantly higher (P<0.05 in vitro and in vivo lymphoproliferative responses to Con-A and PHA-P, respectively in chickens administered with SCEs as compared to those in control group. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05 lymphoproliferative responses were detected in chickens administered with EE as compared to chickens administered with AE. Anti-SRBC total Igs, IgG and IgM titers were significantly higher (P<0.05 in chickens of experimental groups administered with SCEs as compared to those of control group; whereas titers were comparable among the experimental groups. The organ-body weight ratios of lymphoid organs were statistically similar in experimental and control groups. Both the experimental groups administered with SCEs showed better FCR and significantly higher (P<0.05 weight gains as compared to control. In conclusion, oral administration of SCEs showed immunostimulatory effects in broiler chickens and resulted in improved feed utilization and decreased amount of food needed for unit gain in body weight.

  11. In vitro susceptibility of Brazilian Pythium insidiosum isolates to essential oils of some Lamiaceae family species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A O S; Pereira, D I B; Jacob, R G; Maia Filho, F S; Oliveira, D H; Maroneze, B P; Valente, J S S; Osório, L G; Botton, S A; Meireles, M C A

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial action of Origanum vulgare, Origanum majorana, Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis on Pythium insidiosum oomycete zoospores. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 documentation adapted to phytopharmaceuticals. Twenty-two P. insidiosum isolates were evaluated, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined at 100% growth inhibition. All P. insidiosum isolates evaluated showed a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.05 to 1.75 mg/mL when O. vulgare oil was used and from 0.11 to 3.5 mg/mL for O. majorana, M. piperita and R. officinalis oils. The results obtained indicate that the essential oils tested showed antimicrobial activity on P. insidiosum, with O. vulgare essential oil showing the best performance. These findings emphasize the potential use of plant essential oils as control agents in P. insidiosum infections; further research, however, is needed so as the in vivo activity of these oils can also be evaluated. PMID:25431090

  12. Brassica juncea seed meal amendment induces long-term suppressiveness to Pythium abappressorium under enclosed and open soil incubation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pythium spp. contribute to development of aple replant disease. B. juncea seed meal (SM) soil amendment can effectively suppress Pythium via generation of biologically active allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). AITC is evaluated from soils with 48 h after SM application, yet preliminary evidence indicates...

  13. Combat-Related Pythium aphanidermatum Invasive Wound Infection: Case Report and Discussion of Utility of Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Aaron R; Murray, Clinton K; Driscoll, Ian R; Wickes, Brian L; Wiederhold, Nathan; Sutton, Deanna A; Sanders, Carmita; Mende, Katrin; Enniss, Brent; Feig, James; Ganesan, Anuradha; Rini, Elizabeth A; Vento, Todd J

    2015-06-01

    We describe a 22-year-old soldier with 19% total body surface area burns, polytrauma, and sequence- and culture-confirmed Pythium aphanidermatum wound infection. Antemortem histopathology suggested disseminated Pythium infection, including brain involvement; however, postmortem PCR revealed Cunninghamella elegans, Lichtheimia corymbifera, and Saksenaea vasiformis coinfection. The utility of molecular diagnostics in invasive fungal infections is discussed. PMID:25832301

  14. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  15. Sugarcane micropropagation using light emitting diodes and adjustment in growth-medium sucrose concentration / Micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar com diodos emissores de luz e ajuste da concentração de sacarose do meio de cultivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Sérgio Gomes da, Rocha; Roberto Pedroso de, Oliveira; Walkyria Bueno, Scivittaro.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de diodos emissores de luz (LEDs) em substituição a lâmpadas fluorescentes brancas e adequar a concentração de sacarose na micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.). Brotações da variedade RB 872552 foram avaliadas nas fases de multiplic [...] ação e enraizamento, utilizando as fontes de luz LEDs azuis, LEDs vermelhos, LEDs verdes, lâmpadas Growlux e lâmpadas fluorescentes brancas, e as concentrações de sacarose de 0, 15, 30 e 45g L-1, fixando-se a intensidade luminosa em 20µmol m-2 s-1. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em fatorial 5x4 (fontes de luz x concentrações de sacarose). O desenvolvimento das brotações foi satisfatório sob os três tipos de LEDs estudados. A presença de sacarose no meio de cultivo foi indispensável para multiplicação e enraizamento das brotações, sendo necessário ajuste da concentração para cada fonte de luz. Os LEDs vermelhos não proporcionaram a maior taxa de multiplicação, porém esta foi bastante alta (8,5 brotos por subcultivo, com adição de 34,9g L-1 de sacarose), com maior comprimento dos brotos (33,3mm) e maior eficiência de aclimatização das plantas. Concluiu-se que os LEDs podem ser utilizados como substitutos das lâmpadas fluorescentes em laboratórios de micropropagação de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) instead of white fluorescent lamps as light source and adequate growth-medium sucrose concentration for sugarcane micropropagation (Saccharum officinarum L.). Sugarcane (RB 872552 variety) bud explants were evaluated du [...] ring the multiplication and rooting phases under controlled growth-room conditions. Different light sources (blue, red and green LEDs; Growlux and white fluorescent lamps) and different medium sucrose concentrations (0; 15; 30 and 45g L-1) were used, maintaining constant light intensity (20µmol m-2 s-1), photoperiod (16h) and temperature (25+2°C). The experiment was a completely randomized design, and treatments were arranged in a 5x4 factorial (five light sources and four medium sucrose concentrations) with six replications. Sugarcane bud growth was satisfactory under the three LED types studied. The presence of sucrose in growth media was essential for bud multiplication and rooting. Nevertheless, each light source requires the respective medium sucrose concentration adjustment for best results. Red LEDs provided a significantly high multiplication rate (although not the highest) with 8.5 buds per sub-culture and 34.9g L-1 of sucrose; also, the highest bud length (33.3mm) and the best plantlet acclimatization. Therefore, LED sources can advantageously substitute fluorescent lamps in laboratories of sugarcane micropropagation.

  16. Status of the Pythiaceae (Straminipila) in Argentina: I. The GenusPythium / Status de la familia Pythiaceae (Reino Straminipila) en Argentina: I. El género Pythium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hemilse E, Palmucci; Silvia M, Wolcan; Pablo E, Grijalba.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes-ex Oomycetes), Straminipila) incluye patógenos que afectan hospedantes de importancia económica, ocasionando damping off en pre y postemergencia de plántulas de almácigo y el declinamiento de plantas herbáceas y adultas por destrucción de las raíces [...] absorbentes. Con la finalidad de conocer el estado actual de la información disponible sobre este género en Argentina, se llevó a cabo una revisión desde los primeros reportes a fines del siglo XIX hasta octubre de 2009. Se consultaron fuentes primarias y secundarias de información escrita y electrónica: presentaciones en congresos nacionales e internacionales, publicaciones periódicas nacionales e internacionales, boletines de instituciones y universidades, libros y bases de datos. La información obtenida fue categorizada y analizada permitiendo conocer el número de especies de este género, su distribución geográfica y por tipo de cultivos, relaciones hospedante-patógeno involucradas y la sintomatología observada. Se encuentran citadas 18 especies que afectan a 247 hospedantes. Un elevado número de hospedantes fueron afectados por P. ultimum y P. debaryanum, seguidos por P. irregulare y P. aphanidermatum. La diversidad de especies de Pythium en el mundo sugiere que un mayor número de especies podrían estar presentes en el país, siendo necesario su relevamiento e identificación. Abstract in english The genus Pythium (Pythiaceae (Peronosporomycetes - ex Oomycetes), Kingdom Straminipila) includes important pathogens, affecting a wide range of hosts of economic value, causing damping-off and decline of herbaceous and wooded plants due to rootlets rot. In order to acquire a more comprehensive visi [...] on of Pythium in Argentina, a review and an updated report of recent progress in this matter was carried out since the first reports in the late XIX century till October 2009. Information was taken from printed and on line primary and secondary sources such as Proceedings of national and international Scientific Meetings, Bulletins from National Institutions and Universities, periodical Journals, books and data bases. The information was analyzed and categorized, thus updating the number of species of this genus, their geographical distribution, hosts affected, and symptoms. So far 18 species have been cited affecting, 247 hosts. The greatest number of hosts is affected by P. ultimum and P. debaryanum, followed by P. irregulare and P. aphanidermatum. The diversity of Pythium species in the world suggests that perhaps a wider variety of species, still not cited, could be present in Argentina. Projects dedicated to surveying the presence and identification of Pythium spp are necessary.

  17. The antibiotic activity and mechanisms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse extract against food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-10-15

    Sugarcane bagasse contains natural compositions that can significantly inhibit food-borne pathogens growth. In the present study, the phenolic content in sugarcane bagasse was detected as higher than 4mg/g dry bagasse, with 470mg quercetin/g polyphenol. The sugarcane bagasse extract showed bacteriostatic activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salomonella typhimurium. Additionally, the sugarcane bagasse extract can increase the electric conductivity of bacterial cell suspensions causing cellular leaking of electrolytes. Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested the antibacterial mechanism was probably due to the damaged cellular proteins by sugarcane bagasse extract. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the sugarcane bagasse extract might change cell morphology and internal structure. PMID:25952848

  18. Crescimento e acúmulo de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em solo coberto com palhada Growth and accumulation of nitrogen by sugarcane cultivated in soil covered with cane trash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber José de Castro Gava

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a utilização do nitrogênio da uréia e a influência da palhada na produtividade de soqueira de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi instalado no campo, num solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo no Município de Piracicaba, SP, com dois tratamentos: mistura de vinhaça e uréia aplicada em toda a área sobre o solo coberto com palhada; uréia enterrada em sulcos nos dois lados das linhas da cana-de-açúcar, com prévia aplicação de vinhaça sobre o solo sem palhada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas comparações de produtividade da cultura, do acúmulo de N pela parte aérea, da utilização do N da uréia pela cultura ao final do ciclo. O desenvolvimento vegetal foi representado por curvas de acúmulo de massa de material seco e pelos índices fisiológicos de taxa de produção de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento relativo, que foram semelhantes nas condições, com ou sem a presença da palhada de cana-de-açúcar. Do N total acumulado na parte aérea da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar, 10 a 16% foram absorvidos do fertilizante. A eficiência de utilização do N da uréia pela soqueira de cana foi em média de 17%, e não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of nitrogen from urea and the influence of the cane trash in the productivity of sugarcane ratoon. It was a field experiment, in a ustalfs soil, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, in October 1997, with two treatments: application of a vinasse-urea mixture in the total area of a soil covered with cane trash; and urea buried in furrows in both sides of the cane rows, with previous application of vinasse in a soil without cane trash. A randomized block design with four replications was used. Parameters of crop productivity accumulation of N by the top and use of urea N by the crop were evaluated in each treatment. Plant development was represented by a dry matter mass accumulation and by physiological indexes of dry matter production rate and relative growth rate, which were similar in both conditions, with and without cane trash. From the total N accumulated in the top of the sugarcane ratoon, 10-16% was absorbed from the fertilizer. The mean efficiency of the use of urea N by the sugarcane ratoon was 17%.

  19. Effect of substrates and plant growth promoting bacteria in the germination of sugarcane seeds / Efeito de substratos e bactérias promotoras do crescimento vegetal na germinação de sementes de cana-de-açúcar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme Grodzki O., Figueiredo; Valéria Rosa, Lopes; João Carlos, B. Filho; Edelclaiton, Daros.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi testar diferentes substratos e a inoculação com bactérias promotoras do crescimento vegetal (BPCV) na germinação de sementes de cana-de-açúcar. Os susbtratos foram areia, vermiculita e Plantmax®. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 2x3, com 4 r [...] epetições. Foram estimados os parâmetros índice de velocidade de germinação, dias para emergência, e aos 30 dias após a semeadura os parâmetros: altura das plântulas (cm), volume das raízes (cm³), comprimento das raízes (cm) e o número de plântulas germinadas. A aplicação de BPCV promoveu o crescimento das plântulas, principalmente das raízes. O Plantmax® apresentou as melhores condições para o desenvolvimento das plântulas e para a germinação. Na vermiculita o desenvolvimento das plântulas foi limitado. Na areia não houve resposta à aplicação de BPCV. Recomenda-se a utilização do substrato Plantmax® e a aplicação de BPCV na germinação de sementes de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to test different substrates with Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) inoculation on sugarcane seed germination. The substrates were sand, vermiculite and Plantmax®. The completely randomized factorial design 2x3, with 4 repetitions was used. The parameters estimated were [...] speed of germination index, days for emergence, and 30 days after sowing the parameters: height of seedlings (cm), volume of roots (cm³), length of roots (cm), and the number of germinated plants. The application of PGPB promoted better development of seedlings, mainly roots. The Plantmax® presented the better conditions for germination and seedling development. Vermiculite had the worst results. No response to PGPB was observed in the sand. The use of Plantmax® and PGPB in germination of sugarcane seeds is recommended.

  20. Molecular and genetic aspects of controlling the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubara, Patricia A; Dickman, Martin B; Blechl, Ann E

    2014-11-01

    The soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium infect a wide range of crops in the US and worldwide. These pathogens pose challenges to growers because the diseases they cause are not adequately controlled by fungicides, rotation or, for many hosts, natural genetic resistance. Although a combination of management practices are likely to be required for control of Rhizoctonia and Pythium, genetic resistance remains a key missing component. This review discusses the recent deployment of introduced genes and genome-based information for control of Rhizoctonia, with emphasis on three pathosystems: Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and wheat, R. solani AG1-IA and rice, and R. solani AG3 or AG4 and potato. Molecular mechanisms underlying disease suppression will be addressed, if appropriate. Although less is known about genes and factors suppressive to Pythium, pathogen genomics and biological control studies are providing useful leads to effectors and antifungal factors. Prospects for resistance to Rhizoctonia and Pythium spp. will continue to improve with growing knowledge of pathogenicity strategies, host defense gene action relative to the pathogen infection process, and the role of environmental factors on pathogen-host interactions. PMID:25438786

  1. Molecular Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Pythium insidiosum Infection by Use of PCR Screening and DNA Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Salipante, Stephen J.; Hoogestraat, Daniel R.; Sengupta, Dhruba J.; Murphey, Donald; Panayides, Kyriacos; Hamilton, Emma; Castan?eda-sa?nchez, Irene; Kennedy, Jason; Monsaas, Peter W.; Mendoza, Leonel; Stephens, Karen; Dunn, James J.; Cookson, Brad T.

    2012-01-01

    Pythium insidiosum is an emerging human pathogen classified among brown algae and diatoms that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in otherwise healthy individuals. Here we describe a pediatric patient with pythiosis acquired in the southern United States, diagnosed by molecular screening and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region 1.

  2. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and <2% ash content. The results show that it is possible to develop a nonfeed application for rendered animal protein by hydrolysis of the protein and feeding to industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds. PMID:22010831

  3. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  4. Surface motility in Pseudomonas sp DSS73 is required for efficient biological containment of the root-pathogenic microfungi Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Koch, Birgit

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. DSS73 was isolated from the rhizoplane of sugar beet seedlings. This strain exhibits antagonism towards the root-pathogenic microfungi Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Production of the cyclic lipopeptide amphisin in combination with expression of flagella enables the growing bacterial culture to move readily over the surface of laboratory media. Amphisin is a new member of a group of dual-functioning compounds such as tensin, viscosin and viscosinamid that display both biosurfactant and antifungal properties. The ability of DSS73 to efficiently contain root-pathogenic microfungi is shown to arise from amphisin-dependent surface translocation and growth by which the bacterium can lay siege to the fungi. The synergistic effects of surface motility and synthesis of a battery of antifungal compounds efficiently contain and terminate growth of the microfungi.

  5. Produtividade e qualidade tecnológica da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar submetida à aplicação de biorregulador e fertilizantes líquidos Productivity and technological quality of sugarcane ratoon subject to the application of plant growth regulator and liquid fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a aplicação de biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos, na rebrota e na produtividade da soqueira de cinco genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Município de Jaú, São Paulo (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x5, constituído por cinco genótipos (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 e IACSP93-6006 e cinco tratamentos com biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos (Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1 + Cellerate® a 0,5L ha-1; Etefon a 3,0L ha-1 e Testemunha, com quatro repetições. A aplicação dos produtos ocorreu 70 dias após a quarta colheita. Foram avaliados: perfilhamento, produtividade de colmos industrializáveis e de açúcar, fibra, pol % cana e açúcar total recuperável. O etefon proporcionou melhor perfilhamento, mas a resposta foi dependente do genótipo. O maior número de perfilhos promovido pelo etefon não refletiu em maior produtividade. A aplicação de Stimulate® e fertilizantes líquidos não proporcionou efeitos na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar. Houve aumento da produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, independente do genótipo, com o emprego do biorregulador Stimulate®, com ou sem complementação de fertilizante líquido, indicando a possibilidade do aumento da longevidade da cana-de-açúcar.The present work aimed to evaluate the application of plant growth regulators, associate or not to liquid fertilizers, on the ratoon sprouting and productivity of sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú city (SP, in a Eutroferric Red Latosol. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with factorial treatment structure 5x5, constituted by five genotypes (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 and IACSP93-6006 and five plant growth regulators treatments associated or not to liquid fertilizers (Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1, + Cellerate®, 0,5L ha-1; Ethephon, 3,0L ha-1, and control, with four replicates. The application of the products occurred at 70 days after the fourth crop harvest. The attributes tillering, stalk productivity, sugar productivity, fiber, pol % cane and total sugar recoverable were evaluated. Ethephon provided better tillering, but this response was dependent of the genotype. The highest tiller number caused by Ethephon did not mean the highest productivity. The application of Stimulate® and liquid fertilizers did not provide effects on the sugarcane technological quality. There was increase of cane productivity and sugar productivity with the use of plant growth regulator Stimulate® for all genotypes, with or without supplementation of liquid fertilizer, being an indicative for increasing the sugarcane longevity.

  6. Produtividade e qualidade tecnológica da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar submetida à aplicação de biorregulador e fertilizantes líquidos / Productivity and technological quality of sugarcane ratoon subject to the application of plant growth regulator and liquid fertilizers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; Stella Consorte, Cato; Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura, Costa.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a aplicação de biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos, na rebrota e na produtividade da soqueira de cinco genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Município de Jaú, São Paulo (SP), num Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico. U [...] tilizou-se o delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x5, constituído por cinco genótipos (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 e IACSP93-6006) e cinco tratamentos com biorreguladores, associados ou não a fertilizantes líquidos (Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate® a 0,5L ha-1 + Starter N® a 3,0L ha-1 + Cellerate® a 0,5L ha-1; Etefon a 3,0L ha-1 e Testemunha), com quatro repetições. A aplicação dos produtos ocorreu 70 dias após a quarta colheita. Foram avaliados: perfilhamento, produtividade de colmos industrializáveis e de açúcar, fibra, pol % cana e açúcar total recuperável. O etefon proporcionou melhor perfilhamento, mas a resposta foi dependente do genótipo. O maior número de perfilhos promovido pelo etefon não refletiu em maior produtividade. A aplicação de Stimulate® e fertilizantes líquidos não proporcionou efeitos na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar. Houve aumento da produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, independente do genótipo, com o emprego do biorregulador Stimulate®, com ou sem complementação de fertilizante líquido, indicando a possibilidade do aumento da longevidade da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The present work aimed to evaluate the application of plant growth regulators, associate or not to liquid fertilizers, on the ratoon sprouting and productivity of sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú city (SP), in a Eutroferric Red Latosol. The experimental design was in rand [...] omized complete blocks with factorial treatment structure 5x5, constituted by five genotypes (IAC87-3396, IAC91-2218, IAC91-4216, IAC91-5155 and IACSP93-6006) and five plant growth regulators treatments associated or not to liquid fertilizers (Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1; Stimulate®, 0,5L ha-1, + Starter N®, 3,0L ha-1, + Cellerate®, 0,5L ha-1; Ethephon, 3,0L ha-1, and control), with four replicates. The application of the products occurred at 70 days after the fourth crop harvest. The attributes tillering, stalk productivity, sugar productivity, fiber, pol % cane and total sugar recoverable were evaluated. Ethephon provided better tillering, but this response was dependent of the genotype. The highest tiller number caused by Ethephon did not mean the highest productivity. The application of Stimulate® and liquid fertilizers did not provide effects on the sugarcane technological quality. There was increase of cane productivity and sugar productivity with the use of plant growth regulator Stimulate® for all genotypes, with or without supplementation of liquid fertilizer, being an indicative for increasing the sugarcane longevity.

  7. Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício dos Santos Simões

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT, yield (TSS, leaf area index (LAI, and number of plants per linear meter (NPM correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2 window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS. No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3 was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT, produtividade (TSS, índice de área foliar (LAI e número de plantas por metro (NPM por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma área comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronômicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados médios do talhão (DMt. Regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de índices de vegetação. As correlações e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variáveis agronômicas não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Os modelos quadráticos e cúbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variáveis espectrais, em função dos dias após o corte e apresentaram significância com os índices de vegetação da razão e por diferença normalizada (NDVI. As correlações entre os dados espectrais médios do talhão e as variáveis agronômicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados médios do talhão (DMt, para primeira safra (1ªS, para a segunda safra (2ªS e ambas juntas geraram regressões múltiplas, com coeficientes determinação (r² variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar.

  8. Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield / Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dados de satélites são tradicionalmente utilizados em monitoramento de culturas. O presente trabalho busca contribuir no entendimento da evolução temporal de indicadores de crescimento da cana-de-açúcar como a biomassa total (BMT), produtividade (TSS), índice de área foliar (LAI) e número de plantas [...] por metro (NPM) por meio de dados orbitais dos satélites Landsat 5 e 7, e verificar o seu potencial para o monitoramento desta. Durante as safras 2000 e 2001, uma área comercial em Araras, SP, cultivada com a variedade SP80-1842 no 4º e 5º cortes, foi acompanhada por imagens, buscando-se correlacionar dados espectrais com dados agronômicos. Os dados espectrais foram coletados de duas formas: uma com janelas de quatro pixels e outra com dados médios do talhão (DMt). Regressão linear e múltipla foram usadas para a análise temporal das bandas 3 e 4 e de índices de vegetação. As correlações e ajuste de modelos entre os dados espectrais orbitais e as variáveis agronômicas não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Os modelos quadráticos e cúbicos melhor descreveram o desenvolvimento temporal das variáveis espectrais, em função dos dias após o corte e apresentaram significância com os índices de vegetação da razão e por diferença normalizada (NDVI). As correlações entre os dados espectrais médios do talhão e as variáveis agronômicas foram significativas para banda3 e LAI, e entre NDVI e TSS/BMT. Os dados médios do talhão (DMt), para primeira safra (1ªS), para a segunda safra (2ªS) e ambas juntas geraram regressões múltiplas, com coeficientes determinação (r²) variando de 0,68 a 0,97 para a TSS e a BMT, mostrando que os dados espectrais orbitais estudados podem ser empregados no monitoramento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT), yield (TSS), leaf area index (LAI), and number of plants per line [...] ar meter (NPM) correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety in the 4th and 5th cuts, was monitored using nine Landsat images. Spectral data were correlated with agronomic data, obtained simultaneously to the imagery acquisition. Two methodologies were used to collect spectral data from the images: four pixels (2 × 2) window and average of total pixels in the field. Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to study the spectral behavior of the plants and to correlate with agronomic variables (days after harvest-DAC, LAI, NPM, BMT and TSS). No difference was observed between the methodologies to collect spectral data. The best models to describe the spectral crop development in relation to DAC were the quadratic and cubic models. Ratio vegetation index and normalized difference vegetation index demonstrated correlation with DAC, band 3 (B3) was correlated with LAI, and NDVI was well correlated with TSS and BMT. The best fit curves to estimate TSS and BMT presented r² between 0.68 and 0.97, suggesting good potential in using orbital spectral data to monitor sugarcane fields.

  9. Avaliação do efeito do estresse hídrico no crescimento de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar usando um sistema automático de fertirrigação / Evaluation of the water stress effect on the growth of sugarcane cultivars using an automatic fertigation system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EVANDRO L. DA S., BATISTA; SÉRGIO, ZOLNIER; ARISTIDES, RIBEIRO; GUSTAVO B., LYRA; THIERES G. F., SILVA; DAVI, BOEHRINGER.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de estresse hídrico no crescimento das cultivares RB92579, RB855453, RB867515 e RB928064, utilizando um sistema automático de controle dos eventos de fertirrigação, durante o período de formação da cana-de- -açúcar. No período e [...] xperimental, as plantas foram submetidas a períodos alternados de estresse e de reposição hídrica, por meio de fertirrigações periódicas, cujos limites do potencial matricial de água (Y) foram aqui denominados, para propósitos comparativos, como ausência de estresse, estresse leve, moderado e severo, respectivamente, para os valores críticos de Y de ?10, ?60, ?90 e ?120 kPa. Para avaliação do efeito do estresse hídrico no crescimento da cana-de-açúcar, foi utilizado o modelo sigmoidal com três parâmetros, tendo graus-dia acumulados como variável independente, o qual demonstrou excelente ajuste aos dados de estatura dos colmos (R2aj > 0,95). Na ausência de estresse hídrico, os valores máximos da taxa de elongação dos colmos (TEC) estiveram compreendidos entre 0,23 e 0,26 cm°Cd-1, independentemente da cultivar. Por outro lado, sob estresse severo, os valores máximos da TEC estiveram entre 0,07 e 0,09 cm°Cd-1, também independentemente da cultivar avaliada. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to identify the effect of different water stress levels on crop growth of RB92579, RB855453, RB867515 and RB928064 cultivars, by using an automatic system to control fertigation events, during the sugarcane formative phase. In the experimental period, plants were s [...] ubjected to alternate periods of stress and water supply, by means of periodic fertigations, whose limits of the water matric potential (Y) were denoted, for comparison purposes, as absence of water stress and mild, moderate and severe water stress, respectively for critical Y values of ?10, ?60, ?90 and ?120 kPa. For evaluation of the water stress effect on the sugarcane growth, it was utilized the sigmoid model with three parameters and degree-days as independent variable, which demonstrated excellent adjust to stalk length (R2aj > 0.95). Under the absence of water stress, the maximum values of the stalk elongation rate (SER) ranged from 0.23 to 0.26 cm°Cd-1, regardless of the cultivar. In contrast, under severe water stress, the maximum SER values were between 0.07 and 0.09 cm°Cd-1, also regardless of the evaluated cultivar.

  10. Comparación del efecto de osmorreguladores e inhibidores del crecimiento en la conservación in vitro de caña de azúcar / Comparison of effect of osmoregulators and growth inhibitors on in vitro conservation of sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jericó, Bello-Bello; Wilberth, Poot-Poot; Lourdes, Iglesias-Andreu; Humberto, Caamal-Velázquez; María, de la Cruz Diaz-Sanchez.

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de conservación in vitro son una alternativa para preservar el germoplasma de la caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp.) y el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de los osmorreguladores manitol y sorbitol (0, 15, 30 y 45 g L-1) y los inhibidores del crecimiento vegetal ácido abscísic [...] o (ABA) y paclobutrazol (PAC) (0, 1, 2 y 3 mg L-1) sobre el crecimiento in vitro de caña de azúcar. Para ello se usaron brotes in vitro de 2 cm de altura de la variedad Mex-69-290 obtenidos en fase de multiplicación y en todos los casos se empleó el medio MS (Murashige y Skoog). El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con 10 explantes por tratamiento, con los datos se realizó un análisis de varianza (ANDEVA) y una comparación de medias con la prueba de Tukey (p?0.05). A los 180 d de cultivo se evaluó el porcentaje de supervivencia, el número y longitud de los brotes, número de hojas, número y longitud de las raíces. El análisis de los resultados mostró que el aumento en las concentraciones de los osmoreguladores causó una reducción dependiente de la concentración en todas las variables evaluadas. Para los inhibidores, los tratamientos con PAC mantuvieron 100 % de supervivencia, promoviendo el número de brotes por explante. Esto contrastó con los tratamientos con ABA donde disminuyeron las variables evaluadas. La reducción en altura y presencia de brotes axilares observada en los tratamientos con PAC sería de interés para la conservación in vitro, y se concluye que el uso de PAC puede ser una nueva alternativa para la conservación in vitro del germoplasma de esta especie. Abstract in english In vitro conservation systems are an option for preserving sugarcane germplasm (Saccharum sp.). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the osmoregulators manitol and sorbitol (0, 15, 30 and 45 g L-1) and the plant growth inhibitors abscisic acid (ABA) and paclobutrazol (PAC) (0, 1, [...] 2 and 3 mg L-1) on in vitro growth of sugarcane. The plants used were 2 cm tall in vitro shoots of the variety Mex-69-290 obtained in the multiplication phase. In all cases MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium was used. The experimental design was completely random with 10 explants per treatment. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were compared with the Tukey test (p? 0.05). After 180 d of culture, survival percentage, number and length of the shoots, number of leaves, and number and length of roots were assessed. Analysis of the results showed that an increase in concentrations of osmoregulators produced a decrease in all of the variables assessed. For the inhibitors, the PAC treatments maintained 100 % survival and promoted more shoots per explant. This contrasted with the ABA treatments in which the assessed variables decreased. Reduction in height and presence of axillary shoots observed in treatments with PAC may be of interest for in vitro conservation, and, it is concluded that the use of PAC would be a new option for in vitro conservation of sugarcane germplasm.

  11. Antagonism of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (a sugarcane endosymbiont) against Xanthomonas albilineans (pathogen) studied in alginate-immobilized sugarcane stalk tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Yolanda; Blanch, María; Piñón, Dolores; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    Xanthomonas albilineans, a pathogenic bacterium that produces leaf scald disease of sugarcane, secretes a xanthan-like gum that invades both xylem and phloem of the host. Xanthan production has been verified after experimental infection of stalk segments of healthy plants. Moreover, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of sugarcane plants that antagonizes with X. albilineans by impeding the production of the bacterial gum. The physiological basis of this antagonism has been studied using tissues of sugarcane stalks previously inoculated with the endosymbiont, then immobilized in calcium alginate and maintained in a culture medium for Gluconacetobacter. Under these conditions, bacteria infecting immobilized tissues are able to secrete to the medium a lysozyme-like bacteriocin that inhibits the growth of X. albilineans. PMID:16233803

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  13. Sugarcane: A versatile energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is shown to be viable given the same, economic environment as other energy sources. Sugarcane is shown to be the most economic and versatile biomass feedstock at present. The Brazilian national program has proved that gasoline may be substituted and biomass offers a viable alternative to fossil fuel if rationalization of production, distribution and pricing is implemented. A major step towards feasibility of the sugarcane alternative would be the commercialization of bagasse, preferably as a fuel for generating surplus chemical energy. The efficient use of sugarcane as an energy feedstock offers the possibility of very considerable reductions in (net) greenhouse gas emissions as compared to petroleum derivative fuels

  14. Solarização do solo e incorporação de fontes de matéria orgânica no controle de Pythium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghini Raquel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da solarização do solo, associada à incorporação de lodo de esgoto, cama-de-frango e casca de Pinus, no controle de Pythium spp. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios, um em área cultivada comercialmente com crisântemo e outro em área artificialmente infestada com Pythium spp. em cultivo de pepino. A adição de cama-de-frango induziu a supressividade do solo ao patógeno, visto que resultou em maiores temperaturas no solo solarizado, aumento na condutividade elétrica e maior atividade microbiana do solo, avaliada pela hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceína e desprendimento de CO2. Por outro lado, o lodo de esgoto e a casca de Pinus não induziram a supressividade ao patógeno. A solarização não teve efeito no crescimento da parte aérea e no peso de matéria fresca de raízes de plantas de crisântemo, mas teve efeito significativo no controle do patógeno no ensaio conduzido com pepino.

  15. Towards the response of water balance to sugarcane expansion in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F. F.; Tursunov, M.; Uvo, C. B.

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the short-, medium- and long-term impacts of expansion of the sugarcane plantation on the water balance of the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil, as estimated by changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture content and surface runoff calculated by a hydrological model. Twenty years of simulation are made using three different land use scenarios that include the basin area planted with sugarcane in 1993, 2000 and 2007 as estimated from satellite images. Complementary, it is used a scenario for sugarcane plantation defined by the Brazilian Institute for Agricultural Research (EMPRAPA) as all areas suitable for sugarcane cultivation within the Rio Grande Basin. In addition, parameters for sugarcane fields were specifically defined via calibration and validation of the hydrological model for all growth phases based on the annual cycle of sugarcane phenology in the Rio Grande Basin. According to results from the land use classification of satellite images, the expansion of sugarcane fields mostly replaced pasture lands. Modelling results for short-, medium- and long-term clarify that impacts of this expansion depended not only on the amount of areas planted with sugarcane, but also the type of land use replaced, location of the expansion within the basin and regional soil properties. Largest impacts on the water balance are observed if areas located close to headwaters with low soil water capacity are planted with sugarcane. In case all areas suitable for sugarcane plantation, as defined by EMBRAPA will actually be planted, simulations showed that the annual accumulated values of evapotranspiration increase up to 180% while surface runoff is reduced to 20% of the values calculated using a land use scenario from 1993.

  16. Evaluation for the Clinical Diagnosis of Pythium insidiosum Using a Single-Tube Nested PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Thongsri, Yordhathai; Wonglakorn, Lumyai; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Svobodova, Lucie; Hamal, Petr; Pakarasang, Maitree; Prariyachatigul, Chularut

    2013-01-01

    Pythiosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, which typically occurs in tropical and subtropical regions. The high mortality rate may be in consequence of the lack of diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate reliability of a new single-tube nested PCR for detection of P. insidiosum DNA. A total of 78 clinical isolates of various fungi and bacteria, 106 clinical specimens and 80 simulated positive blood samples were tested. The developed primer pairs CPL6?...

  17. Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois reguladores vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte.The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulators, applied before the harvest, in the stool regrowth and productivity of three sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú (SP. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in split-plot, with four repetitions, constituted by the genotypes IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 and IAC91-5155, and by three crop management: 20 g ha-1 sulfomethuron-methyl; 480 g a.i. ha-1 ethephon and control. The growth regulators were applied 126 days before harvest. To quantify the action of growth regulators the following variables were evaluated: the number of tillers m-1 at 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 days after the harvest; the final percentage of stalk number by meter in relation to the initial percentage; the mass of 10 stalks, the length and the diameter of stalks; the pol and the fiber% cane, the reducing and total recoverable sugars, and the productivity of stalks and sugar. It was concluded that there was stimulating effect on the emergency of tillering up to six months after the harvest. The ethephon promoted larger productivities of stalks and sugar. There were differences among genotypes in relation to growth regulators for stalk length. There was no effect on the technological quality over the subsequent ratoon crop.

  18. Uso de reguladores de crescimento como potencializadores do perfilhamento e da produtividade em cana-soca / Use of plant growth regulators as improvers of tillering and of productivity in sugarcane ratoon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo de Almeida, Silva; Glauber José de Castro, Gava; Marina Maitto, Caputo; Renata Passos, Pincelli; Elisangela Marques, Jerônimo; Juliana Cristina Sodário, Cruz.

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento como indutores da maturação em cana-de-açúcar tem sido uma prática agrícola com resultados bem solidificados. Entretanto, o efeito residual desses compostos na cana-soca seguinte é pouco estudado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o efeito residual de dois regulador [...] es vegetais, aplicados antes da colheita, na brotação da cana-soca e na produtividade de três genótipos de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi realizado na região de Jaú (SP). O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, constituído pela combinação dos genótipos IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 e IAC91-5155, e de três formas de manejos da cultura: sulfometuron-metil, 20 g ha-1; etefon, 480 g i.a. ha-1 e testemunha. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais ocorreu 126 dias antes do corte das touceiras. Foram realizadas avaliações para quantificar o número de perfilhos m-1 aos 0, 90, 180, 270 e 360 dias após o corte; a porcentagem de colmos por metro final em relação à inicial; a massa de 10 colmos, o comprimento e o diâmetro médios dos colmos; a pol e a fibra % cana, os açúcares redutores e total recuperável, e a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar. Concluiu-se que houve efeito estimulante na emergência do perfilhamento até seis meses após o corte. O etefon promoveu maiores produtividades de colmos e de açúcar. Houve diferenças entre genótipos quanto à resposta do comprimento de colmos na cana-soca em relação aos reguladores vegetais. Não houve efeito sobre a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar na cana-soca seguinte. Abstract in english The use of plant growth regulators as ripeners in sugarcane has been an agronomic practice with well solidified results. However, the residual effect of these products over the next ratoon is still not very well studied. This research aimed to evaluate the residual effect of two plant growth regulat [...] ors, applied before the harvest, in the stool regrowth and productivity of three sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was carried out near Jaú (SP). The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in split-plot, with four repetitions, constituted by the genotypes IAC87-3396, IAC91-2195 and IAC91-5155, and by three crop management: 20 g ha-1 sulfomethuron-methyl; 480 g a.i. ha-1 ethephon and control. The growth regulators were applied 126 days before harvest. To quantify the action of growth regulators the following variables were evaluated: the number of tillers m-1 at 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 days after the harvest; the final percentage of stalk number by meter in relation to the initial percentage; the mass of 10 stalks, the length and the diameter of stalks; the pol and the fiber% cane, the reducing and total recoverable sugars, and the productivity of stalks and sugar. It was concluded that there was stimulating effect on the emergency of tillering up to six months after the harvest. The ethephon promoted larger productivities of stalks and sugar. There were differences among genotypes in relation to growth regulators for stalk length. There was no effect on the technological quality over the subsequent ratoon crop.

  19. Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício dos Santos Simões

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic parameters such as leaf area index (LAI, number of stalks per meter (NPM, yield (TSS and total biomass (BMT. A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4, Simple Ratio (SR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC. After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3 and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79 with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variáveis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF, número de perfilhos por metro (NPM, produtividade (TCH e biomassa total (BMT. Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talhão comercial, localizada no município de Araras/SP foi monitorado em nove campanhas de coleta de dados radiométricos e agronômicos. O comportamento temporal das variáveis espectrais acompanhou o comportamento das variáveis agronômicas. A banda 4 (B4, o índice de vegetação da razão simples (SR, o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI e o índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo (SAVI aumentaram seus valores até o fim da fase de crescimento vegetativo, aproximadamente até os 240 dias após o corte, a partir do qual os valores se estabilizaram e diminuíram em função da entrada da cultura na fase de maturação. A banda 3 (B3 e o índice de vegetação da razão (RVI tiveram queda em seus valores desde o início do ciclo, com posterior estabilização e aumento em seus valores devido ao aumento da quantidade de palha e da queda da biomassa foliar. As variáveis espectrais B3, RVI, NDVI e SAVI tiveram correlações maiores que 0,79 com as variáveis IAF e BMT e de aproximadamente 0,50 com o NPM. Os melhores modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram os com RVI, IAF e NPM e explicaram 0,97 da variação da TCH e 0,99 da BMT.

  20. Spectral variables, growth analysis and yield of sugarcane / Variáveis espectrais e indicadores de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício dos Santos, Simões; Jansle Vieira, Rocha; Rubens Augusto Camargo, Lamparelli.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A informação espectral tem boa relação com variáveis agronômicas e pode contribuir com informações para o monitoramento, acompanhamento e previsão de safras. O presente trabalho descreve a análise multitemporal do comportamento espectral da variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP80-1842 e a relação com variá [...] veis agronômicas como índice de área foliar (IAF), número de perfilhos por metro (NPM), produtividade (TCH) e biomassa total (BMT). Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, um talhão comercial, localizada no município de Araras/SP foi monitorado em nove campanhas de coleta de dados radiométricos e agronômicos. O comportamento temporal das variáveis espectrais acompanhou o comportamento das variáveis agronômicas. A banda 4 (B4), o índice de vegetação da razão simples (SR), o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI) e o índice de vegetação ajustado ao solo (SAVI) aumentaram seus valores até o fim da fase de crescimento vegetativo, aproximadamente até os 240 dias após o corte, a partir do qual os valores se estabilizaram e diminuíram em função da entrada da cultura na fase de maturação. A banda 3 (B3) e o índice de vegetação da razão (RVI) tiveram queda em seus valores desde o início do ciclo, com posterior estabilização e aumento em seus valores devido ao aumento da quantidade de palha e da queda da biomassa foliar. As variáveis espectrais B3, RVI, NDVI e SAVI tiveram correlações maiores que 0,79 com as variáveis IAF e BMT e de aproximadamente 0,50 com o NPM. Os melhores modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram os com RVI, IAF e NPM e explicaram 0,97 da variação da TCH e 0,99 da BMT. Abstract in english Spectral information is well related with agronomic variables and can be used in crop monitoring and yield forecasting. This paper describes a multitemporal research with the sugarcane variety SP80-1842, studying its spectral behavior using field spectroscopy and its relationship with agronomic para [...] meters such as leaf area index (LAI), number of stalks per meter (NPM), yield (TSS) and total biomass (BMT). A commercial sugarcane field in Araras/SP/Brazil was monitored for two seasons. Radiometric data and agronomic characterization were gathered in 9 field campaigns. Spectral vegetation indices had similar patterns in both seasons and adjusted to agronomic parameters. Band 4 (B4), Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) increased their values until the end of the vegetative stage, around 240 days after harvest (DAC). After that stage, B4 reflectance and NDVI values began to stabilize and decrease because the crop reached ripening and senescence stages. Band 3 (B3) and RVI presented decreased values since the beginning of the cycle, followed by a stabilization stage. Later these values had a slight increase caused by the lower amount of green vegetation. Spectral variables B3, RVI, NDVI, and SAVI were highly correlated (above 0.79) with LAI, TSS, and BMT, and about 0.50 with NPM. The best regression models were verified for RVI, LAI, and NPM, which explained 0.97 of TSS variation and 0.99 of BMT variation.

  1. Pythium insidiosum: relato do primeiro caso de infecção humana no Brasil Pythium insidiosum: report of the first case of human infection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose é causada por microorganismo aquático, fungo-símile, o Pythium insidiosum, patógeno de homens e animais. Observou-se um paciente com úlcera fagedênica no membro inferior, com exame anatomopatológico sugestivo de zigomicose, pouco sensível à terapêutica antifúngica, obtendo-se cura por meio de ampla exérese. A comprovação etiológica resultou de métodos moleculares, com amplificação e seqüenciamento de DNA de organismo isolado em ágar Sabouraud, observando-se 100% de analogia com seqüências de P. insidiosum depositadas no GenBank.Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism, Pythium insidiosum, pathogenic to men and animals. A patient with a phagedenic ulcer on the leg is reported. Histopathological examination was suggestive of zygomycosis, response to antifungal drugs was poor and cure was obtained by means of wide surgical excision. Etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing of colonies isolated in Sabouraud agar. After BLAST analysis, the sequence showed 100% identity with those of P. insidiosum deposited on the GenBank.

  2. Converting developing and mature sugarcane carbohydrates into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolz, Carlos; De Leon, Roberto [Biochemical Engineering Center, Research Institute, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (Guatemala)

    2010-10-15

    Experiments were performed employing cane particles obtained from sugarcane at different growth stages until maturation measuring the amount of ethanol produced and the carbohydrate consumption in order to estimate the sugarcane growth stage where both parameters were optimized. Two non-flowering commercial cane varieties NA56 and PR752002 were cultivated and samples taken at different time intervals. Two Saccharomyces cerevisae strains were also compared in the trials. Sucrose was poorly consumed in young cane, which was an unexpected result. Fructose on the other hand was the hexose that remained in the medium at the end of the fermentations specially when using mature sugarcane. There was an increasing trend in ethanol production as a function of days after planting (DAP) as expected; however, a plateau was reached after 225 DAP and the maximum value obtained was between 300 and 325 DAP. When these figures were compared with the corresponding DAP used for sugar production, only 25 days less were needed in the field for maximum ethanol production. On the other hand, it was clear from the data that cane harvesting for ethanol production should not be done after the recommended DAP for commercial sugar production. If this is done, the excess fructose present will not be completely utilized by yeast. Finally, it was observed that the yeast with more affinity for sugarcane fibers showed better ethanol yields in all samples tested. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from sugarcane wastes for solubilizing phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    A Atekan; Y Nuraini; Handayanto, E.; S Syekhfani

    2014-01-01

    Most of P in agricultural soils is in unavailable forms for plant growth. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria can increase soil P availability. This study was aimed to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from sugarcane waste compost and to test ability of the isolated bacterial to dissolve phosphate. The bacteria were isolated from three types of sugarcane waste, i.e. filter cake compost, bagasse compost, and a mixture of filter cake + bagasse + trash biomass compost. The potential colony was...

  4. Drought Tolerance Conferred to Sugarcane by Association with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: A Transcriptomic View of Hormone Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Lívia; Santa Brígida, Ailton B.; Mota Filho, José P.; de Carvalho, Thais G.; Rojas, Cristian A; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van Bel, Michiel; Farrinelli, Laurent; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Vandepoele, Klaas; Hemerly, Adriana S.

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane interacts with particular types of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide fixed-nitrogen and plant growth hormones to host plants, promoting an increase in plant biomass. Other benefits, as enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses have been reported to some diazotrophs. Here we aim to study the effects of the association between the diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 and sugarcane cv. SP70-1143 during water depletion by characterizing differential transcriptome...

  5. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Elicits a Sugarcane Defense Response Against a Pathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas albilineans

    OpenAIRE

    Arencibia, Ariel D; Vinagre, Fabiano; Estevez, Yandi; Bernal, Aydiloide; Perez, Juana; Cavalcanti, Janaina; Santana, Ignacio; Hemerly, Adriana S.

    2006-01-01

    A new role for the plant growth-promoting nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been identified and characterized while it is involved in the sugarcane-Xanthomonas albilineans pathogenic interactions. Living G.diazotrophicus possess and/or produce elicitor molecules which activate the sugarcane defense response resulting in the plant resistance to X. albilineans, in this particular case controlling the pathogen transmission to emerging agamic shoots. A total...

  6. Pulsed growth of fungal hyphal tips.

    OpenAIRE

    López-Franco, R; Bartnicki-Garcia, S; Bracker, C E

    1994-01-01

    Somatic fungal hyphae are generally assumed to elongate at steady linear rates when grown under constant environmental conditions with ample nutrients. However, patterns of pulsed hyphal elongation were detected during apparent steady growth of hyphal tips in fungi from several major taxonomic groups (Oomycetes, Pythium aphanidermatum and Saprolegnia ferax; Zygomycetes, Gilbertella persicaria; Deuteromycetes, Trichoderma viride; Ascomycetes, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium culmorum; Basidiomyc...

  7. Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar: II. micronutrientes Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane: I. Micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rengel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar la dinámica de acumulación y distribución de micronutrientes en el cultivo de caña de azúcar variedad RB 85-5035, se condujo un estudio en Fundacaña, ubicada en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Se realizaron 10 muestreos de la parte aérea de la planta a través del ciclo de crecimiento. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas, tomadas al azar con una frecuencia mensual, en una superficie de 0,6 m²/cepa, a las cuales se les determinó la concentración de Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B y Mo en tallos y hojas. Las muestras de tejido fueron analizadas por los laboratorios Land Crop en York, Inglaterra. Se determinó que los períodos críticos de absorción de micronutrientes se ubican en la fase vegetativa y en la etapa de maduración del cultivo. Los micronutrientes Fe, Mn, B y Mo se almacenaron en mayor cantidad en el tejido foliar de la planta, mientras que Cu y Zn se acumularon de forma más pronunciada en los tallos a lo largo del ciclo. Los patrones de acumulación mostraron que los requerimientos de micronutrientes fueron: Fe=5241,5 g·ha-1, Cu=121,1 g·ha-1, Zn=875,6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142,4 g·ha-1, B=116,4 g·ha-1 y Mo=33,4 g·ha-1.With the purpose of determining the dynamics of micronutrient accumulation and partitioning of sugarcane var. RB 85-5035, a trial was conducted in Fundacaña, located in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ten samples of the aerial part of the plant were taken through the growing season, and each sample consisted of three stumps, taken at random on a monthly basis in an area of 0.6 m²·cepa-1. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B and Mo on stems and leaves were analyzed by Land Crop Laboratories in York, England. It was determined that the critical periods for micronutrient absorption are found in the vegetative phase and crop ripening. The micronutrients Fe, Mn, B and Mo were stored in greater amounts in the leaf tissue of the plant, while Cu and Zn accumulated more pronounced in the stems during the cycle. The accumulation patterns showed that the crop micronutrient requirements were: Fe=5241.5 g·ha-1, Cu=121.1 g·ha-1, Zn=875.6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142.4 g·ha-1, B=116.4 g·ha-1 and Mo=33.4 g·ha-1.

  8. Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar: II. micronutrientes / Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane: I. Micronutrients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar la dinámica de acumulación y distribución de micronutrientes en el cultivo de caña de azúcar variedad RB 85-5035, se condujo un estudio en Fundacaña, ubicada en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Se realizaron 10 muestreos de la parte aérea de la plan [...] ta a través del ciclo de crecimiento. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas, tomadas al azar con una frecuencia mensual, en una superficie de 0,6 m²/cepa, a las cuales se les determinó la concentración de Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B y Mo en tallos y hojas. Las muestras de tejido fueron analizadas por los laboratorios Land Crop en York, Inglaterra. Se determinó que los períodos críticos de absorción de micronutrientes se ubican en la fase vegetativa y en la etapa de maduración del cultivo. Los micronutrientes Fe, Mn, B y Mo se almacenaron en mayor cantidad en el tejido foliar de la planta, mientras que Cu y Zn se acumularon de forma más pronunciada en los tallos a lo largo del ciclo. Los patrones de acumulación mostraron que los requerimientos de micronutrientes fueron: Fe=5241,5 g·ha-1, Cu=121,1 g·ha-1, Zn=875,6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142,4 g·ha-1, B=116,4 g·ha-1 y Mo=33,4 g·ha-1. Abstract in english With the purpose of determining the dynamics of micronutrient accumulation and partitioning of sugarcane var. RB 85-5035, a trial was conducted in Fundacaña, located in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ten samples of the aerial part of the plant were taken through the growing season, and each sam [...] ple consisted of three stumps, taken at random on a monthly basis in an area of 0.6 m²·cepa-1. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B and Mo on stems and leaves were analyzed by Land Crop Laboratories in York, England. It was determined that the critical periods for micronutrient absorption are found in the vegetative phase and crop ripening. The micronutrients Fe, Mn, B and Mo were stored in greater amounts in the leaf tissue of the plant, while Cu and Zn accumulated more pronounced in the stems during the cycle. The accumulation patterns showed that the crop micronutrient requirements were: Fe=5241.5 g·ha-1, Cu=121.1 g·ha-1, Zn=875.6 g·ha-1, Mn=1142.4 g·ha-1, B=116.4 g·ha-1 and Mo=33.4 g·ha-1.

  9. Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugarcane growth was about 257,000ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 70% were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugarcane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one (100%). In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn++, Cu++) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be largely used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

  10. Physical Properties of Sugarcane Pertaining to the Design of a Whole Stalk Sugarcane Harvester

    OpenAIRE

    Joby Bastian *; , B. Shridar

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane crop plays a vital role in nation’s economy, being one of the most commercialised crops in India. The production cost of sugarcane is increasing year after year which reduces the profit margin of sugarcane growers and sugar industry. Harvesting is one of the key operations responsible for increase in sugarcane production cost. Hence a tractor mounted whole stalk sugarcane harvester suitable for small and medium farmers is highly essential. The physical properties o...

  11. Micosis por Pythium Insidiosum primer caso con diagnóstico definitivo en Colombia / Mycoses for Pythium insidiosum. First case with definitive diagnosis in Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edward Javier, Acero-Mondragón; Daniel Alfonso, Botero Rosas; María Inés, Maldonado Arango.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum es un hongo distribuido globalmente causante de una micosis emergente llamada Pitiosis en personas y animales. El diagnóstico definitivo involucra correlación clínico epidemiológica, clínico patológica, histopatológica y molecular. En Colombia no existen antecedentes diagnósticos [...] de Pitiosis con estas correlaciones. Pitiosis fue demostrada dos equinos de zona rural en Puerto Boyacá, Departamento de Boyacá-Colombia. Los equinos presentaron en extremidades lesiones únicas, pruriginosas, ulceradas, granulomatosas, alternada de masas sólidas con secreción serosanguinolenta. De las biopsias los hallazgos anatomopatológicos demostraron masas sólidas de aspecto coralino, las cuales se procesaron histopatológicamente. Los resultados correlacionados de biogeografía, las lesiones halladas en los equinos y en ellas los patrones histopatológicos de Splendore-Hoeplii, con hallazgos de hifas raramente septadas con diámetro de 2,5 a 6,2 micras en ramificación angulada, junto a la secuenciación del DNA extraído y comparado con el depositado para P.insidiosum en el GenBank permitió demostrar en todas las muestras una homología del 100% conformándose por primera vez el diagnóstico definitivo de Pitiosis en Colombia. Abstract in english Pythium insidiosum is a globally distributed fungus that causes a fungal infection called Pythiosis is considered an emerging disease in humans and animals. A definitive diagnosis involves clinical, epidemiological, histopathological and molecular correlations. There are no reports of Pythiosis diag [...] nosis involving all these correlations in Colombia. In this study were confirmed Phytiosis in two horses in rural area of Puerto Boyaca (Boyaca, Colombia) presenting single,itching, ulcerated, granulomatous lesions on their limbs with serosanguineous suppuration. Biopsies were analyzed pathologically and histopathologically. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried out from DNA extracted of paraffin blocks. This study report the first definitive diagnosis of phytiosis in Colombia based on the correlation between biogeography area, the pathological and histopathological findings which included patterns like Splendore-Hoeplii and hyphae with rare septae (2.5 to 6.2 microns diameters of branching angled) along with sequenced DNA that showed 100% homology with the Pythium insidiosum sequence at the GenBank.

  12. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre, E-mail: furtado@ige.unicamp.b [Department of Science and Technology Policy-DPCT, Institute of Geosciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil); Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne, E-mail: mirnags31@globo.co [Bioethanol Science and Technology Center-CTBE, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto, E-mail: cortez@agr.com.b [School of Agriculture (FEAGRI), University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: {yields} The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. {yields} Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. {yields} Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. {yields} Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  13. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: ? The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. ? Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. ? Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. ? Public funds for research in the Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  14. Crescimento e acúmulo de matéria seca em variedades de cana-de-açúcar cultivadas sob irrigação plena / Growth and dry matter production in sugarcane varieties grown under full irrigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emídio C. A. de, Oliveira; Ruthanna I. de, Oliveira; Bruna M. T. de, Andrade; Fernando J., Freire; Mario A., Lira Júnior; Paulo R., Machado.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A análise de crescimento é considerada o método padrão para medir a produtividade biológica em espécies vegetais. Neste contexto objetivou-se avaliar, em onze variedades de cana-de-açúcar (SP79-1011, RB813804, RB863129, RB872552, RB943365, RB72454, RB763710, SP78-4764, SP81-3250, RB867515, RB92579) [...] cultivadas sob irrigação plena, o crescimento e a produção de matéria seca no ciclo de cana planta. O experimento foi instalado em condições de campo no município de Carpina, PE. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A análise de crescimento correspondeu à quantificação dos números de perfilhos e à, na mensuração da altura e diâmetro dos colmos, avaliados mensalmente em onze períodos de cultivo, os quais se estenderam dos 60 aos 360 dias após o plantio (DAP). A produção de matéria seca foi quantificada a partir dos 120 DAP, com intervalos de amostragem a cada dois meses. Observou-se que as variedades RB92579 e SP81-3250 apresentaram o maior perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca e as variedades RB813804 e RB72454 às maiores médias de altura, enquanto as variedades RB867515 e RB72454 obtiveram os maiores diâmetros do colmo. Abstract in english Growth analysis is considered as a standard method for measuring the biological productivity of plant species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and dry matter production of eleven sugarcane varieties (SP79-1011, RB813804, RB863129, RB872552, RB943365, RB72454, RB763710, SP78 [...] -4764, SP81-3250, RB867515, RB92579), grown under full irrigation, in the planted cane cycle. The experiment was conducted in field conditions in the municipality of Carpina, PE. A randomized block design with four replications was used. The varieties' growth analysis was represented by the quantification of the tillers numbers, stalk height and diameter, measured monthly, in eleven periods of cultivation that extended from 60 to 360 days after planting (DAP). The dry matter production was measured from 120 DAP, with sampling intervals of every two months. It was observed that, at 360 DAP, the RB92579 and SP81-3250 varieties showed the highest tillering and dry matter production. The RB813804 and RB72454 varieties had the highest average for height, while the RB72454 and RB867515 varieties presented the largest stalk diameters.

  15. Development and yield of sugarcane after application of plant growth regulators in the midle of crop season/ Desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar após aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Silva

    Full Text Available The supply of technological quality raw material for providing economical return is the most important necessity of sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and productivity of sugarcane stalks due to plant regulators application at half crop. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators of the class of the growth retainers (Ethephon, Ehyl-trinexapac, Potassium nitrate, Potassium nitrate + Boron application and a control (natural ripening. Ethyl-trinexapac and Ethephon treatments were efficient to hold up growth process regarding height of plants, but had no effect on diameter of stalks. The maintenance of bud top integrity made possible the increase in diameter of stalks, without interrupting the growth process regarding height of plants. According to application time the ripeners provided improvement on technological quality of raw material. The ripeners did not affect the number of plants per meter at harvest and did not cause alterations int the amount mass of stalks per hectare. The ripeners did not affect the regrowth of the ratoon cane. O fornecimento de matéria-prima de qualidade tecnológica que garanta retorno econômico é uma das maiores necessidades da indústria sucroalcooleira. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de colmos de cana-de-açúcar decorrente da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no meio da safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram utilizados cinco tratamentos constituídos pela aplicação dos reguladores vegetais da classe dos retardantes de crescimento etefon e etil-trinexapac, e de KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. O etil-trinexapac e o etefon atuaram de forma eficiente em retardar o processo de crescimento em altura das plantas de cana-de-açúcar, sem ocasionar alterações no diâmetro dos colmos. A manutenção da integridade da gema apical possibilitou o incremento no diâmetro dos colmos sem interromper o crescimento em altura das plantas. Os maturadores propiciaram, conforme a época de aplicação, melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. Ainda, não afetaram o número de colmos na colheita, não produziram alterações quantitativas na massa de colmos por hectare, e não afetaram a rebrora da soqueira da cana-de-açúcar.

  16. Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. as influenced by alcohol by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454, cultivadas simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1 no solo dos vasos (22 L, contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações, e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar.This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp., cultivated simultaneously under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v of each by-product and the check treatment (water were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1 to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height, and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and flegmass reduced B. decumbens emergence and growth and S. rhombifolia growth but did not affect sugarcane growth.

  17. Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia), capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens) e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.) influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool / Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia), brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as influenced by alcohol by-products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.A.P.M., Azania; C.A.M., Azania; M.O., Marques; M.C.M.D., Pavani.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia), capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens) e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454), cultivadas simultan [...] eamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v) de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água) foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1) no solo dos vasos (22 L), contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura) e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações), e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia), brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), cultivated simultaneously under [...] greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v) of each by-product and the check treatment (water) were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1) to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height), and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations) and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and flegmass reduced B. decumbens emergence and growth and S. rhombifolia growth but did not affect sugarcane growth.

  18. Effect of Potassium Damping-off (Pythium sp and Rhizoctonia solani) and Cold Tolerance on Tobacco Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Gu?ngo?r, O?zlem

    1998-01-01

    Effect of Potassium on damping off tobacco caused by Pythium sp and Rhizoctonia solani were investigated by giving 10, 20, 30 kg/da (5, 10, 15 ppm) K2SO4 as K2O base and pathogen inoculum at the same time at green house experiments. Potassium application did not present disease development at all three rates, but at the rate of 20 kg/da K2O there were a slight seedling cover of 13,75% and 3,75% for Pythium sp. and R.solani especially. Potassium at the rate of 10 kg/da prevented cold shock of...

  19. Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

    2013-05-01

    Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale. PMID:23297683

  20. Obstrução intestinal por Pythium insidiosum em um cão: relato de caso / Intestinal obstruction by Pythium insidiosum in a dog: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.S., Hunning; G., Rigon; C.S., Faraco; S.P., Pavarini; D., Sampaio; W., Beheregaray; D., Driemeier.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de pitiose intestinal em um Husky Siberiano, de um ano de idade, macho atendido em um Hospital Veterinário Escola com sinais de obstrução intestinal. Ao exame físico, notou-se massa cilíndrica na região abdominal cranial, posteriormente confirmada por meio de radiografia e ultrasso [...] nografia. Durante a laparotomia exploratória, constatou-se massa extraluminal envolvendo o jejuno e alterações na parede do órgão. Realizou-se a ressecção da porção afetada do intestino e, posteriormente, anastomose. O exame histológico do tecido evidenciou inflamação piogranulomatosa acentuada. Na coloração de prata metenamina de Grocott, hifas septadas foram observadas. O diagnóstico de infecção por Pythium insidiosum foi confirmado por meio da imunoistoquímica. Após a cirurgia, o animal restabeleceu a defecação; no 30° dia pós-cirúrgico, foi relatada ainda presença de diarreia. O tratamento com itraconazol e terbinafina foi instituído durante 60 dias. Após dois anos do procedimento cirúrgico e do tratamento com antifúngicos orais, o cão não apresentou recidiva. Abstract in english A case of intestinal pythiosis in a one-year-old male Siberian Husky treated at a Veterinary School Hospital with signs of intestinal obstruction is reported. At physical examination, a cylindrical mass was palpable in the cranial abdomen, later confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography. During t [...] he exploratory laparotomy, it was evidenced an extraluminal mass involving the jejunum and alterations of the wall in the organ. After that, a resection of the affected portion of the intestine was made followed by anastomosis. The histologic examination evidenced accented pyogranulomatous inflammation. By the Grocott methenamine silver stain, branching hyphae were observed. The diagnosis of infection by Pythium insidiosum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The animal reestablished the defecation after the surgery; on the 30th postoperative day, it was also reported the presence of diarrhea. The treatment with itraconazol and terbinafina was instituted for 60 days. Two years after the surgical procedure and treatment with oral antifungals, the dog did not show recurrence.

  1. Podredumbre basal de plantas adultas de tomate causada por Pythium aphanidermatum (Oomycota)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo E, Grijalba; Raul L, Zapata; Hemilse E, Palmucci; Claudio, Baron.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En raíces de plantas adultas de tomate se observó una lesión castaña de aspecto húmedo, que se extendía 2-4 cm por encima del suelo. Las plantas atacadas se marchitaron y murieron. El objetivo del trabajo fue aislar e identificar al organismo causal de esta sintomatología. Se usaron medios de cultiv [...] os generales y selectivos. A las 24 horas desarrollaron colonias con micelio blanco algodonoso. Se evaluó la morfología de la colonia y la producción, morfología y dimensiones de estructuras reproductivas. El rDNA del micelio de un aislamiento fue extraído de cultivos puros con 7-10 días de crecimiento en medios agarizados. La región ITS se amplificó usando primers ITS4 e ITS5, se secuenció y comparó en banco de genes del servidor BLAST- NCBI para verificar su similitud con las secuencias tipo u holotipo disponibles. Al microscopio se observó micelio cenocítico, esporangios esfericos-globulados y oosporas apleroticas característicos del género Pythium. Se efectuaron pruebas de patogenicidad con resultados positivos reaislándose un microorganismo de características idénticas. La caracterización lograda por las técnicas tradicionales, los estudios moleculares y el resultado de las pruebas de patogenicidad permiten concluir que Pythium aphanidermatum es el causante de la Podredumbre basal de plantas adultas de Tomate. Abstract in english In roots of adult tomato plants a wet and brown lesion, extending 2-4 cm above the soil was observed. Diseased plants withered and died. The objective of this paper was to isolate and to identify the causal organism of these symptoms. General and selective culture media were used. After 24 hours col [...] onies with white cottony mycelium were developed. The morphology of the colony and the production, morphology and size of reproductive structures were evaluated. The rDNA extraction was made from mycelium of pure cultures 7-10 days old grown in agarized media. The ITS region was amplified using ITS4 and ITS5 primers, sequenced and compared in gene bank - NCBI BLAST server to verify their sequence similarity to the type or holotype available. Coenocytic mycelium, spherical-globular sporangium and aplerotic oospores, characteristic of the genus Pythium were observed in microscopic slides. Pathogenicity tests were conducted with positive results; a microorganism identical to the original was re-isolated. The characterization achieved by traditional techniques, molecular studies and the results of the pathogenicity tests support the conclusion that Pythium aphanidermatum is the causal agent of basal rot on mature plants of tomato.

  2. Mapping salinity stress in sugarcane fields with hyperspectral satellite imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzeh, S.; Naseria, A. A.; Alavi Panah, S. K.; Mojaradic, B.; Bartholomeus, H. M.; Herold, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. An area with more than 70,000 ha sugarcane farming and its by-products are the major agricultural activities in the Khuzestan province, in the southwest of Iran. Therefore, mapping and identification of soil salinity is the most important issue to improve management of large scale crop production in this area. Besides labour intensive fieldwork, re...

  3. Control of Chinese-kale damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum by antifungal metabolites of Trichoderma virens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiradej Chamswarng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven strains of Trichoderma virens were isolated from Chinese-kale planting soil in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Efficacy of those isolates to inhibit mycelial growth and overgrow on mycelia ofPythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of damping-off on Chinese-kale, were determined by a dual culture test. All strains significantly inhibited growth and overgrew on mycelia of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA as compared with the control. Strains T-NST-01, T-NST-05 and T-NST-07 gave high values of inhibition by 85.5, 82.5 and 78.5%, respectively. For efficacy to overgrow on mycelia of pathogen test, strains T-NST-05, T-NST-07 and T-NST-01 provided 48.3, 47.0 and 46.1% of mycelial overgrowth, respectively. Antifungal metabolites were extracted from three promising strains and tested against mycelial growth and sporangium production of P. aphanidermatum. The results showed that 1,000 mg/L of all metabolites completely inhibited mycelial growth and sporangium production. Under laboratory condition, all metabolites (1,000 mg/L significantly increased the number of Chinese-kale seedling germination, especially the metabolites from T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 provided germination of 92.5 and 87.5%, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, Chinese-kale seedlings treated with 1,000 mg/L of metabolites from strains T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 survived by 90.5 and 87.5%, respectively, while the control 1 (sterile water and control 2 (2% methanol had 19.0 and 18.5% of survived seedlings, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from three strains of T. virens showed no visible growth, while the control with 2% methanol or sterile water, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered whole surface of PDA in of the Petri dish within 4 days.

  4. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO?3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO?3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO?3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m?2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m?2 rather H-78-3567 (15 kg·m?2 and H-87-4319 (20 kg·m?2 appeared to produce more accumulated carbon in both soil types.

  5. Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalye, Sneha K; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-04-01

    Crude glycerol is a major byproduct for the biodiesel industry. Producing value-added products through microbial fermentation on crude glycerol provides opportunities to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) by the fungus Pythium irregulare . When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 30 g/L crude glycerol and 10 g/L yeast extract, EPA yield and productivity reached 90 mg/L and 14.9 mg/L x day, respectively. Adding pure vegetable oils (flaxseed oil and soybean oil) to the culture greatly enhanced the biomass and the EPA production. This enhancement was due to the oil absorption by the fungal cells and elongation of shorter chain fatty acids (e.g., linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) into longer chain fatty acid (e.g., EPA). The major impurities contained in crude glycerol, soap and methanol, were inhibitory to fungal growth. Soap can be precipitated from the liquid medium through pH adjustment, whereas methanol can be evaporated from the medium during autoclaving. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass contained about 15% lipid, 36% protein, and 40% carbohydrate, with 9% ash. In addition to EPA, the fungal biomass was also rich in the essential amino acids lysine, arginine, and leucine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, sulfur, and zinc were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury and lead) were detected. The results show that it is feasible to use crude glycerol for producing fungal biomass that can serve as EPA-fortified food or feed. PMID:19265450

  6. PCR based identification of Pythium spp. causing cavity spot in carrots and sensitive detection in soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavity spot is caused by several Pythium species and is one of the most economically important diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Diagnosis of the pathogens in soil and in carrot tissue has been complicated. On the bases of ITS sequences PCR primers were designed for the identification of the fi...

  7. Long-term suppression of Pythium abappressorium induced by Brassica juncea seed meal amendment is biologically mediated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence indicates that seed meal of Brassica juncea is an effective biofumigant against Pythium spp., an important biological component contributing to apple replant disease. However, the ability of this seed meal to render disease suppression even after termination of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) e...

  8. Cyclic lipopeptide surfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 is not required for suppression of complex Pythium spp. populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, zoosporicidal activity and control of Pythium intermedium by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 was attributed, in part, to the production of the cyclic lipopeptide surfactant massetolide A. In the current study, capacity of SS101 and its surfactant-deficient mutant strain 10.24 to sup...

  9. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Andre Tosi [Department of Science and Technology Policy - DPCT, Institute of Geosciences, University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil); Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne Gaya [Bioethanol Science and Technology Center - CTBE, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [School of Agriculture (FEAGRI), University of Campinas, UNICAMP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. (author)

  10. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV)], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

  11. Resposta sorológica de coelhos imunizados com antígenos de Pythium insidiosum associados a diferentes adjuvantes Serological response in rabbits immunized with Pythium insidiosum antigens associated with different adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Trindade Leal

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pythium insidiosum é um fungo zoospórico que se desenvolve em locais alagadiços e que pode infectar humanos e animais, principalmente eqüinos. A infecção natural nesta espécie resulta em pitiose clínica, uma doença granulomatosa de difícil tratamento. Uma das opções terapêuticas é a imunoterapia com antígenos obtidos de culturas do agente. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de adjuvantes na resposta sorológica a antígenos do P. insidiosum, 24 coelhos divididos em 4 grupos foram imunizados com antígeno macerado de micélio (AMM associado a três adjuvantes. Grupo I: hidróxido de alumínio; grupo II: adjuvante de Freund; grupo III: óleo mineral e grupo IV: água destilada -controle. Os tratamentos foram avaliados a diferentes intervalos, quanto à capacidade de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas específicas da classe G, através da técnica de ELISA. Na fase 1, os animais receberam três doses do imunógeno (dias zero, 14 e 28 e foram avaliados sorologicamente nos dias 14, 21, 28 e 35. Nessa fase, os adjuvantes oleosos (GII e III induziram níveis de anticorpos estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos nos grupos I e IV. Durante a fase 2 (dias 42 a 120, cada grupo foi subdividido em dois; sendo um subgrupo mantido em tratamento (imunizações adicionais nos dias 42, 56, 68 e 82 e o outro tendo o tratamento interrompido após a 3ª dose (dia 28. Nos subgrupos mantidos em tratamento, os níveis de anticorpos dos grupos imunizados com adjuvantes foram estatisticamente superiores aos induzidos no grupo GIV (controle. Nos coelhos com tratamento interrompido, os grupos I, II e III apresentaram manutenção nos níveis de IgG e foram estatisticamente superiores ao grupo controle, que apresentou declínio nos níveis de anticorpos. Os resultados demonstraram a capacidade dos adjuvantes testados em potencializar e prolongar a resposta humoral aos antígenos do P. insidiosum. O uso de adjuvantes associado aos atuais imunógenos pode aumentar os índices de cura em eqüinos submetidos à imunoterapia, assim como viabilizar sua utilização como preventivo.Pythium insidiosum is a zoosporic fungi living in flooded areas which can infect humans and animals. Natural infection in these species results in clinical pythiosis, a granulomatous disease of difficult treatment. Immunotherapy with antigens obtained from cultures of the agent is a promising alternative therapy. In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvants in the immunologic response to P. insidiosum antigens, 24 rabbits were assigned to four groups and immunized with mycelian mass antigen with each of there adjuvants. Group I: aluminum hydroxide; group II: Freund’s adjuvant; group III: mineral oil and group IV: distilled water-control. The effects of the adjavants were evaluated by measuring the levels of anti-pythium imunoglobulin G (IgG produced by the immunized rabbits at different time-points after immunization, using an ELISA test. During phase 1, the animals were immunized three times (days zero, 14 and 28 and serologically tested at days 14, 21, 28 and 35. The oil adjuvants (groups II and III were statistically superior to groups I and IV. During phase 2 (from day 42 to 120 each group was subdivided in two, with one subgroup having additional immunizations at days 42, 56, 68 and 82 and the other having the treatment interrupted. Among the rabbits with continued immunizations, groups I, II and III (adjuvants had statistically higher IgG levels than GIV. Among rabbits with interrupted treatment, GI, GII and presented stable IgG levels and were statistically superior to the control group, that presented decrease in the levels. These results demonstrated that the adjuvants were capable of inducing stronger and longer imunologic responses (IgG to P. insidiosum antigens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants associated with P. insidiosum antigens may increase the recovery rates obtained through immunotherapy.

  12. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  13. Performance of sugarcane somaclones under different irrigation and fertilizers doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro grown plantlets (somaclones) were regenerated through callus culture. Selected somaclone along with parent were tested under different fertilizer and irrigation levels for agronomic and qualitative traits of parent/clones. Maximum plant height, and internodes (plant-1) was observed in NIA-98 somaclone. The tillers (plant-1), weight plant-1, cane yield, sucrose and purity were greater in AEC82-1026 somaclone and maximum stem girth was obtained in BL4 somaclone from the combination of 150-80-100 NPK (kg ha-1) with 25 irrigations during the growing season. It was concluded that the application of 150-80-100 kg NPK ha-1 and 25 irrigations during the growth period of sugarcane were efficient for achieving better agronomic and qualitative traits of sugarcane somaclones. (author)

  14. Estructura y ultraestructura de Pythium insidiosum en la pitiosis gastrointestinal canina / Structure and ultrastructure of Pythium insidiosum in canine gastrointestinal pythiosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yaritza Josefina, Salas Araujo; Victoria del Rosario, Colmenares; Adelys Antonio, Márquez Alvarado; Juan Jesús Luis, León; Olivar, Castejón.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La pitiosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa que se presenta en humanos y en otros mamíferos, causada por Pythium insidiosum, un pseudohongo clasificado en el reino Straminipila. En Venezuela se han diagnosticado casos de pitiosis en perros con diarrea hemorrágica crónica, sin embargo, las caracterís [...] ticas estructurales y ultraestructurales de las lesiones han sido poco estudiadas. Se planteó como objetivo describir, a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido y de transmisión, la estructura y ultraestructura de P. insidiosum y las lesiones que produce en el tracto gastrointestinal de los perros. Se procesaron para microscopia electrónica muestras de tejido procedentes de caninos con diagnóstico de pitiosis gastrointestinal, referidos al Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado”. Las muestras examinadas mostraron tejido necrótico, trombosis vascular y numerosas hifas de P. insidiosum, caracterizadas por ser largas, onduladas, de paredes aplanadas, de 3 a 5 µm de diámetro, ramificadas en ángulo de 90° y externamente rodeadas por un material granular electrón denso en forma de incrustaciones, sugestivo del fenómeno de Splendore-Hoeppli. Se concluyó que la pitiosis en caninos cursa con lesiones granulomatosas y trombóticas, donde se observa que el agente etiológico mantiene su integridad, a pesar de estar íntimamente relacionado con células fagocíticas. Abstract in english Pythiosis is a granulomatous disease that occurs in humans and other mammals, produced by Pythium insidiosum, a pseudofungus classified in the Straminipila kingdom. In Venezuela, pythiosis cases have been diagnosed in dogs with chronic hemorrhagic diarrhea; nevertheless, the structural and ultrastru [...] ctural characteristics of the lesions have not been studied in depth. The objective set for this study was to describe, through scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the structure and ultrastructure of P. insidiosum, and the lesions it produces in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. Tissue samples from canines with a gastrointestinal pythiosis diagnosis, referred by the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidad Centroccidental “Lisandro Alvarado”, were processed for electron microscopy study. The samples examined showed necrotic tissue, vascular thrombosis and numerous P. insidiosum hyphae, characterized by being long, ondulating, with flattened walls, 3 to 5 µm in diameter, ramified in a 90º angle, and externally surrounded by an electron dense granular material in the form of inlays, suggestive of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. It was concluded that canine pythiosis evolves with granulomatous and thrombotic lesions, which show that the etiologic agent maintains its integrity, in spite of being intimately related with phagocytic cells.

  15. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bacci Jr, M.; Miranda, V. F. O.; Martins, V. G.; Figueira, A. V. O.; Lemos, M. V.; Pereira, J. O.; Marino, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA) region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarc...

  16. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest; biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduce risks of groundwater contamination, eutrophication of surface waters, soil pollution, and acidifi...

  17. Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar. I. macronutrientes Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane. I. Macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rengel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar el crecimiento y patrones de acumulación de macronutrientes en una variedad de caña de azúcar y contribuir con el manejo racional de su fertilización se evaluó en un tablón plantado con la variedad RB 85-5035, en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. La evaluación consistió en realizar diez muestreos de la parte aérea de la planta con frecuencia mensual a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas o “macollas”, tomadas al azar en una superficie de 0,6 m2 por cepa, y se determinó en tallos y hojas el contenido de materia seca y la concentración de macronutrientes. En los meses 11 y 12 se tomaron muestreos adicionales para determinar el contenido final de materia seca. Hacia el final del ciclo la planta acumuló 43,7 t·ha-1 de biomasa aérea, con un 75,1 % correspondiente a tallos y el restante a tejido foliar. La acumulación de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y S a los 300 días después del corte (ddc fue de 201,4; 43,2; 149,0; 112,7; 71,1 y 71,6 kg·ha-1, respectivamente. El nitrógeno se acumuló principalmente en las hojas durante una buena parte del ciclo pero al final fue transportado mayoritariamente hacia los tallos; se detectaron dos períodos críticos de absorción, el primero de los cuales abarcó las etapas de macollamiento y crecimiento en la fase vegetativa, y el segundo en la etapa de maduración de la fase reproductiva. Los nutrientes P, K, Mg y S se distribuyeron proporcionalmente en hojas y tallos durante la mayor parte del ciclo del cultivo, pero se diferenciaron radicalmente a partir del día 251 ddc, momento en que la acumulación se dirigió fundamentalmente hacia el tallo. El calcio se almacenó principalmente en las hojas pero al final del ciclo se revirtió la tendencia y los tallos superaron moderadamente a las hojas. Se detectó que durante los cuatro primeros meses del ciclo el cultivo había producido solamente el 16,5 % de su biomasa seca, pero había acumulado entre 20 y 40 % de los macronutrientes, lo cual sugiere la necesidad de su suministro desde las primeras etapas del cultivo.With the purpose of assessing the growth and macronutrient accumulation patterns of the sugar cane plant and promote a rational fertilization management of the crop, an evaluation was carried out in a plot cropped with the RB 85-5035 variety, in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. The trial consisted on taking ten monthly samplings of the aerial portion of the plant, along the whole crop cycle. Each sample consisted of three stumps, taken at random in a surface of 0.6 m2 per stump, and dry biomass content and macronutrient concentrations were determined on both leaves and stalks. In the months 11 and 12, additional samples were taken to determine the final dry biomass. At the end of cycle the crop accumulated 43.7 t·ha-1 dry biomass, with 75.1 % corresponding to the stalks and the remaining to the leaves. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S at 300 days after cutting (dac was 201,4; 43,2; 149,0; 112,7; 71,1 y 71,6 kg·ha-1, respectively. Nitrogen accumulated mainly in leaves during a good part of the cycle but at the end the nutrient was mainly translocated to the stems; it were found two critical periods of absorption, the first of which covered the stages of tillering and vegetative growth phase, and the second one was located at the stage of maturation of the reproductive phase. The nutrients P, K, Mg and S were proportionally distributed in leaves and stems for most of the crop cycle, but differed dramatically from 251 dac, when the accumulation was directed mainly towards the stem. Calcium was stored mainly in the leaves but at the end of the cycle the trend was reversed and the nutrient in the stems moderately exceeded that in the leaves. It was found that for the first four months of the plant growth the crop had produced just 16,5 % of its total biomass, but it had accumulated between 20 and 40 % of the macronutrients, which suggests the needs of their supply since the initial steps of the crop cycle.

  18. Crecimiento y dinámica de acumulación de nutrientes en caña de azúcar. I. macronutrientes / Growth and dynamics of nutrient accumulation in sugarcane. I. Macronutrients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar el crecimiento y patrones de acumulación de macronutrientes en una variedad de caña de azúcar y contribuir con el manejo racional de su fertilización se evaluó en un tablón plantado con la variedad RB 85-5035, en la localidad de Chivacoa, estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. La eva [...] luación consistió en realizar diez muestreos de la parte aérea de la planta con frecuencia mensual a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo. Cada muestra constó de tres cepas o “macollas”, tomadas al azar en una superficie de 0,6 m2 por cepa, y se determinó en tallos y hojas el contenido de materia seca y la concentración de macronutrientes. En los meses 11 y 12 se tomaron muestreos adicionales para determinar el contenido final de materia seca. Hacia el final del ciclo la planta acumuló 43,7 t·ha-1 de biomasa aérea, con un 75,1 % correspondiente a tallos y el restante a tejido foliar. La acumulación de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y S a los 300 días después del corte (ddc) fue de 201,4; 43,2; 149,0; 112,7; 71,1 y 71,6 kg·ha-1, respectivamente. El nitrógeno se acumuló principalmente en las hojas durante una buena parte del ciclo pero al final fue transportado mayoritariamente hacia los tallos; se detectaron dos períodos críticos de absorción, el primero de los cuales abarcó las etapas de macollamiento y crecimiento en la fase vegetativa, y el segundo en la etapa de maduración de la fase reproductiva. Los nutrientes P, K, Mg y S se distribuyeron proporcionalmente en hojas y tallos durante la mayor parte del ciclo del cultivo, pero se diferenciaron radicalmente a partir del día 251 ddc, momento en que la acumulación se dirigió fundamentalmente hacia el tallo. El calcio se almacenó principalmente en las hojas pero al final del ciclo se revirtió la tendencia y los tallos superaron moderadamente a las hojas. Se detectó que durante los cuatro primeros meses del ciclo el cultivo había producido solamente el 16,5 % de su biomasa seca, pero había acumulado entre 20 y 40 % de los macronutrientes, lo cual sugiere la necesidad de su suministro desde las primeras etapas del cultivo. Abstract in english With the purpose of assessing the growth and macronutrient accumulation patterns of the sugar cane plant and promote a rational fertilization management of the crop, an evaluation was carried out in a plot cropped with the RB 85-5035 variety, in Chivacoa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. The trial consiste [...] d on taking ten monthly samplings of the aerial portion of the plant, along the whole crop cycle. Each sample consisted of three stumps, taken at random in a surface of 0.6 m2 per stump, and dry biomass content and macronutrient concentrations were determined on both leaves and stalks. In the months 11 and 12, additional samples were taken to determine the final dry biomass. At the end of cycle the crop accumulated 43.7 t·ha-1 dry biomass, with 75.1 % corresponding to the stalks and the remaining to the leaves. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S at 300 days after cutting (dac) was 201,4; 43,2; 149,0; 112,7; 71,1 y 71,6 kg·ha-1, respectively. Nitrogen accumulated mainly in leaves during a good part of the cycle but at the end the nutrient was mainly translocated to the stems; it were found two critical periods of absorption, the first of which covered the stages of tillering and vegetative growth phase, and the second one was located at the stage of maturation of the reproductive phase. The nutrients P, K, Mg and S were proportionally distributed in leaves and stems for most of the crop cycle, but differed dramatically from 251 dac, when the accumulation was directed mainly towards the stem. Calcium was stored mainly in the leaves but at the end of the cycle the trend was reversed and the nutrient in the stems moderately exceeded that in the leaves. It was found that for the first four months of the plant growth the crop had produced just 16,5 % of its total biomass, but it had accumulated between 20 and 40 % of the macronutrients, which suggests the needs of their supply since the initial

  19. Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

  20. Flooding events and rising water temperatures increase the significance of the reed pathogen Pythium phragmitis as a contributing factor in the decline of Phragmites australis

    OpenAIRE

    Nechwatal, Jan; Wielgoss, Anna Marina; Mendgen, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Pythium species are economically significant soilborne plant pathogens with worldwide distribution, causing seedling damping-off or root rot diseases. Pythium phragmitis is a newly described pathogen of common reed (Phragmites australis), widespread in the reed-belt of Lake Constance, Germany. It is highly aggressive towards reed leaves and seedlings, but obviously does not affect roots. Inthe context of reed decline phenomena, P. phragmitis infection of reed inundated during flooding event...

  1. The effect of silicon on the infection by and spread of Pythium aphanidermatum in single roots of tomato and bitter gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Gregor; Tikum, George; Horst, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    The effect of silicon (Si) supply on the infection and spread of Pythium aphanidermatum was studied in the roots of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum (=Solanum lycopersicum), an Si excluder] and bitter gourd (Mormodica charantia, an Si intermediate accumulator). Individual roots were mounted into PVC compartmented boxes which allowed the application of Si and zoospores to defined root zones. Two days after inoculation, root growth was recorded, and P. aphanidermatum colonization of individual root sections was determined by ELISA. In tomato as well as in bitter gourd the root tip was the root section most sensitive to P. aphanidermatum infection. Application of Si did not affect severe root-growth inhibition by P. aphanidermatum in either species. However, continuous Si supply significantly inhibited the basipetal spread of the pathogen from the infected root apex in bitter gourd but not in tomato. Si application to the roots only during pretreatment or only during/after the infection of the roots failed to inhibit the spread of P. aphanidermatum. Determination and compartmentation of Si in the roots of bitter gourd revealed that apoplastic Si was not, but symplastic Si was, associated with the ability of the plant to reduce the spread of the fungus in roots. It is concluded that accumulation of Si in the root cell walls does not represent a physical barrier to the spread of P. aphanidermatum in bitter gourd and tomato roots. The maintenance of elevated symplastic Si contents is a prerequisite for Si-enhanced resistance against P. aphanidermatum. PMID:17158106

  2. Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased leaves, percentage severity were measured. Growth and yield parameters such as stalk length, number of leaves, number of tillers and yield parameters such as fresh and dry shoot weights, percentage dry matter at harvest were also measured. Analysis of variance showed that percentage severity of sugarcane mosaic disease, increased in non-weeded plots compared with weeded plots. Twice weeding (52.1% and the weed free plots (53.7% had the significantly lowest severities. Varietal influence significantly influenced severity and variety NCO-270 produced the significantly lowest severity (45.8%.The interaction of weeding regime and variety indicated that variety CB36411 in the weed free plots, produced the lowest severity (33.5%.Yield parameters showed that significantly highest shoot weight was recorded in the weed free plot, while variety NCO-270 gave the highest fresh and dry shoot weights (254.8g and 50.2g respectively. The results indicate that variety NCO-270 was the most tolerant and that weeding at least once in six months is required to mitigate the effect of sugarcane mosaic disease, as witnessed in significantly increased growth and yield attributes of plants in the weeded plots.

  3. Florescimento em cana-de-açúcar / Flowering in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosilaine, Araldi; Ferdinando Marcos Lima, Silva; Elizabeth Orika, Ono; João Domingues, Rodrigues.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O florescimento da cana-de-açúcar é um processo fisiológico complexo formado por vários estádios de desenvolvimento, e cada estádio tem a sua própria necessidade ambiental e fisiológica. Os fatores externos relacionados com o florescimento são: fotoperíodo, temperatura, umidade e radiação solar, alé [...] m da fertilidade do solo. Por outro lado, os fatores internos envolvem fitocromo, hormônios, florígeno, ácidos nucleicos, dentre outros. A intensidade do processo de florescimento e as consequências na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar variam com a variedade e com o clima. A redução do volume de caldo é o principal fator no qual o florescimento interfere, resultante do aumento do teor de fibras. Como as demais Poaceae, a cana-de-açúcar floresce, frutifica e morre, garantindo a perpetuação da espécie. Dessa forma, o homem procura interferir na natureza tentando evitar o florescimento da cana-de-açúcar, seja por meio de melhoramento genético ou por meio de reguladores vegetais. Em áreas comerciais de produção de cana-de-açúcar, onde há condições ideais para o florescimento da cultura, é recomendado o uso de variedade com potencial menos florífero. E, quando não é possível esse manejo varietal, o uso de inibidores do florescimento é a melhor alternativa para evitar mais perdas no conteúdo de sacarose. Abstract in english The sugarcane flowering is a complex physiological process that consists of several stages of development, each stage has its physiological and environmental requisition. The external factors related to flowering are: photoperiod, temperature, humidity, solar radiation in addition to soil fertility. [...] Already the internal factors involved are: phytochrome, hormones, florigene, nucleic acids, among others. The intensity of the flowering and the consequences on the quality of sugarcane vary with the variety and the climate. The reduction of the sugarcane juice is the main factor which affected by the flowering, resulting from due to the increased fiber content. As other Poaceae, the sugarcane flowers, fruit and dies, ensuring the perpetuation of the species. Thus, the man tries to interfere in nature, trying to prevent the flowering sugarcane, either through breeding or through plant growth regulators. In areas of sugarcane commercial production, where there are ideal conditions for the flowering culture, it is recommended the se of variety with lower potential of flowering. And when this varietal management is more difficult, the use of inhibitors of flowering is the best alternative to avoid more losses of sucrose content.

  4. Trimming and clustering sugarcane ESTs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme P., Telles; Felipe R. da, Silva.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O método de clustering adotado no Projeto SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project) tinha vários problemas (muitos clusters, presença de seqüências de ribossomo etc.) Nós assumimos a tarefa de reprojetar todo o processo de clustering, propondo uma "limpeza" inicial mais cuidadosa das seqüências. Neste artigo a [...] s estratégias de limpeza das seqüências e de clustering são descritas em detalhe, incluindo os números oficiais do projeto (237,954 ESTs e 43,141 clusters). Abstract in english The original clustering procedure adopted in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag project (SUCEST) had many problems, for instance too many clusters, the presence of ribosomal sequences, etc. We therefore redesigned the clustering procedure entirely, including a much more careful initial trimming of [...] the reads. In this paper the new trimming and clustering strategies are described in detail and we give the new official figures for the project, 237,954 expressed sequence tags and 43,141 clusters.

  5. In vitro activity of carvacrol and thymol combined with antifungals or antibacterials against Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, F P K; Ferreiro, L; Bizzi, K S; Loreto, É S; Pilotto, M B; Ludwig, A; Alves, S H; Zanette, R A; Santurio, J M

    2015-06-01

    We describe the in vitro activities of the combinations of carvacrol and thymol with antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tigecycline) and antifungal agents (amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole and terbinafine) against 23 isolates of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The assays were based on the M38-A2 technique and checkerboard microdilution. Based on the mean FICI values, the main synergies observed were combinations of carvacrol+itraconazole and thymol+itraconazole (96%), thymol+clarithromycin (92%), carvacrol+clarithromycin (88%), thymol+minocycline (84%), carvacrol+minocycline (80%), carvacrol+azithromycin (76%), thymol+azithromycin (68%), carvacrol+tigecycline (64%) and thymol+tigecycline (60%). In conclusion, we found that combinations of carvacrol or thymol with these antimicrobial agents might provide effective alternative treatments for cutaneous pythiosis due to their synergistic interactions. Future in vivo experiments are needed to elucidate the safety and therapeutic potential of these combinations. PMID:25639921

  6. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  7. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  8. Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterisation of the bacterial endophytes from native sugarcane varieties of Himalayan region

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Digar; Sharma, Anita; Saini, Gurvinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Seven endophytic bacterial isolates were finally recovered from native sugarcane varieties at hilly areas namely Berinag, Champawat and Didihat of Uttarakhand state in northern Himalayan region. New isolates and two standard cultures—Azospirillum brasilense and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, were evaluated for their morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Morphologically all were rod shaped, Gram-negative bacteria. Their plant growth promotory properties were also asses...

  10. Popularizing of Sugarcane Based Intercropping Systems in Non Millzone

    OpenAIRE

    Al Azad, M. A. K.; Alam, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the popularity of different intercrops with sugarcane at Nakla thana under Sherpur district of Bangladesh during cropping year 2000-2001. Five intercrops with sugarcane combination such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), onion (Allium cepa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), mustard (Brassica campestris) and garlic(Allium sativum) were studied against sole sugarcane crop. In respect of agronomic performances, sugarcane with potato, sugarcane with onion and ...

  11. Interação de imazapic no sistema integrado palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida e vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca / Interaction of imazapic in the integrated system using sugarcane mulch residue, herbicide and vinasse on purple nutsedge growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C.S.S., Novo; R., Victoria Filho; F.M., Langbeck; A.A., Lago; R., Deuber; G.S., Rolim.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da interação palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida imazapic e diferentes meios de aplicação de vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e em vasos dispostos em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, sendo [...] avaliados os tratamentos: controle; apenas palha; apenas vinhaça; apenas o herbicida imazapic; palha + vinhaça; palha + herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; e palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura. O imazapic foi aplicado na dose de 122,5 g ha-1 e, no tratamento onde a vinhaça foi aplicada em mistura com o herbicida, este foi diluído com água até ¼ do volume necessário e completado com vinhaça. O imazapic foi eficiente no controle da tiririca quando comparado com a testemunha. A aplicação isolada da vinhaça ou a adição de apenas a palha ao solo estimularam o crescimento da tiririca embora tenha reduzido a viabilidade dos tubérculos. Nos tratamentos sem palha, não houve diferença no crescimento da tiririca, quando a aplicação de vinhaça foi realizada antes ou depois do imazapic, sendo observado controle da espécie. Entretanto, quando em mistura com a vinhaça, o produto não controlou a tiririca. A presença da palha no tratamento onde foi aplicada vinhaça antes do herbicida reduziu a ação do imazapic, em comparação com aquele sem palha. O número de brotações e a altura média de plantas de tiririca foram maiores nos tratamentos com palha quando foi aplicado imazapic depois ou mesmo junto com a vinhaça. Sob palha, a aplicação de vinhaça após o herbicida ou em mistura com imazapic aumentou apenas o número de brotações. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to evaluate sugarcane mulch residue, imazapic and vinasse application interaction on the initial development of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). A greenhouse experiment was set up using pots filled with soil, arranged in a randomized complete blocks design, with [...] four replications, with the following treatments: check; straw alone; vinasse alone; imazapic alone; straw + vinasse; straw + herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied before the herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied together; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; and straw + herbicide + vinasse applied together. Imazapic was applied at the rate of 122.5 g ha-1 and in the treatment in which vinasse was applied mixed with the herbicide, this compound was diluted in water until ¼ of the volume needed, the remaining volume being completed with vinasse. Imazapic was efficient for purple nutsedge control when compared to the check. Application of vinasse alone or straw alone stimulated the growth of this weed, though tuber viability was reduced. In the treatments without straw there was no difference in purple nutsedge development when vinasse was applied before or after imazapic, though control of this weed species was attained. However, when mixed with vinasse, the herbicide did not control the weed. The presence of straw in the treatment in which vinasse was applied before imazapic reduced the action of this weed killer when compared with the treatment without straw. The number of sprouts and height of the purple nutsedge plants were enhanced by the treatments with straw when imazapic was applied after or even mixed with vinasse. Only the number of sprouts increased when vinasse was applied after or mixed with the herbicide in soil covered with straw.

  12. Interação de imazapic no sistema integrado palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida e vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca Interaction of imazapic in the integrated system using sugarcane mulch residue, herbicide and vinasse on purple nutsedge growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S.S. Novo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da interação palha de cana-de-açúcar, herbicida imazapic e diferentes meios de aplicação de vinhaça no crescimento inicial da tiririca. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e em vasos dispostos em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, sendo avaliados os tratamentos: controle; apenas palha; apenas vinhaça; apenas o herbicida imazapic; palha + vinhaça; palha + herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada antes do herbicida; palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada depois do herbicida; e palha + herbicida + vinhaça aplicada junto com o herbicida em mistura. O imazapic foi aplicado na dose de 122,5 g ha-1 e, no tratamento onde a vinhaça foi aplicada em mistura com o herbicida, este foi diluído com água até ¼ do volume necessário e completado com vinhaça. O imazapic foi eficiente no controle da tiririca quando comparado com a testemunha. A aplicação isolada da vinhaça ou a adição de apenas a palha ao solo estimularam o crescimento da tiririca embora tenha reduzido a viabilidade dos tubérculos. Nos tratamentos sem palha, não houve diferença no crescimento da tiririca, quando a aplicação de vinhaça foi realizada antes ou depois do imazapic, sendo observado controle da espécie. Entretanto, quando em mistura com a vinhaça, o produto não controlou a tiririca. A presença da palha no tratamento onde foi aplicada vinhaça antes do herbicida reduziu a ação do imazapic, em comparação com aquele sem palha. O número de brotações e a altura média de plantas de tiririca foram maiores nos tratamentos com palha quando foi aplicado imazapic depois ou mesmo junto com a vinhaça. Sob palha, a aplicação de vinhaça após o herbicida ou em mistura com imazapic aumentou apenas o número de brotações.The objective of this paper was to evaluate sugarcane mulch residue, imazapic and vinasse application interaction on the initial development of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.. A greenhouse experiment was set up using pots filled with soil, arranged in a randomized complete blocks design, with four replications, with the following treatments: check; straw alone; vinasse alone; imazapic alone; straw + vinasse; straw + herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied before the herbicide; herbicide + vinasse applied together; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; straw + herbicide + vinasse applied after the herbicide; and straw + herbicide + vinasse applied together. Imazapic was applied at the rate of 122.5 g ha-1 and in the treatment in which vinasse was applied mixed with the herbicide, this compound was diluted in water until ¼ of the volume needed, the remaining volume being completed with vinasse. Imazapic was efficient for purple nutsedge control when compared to the check. Application of vinasse alone or straw alone stimulated the growth of this weed, though tuber viability was reduced. In the treatments without straw there was no difference in purple nutsedge development when vinasse was applied before or after imazapic, though control of this weed species was attained. However, when mixed with vinasse, the herbicide did not control the weed. The presence of straw in the treatment in which vinasse was applied before imazapic reduced the action of this weed killer when compared with the treatment without straw. The number of sprouts and height of the purple nutsedge plants were enhanced by the treatments with straw when imazapic was applied after or even mixed with vinasse. Only the number of sprouts increased when vinasse was applied after or mixed with the herbicide in soil covered with straw.

  13. Characterization of the microbial community involved in the suppression of Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown on rockwool

    OpenAIRE

    J. Postma; Geraats, B.P.J.; Pastoor, R.; J.D. van Elsas

    2005-01-01

    The root pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum induced lower levels of disease in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants on unsterilized, re-used rockwool slabs than on heat-sterilized, re-used rockwool. Several recolonization treatments of the sterilized rockwool enhanced the suppressiveness of the rockwool. Microbial community structures in the different rockwool treatments were investigated by plate counts on selective media. Disease suppressiveness in the different rockwool treatments showed the hig...

  14. Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) / Seletividade de herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar para imaturos de Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.N., Oliveira; M.R., Antigo; G.A., Carvalho; D.F., Glaeser.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas e reguladores de crescimento de plantas são frequentemente utilizados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Entretanto, o uso de compostos não seletivos pode prejudicar a eficiência de insetos benéficos no manejo integrado de pragas. Nesse contexto, avaliou-se o efeito desses produtos sobre as fas [...] es imaturas do parasitoide Trichogramma galloi. Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis contendo o parasitoide no período de ovo-larva e nas fases de pré-pupa e pupa foram imersos em caldas dos produtos avaliados (doses máximas recomendadas para a cana-de-açúcar), sendo eles: os herbicidas clomazone e diuron+hexazinone e os reguladores de crescimento de plantas sulfometuron-methyl e trinexapac-ethyl. As características biológicas avaliadas foram a emergência (gerações F1 e F2) e o número de ovos parasitados por T. galloi (F1). Os produtos foram classificados, conforme percentual de redução da emergência e parasitismo, em: inócuo (99%). Os compostos avaliados foram classificados como inócuos ou levemente prejudiciais aos imaturos de T. galloi e, por isso, devem ser preferidos, visando à preservação dessa espécie de parasitoide em programas de manejo da cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products o [...] n the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test solutions of the following pesticides (maximum recommended doses for sugarcane): herbicides clomazone and diuron + hexazinone, and plant growth regulators trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl. The biological properties evaluated were emergence (F1 and F2) and number of eggs parasitized by T. galloi (F1). The products were classified according to percentage of reduction in emergence and parasitism: harmless (99%). The pesticides evaluated were considered to be harmless or slightly harmful to immature T. galloi and, thus, their use should be preferred for preserving this parasitoid species in sugarcane management programs.

  15. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Elicits a Sugarcane Defense Response Against a Pathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas albilineans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arencibia, Ariel D; Vinagre, Fabiano; Estevez, Yandi; Bernal, Aydiloide; Perez, Juana; Cavalcanti, Janaina; Santana, Ignacio; Hemerly, Adriana S

    2006-09-01

    A new role for the plant growth-promoting nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been identified and characterized while it is involved in the sugarcane-Xanthomonas albilineans pathogenic interactions. Living G.diazotrophicus possess and/or produce elicitor molecules which activate the sugarcane defense response resulting in the plant resistance to X. albilineans, in this particular case controlling the pathogen transmission to emerging agamic shoots. A total of 47 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were identified by cDNA-AFLP. Transcripts showed significant homologies to genes of the ethylene signaling pathway (26%), proteins regulates by auxins (9%), beta-1,3 Glucanase proteins (6%) and ubiquitin genes (4%), all major signaling mechanisms. Results point toward a form of induction of systemic resistance in sugarcane-G. diazotrophicus interactions which protect the plant against X. albilineans attack. PMID:19516988

  16. Influência da densidade do solo infestado por nematoide no desenvolvimento inicial de cana-de-açúcar / Influence of density of soil infested with nematode on initial growth of sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmem C. M. de, Sousa; Elvira M. R., Pedrosa; Mario M., Rolim; João V., Pereira Filho; Marcela A. L. M. de, Souza.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Em áreas cultivadas com cana-de-açúcar no Nordeste do Brasil, a compactação do solo e a presença de altas densidades populacionais de nematoides, principalmente Meloidogyne spp. restringem severamente a produtividade agrícola. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis de [...] densidade do solo infestado por nematoides da espécie M. incognita no desenvolvimento inicial da cana-de-açúcar, variedade RB 863129, em condições de casa de vegetação. As avaliações, realizadas 90 dias após a infestação do solo, se fundamentaram na altura da planta, diâmetro do colmo, número de folhas, biomassa fresca das raízes, biomassa fresca e biomassa seca da parte aérea, número de ovos do nematoide por grama de raiz. O aumento dos níveis de compactação do solo de 1,65 para 1,82 kg dm-3 proporcionou redução na multiplicação de M. incognita e aumento no comprimento do colmo da cana-de-açúcar mas não afetou as outras variáveis de desenvolvimento da planta. Abstract in english In cultivated areas of sugarcane in Northeastern Brazil, soil compaction and infestation of nematodes, mainly Meloidogyne spp., severely restrict crop production. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of four levels of density of soil infested with nematodes of the species M. incognita in t [...] he early development of sugarcane variety RB 863129 in greenhouse conditions. Evaluations were carried out 90 days after soil infestation, based on plant height, stalk diameter, number of leaves, root and shoot fresh biomass, shoot dry biomass and number of nematode eggs. The increase in soil compaction level from 1.65 to 1.82 kg dm-3 decreased M. incognita reproduction and increased sugarcane stalk length, but it did not affect the other plant development variables.

  17. Cultivation of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ítalo Thiago Silveira Rocha, Matos; Luciana Araújo, Cassa-Barbosa; Pedro Queiroz Costa, Neto; Spartaco Astolfi, Filho.

    2012-01-15

    Full Text Available Background: The yeast strain IB09 was isolated from the gut of Calosoma sp. (Carabidae, Coleoptera, Insecta) that were collected in the central Amazon rainforest. First, tolerance of the strain to ethanol and heat was tested. Then, IB09 was cultivated in a medium using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulos [...] ic hydrolyzate as a carbon source, and cell growth (OD600), specific growth rate (µMAX, h-1), biomass yield (Y B, g.g-1) and relative sugar consumption (RSC, %) were evaluated. Taxonomic identification was determined by sequencing the ITS1 region of IB09 and comparing it to sequences obtained from the GenBank database (NCBI). Results: IB09 showed both ethanol tolerance and thermotolerance. Relative sugar consumption indicated that IB09 was able to perform saccharification of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, increasing the total reducing sugar concentration by approximately 50%. The ?MAX value obtained was 0,20, indicating that cell growth was slow under the assessed conditions. Biomass yield was 0,701 g per g of consumed sugar, which is relatively high when compared with other findings in the literature. After 120 hrs of cultivation, 80,1% of total reducing sugar had been consumed. Sequencing of the ITS1 region identified IB09 as Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans. Conclusion: This is the first report to document this species in the central Amazon rainforest at this host. Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans has great biotechnological potential for use in the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and for biomass production with this substrate as carbon source.

  18. Yield and quality of induced mutants in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one near-normal and 4 drastic mutants isolated from mutagen-treated (X-rays, gamma rays and chemical mutagens) sugarcane variety 'Co 419' were tested for yield and juice quality. Mutants '368. and '419/1' had higher yield of cane and higher commercial cane sugar than 'Co 419'. Several mutants, especially the drastic mutants, had higher percentage of sucrose than 'Co 419'. The types with higher percentage of sucrose occurred much more frequently than the higher-yielding ones, indicating more frequent occurrence of disturbances in growth, resulting in diversion of more sucrose to storage than to the apical meristem. (auth.)

  19. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  20. Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura

    OpenAIRE

    Durange, Josilaine A. C.; Santos, Margareth R. L.; Pereira, Marcelo M.; Fernandes Jr, Luiz A. P.; Souza, Marcio N.; Mendes, Anderson N.; Mesa, Liena M.; Sa?nchez, Caio G.; Sanchez, Elisabete M. S.; Pe?rez, Juan M. M.; Carvalho, Nake?dia M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500°C, in presence of air. Sugarcane in natura was also pyrolysed as a model for comparison, in order to determine the viability of processing different sources of raw biomass. ...

  1. Physical Properties of Sugarcane Pertaining to the Design of a Whole Stalk Sugarcane Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joby Bastian *

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane crop plays a vital role in nation’s economy, being one of the most commercialised crops in India. The production cost of sugarcane is increasing year after year which reduces the profit margin of sugarcane growers and sugar industry. Harvesting is one of the key operations responsible for increase in sugarcane production cost. Hence a tractor mounted whole stalk sugarcane harvester suitable for small and medium farmers is highly essential. The physical properties of sugarcane pertaining to de-topping, de-trashing and conveyance are studied for the designing of a whole stalk sugarcane harvester. The various physical parameters for the major varieties of sugarcane are measured in the farmers’ field. The farmers’ grow CO 86032 sugarcane at a row spacing of 75 to 100cm, and the spacing is increased to 150 and 200cm wherever harvesting is done by self propelled combine harvesters. The average number of cane per meter varied from 27 to 30. The length of the millable cane varies between 1200mm and 2700mm. The maximum and minimum diameters are 40 and 20mm respectively. The trash content at the time of harvesting was 38.56 percent where the regular de-trashing processes were completely skipped by farmers

  2. Investigations on Sugarcane De-Trashing Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joby Bastian, B. Shridar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is the second most important industrial crop in India grown in 4.4 million hectares with an average productivity of about 68 tonnes per hectare (Anon.2013. To mitigate the labour scarcity and ensure timely operations mechanization is a must. Mechanisation will also improve the overall energy use efficiency of sugarcane based farming (Duttamajumder et al. 2011. About 45-48% of the total cost of cultivation is accountable to harvesting operation in manual harvesting. Mechanisation of harvesting operations is imperative in increasing the cost effectiveness of sugarcane production system.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

  4. Modelling response patterns of physico-chemical indicators during high-rate composting of green waste for suppression of Pythium ultimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Martin, Chaney C G; Bekele, Isaac; Eudoxie, Gaius D; Bristol, Dexter; Brathwaite, Richard A I; Campo, Kenia-Rosa

    2014-01-01

    High-rate composting studies on green waste, i.e. banana leaves (BL) and lawn clippings (LC), were conducted in 0.25-m3 rotary barrel composters to evaluate and model changes in key physico-chemical parameters during composting. Time to compost maturity and antagonistic effects and relationships of composts against Pythium ultimum were also investigated. Higher temperatures were achieved in LC compost (LCC), which did not translate to higher total organic carbon (TOC) loss but resulted in lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and a more mature compost. With the exception of electrical conductivity (EC), net decreases were observed in pH, TOC and C:N across compost types. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) showed a net increase in LCC and a net decrease in BLC. With the exception of TOC and pH, the results showed that compost type and time had a significant effect on the respective TKN, EC and C:N models. Compost temperature and TOC were best described by the critical exponential and rectangular hyperbola functions, respectively. Whereas TKN, C:N and pH were described using double Fourier functions and EC using Fourier functions. Composts achieved maturity within 19 days and significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum. Bacterial population was positively related to growth inhibition (GI) across compost types, whereas total microbial population had a positive relationship with GI in LCC. Evidence suggests that multiple groups of microorganisms contributed to GI through antibiosis and competition for resources. Composts were determined to be suitable for use as components of plant growth substrates based on compost maturity indices. PMID:24645438

  5. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ivan G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  6. Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.H.P., Ramos; H.S., Selistre-de-Araujo.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metaloproteases exercem papéis importantes em muitos processos fisiológicos em mamíferos tais como migração celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas estão envolvidas também na pato-fisiologia de um grande número de doenças humanas como hipertensão e câ [...] ncer. Muitas bactérias patogênicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactérias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presença e a caracterização de metaloproteases em plantas estão pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi pesquisada a biblioteca de cDNA de etiquetas de seqüências expressas da cana-de-açúcar (SUCEST) para identificar, por homologia com seqüências depositadas em outros bancos de dados, famílias gênicas de metaloproteases expressas em diferentes condições. Foram utilizadas seqüências protéicas de Arabidopis thaliana e Glycine max e seqüências de nucleotídeos de Sorghum bicolor. Regiões conservadas correspondentes aos diferentes domínios e motivos de seqüência de metaloproteases foram identificadas nos cDNAs de cana-de-açúcar para caracterizar cada grupo de enzimas. Pelo menos quatro classes de metaloproteases foram identificadas na cana-deaçúcar, a saber, metaloproteases de matriz extracelular, zincinas, inverzincinas e metaloproteases dependentes de ATP. Cada uma destas classes foi analisada quanto a sua expressão nas diferentes condições e tecidos utilizados na construção das bibliotecas de cDNA. Abstract in english Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many b [...] acterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.

  7. EL ANÁLISIS DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES EN LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE SISTEMAS AGROECOLÓGICOS PARA EL MANEJO DE RIZOBACTERIAS PROMOTORAS DEL CRECIMIENTO VEGETAL PARA EL CULTIVO DE LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR / MAIN COMPONENTS ANALYSIS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF AGROECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING RHIZOBACTERIA IN THE GROWTH OF SUGARCANE CULTIVARS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Doris, Torriente Díaz; Verena, Torres Cárdenas.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El Análisis de Componentes Principales constituye una herramienta estadística que tradicionalmente ha sido poco utilizada por los investigadores de la Rama Agrícola. En esta investigación se muestran las ventajas de su uso sobre otros métodos estadísticos y su utilidad en la interpretación de sistem [...] as alternativos de nutrición de las plantas. Se experimentó sobre suelos Cambisoles en la cepa de retoños de caña de azúcar de más de tres cortes, evaluando el comportamiento de la planta ante diferentes formas de traslado al campo de las Rizobacterias Promotoras del Crecimiento Vegetal (líquido y sólidas). Las formas sólidas son soportadas en cachaza. Se obtuvo como resultados fundamentales que las variables longitud tallo, grosor del tallo, ancho de la hoja, no de hojas, área foliar entre otras, fueron las que más aportaron al sistema evaluado. Además se concluyó que las variables del tallo dentro de los sistemas biológicos como modo de nutrición de las plantas aportan mayor variabilidad a los indicadores productivos. Abstract in english The Main Component Analysis constitutes a statistical tool that has traditionally been little used by agricultural researchers. This study shows the advantages of its use over other statistical methods and its usefulness in the interpretation of alternative nutrition systems in sugarcane. The experi [...] ment was carried out on Cambisol soils in the strain of regrowths of more than three cuttings, evaluating the performance of the plant before different transference forms of the Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria to the field (liquid and solid). The solid forms are based on peat and sugarcane filtered mud. The main results obtained indicated that leaf length, stem width, leaf width, number of leaves, leaf area among others were the variables with the highest contribution to the evaluated system. It was also concluded that the biological systems for the nutrition of sugar cane contribute higher variability to the productive indicators.

  8. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes agricultural and industrial activities, distribution, cogeneration of electricity and steam, ethanol use during car driving, and industrial by-products recycling to irrigate sugarcane fields. The use of sugarcane by the ethanol agribusiness is one of the foremost financial resources for the economy of the Brazilian rural area, which occupies extensive areas and provides far-reaching potentials for renewable fuel production. But, there are environmental impacts during the fuel ethanol lifecycle, which this paper intents to analyze, including addressing the main activities responsible for such impacts and indicating some suggestions to minimize the impacts. This study is classified as an applied quantitative research, and the technical procedure to achieve the exploratory goal is based on bibliographic revision, documental research, primary data collection, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products. The lifecycle impact assessment (LCIA) covers the following emission-related impact categories: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. The results of the fuel ethanol LCI demonstrate that even though alcohol is considered a renewable fuel because it comes from biomass (sugarcane), it uses a high quantity and diversity of nonrenewable resources over its lifecycle. The input of renewable resources is also high mainly because of the water consumption in the industrial phases, due to the sugarcane washing process. During the lifecycle of alcohol, there is a surplus of electric energy due to the cogeneration activity. Another focus point is the quantity of emissions to the atmosphere and the diversity of the substances emitted. Harvesting is the unit process that contributes most to global warming. For photochemical ozone formation, harvesting is also the activity with the strongest contributions due to the burning in harvesting and the emissions from using diesel fuel. The acidification impact potential is mostly due to the NOx emitted by the combustion of ethanol during use, on account of the sulfuric acid use in the industrial process and because of the NOx emitted by the burning in harvesting. The main consequence of the intensive use of fertilizers to the field is the high nutrient enrichment impact potential associated with this activity. The main contributions to the ecotoxicity impact potential come from chemical applications during crop growth. The activity that presents the highest impact potential for human toxicity (HT) via air and via soil is harvesting. Via water, HT potential is high in harvesting due to lubricant use on the machines. The normalization results indicate that nutrient enrichment, acidification, and human toxicity via air and via water are the most significant impact potentials for the lifecycle of fuel ethanol. The fuel ethanol lifecycle contributes negatively to all the impact potentials analyzed: global warming, ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. Concerning energy consumption, it consumes less energy than its own production largely because of the electricity cogeneration system, but this process is highly dependent on water. The main causes for the biggest impact potential indicated by the normalization is the nutrient application, the burning in harvesting and the use of diesel fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agric

  9. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, R.; Mishra, A. K.; Singh, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years...

  10. Investigations on Sugarcane De-Trashing Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Joby Bastian, B. Shridar

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is the second most important industrial crop in India grown in 4.4 million hectares with an average productivity of about 68 tonnes per hectare (Anon.2013). To mitigate the labour scarcity and ensure timely operations mechanization is a must. Mechanisation will also improve the overall energy use efficiency of sugarcane based farming (Duttamajumder et al. 2011). About 45-48% of the total cost of cultivation is accountable to harvesting operation in manual...

  11. ?-D-Glucan nanoparticle pre-treatment induce resistance against Pythium aphanidermatum infection in turmeric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusuya, Sathiyanarayanan; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2015-03-01

    In vitro experiments were carried out to test the efficacy of GNP (?-D-glucan nanoparticle prepared from mycelium of Pythium aphanidermatum) against rhizome rot disease of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) caused by P. aphanidermatum. GNP (0.1%, w/v) was applied to rhizome prior to inoculation with P. aphanidermatum (0 h, 24 h). Cell death, activities of defense enzymes such as peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, protease inhibitor and ?-1,3 glucanase were monitored. Prior application of GNP (24 h) to turmeric rhizome effectively controls P. aphanidermatum infection. The increase in defense enzyme activities occurred more rapidly and was enhanced in P. aphanidermatum infected rhizomes that were pre-treated with GNP. Pre-treatment also induced new isoforms of defense enzymes. Increased activities of defense enzymes suggest that they play a key role in restricting the development of disease symptoms in the rhizomes as evidenced by a reduction in cell death. The results demonstrated that GNP can be used as a potential agent for control of rhizome rot disease. PMID:25524742

  12. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  13. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  14. Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

  15. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  16. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production

  17. Gamma irradiation effects on sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) clone Co-547

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute gamma irradiation effects (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kiloroentgens) on sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) clone Co-547 setts studied through the cane grand growth period included bud radiosensitivity estimation and evaluation of the magnitude of induced genetic variability. Seedling performance D50 ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 kR over the grand growth period (52 to 172 days from sett planting) and between 2.0 to 3.0 kR from the planr survival data. Cane yield decreased significantly from 3.0 kR, predominantly influenced by the plant survival at maturity. Variants were selected for increased internode thickness, higher tiller number and rind colour changes that need to be verified in subsequent vegetative generations. These results suggest that variability can be induced in a high frequency in sugarcane following sett irradiation. However, in order to maintain a positive high yield/optimum sugar recovery/population size correlation, the treatment limits should not exceed 3.0 kR when specific attributes need to be introduced into clones. (author)

  18. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico / Root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum of lettuce cultivars produced in a hydroponic system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zayame Vegette, Pinto; Matheus Aparecido Pereira, Cipriano; José Abrahão Haddad, Galvão; Wagner, Bettiol; Flávia Rodrigues Alves, Patrício; Amaury da Silva dos, Santos.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, c [...] ausada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica) e lisa (Regina e Elisa), infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique), sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano. Abstract in english Lettuce root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and other Pythium species is the main disease in hydroponic systems in Brazil. The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of four commercial lettuce cultivars as to their sensitivity to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum in hydroponic systems. [...] Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing water-agar medium and seedlings of the crisp head lettuce cultivars (Vera and Verônica) and leafy lettuce cultivars (Regina and Elisa), infested or not with the pathogen. With the same cultivars, four other experiments were carried out in hydroponic systems (Nutrient Film Technique), two in a shaded greenhouse and the other two in a conventional greenhouse. Seedlings infected or not with P. aphanidermatum were transplanted to hydroponic systems infested or not with the pathogen. The disease severity and the plant development were evaluated. All cultivars were susceptible to root rot in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The shading did not reduce root rot in the lettuce cultivars in hydroponic system. The cultivar Regina showed higher shoot and root dry mass in the presence or absence of the pathogen, constituting thus the most suitable cultivar for hydroponic systems during the hottest period of the year.

  19. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico Root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum of lettuce cultivars produced in a hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica e lisa (Regina e Elisa, infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique, sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.Lettuce root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and other Pythium species is the main disease in hydroponic systems in Brazil. The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of four commercial lettuce cultivars as to their sensitivity to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum in hydroponic systems. Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing water-agar medium and seedlings of the crisp head lettuce cultivars (Vera and Verônica and leafy lettuce cultivars (Regina and Elisa, infested or not with the pathogen. With the same cultivars, four other experiments were carried out in hydroponic systems (Nutrient Film Technique, two in a shaded greenhouse and the other two in a conventional greenhouse. Seedlings infected or not with P. aphanidermatum were transplanted to hydroponic systems infested or not with the pathogen. The disease severity and the plant development were evaluated. All cultivars were susceptible to root rot in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The shading did not reduce root rot in the lettuce cultivars in hydroponic system. The cultivar Regina showed higher shoot and root dry mass in the presence or absence of the pathogen, constituting thus the most suitable cultivar for hydroponic systems during the hottest period of the year.

  20. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Suhail Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%, catalytic activity (13%, cell growth (10% and transport related proteins (6%. A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane.

  1. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail

    2014-06-09

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70. kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. © 2014 The Authors.

  2. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucymara F., Agnez-Lima; Sílvia R. Batistuzzo de, Medeiros; Bruno S., Maggi; Giovanna A.S., Quaresma.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Danos no DNA podem ser induzidos por um grande número de agentes físicos e químicos presentes no ambiente, como também por compostos produzidos pelo próprio metabolismo celular. Estes danos podem interferir com processos celulares como replicação e transcrição, levando a morte celular e/ou mutações. [...] Os baixos níveis de mutação nas células são devidos à presença de vias enzimáticas, que reparam os danos no DNA. Diversos genes de reparo de DNA têm sido clonados e seus produtos caracterizados, principalmente em bactérias, leveduras e mamíferos. O interesse no estudo de mecanismos de reparo de DNA advém de seu envolvimento com a proteção da integridade da informação genética. A alta conservação observada para a maioria dos genes relacionados ao reparo de DNA, especialmente em eucariotos, aponta para sua importância para a manutenção da vida na terra. Em plantas, o conhecimento sobre os mecanismos de reparo de DNA é ainda reduzido. Os primeiros genes de reparo foram recentemente clonados e o mecanismo de ação de seus produtos está por ser caracterizado. Nosso objetivo neste trabalho de data mining foi identificar, no banco de dados gerados pelo projeto Genoma da Cana de Açúcar (Sugarcane Expressed Tag Project-SUCEST), genes relacionados ao reparo por excisão de bases (BER). Esta busca foi feita através do programa tblastn. Em cana de açúcar, foram identificados clusters homólogos para a maioria das proteínas BER analisadas e um alto grau de conservação foi observado. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com proteínas BER de Arabidopsis thaliana. Para alguns homólogos BER de cana de açúcar, a presença de mais de uma forma de mRNA é possível, como definido pela ocorrência de mais de um cluster homólogo. Abstract in english DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low fr [...] equency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals) have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  3. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan G., Maia; Adilson, Leite.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A N-glicosilação é uma das principais modificações pós-traducionais, sendo responsável por alterações na conformação, estabilidade e conseqüentemente na funcionalidade de proteínas em eucariotos. Com a finalidade de melhor compreender a via de N-glicosilação em plantas foi realizada uma prospecção n [...] o banco de seqüências expressas do projeto genoma da cana de açúcar (SUCEST). Foram identificadas noventa seqüências cujos produtos gênicos apresentam alto grau de similaridade com enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese e processamento de N-glicanos. Dos vinte e três genes da via de N-glicosilação previamente descritos em diferentes espécies, vinte e um foram detectados em cana de açúcar. Abstract in english The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mam [...] mals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  4. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous productigar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0.06 and 0.04 USD, respectively. Cuba's potential sugarcane cogeneration capacity is estimated to be 9006 GWh/year. Investment-profit analyses are offered for two scenarios: annexing a 300,000 l/day distillery to a sugar mill, and enlarging the cogeneration capacity of a 7000 ton/day mill. Added production cost/added-value analysis was carried out. The main environmental issues associated with sugarcane-based fuel production are also analyzed

  5. Characterization and evaluation of coconut aroma produced by Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 in solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hoda Hanem Mohamed, Fadel; Manal Gomaa, Mahmoud; Mohsen Mohamed Selim, Asker; Shereen Nazeh, Lotfy.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Sugarcane bagasse was shown to be an adequate substrate for the growth and aroma production by Trichoderma species. In the present work the ability of Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 to produce high yield of coconut aroma in solid state fermentation (SSF) by using sugarcane bagasse as solid s [...] ubstrate was evaluated. The produced aroma was characterized. Results Total carbohydrates comprised the highest content (43.9% w/w) compared with the other constituents in sugarcane bagasse. The sensory and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the highest odor intensity and maximum yield of volatiles were perceived at the 5th d of induction period. The unsaturated lactone, 6-pentyl-?-pyrone (6-PP), was the major identified volatile compound. Saturated lactones, ?-octalactone, ?-nonalactone, ?-undecalactone, ?-dodecalactone and ?-dodecalactone, were also identified in the coconut aroma produced during the induction period (12 d). A quite correlation was found between the composition and odor profile of the produced aroma. The effect of varying the concentration of sugarcane bagasse on 6-PP production and biomass growth was evaluated. The results revealed high 6-PP production at 4.5 g sugarcane bagasse whereas the biomass showed significant (P

  6. Differentiation Between Two Isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum Isolated from Diseased Plants in Two Different Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani M.A. Abdelzaher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the differences between two distinct isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, the diseased organisms of wheat and lettuce in agricultural fields in each of Egypt and Germany, respectively. Morphological study indicated that the Egyptian and German isolates comprised a single taxon, P. ultimum var. ultimum, by the current taxonomical keys. The isolates were morphologically distinguished as having smaller or larger sexual organs by the sizes of their antheridia and oogonia. The German isolate grew faster in the lower temperature range of 4-15°C whereas the Egyptian isolate grew faster in the higher temperature range of 25-37°C. Similarities in the sequence of the r-DNA-ITS including the 5.8S rDNA demonstrated evident genetic similarity at the species level between the two isolates and should be used for confirmation of identification of species of Pythium. The two isolates were not distinguishable by their pathogenicity to cucumber seedlings. The effect of temperature, hydrogen ion concentration and osmotic potential on oospores production and germination were studied. Oospores production and germination showed a similar manner, however, the Egyptian isolate produced more oospores than the German isolate. Identification of the Egyptian and German isolates of Pythium ultimum var. ultimum to the species level can be done using sequencing of r-DNA-ITS including the 5.8S rDNA, however, some morphological and physiological differences might present within the same species. This might be attributed to the effect of environmental factors and cultural conditions.

  7. Bactérias promotoras de crescimento e adubação nitrogenada no crescimento inicial de cana-de-açúcar proveniente de mudas pré-brotadas / Plant growth-promoting bacteria and nitrogen fertilization effect on the initial growth of sugarcane from pre-sprouted seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucas Augusto da Silva, Gírio; Fábio Luis Ferreira, Dias; Veronica Massena, Reis; Segundo, Urquiaga; Nivaldo, Schultz; Denizart, Bolonhezi; Miguel Angelo, Mutton.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento sobre a formação de mudas pré-brotadas de cana-de-açúcar, oriundas de gemas individualizadas, e quantificar o crescimento inicial dessas mudas, em associação à aplicação de nitrogênio, em solo de ba [...] ixa fertilidade. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos: um em casa de vegetação, com duração de 50 dias, e o outro, em vasos no campo, com duração de 180 dias. Em ambos os experimentos, utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2x3, no primeiro experimento - com ou sem inoculante, e com três quantidades de reserva nas gemas -, e 2x2x4, no segundo - com ou sem inoculante, com ou sem nitrogênio, avaliados em quatro épocas: aos 45, 90, 135 e 180 dias. O inoculante produziu efeito na fase inicial de crescimento das mudas pré-brotadas, com aumento na velocidade de brotação e no acúmulo da matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea, independentemente da quantidade de reserva da gema. No segundo experimento, o inoculante promoveu ganhos no crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, até os 180 dias após o transplantio, com aumento em altura, perfilhamento, diâmetro do colmo, produção da matéria seca de colmos e de palha e do comprimento radicular, independentemente da aplicação de nitrogênio. O inoculante tem efeito fisiológico positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria on the formation of sugarcane pre-sprouted seedlings, originated from individual buds, and to quantify the initial growth of these seedlings in association with nitrogen application, in a l [...] ow fertility soil. Two experiments were carried out: one in greenhouse conditions, with a time span of 50 days, and the other in vases under field conditions, with a time span of 180 days. In both experiments, a randomized complete block design was used with a factorial arrangement of 2x3, in the first experiment - with or without inoculation, and with three quantities of bud reserve -, and of 2x2x4, in the second one - with or without inoculation, with or without nitrogen, evaluated in four times: at 45, 90, 135, and 180 days. The inoculant had effect on the initial growth of the pre-sprouted seedlings, increasing sprouting speed and dry matter accumulation on roots and shoots, regardless of the bud reserve amount. In the second experiment, the inoculant increased the initial growth of shoots and root system up to 180 days after transplantation, increasing height, tillering, stalk diameter, dry matter production of stalks and straw, and root length, regardless of nitrogen application. The inoculant has a positive physiological effect on plant growth.

  8. Development of cassava plants and its mycorrhizal association in soil supplemented with sugarcane agroindustrial residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Messias Leal Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic agroindustrial residues on agriculture can be one way to improve the development and chemical composition of plants, reducing the cost with chemical fertilizers and impacts generated by the excessive use of them. Sugarcane agroindustrial residue has been generated in high quantity in Brazilian semiarid region and can be applied to cassava crop to improve its growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of application of sugarcane agroindustrial residue on the vegetative development, chemical composition and mycorrhizal association of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta var. Engana ladrão. It was performed an experiment in greenhouse with completely randomized design with four treatments of addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue (0, 5, 10 and 15% with nine replicates. The addition of sugarcane agroindustrial residue increased fresh dry root biomass, leaf area, crude protein and mineral matter, without reducing the mycorrhizal colonization and glomerospores number. This type of residue can be one alternative to improve the nutritional value of these fodder.

  9. Evolution of the sugarcane cultivation in the Midwest Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Airton Wissmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of sugarcane cultivation in Midwestern Brazil (Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2003/04 and 2013/14. It classifies the mesoregions of each State according to the intensity of growth (expansion or retraction of planted area which is measured by growth rates quartiles calculations according to Feltre and Paulillo´s (2012 adapted methodology. The results reveal the existence of geographical proximity between mesoregions in Goiás and Mato Grosso with high growth rates, whereas two areas with negative or insignificant rates, one in Mato Grosso and the other in Mato Grosso do Sul, are located in areas subject to rules of Agri-Ecological Zoning of Sugarcane (ZAE-cana and therefore directly impacted by those regulations. In Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul, three mesoregions exhibit high or moderate growth, apparently explainable due to the proximity of the state of São Paulo, the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil.JEL-Code | O13; Q13; R11.

  10. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications.

  11. Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Rodrigo D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The biochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.

  12. EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum) / EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum) / EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LILIANA, SERNA-COCK; CAMILO, ARIAS-GARCÍA; LEIDY JOHANA, VALENCIA HERNANDEZ.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 uso de microrganismos como fertilizante, tem sido demonstrado gue têm efeitos benéficos no crescimento das plantas e são considerados uma alternativa ao uso de fertilizantes guímicos, no entanto, cada microrganismo possui diferentes efeitos benéficos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da aplicaçã [...] o de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum e Trichoderma lignorum no crescimento de cana-de-açucar da variedade CC 934418 plantadas em vasos. 0 crescimento das plantas foi medido em termos do diâmetro do caule, comprimento de caule e da raiz e número de folhas e raízes nos dias 15, 30 e 45 após a semeadura. 0 crescimento da planta mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal. Abstract in spanish El uso de microorganismos como fertilizante, ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos sobre el crecimiento de plantas y son una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes guímicos, sin embargo, cada microorganismo difiere en sus efectos benéficos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de microo [...] rganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum y Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento en maceta de plantas de caña de azúcar variedad CC 934418. El crecimiento de las plantas se midió en términos de diámetro del tallo, longitud de tallo y raíces, y número de hojas y raíces a los 15, 30 y 45 días de la siembra. El crecimiento de las plantas mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. Los microorganismos fertilizantes mostraron efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de caña de azúcar, siendo Azospirillum brasilense y Trichoderma lignorum los microorganismos gue ejercieron mayor efecto sobre el diámetro del tallo y los sistemas radical y foliar de la planta. Se observaron los efectos beneficiosos de Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento de la hoja. Este es un nuevo aporte científico, ya que esta especie no ha sido reportada como promotora de crecimiento vegetal. Abstract in english The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azo [...] tobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

  13. EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA SERNA-COCK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de microorganismos como fertilizante, ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos sobre el crecimiento de plantas y son una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes guímicos, sin embargo, cada microorganismo difiere en sus efectos benéficos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum y Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento en maceta de plantas de caña de azúcar variedad CC 934418. El crecimiento de las plantas se midió en términos de diámetro del tallo, longitud de tallo y raíces, y número de hojas y raíces a los 15, 30 y 45 días de la siembra. El crecimiento de las plantas mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. Los microorganismos fertilizantes mostraron efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de caña de azúcar, siendo Azospirillum brasilense y Trichoderma lignorum los microorganismos gue ejercieron mayor efecto sobre el diámetro del tallo y los sistemas radical y foliar de la planta. Se observaron los efectos beneficiosos de Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento de la hoja. Este es un nuevo aporte científico, ya que esta especie no ha sido reportada como promotora de crecimiento vegetal.0 uso de microrganismos como fertilizante, tem sido demonstrado gue têm efeitos benéficos no crescimento das plantas e são considerados uma alternativa ao uso de fertilizantes guímicos, no entanto, cada microrganismo possui diferentes efeitos benéficos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da aplicação de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum e Trichoderma lignorum no crescimento de cana-de-açucar da variedade CC 934418 plantadas em vasos. 0 crescimento das plantas foi medido em termos do diâmetro do caule, comprimento de caule e da raiz e número de folhas e raízes nos dias 15, 30 e 45 após a semeadura. 0 crescimento da planta mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal.The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

  14. Supplementation of sugarcane bagasse with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) spawn production

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Ivan Henrique; Monteiro Antonio Carlos; Machado José Octavio; Barbosa José Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the myceliation rate, mycelial vigor and "estimated biomass" of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, grown on a sugarcane bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for spawn production. The proportions of rice bran used were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse) and the sugarcane molasses concentrations tested were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran). The mycel...

  15. Evaluation of seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum on cucumber seeds against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coating formulations of Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated on cucumber seeds to control pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum in greenhouse studies. Results showed that coating formulation H reduced the disease incidence significantly, and had the potential for commer...

  16. Pythium phragmitis sp. nov., a new species close to P. arrhenomanes as a pathogen of common reed (Phragmites australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechwatal, Jan; Wielgoss, Anna; Mendgen, Kurt

    2005-12-01

    During a study on the occurrence and pathogenicity of oomycetes in the reed-belt (Phragmites australis) of Lake Constance (Germany), a new Pythium resembling the important cereal pathogen species complex P. arrhenomanes/P. graminicola was consistently isolated from necrotic mature reed leaves and reed rhizosphere samples. The new species proved to be significantly more aggressive towards reed leaves and seedlings in vitro than related species. It is characterised by filamentous, inflated sporangia and plerotic oospores with usually more than one antheridium. ITS and cox II sequence data indicate this new species shares a common ancestor with P. arrhenomanes, but the sequence differences are clearly consistent with a divergence of the two taxa and with P. phragmitis being a distinct species. ITS 1 and 2 of 15 isolates of the taxon consistently differed from P. arrhenomanes by 13 positions. Sequence analyses of the cox II gene confirmed the new species' phylogenetic position. This paper gives a formal description of the taxon as P. phragmitis sp. nov., providing information on morphology, ecology and pathogenicity in comparison to related species. As indicated by the close association to Phragmites australis, the high aggressiveness towards reed leaves and seedlings, and the abundance in the investigated stands, Pythium phragmitis might act as a reed pathogen of considerable importance, in particular under flooding situations. PMID:16353634

  17. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  18. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    OpenAIRE

    Neves Anna; Amaral Gilda; Santos Eidy; Coelho Ana; Sachetto-Martins Gilberto; Alves-Ferreira Marcio; Macedo José; Seibel Luiz; Lemos Melissa; Guillobel Heloisa; Gonzalez Paula; Branco Alan; Ferreira Beatriz; Martin Quintana Flores Victor; de Souza Filho Gonçalo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of...

  19. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group; Esterilizacao quimica da broca da cana-de-acucar Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) atraves de isca com melaco e inseticidas do grupo dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazaki, Catia Sumie Shimatai. E-mail csazaki@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80%. (author)

  20. Uso de los grados días acumulados en la estimación de la evapotranspiración de la caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. híbrido) para ciclos de crecimiento monomodal / Using degree days accumulated by monomodal growth cycles in estimating evapotranspiration of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maira, Ferrer Reyes; Guillermo, Gálvez; Carlos, Lamela; Gilda, Jiménez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados preliminares sobre la relación obtenida, entre los grados días acumulados, la evapotranspiración y los rendimientos agrícolas de la caña de azúcar. Se obtuvo una correlación lineal, entre la evapotranspiración y los grados días acumulados por ciclos de crecimiento monomodal. [...] Se realizó un ensayo para estimar los rendimientos agrícolas en siete Unidades Empresariales Básicas (UEB) de Cuba. Los rendimientos potenciales fueron determinados a partir de los grados días. Estos variaron entre 160,2 y 205,7 t de caña.ha-1, los que indican las posibilidades potenciales de este cultivo. En cinco de las siete empresas, el modelo utilizado subestimó los rendimientos agrícolas en porcentajes desde 8,52 (UEB ?Jesús Rabí? hasta 28,81 % (UEB Brasil). El rendimiento agrícola fue sobreestimado en dos UEB ?Primero de Enero? y ?Argeo Martínez? en 8,20 y 13,98 %, respectivamente. Los resultados permiten ratificar el posible uso de los grados días como similar de la evapotranspiración acumulada, para la predicción del rendimiento agrícola, así como cubrir una primera etapa de carácter cuantitativo a nivel general, considerando a la caña de azúcar como especie individual y preparar condiciones para el arribo a una etapa más cualitativa en la predicción de los rendimientos a nivel de variedades comerciales en este cultivo Abstract in english Presents preliminary results about the relationship obtained among degree days, evapotranspiration and agricultural yields of sugarcane. A linear correlation between evapotranspiration and degrees days accumulated by monomodal growth cycles was obtained. A trial to estimate agricultural yields in se [...] ven basic business units (BSU) of Cuba was conducted. Potential yields were determined from the degree days. These ranged from 160,2 to 205,7 t cane.ha-1, indicating the potential possibilities of this crop. In five of the seven companies, used model underestimated farm yields in percentages from 8,52 (UEB ?Jesús Rabí? to 28,81 % (UEB Brazil). Agricultural performance was overestimated in two UEB ?Primero de Enero? and ?Argeo Martinez? at 8,20 and 13,98 %, respectively. The results obtained allow ratify the possible use of the degree days as similar from the accumulated evapotranspiration, for the prediction of agricultural performance, as well as cover the first stage of quantitative character at a general level, whereas the sugarcane as individual species and prepare conditions for the arrival to a more qualitative stage in the yields prediction at of commercial level of varieties in this crop

  1. Solar UV-B Radiation Inhibits the Growth of Antarctic Terrestrial Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Kevin A; Lawley, Blair; Newsham, Kevin K.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the effects of solar radiation, and UV-B in particular, on the growth of Antarctic terrestrial fungi. The growth responses to solar radiation of five fungi, Geomyces pannorum, Phoma herbarum, Pythium sp., Verticillium sp., and Mortierella parvispora, each isolated from Antarctic terrestrial habitats, were examined on an agar medium in the natural Antarctic environment. A 3-h exposure to solar radiation of >287 nm reduced the hyphal extension rates of all species relative to controls...

  2. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization / Amido de cana-de-açúcar: determinação quantitativa e caracterização

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joelise de Alencar, Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann, Carvalho; Hélia Harumi, Sato.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O amido é encontrado na cana-de-açúcar como um polissacarídeo de reserva. A quantidade depende de diversos fatores. Este trabalho visou a determinação do conteúdo de amido em diferentes variedades de cana-de-açúcar durante o período de Maio a Novembro de 2007; e determinação de algumas característic [...] as do amido de cana-de-açúcar como: estrutura e tamanho dos grânulos de amido; determinação da temperatura de gelificação; determinação da filtrabilidade da solução de amido de cana-de-açúcar; susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar às enzimas glicoamilase, pululanase, -amilases bacterianas e fúngica comerciais. Foi testado também a susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar à enzima amilolítica desramificante isoamilase de Flavobacterium sp. O amido de cana-de-açúcar apresentou forma esférica e diâmetro entre 1-3 µm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar complexado com iodo apresentou maior absorção na faixa de 540 a 620 nm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar in natura mostrou maior susceptibilidade à enzima glicoamilase em relação aos outros amidos testados. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade à enzima amilolítica desramificante pululanase de modo similar ao amido de arroz ceroso. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade às ?-amilases de Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis e Aspergillus oryzae de modo similar aos outros amidos testados produzindo glicose; maltose; maltotriose; maltotetraose e ?- dextrinas limite. Abstract in english Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, [...] and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal ?-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit ?- dextrin.

  3. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization Amido de cana-de-açúcar: determinação quantitativa e caracterização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal ?-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit ?- dextrin.O amido é encontrado na cana-de-açúcar como um polissacarídeo de reserva. A quantidade depende de diversos fatores. Este trabalho visou a determinação do conteúdo de amido em diferentes variedades de cana-de-açúcar durante o período de Maio a Novembro de 2007; e determinação de algumas características do amido de cana-de-açúcar como: estrutura e tamanho dos grânulos de amido; determinação da temperatura de gelificação; determinação da filtrabilidade da solução de amido de cana-de-açúcar; susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar às enzimas glicoamilase, pululanase, -amilases bacterianas e fúngica comerciais. Foi testado também a susceptibilidade do amido de cana-de-açúcar à enzima amilolítica desramificante isoamilase de Flavobacterium sp. O amido de cana-de-açúcar apresentou forma esférica e diâmetro entre 1-3 µm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar complexado com iodo apresentou maior absorção na faixa de 540 a 620 nm. O amido de cana-de-açúcar in natura mostrou maior susceptibilidade à enzima glicoamilase em relação aos outros amidos testados. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade à enzima amilolítica desramificante pululanase de modo similar ao amido de arroz ceroso. O amido de cana-de-açúcar mostrou susceptibilidade às ?-amilases de Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis e Aspergillus oryzae de modo similar aos outros amidos testados produzindo glicose; maltose; maltotriose; maltotetraose e ?- dextrinas limite.

  4. Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilaine A. C. Durange

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500°C, in presence of air. Sugarcane in natura was also pyrolysed as a model for comparison, in order to determine the viability of processing different sources of raw biomass. The physicochemical characterization of the biomass precursors as well as of the bio-oils was also carried out, which points both biomass feedstocks as suitable for bio-oil production in terms of viscosity, surface tension, density and acidity. The bio-oil obtained from sugarcane in natura presented higher carbon and hydrogen content as well as lower oxygen content. On the other hand, the metal content is higher in the bio-oil obtained from sugarcane straw, in special the iron and potassium contents were 807 ppm and 123 ppm against 27 ppm and 1 ppm in the bio-oil from sugarcane in natura. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds as well as carbohydrates scaffolds were identified as the main components of the bio-oil. GC-MS analyses showed aromatic products from lignine fragmentation and free sugars and sugar derivatives.

  5. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsar Daniel S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus.

  6. Oxidative stress response in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Eduardo, Soares Netto.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias funções em plantas apesar do gene que codificaria para óxido nítrico sintetase nunca ter sido isolado. Este trabalho descreve os resultados de u [...] ma busca no banco de dados de seqüências expressas de cana de açúcar (SUCEST) de genes envolvidos na resposta ao estresse oxidativo. Eu não encontrei genes similares a óxido nítrico no banco de dados do SUCEST, mas uma via alternativa para a produção deste radical livre pode ser proposta. Eu também encontrei vários genes envolvidos na defesa antioxidante, como quelantes de metais, antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular, enzimas antioxidantes e sistemas de reparo. Ascorbato (vitamina C) é um importante antioxidante em plantas porque é encontrado em altas concentrações em células vegetais e porque é substrato de ascorbato peroxidase, uma enzima que eu encontrei em diferentes isoformas no banco de dados do SUCEST. Eu também encontrei várias enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese de antioxidantes de baixo peso molecular que podem ser alvos para manipulação genética. A obtenção de plantas modificadas geneticamente que sintetizariam vitaminas C e E em altos níveis poderiam melhorar o valor nutricional e a tolerância a estresses de cana de açúcar. Os diversos componentes do sistema de defesa antioxidante interagem entre si e as suas sínteses devem ser muito bem reguladas. Fatores de transcrição envolvidos na regulação da resposta ao estresse oxidativo de bactérias, leveduras e de humanos diferem consideravelmente entre si e quando foram utilizados para buscas no banco de dados do SUCEST, somente genes com similaridades fracas foram encontrados, sugerindo que estas proteínas não são muito conservadas. O envolvimento de espécies reativas de oxigênio e nitrogênio na defesa de plantas contra patógenos também é discutido neste trabalho. Abstract in english Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the [...] results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.

  7. Micropropagation of Two Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Varieties from Callus Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Karim

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocol for induction of callus and regeneration response of two sugarcane varieties (Isd-16, Isd-28 was established through callus culture using leaf sheath. Multiple shoot regeneration at various frequencies was observed using different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. The highest percentage of callus induction was observed in the medium containing 3.0 mg l -1 2,4-D with 10% coconut water (CM. The best response in terms of multiple shoot formation was observed that on MS medium supplemented with BAP 1.0 mg l -1 +IBA 0.5 mg l -1. NAA (3.0 mg l -1 was found effective in the production of roots. The variety Isd-16 showed better response than the variety Isd-28 towards shoot multiplication. Seventy percent of the plantlets produced from in vitro culture method survived in the ex vitro condition.

  8. Cross-Polarized Magic-Angle Spinning (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Relative to Culturable Bacterial Species Composition and Sustained Biological Control of Pythium Root Rot

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, M. J.; Wu, T.; Stone, A. G.; Kraakman, B.; Iannotti, D. A.; Wilson, G. E.; Madden, L. V.; Hoitink, H.

    1997-01-01

    We report the use of a model system that examines the dynamics of biological energy availability in organic matter in a sphagnum peat potting mix critical to sustenance of microorganism-mediated biological control of pythium root rot, a soilborne plant disease caused by Pythium ultimum. The concentration of readily degradable carbohydrate in the peat, mostly present as cellulose, was characterized by cross-polarized magic-angle spinning (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A decr...

  9. Lipase Production in Tray-Bioreactor via Solid State Fermentation under Desired Growth Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Vaseghi; Ghasem D.Najafpour; Samaneh Mohseni; Soleiman Mahjoub; Maryam N. Hosseinpour

    2012-01-01

    Lipase was produced under desired growth conditions in a novel tray bioreactor using the fungus strain of Rhizopus oryzae. Several agricultural residues/products including sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, corn meal, barely bran and equal mixtures of sugarcane bagasse with agricultural residues were applied as solid substrate. Lipase produced from the pure sugarcane bagasse showed higher activities than other substrates; which resulted enzyme activities of 155.76 and 138.37 U/gds for the top and...

  10. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, G S; Didonet, C M; Cruz, L M; Picheth, C F; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

    2010-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without causing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the isolation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using molecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cultivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for analysis. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was partially sequenced and used for molecular identification. Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and the API-20E system were used to characterize the isolates. The strains were divided into five groups, based on the 16S rRNA sequences. Group I comprised 14 representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae; group II was composed of Bacilli; group III contained one representative, Curtobacterium sp; group IV contained representatives of the Pseudomonadaceae family, and group V had one isolate with an uncultured bacterium. Four isolates were able to reduce acetylene to ethylene. Most of the bacteria isolated from the sugarcane stem and leaf tissues belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae, respectively, demonstrating niche specificity. Overall, we found the endophytic bacteria in sugarcane to be more diverse than previously reported. PMID:20198580

  11. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nagendra K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome.

  12. Isolation and partial purification of toxin from colletotrichum falcatum: the causal agent of red rot in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum) spores were isolated from infected stalk pieces of sugarcane and grown on Czapek Dox agar medium to obtain pure culture. Spores were obtained from the pure culture and grown in Czapec Dox liquid medium for further studies. It was observed that the fresh and dry weights of fungal mycellial mat significantly increased with time. In addition, fungal growth resulted in a significant change in the pH of the Czapec Dox growth medium over a period of 35 days and gradually increased from 6.5 in the control medium to 8.4. The fungal toxin was extracted from the growth medium and used to treat cell suspension of a red rot resistant sugarcane cultivar HSF-240. The maximum toxin was produced after 28 days of fungal growth in the growth medium which was ascertained by the dry weight of residue obtained from the ethyl actate fractions, as well as percent mortality of sugarcane cells in suspension. The LD50 value (50% cell mortality) of toxin in ethyl acetate (ETA) fraction was 22.03 days while in water it was 30 days. The fungal toxin extracted in ETA fractions was more effective than the one extracted in water. It was mainly due to high solubility and potency of the toxin in ETA than in water. In general, the maximum toxicity was noted at the 4th week (28 days) which decreased at 5th and 6th week of mycelial growth. (author)

  13. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    MUHADIONO; BAMBANG PRAMUDYA; RIZAL SYARIEF; A. SUTOWO LATIEF

    2010-01-01

    Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3). Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch e...

  14. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater contamination, eutrophication of surface waters, soil pollution and acidification. This paper reviews the effect of commercial sugarcane production on soil chemical, physical and biological properties us...

  15. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Costa, Estela Araujo; Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to...

  16. Sugarcane Phenological Date Estimation Using Broad-Band Digital Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobasheri M. Chahardoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agricultural industry, precision farming is the most important task that attracts lots of attentions. The health of the plant depends mostly on the amount of water in its access that can be estimated through vegetation indices. These indices can be extracted from satellite images through Image processing algorithms. The objective of this research was to provide an equation for assessment of the quality of the phenological dates of the sugarcane in Degree-Day (DD which are usually derived using satellite data. Then these calibration equations can be used in the collection of some ground truth data applicable in remote sensing where ever the need arises. A simple way for implementing this task is to develop an algorithm (an equation with which we can (to a limited extent quantify the interaction of light (in the RGB region of spectrum with the plant foliage to have DDs as their outputs. To do this 63 digital photographs were taken in three field campaigns on Sep29, 2006 through Oct1, 2006 from Amirkabir and Dea`bal-Khazaie sugarcane sites located in the south-west of Iran. These photographs included 9 different stages of the sugarcane growth and bare soil. It was found that on the average, the effect of dust on the leaves is an increase in DN values of about 9, 8 and 13 for bands red, green and blue respectively. To find an algorithm for determination of plant phenological date four different methods were used. These were Rectangular Method (RM, Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM, Thresholding Method (TM and Hybrid Method (HM. To test the ability of different methods in the prediction of plants DDs, three photographs with known DDs and vegetation cover percentage were used. Entering these predicted DDs and true values in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the degree of significance level of the predicted value of each method was evaluated. As a result MLM with R2 of 0.987 and TM method with R2 of 0.989 both with significance level of 0.827 were the best methods for estimation of phenological date using broadband digital cameras.

  17. Crescimento e produção de taro 'Chinês' influenciados por tipos de mudas e camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Plant growth and yield of 'Chinês' corms taro influenced by propagation methods and sugar-cane mulch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Puiatti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos consecutivos, numa mesma área, em Viçosa (MG, de 19/11/1997 a 08/08/1998 (experimento I e de 01/09/1998 a 06/06/1999 (experimento II, com o taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7 (tipos de mudas x camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, com três repetições. No experimento I avaliaram-se os efeitos de quatro tipos de mudas (rizoma-mãe e rizomas filhos grande, médio e pequeno, com 80; 55; 35 e 20 g de massa fresca média, respectivamente e sete espessuras de camadas de bagaço em cobertura (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 cm. No experimento II avaliou-se o efeito residual das camadas de bagaço utilizadas no experimento I, mantendo-se os mesmos tipos de mudas, com massas semelhantes. Avaliaram-se o estande e altura de plantas, índice de área foliar (IAF e produção final de classes de rizomas. Menores estandes foram obtidos no experimento I e para o tipo de muda filho pequeno, principalmente na ausência de bagaço. Mudas com maior massa e camadas intermediárias de bagaço proporcionaram plantas mais vigorosas e com maiores valores de IAF. Não houve interação entre camadas de bagaço e tipos de mudas, para produção de rizomas, em ambos experimentos. No experimento I verificou-se efeito significativo para ambos os fatores, isoladamente, com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis obtidas para o tipo de muda rizomas-mãe, seguido de filho grande, e camada de bagaço entre 16,4 a 17,4 cm de espessura. No experimento II houve efeito apenas de tipos de mudas com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis para as mudas tipos rizoma-mãe e filho grande.Two consecutive experiments were carried out, in the same area, from 11/19/1997 to 08/08/1998 (experiment I and from 09/01/1998 to 06/06/1999 (experiment II, with taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928. The experiments consisted of 28 treatments, in a randomized complete block design, arranged in a factorial 4 x 7 (types of seedlings x layers of sugar-cane mulch, with three repetitions. In experiment I the effect of four types of seedlings were evaluated (corm and comels large, medium and small, with 80; 55; 35 and 20 g of medium fresh mass, respectively and seven thickness of mulch layers on covering (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 and 24 cm. In experiment II the residual effect of the mulch layers used in experiment I was evaluated, the same types of seedlings staying with similar masses. The stand and height of plants, leaf area index (LAI and final corm yield and classes of cormels were evaluated. Smaller stands were obtained in experiment I and for the type of seedling graded as small cormel, mainly in the absence of mulch. Seedlings with larger masses and intermediate layers of mulch provided more vigorous plants and with higher values of LAI. There was no interaction between mulch layers x types of seedlings, for yield of corm and cormels, in both experiments. In experiment I significant effect was verified for both factors, separately, with larger yield of total and commercial cormels obtained for the type seedling corm (head, followed by large cormel, and mulch layer from 16.4 to 17.4 cm of thickness. In experiment II, an evident effect of types of seedlings with larger yield of total and commercial cormels for the seedlings types corm and large cormel was observed.

  18. Crescimento e produção de taro 'Chinês' influenciados por tipos de mudas e camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar / Plant growth and yield of 'Chinês' corms taro influenced by propagation methods and sugar-cane mulch

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário, Puiatti; Francisco H.F., Pereira; Leonardo Angelo, Aquino.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos consecutivos, numa mesma área, em Viçosa (MG), de 19/11/1997 a 08/08/1998 (experimento I) e de 01/09/1998 a 06/06/1999 (experimento II), com o taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928). Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7 (tipos de [...] mudas x camadas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar), com três repetições. No experimento I avaliaram-se os efeitos de quatro tipos de mudas (rizoma-mãe e rizomas filhos grande, médio e pequeno, com 80; 55; 35 e 20 g de massa fresca média, respectivamente) e sete espessuras de camadas de bagaço em cobertura (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 cm). No experimento II avaliou-se o efeito residual das camadas de bagaço utilizadas no experimento I, mantendo-se os mesmos tipos de mudas, com massas semelhantes. Avaliaram-se o estande e altura de plantas, índice de área foliar (IAF) e produção final de classes de rizomas. Menores estandes foram obtidos no experimento I e para o tipo de muda filho pequeno, principalmente na ausência de bagaço. Mudas com maior massa e camadas intermediárias de bagaço proporcionaram plantas mais vigorosas e com maiores valores de IAF. Não houve interação entre camadas de bagaço e tipos de mudas, para produção de rizomas, em ambos experimentos. No experimento I verificou-se efeito significativo para ambos os fatores, isoladamente, com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis obtidas para o tipo de muda rizomas-mãe, seguido de filho grande, e camada de bagaço entre 16,4 a 17,4 cm de espessura. No experimento II houve efeito apenas de tipos de mudas com maiores produções de rizomas totais e comerciáveis para as mudas tipos rizoma-mãe e filho grande. Abstract in english Two consecutive experiments were carried out, in the same area, from 11/19/1997 to 08/08/1998 (experiment I) and from 09/01/1998 to 06/06/1999 (experiment II), with taro 'Chinês' (BGH 5928). The experiments consisted of 28 treatments, in a randomized complete block design, arranged in a factorial 4 [...] x 7 (types of seedlings x layers of sugar-cane mulch), with three repetitions. In experiment I the effect of four types of seedlings were evaluated (corm and comels large, medium and small, with 80; 55; 35 and 20 g of medium fresh mass, respectively) and seven thickness of mulch layers on covering (0; 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 and 24 cm). In experiment II the residual effect of the mulch layers used in experiment I was evaluated, the same types of seedlings staying with similar masses. The stand and height of plants, leaf area index (LAI) and final corm yield and classes of cormels were evaluated. Smaller stands were obtained in experiment I and for the type of seedling graded as small cormel, mainly in the absence of mulch. Seedlings with larger masses and intermediate layers of mulch provided more vigorous plants and with higher values of LAI. There was no interaction between mulch layers x types of seedlings, for yield of corm and cormels, in both experiments. In experiment I significant effect was verified for both factors, separately, with larger yield of total and commercial cormels obtained for the type seedling corm (head), followed by large cormel, and mulch layer from 16.4 to 17.4 cm of thickness. In experiment II, an evident effect of types of seedlings with larger yield of total and commercial cormels for the seedlings types corm and large cormel was observed.

  19. Kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in maturing sugarcane culm tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Lafras; Botha, Frederik C; Hofmeyr, Jan-Hendrik S; Rohwer, Johann M

    2007-01-01

    Biochemically, it is not completely understood why or how commercial varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) are able to accumulate sucrose in high concentrations. Such concentrations are obtained despite the presence of sucrose synthesis/breakdown cycles (futile cycling) in the culm of the storage parenchyma. Given the complexity of the process, kinetic modelling may help to elucidate the factors governing sucrose accumulation or direct the design of experimental optimisation strategies. This paper describes the extension of an existing model of sucrose accumulation (Rohwer, J.M., Botha, F.C., 2001. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data. Biochem. J. 358, 437-445) to account for isoforms of sucrose synthase and fructokinase, carbon partitioning towards fibre formation, and the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyrophosphate-dependent PFK and aldolase. Moreover, by including data on the maximal activity of the enzymes as measured in different internodes, a growth model was constructed that describes the metabolic behaviour as sugarcane parenchymal tissue matures from internodes 3-10. While there was some discrepancy between modelled and experimentally determined steady-state sucrose concentrations in the cytoplasm, steady-state fluxes showed a better fit. The model supports a hypothesis of vacuolar sucrose accumulation against a concentration gradient. A detailed metabolic control analysis of sucrose synthase showed that each isoform has a unique control profile. Fructose uptake by the cell and sucrose uptake by the vacuole had a negative control on the futile cycling of sucrose and a positive control on sucrose accumulation, while the control profile for neutral invertase was reversed. When the activities of these three enzymes were changed from their reference values, the effects on futile cycling and sucrose accumulation were amplified. The model can be run online at the JWS Online database (http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za/database/uys). PMID:17555779

  20. Drought tolerance conferred to sugarcane by association with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: a transcriptomic view of hormone pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lívia; Santa Brígida, Ailton B; Mota Filho, José P; de Carvalho, Thais G; Rojas, Cristian A; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van Bel, Michiel; Farrinelli, Laurent; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Vandepoele, Klaas; Hemerly, Adriana S

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane interacts with particular types of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide fixed-nitrogen and plant growth hormones to host plants, promoting an increase in plant biomass. Other benefits, as enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses have been reported to some diazotrophs. Here we aim to study the effects of the association between the diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 and sugarcane cv. SP70-1143 during water depletion by characterizing differential transcriptome profiles of sugarcane. RNA-seq libraries were generated from roots and shoots of sugarcane plants free of endophytes that were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and subjected to water depletion for 3 days. A sugarcane reference transcriptome was constructed and used for the identification of differentially expressed transcripts. The differential profile of non-inoculated SP70-1143 suggests that it responds to water deficit stress by the activation of drought-responsive markers and hormone pathways, as ABA and Ethylene. qRT-PCR revealed that root samples had higher levels of G. diazotrophicus 3 days after water deficit, compared to roots of inoculated plants watered normally. With prolonged drought only inoculated plants survived, indicating that SP70-1143 plants colonized with G. diazotrophicus become more tolerant to drought stress than non-inoculated plants. Strengthening this hypothesis, several gene expression responses to drought were inactivated or regulated in an opposite manner, especially in roots, when plants were colonized by the bacteria. The data suggests that colonized roots would not be suffering from stress in the same way as non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, shoots specifically activate ABA-dependent signaling genes, which could act as key elements in the drought resistance conferred by G. diazotrophicus to SP70-1143. This work reports for the first time the involvement of G. diazotrophicus in the promotion of drought-tolerance to sugarcane cv. SP70-1143, and it describes the initial molecular events that may trigger the increased drought tolerance in the host plant. PMID:25489849

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  2. Role of mutation breeding in sugarcane improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud setts of a popular sugarcane var. Co-419 irradiated with Co60 gamma rays produced wide genetic variations. It was easy to rapidly multiply and maintain the mutants appearing in the MV1 generation by repeated vegetative propagations. Two promising mutants (TS-1 and TS-8) found stable over 8 vegetative generations show increased cane girth and weight, enhanced sucrose content and possible early maturity, as compared to var. Co-419. Large scale field trials under different agroclimatic conditions for yield and mill tests are in progress in collaboration with some of the leading sugar factories in the country. Simultaneously, they are also being tested for disease resistance and agronomic performance at several Government Sugarcane Research Stations. Results obtained so far are presented. (author)

  3. Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Niaz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis was studied in sugarcane cultivars CPF-237 and SPF-213. Explants used were leaves, lateral buds and pith. MS medium along with NAA and 2,4-D in various concentrations were used and it was observed that 1.0 mg NAA and 3-mg/l 2,4-D was optimal for embryogenesis. Leaf portion showed maximum embryogenesis and proved a better explant source than pith.

  4. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ghislaine V., Fonseca; José Humberto M., Tambor; Marina P., Nobrega; Rafael, Santos; Francisco G., Nobrega.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A mitocôndria funciona como uma usina geradora metabólica por meio da fosforilação oxidativa e tem sido alvo de um renovado interesse devido aos progressos no entendimento de sua biogênese e na descrição de novos papéis ligados à senescência, morte celular e montagem dos centros Fe/S. Uma análise gl [...] obal dos genes de planta ligados à esta organela é agora possível. A base de dados do projeto SUCEST foi examinada para detecção de ESTs com similaridade a genes nucleares relacionados às funções mitocondriais usando-se proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens e Arabidopsis thaliana. Foram utilizadas 869 seqüências de proteínas para varrer o banco de ESTs do projeto SUCEST por meio do programa de busca de similaridade TBLASTN, sendo examinados 81.223 agrupamentos. Encontramos 367 agrupamentos com E-value Abstract in english Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, [...] cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value

  5. Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community

    OpenAIRE

    Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang; Iván David Trujillo Cerón; Yaremis Felipe Bringas

    2007-01-01

    Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indo...

  6. Development of salt tolerant potato and sugarcane through in vitro techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of sugarcane and potato in Pakistan is hampered by their intricate flowering behavior under natural day-length conditions. The improvement of these crops for their salt tolerance can be carried out by tissue culture mediated techniques. To induce variation in sugarcane, five-week old white yellow nodular embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5, 20, 40 and 60 Gy gamma rays. After one month, the calli were cultured on regeneration media, and plant hardening procedures were optimized. Irradiated and non-irradiated calli were subjected to various levels of salt stress and plant regeneration was investigated. Although growth of sugarcane calli was observed at 200 mM NaCl, regeneration was inhibited even at 50 mM NaCl in the medium. The regenerants from gamma irradiated material are under field evaluation. Variation was detected in both irradiated and salt treated calli by DNA fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In potato, 6-7 weeks old in vitro grown plants with single shoots having 8-10 buds were irradiated with 20 Gy gamma rays. Shoot formation was successful only from 50% of the axillary buds. The cultures were subjected to four levels of salinity (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM Nacl). Shoot-tip necrosis was observed along with significant reduction in shoot height. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Controlled traffic and soil physical quality of an Oxisol under sugarcane cultivation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Soares de, Souza; Zigomar Menezes de, Souza; Miguel, Cooper; Cássio Antônio, Tormena.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machinery traffic in sugarcane (Saccharumsp.) plantations reduces soil physical quality, and hinders both root development and crop yield. We evaluated the physical quality of an Oxisol and the development of sugarcane roots under controlled traffic. The treatments assessed were: without controlled [...] machinery traffic (WCT), controlled traffic by adjusting the tractor and infield wagons to a 3.0 m track width with the operator guiding the machinery (CT1) and the previous treatment using real time kinematic / global positioning system (RTK / GPS) precision auto steer (CT2). Soil samples were collected from the planting rows, seedbed and inter-row center to determine the least limiting water range (LLWR) and soil porosity from scanned 2-D images. The root dry mass was sampled from monoliths, separated from the soil by washing through a 2-mm sieve and dried in an oven. A higher LLWR was observed in the planting row under CT1 and CT2 than under WCT. The planting row had a predominance of complex pores with a diameter > 500 µm in the 0.15-0.27 m depth layer under CT1 and CT2. In the planting rows under WCT, the root dry mass was only 44 % of that measured under CT2. Benefits regarding soil physical quality and growth roots were observed when the tractor-wagon track width was adjusted based on the sugarcane spacing using either precision auto steering or manual operation of the machinery.

  8. Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica by antagonistic and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria*

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bin; Xie, Guan-lin; Soad, A.; Coosemans, J.

    2005-01-01

    Four rhizobacteria selected out of over 500 isolates from rhizosphere of the vegetables in China were further studied for suppression of the root-knot nematode and soil-borne fungal pathogens in laboratory and greenhouse in Belgium. They were identified as Brevibacillus brevis or Bacillus subtilis by Biolog test and partial 16s rDNA sequence comparison. They not only inhibited the radial growth of the root-infecting fungi Rhizoctonia solani SX-6, Pythium aphanidermatum ZJP-1 and Fusarium oxys...

  9. Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri on the nutritive value of sugarcane silage for finishing beef bulls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrick, Schmidt; Luiz Gustavo, Nussio; Oscar Cézar Müller, Queiroz; Mateus Castilho, Santos; Maity, Zopollatto; Sérgio Gil de, Toledo Filho; João Luiz Pratti, Daniel.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes ?-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control) or with L. buchneri at a theoretical ap [...] plication rate of 5 × 10(4) cfu/g, 1 × 10(5) cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5) cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo) and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 Charolais × Nellore) were housed in 20 collective pens and fed diets comprising (dry matter [DM] basis) 458 g/kg sugarcane silage and 542 g/kg concentrates for an 84-d period. Treated silages had higher concentrations of acetic acid and lower concentrations of ethanol. Total mixed rations (TMR) containing inoculated silages exhibited significantly lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and, consequently, higher in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD). Thus, animals fed TMR containing treated silages spent less time chewing per day and per kilogram of DM intake (DMI), even at higher DMI levels. Nonetheless, the intake of NDF was similar across treatments (0.77 to 0.79 kg/100 kg BW) but markedly lower than the value reported for traditional forages. Average daily gain was significantly greater for animals fed TMR based on inoculated silages due to the higher DMI (14% on average) and the higher energy content of the diets, as indicated by the higher feed efficiency (12% on average). The dose of inoculants used and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes had no significant effects on silage parameters or animal performance. Therefore, inoculation of L. buchneri during sugarcane ensilage can alter the fermentation pattern by increasing acetic acid yield, reducing silage nutrient losses, and improving feed efficiency by bulls.

  10. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Debora Danielle Virginio da, Silva; Elisangela de Jesus, Cândido; Priscila Vaz de, Arruda; Silvio Silvério da, Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida, Felipe.

    1469-14-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioproce [...] sses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.

  11. Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

  12. N-fertilizer saving by the inoculation of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum sp. in micropropagated sugarcane plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumarasamy, Ramachandran; Govindarajan, Munusamy; Vadivelu, Muthaiyan; Revathi, Gopalakrishnan

    2006-01-01

    Colonization of micropropagated sugarcane plants by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum sp. was confirmed by a dot-immunoblot assay. In all, a 45-day short-term and 180-day long-term experiments conducted on micropropagated sugarcane plants of Co 86032, a sugar rich popular variety in South India, indicated the usefulness of these diazotrophs as plant growth promoting bacteria. Co-inoculation of these two bacteria enhanced the biomass considerably under N-limited condition in the short duration experiment. In the long-term experiment, the establishment of inoculated Herbaspirillum sp. remained stable with the age of the crop up to 180 days, while there was a reduction in population of G. diazotrophicus for the same period. The total bio-mass and leaf N were higher in plants inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum sp. without N fertilization and also in plants with 50% of the recommended N (140 kg ha(-1)) than the plants fertilized with recommended dose of inorganic N (280 kg ha(-1)). This experiment showed that inoculation with these bacteria in sugarcane variety Co 86032 could mitigate fertilizer N application considerably in sugarcane cultivation. PMID:16765840

  13. Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naureen Chaudhary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II. The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4, 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comprising of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI. All the four strains grew best at pH 7 and 37°C. Aeration was not required for these bacterial strains. 5% inocula sizes were found optimum for the bacterial isolates except strain No. 23, which yielded best growth with 10% inoculum. After 2nd day of incubation in M-IV medium the bacteria liberated upto 8033 mg/100 mL of total sugar content, which showed reduction in subsequent sampling periods. On the other hand glucose content showed variable response to incubation periods. The strain 11a expressed 1411 mg/100 mL of glucose at 10th day while isolate No. 23 yielded 808 mg/100 mL glucose at 18th day of incubation. Fermentation by ethanologenic yeast of culture fluids saccharification by the isolate 194 and 23 expressed about 0.2 and 1.2% ethanol on 3rd and 7th days, respectively. The bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus cereus based upon their chemical characterization. These isolates appear potential candidates for saccharifying the sugarcane bagasse and production of ethanol employing ethanologenic yeast.

  14. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bacci Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres informativos para parcimônia e à homoplasia presentes na região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, não foi possível determinar com segurança a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e alguns dos demais membros da tribo Saccharine. Como alternativa para esta baixa resolução, dezessete regiões gênicas nucleares, cloroplasmáticas ou mitocondriais foram selecionadas a partir do banco de dados SUCEST com o objetivo de encontrar marcadores mais apropriados para a reconstrução da filogenia da cana-de-açúcar. Entre elas, aquelas correspondentes à alfa-tubulina, rpl16, e rpoC2 apresentaram baixa incidência de polimorfismo e taxas de evolução equivalentes ou mesmo maiores do que a observada para a região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2. Estes marcadores são propostos como preferenciais para estudos filogenéticos da subtribo Saccharinae.

  15. Efecto de la aplicación de abonos orgánicos en la supresión de Pythium myriotylum en plantas de tiquisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia, Artavia; Lidieth, Uribe; Francisco, Saborío; Luis Felipe, Arauz; Leida, Castro.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los abonos orgánicos ejercen efecto supresivo sobre patógenos de planta; su capacidad supresora varía de acuerdo al tipo de abono y al sistema planta-patógeno. Se evaluó el efecto supresor de diferentes abonos orgánicos en el sistema tiquisque-Pythium myriotylum. Se determinó la madurez, estabilidad [...] , y actividad microbiana de los diferentes abonos, así como el efecto del tipo de compostaje (compost vs vermicompost), el material de origen (estiércol vs broza de café) y el grado de madurez, sobre la supresión del patógeno. El efecto supresivo sobre el desarrollo de la enfermedad en plantas de tiquisque se estableció por medio de una escala visual de síntomas a los 3, 6 y 9 días del transplante. Los abonos presentaron relaciones C/N entre 6 y 15 y ninguno afectó la germinación o la longitud de las raíces de plántulas de pepino. Los abonos maduros clasificaron como estables y los inmaduros, con excepción del compost de broza, como inestables. La menor incidencia de pudrición de raíces por P. myriotylum se obtuvo con el uso de vermicompost a base de estiércol maduro, mientras que la menor severidad de la enfermedad ocurrió cuando el suelo se enmendó con el compost y el vermicompost maduro a base de estiércol. En términos generales los abonos obtenidos a partir de estiércol fueron más supresivos, y presentaron una mayor actividad microbiana, que los producidos a base de broza de café. Se concluye que el tipo de compostaje, el origen y el grado de madurez tienen influencia sobre la capacidad supresora. Abstract in english Effect of the application of compost and vermicompost on the suppression of pythium myriotylum in cocoyam plants (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Organic amendments have been used as a substrate which is able to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens. Since these effects vary depending on the type of compos [...] t and the plant-pathogen system, the aim of this work was to evaluate the suppressive effect of different organic fertilizers against cocoyam root rot disease, caused by Pythium myriotylum. For this purpose, the effect of the composting process (compost vs. vermicompost), origin (animal manure vs. coffee fruit-peel pulp) and degree of maturity were tested. Stability and microbial activity of the organic amendment were also determined. The suppressive effect over disease development on cocoyam was established by using a visual severity-scale on days 3, 6, and 9after transplant. The organic fertilizers presented C/N ratios between 6 and 15. Neither affected the germination or root-length of cucumber seedlings. The mature organic fertilizers classified as stable; and the immature ones, with the exception of the coffee-pulp compost, as unstable. The treatment with the best result in reducing root rot disease incidence was the mature, vermicomposted animal manure. The lowest disease severity was obtained when the soil was amended with the mature, composted or vermicomposted, animal manure. In general, the organic amendments based on animal manure were more suppressive than the ones based on coffee pulp. These results indicate that the type of composting, original material and maturity influence the suppressivity of the organic amendments.

  16. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Bacci Jr.; V.F.O., Miranda; V.G., Martins; A.V.O., Figueira; M.V., Lemos; J.O., Pereira; C.L., Marino.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S), com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarca [...] ne Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST). Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres informativos para parcimônia e à homoplasia presentes na região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, não foi possível determinar com segurança a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e alguns dos demais membros da tribo Saccharine. Como alternativa para esta baixa resolução, dezessete regiões gênicas nucleares, cloroplasmáticas ou mitocondriais foram selecionadas a partir do banco de dados SUCEST com o objetivo de encontrar marcadores mais apropriados para a reconstrução da filogenia da cana-de-açúcar. Entre elas, aquelas correspondentes à alfa-tubulina, rpl16, e rpoC2 apresentaram baixa incidência de polimorfismo e taxas de evolução equivalentes ou mesmo maiores do que a observada para a região ITS1-5,8S-ITS2. Estes marcadores são propostos como preferenciais para estudos filogenéticos da subtribo Saccharinae. Abstract in english To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA) region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag ( [...] SUCEST) genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial) from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16) and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2) were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.

  17. Genetic improvement of sugarcane for drought and salinity stress tolerance using Arabidopsis vacuolar pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tanweer; Uzma; Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Abbas, Zaheer; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Sugarcane plant is a glycophyte, hence its growth and sucrose contents are severely affected by drought and salinity stresses. Bioengineering approaches offer a plausible and rapid solution to mitigate these losses. Therefore for genetic improvement of sugarcane against these stresses, the present study was conceived to transform Arabidopsis Vacuolar Pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene--confers tolerance against drought and salinity--into sugarcane through Agrobacterium. For this purpose, highly regenerable apical buds of sugarcane variety CP77-400 were used as explants. EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium harboring pGreen0029 vector containing AVP1 gene driven under 35SCaMV promoter was employed for transformation. The key factors studied include application of acetosyringone, cefotaxime, kanamycin, and co-cultivation period for successful transformation. Maximum regeneration frequency of 77.5 % was achieved on MS media containing 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l Kn, 1 mg/l GA?, 0.25 mg/l NAA, 50 ?M acetosyringone, 500 mg/l cefotaxime, and 150 mg/l kanamycin on 3 days of co-cultivation. The results revealed that apical buds are distinctive viable tissues for sugarcane transformation and regeneration to produce a large number of CP77-400 transgenic plants in shorter period of time without intervening mosaics and chimeras. The AVP1 transcripts expression in transgenic lines at various levels was detected by RT-PCR. Longer and profuse root system was observed in transgenic plants in comparison with control plants. Concomitantly, only transgenic plants were able to withstand higher NaCl salt stress as well as scarcity of water thus, showing tolerance against salinity and drought stresses. PMID:24002911

  18. The environmental sustainability of sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change: case studies for Brazil and Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, E.; Vidale, P. L.; Verhoef, A.; Cuadro, S. V.

    2012-04-01

    Over the next decades increasing oil and carbon prices will lead to a proliferation of energy crop cultivation initiatives. Many of these will be based in developing countries, and hence will affect some of the poorest people in the world. The capacity of such initiatives to alleviate poverty in the long term depends on their environmental sustainability. Specifically, the exploitation of water resources in an unsustainable manner may permanently damage vulnerable ecosystems and ultimately deepen poverty. These issues have motivated a collaborative project - Integrated Carbon, Water and Land Management for Poverty Alleviation (ICWALPA), which asks whether the export of bio-fuel technology from Brazil to Ghana will alleviate poverty. This presentation will describe the initial results from ICWALPA - including the development of an integrated environmental modelling framework and its application to sugarcane cultivation under scenarios of climate change. The environmental model used to represent the biophysical interactions is process-based and implemented in the framework of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). Crop growth is predicted dynamically by accumulating the carbon assimilated during photosynthesis and is then allocated according to well-established allometric principles. Two contrasting case studies will be presented: the Sao Paulo region of Brazil (where there is an established sugarcane industry) and the Daka River region of Ghana (where commercial sugarcane cultivation is planned). We show that our model is capable of reproducing both the spatial and temporal variability in sugarcane yield for the Sao Paulo province of Brazil - lending credence to the projections for Ghana. For Ghana, we show that, providing there is sufficient irrigation, it is possible to generate approximately 75% of the yield achieved in the Sao Paulo province. In the final part of the study, the behaviour of sugarcane under an idealized climate change scenario is explored. It is shown that the increased drought tolerance that results from higher CO2 concentrations mitigates the greater water stress associated with higher evaporation.

  19. Application of radiation induced in vitro mutagenesis for the improvement of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane varieties with improved tolerance to adverse environmental conditions are highly desirable, as unfavourable environmental factors are the major contributors that can reduce average productivity by 65% to 87%. In this study, we have employed in vitro cultures and radiation induced mutagenesis in three commercially used cultivars. Irradiated callus cultures were also selected for salt tolerance, and radiosensitivity in terms of growth rate and cell viability indicated stress effects. Several mutants with agronomically desirable traits have been isolated that are in field evaluation. (author)

  20. Pythium irregulare fermentation to produce arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using soybean processing co-products as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Junyi; Wang, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were produced by Pythium irregulare fungus using soybean cotyledon fiber and soy skim, two co-products from soybean aqueous processing, as substrates in different fermentation systems. Parameters such as moisture content, substrate glucose addition, incubation time, and vegetable oil supplementation were found to be important in solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean fiber, which is to be used as animal feed with enriched long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Soybean fiber with 8 % (dwb) glucose supplementation for a 7-day SSF produced 1.3 mg of ARA and 1.6 mg of EPA in 1 g of dried substrate. When soy skim was used as substrate for submerged fermentation, total ARA yield of 125.7 mg/L and EPA yield of 92.4 mg/L were achieved with the supplementation of 7 % (w/v) soybean oil. This study demonstrates that the values of soybean fiber and soy skim co-products could be enhanced through the long-chain PUFA production by fermentation. PMID:23269636

  1. Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu; Olusegun Samuel Balogun

    2013-01-01

    Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased l...

  2. Biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio por biomassas de Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann) R.L. Seym. e Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes) / Copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption by Saprolegnia subterranea (Dissmann) R.L. Seym. and Pythium torulosum Coker & P. Patt. (Oomycetes) biomass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ivanildo de, Souza; Iracema Helena, Schoenlein-Crusius; Carmen Lídia Amorin, Pires-Zottarelli; Norberto Carlos, Schoenlein.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas secas dos fungos zoospóricos Saprolegnia subterranea e Pythium torulosum foram avaliadas quanto a biossorção de cobre, manganês e cádmio de soluções aquosas por meio da determinação dos índices "q" (mg de metal adsorvido por g de biomassa) e "R%" (remoção percentual). Os mais elevados í [...] ndices q foram obtidos quando as biomassas foram colocadas em contato com elevadas concentrações de metais, enquanto que os maiores índices R% foram obtidos em condições de baixas concentrações (p Abstract in english Dried biomass of the zoosporic fungi Saprolegnia subterranea and Pythium torulosum was evaluated for copper, manganese and cadmium biosorption from aqueous solutions using the "q" (mg of adsorbed metal per g of biomass) and the "R%" (percent removal) indices. The highest q values were observed when [...] the biomass was placed in contact with high metal concentrations, whereas the highest R% values were observed at low concentrations (p

  3. Identification of active metabolism roots of sugarcane for the isotopic dilution technique with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the sugarcane roots growth dynamics, as well as of the root system architecture of its, better allows to understanding of the relations between the plant and its environment of production, making possible the handling from practical more efficient and sustainable agriculturists who result in increase of productivity and longevity of the culture. In the study of the development of the sugarcane root system has an aggravating one in what the root renewal between cycles is mentioned to it, or in the same cycle, becoming necessary the identification of alive or active metabolism roots in a total mass showed. The present study it had for objective to develop a methodology of sugarcane active metabolism roots identification in the ground, by means of the isotopic dilution technique with 15N. The sugarcane root system study it can be carried through with this isotopic marker saw leaf application, a time that 15N is translocated until the root system. The experiment was carried through in commercial area of sugarcane in the region of Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, in a Oxissoil, with one second sprouts again of cultivating RB85 5156. The urea was the vehicle of supply of the isotopic marker 15N, by means of solution applied to leaves of the plants. After harvest of the aerial part, carried through 96 hours after the application of the urea solution, had been opened trenches, transversally to the line of the culture, with dimeally to the line of the culture, with dimensions of 1 m of length and 1,4 m of width. The ground samples had been harvested by means of monoliths (5,6 dm-3) in the depths of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm, in the projection of the line of the culture and laterally in the distances of 14-42 cm and 42-70 cm of the culture line. In each depth of sampling, and the culture line projection, they had been separate samples of visually active roots. These samples had been considered standard for the determination for isotopic dilution technique of roots with active metabolism. The determination of the text of N and abundance of 15N in samples of plant and ground had been carried through in a spectrometer of masses model ANCA-SL of the Europe Scientific Ltd. The results had shown that the isotopic dilution technique with 15N made possible to identify roots with active metabolism and its distribution in the ground. (author)

  4. Effects of Every-Other Furrow Irrigation on Water Use Efficiency and Sugarcane Characteristics in Southern Ahvaz Sugarcane Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A Kashkuli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been cultivated in an extensive area in Khuzestan and irrigated by hydro-flume or siphon and furrow. In a field experiment during 2005-6 at Amir Kabir Agro-Industry, Khuzestan, the effect of every other-furrow irrigation method was studied on sugarcane in regard to irrigation water volume, water use efficiency and quality and quantity of sugarcane. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three irrigation treatments, including conventional method (blank, variable every other furrow(alternative furrow and fixed every other furrow. This experiment was conducted by cv. Cp69-1062 sugarcane. The results showed that water use efficiency rates were 0.41, 0.58 and 0.7 kg/m3 for conventional, fixing furrow and alternative, respectively. However, water use efficiency rates were not significantly different in treatments. It had minimum amount of water use efficiency in every other furrow treatments. Maximum water use efficiency, quality and quantity of sugarcane were obtained every other irrigation. Maximum irrigation water was used in conventional treatment and resulted in minimum irrigation, quality sugarcane and water use efficiency. It produced 14.5 ton/ha sugar for 20604 m3/ha application of irrigation. Sugarcane quality and quantity characteristics in variable treatments, except for length number per hectare, were not significant.

  5. Preservation of Sugarcane Juice Using Hurdle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishk Rawat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice was subjected following treatmentsviz.pasteurizationat80ºCfor10 min + chemicaltreatm ents(KMS @ 150 ppm and citric acid @0.05%;pasteurizationat80ºCfor10 min + chemicaltreatments (KMS @ 150 ppm and citric acid @ 0.05% + sterilization at 80ºC for 20 min. All the samples were packed in glass bottles, polyethylene Tetrapthelate (PET bottles and low density polyethylene pouches (LDPE and then irradiated at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy and stored for 90 days at room and low temperature. On treatment moisture content, ascorbic acid, viable bacterial count and viable yeast and mold count were decreased significantly (P > 0.05 where as no significant effect was observed on reducing and total sugars in cane juice. Among the three packaging material used glass and PET was found to be at par in increasing the shelf life of sugarcane juice in comparison to LDPE pouches. On storage, ascorbic acid and total sugars were decreased significantly (P > 0.05.

  6. In vitro Propagation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ramin

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in order to micropropagate sugarcane cultivars through shoot tip and auxilliary bud culture. Rinsing of four cultivars of sugarcane, namely CP-48-103, CP-57-614, CP-69-1062, and NCO-310 in 75% alcohol for 60 seconds and their subsequent disinfection with sodium and calcium hypochloride (1.5% active material for 15 minutes decreased a significant amount of infection of explants in the medium. The use of the Murashing and Skoog (MS solid and liquid medium with 1 mg/l Indole Butyric Acid (IBA, 1 mg/l Kinetin, 100 mg/l mio-inositol, 1 mg/l Thiamin HCl, and 2% sucrose had significant superiority (P<0.05 to 1/2 MS solid medium. Also, to increase the multiplication in a sterile medium (In vitro, two kinds of solid and liquid MS medium, with a hormone combination of 1 mg/l IBA, 2 mg/l Kinetin and 1 mg/l 6-(benzylamino-9-(2-tetrahydropyranyl-9H-purine (BAP were applied which yielded the highest amount of proliferation. The plants formed roots in Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH medium with a hormone combination of 5 mg/l IBA and 1 mg/l Kinetin. When activate charcoal was used in the medium, a higher percentage of the plants became rooted and a larger number of adventitious roots were produced than in the dark-light or light treatments.

  7. Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of [14C]fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of [14C] fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant

  8. Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indol acetic (IAA production was detected by Dot-Immunobinding and Salkowski's method. These results show that 19 strains and isolates had nitrogenase activity, values ranging from 100 to SOOO/zg/mL; 6 of them produced IAA (values ranging from 1,7 to 2,5 //g/mL: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl-5, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 1-05, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 4-02,17,30 and 305. It was demonstrated that culture medium nutrient sources and pH affected the nitrogenase activity of the strains representing the endophytic community. Key words: endophytic community, sugarcane, nitrogenase activity, indolacetic acid.

  9. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  10. Mechanisms of sugarcane response to herbivory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cristina, Falco; Phellippe Arthur S., Marbach; Patrícia, Pompermayer; Francisco Cláudio C., Lopes; Marcio C., Silva-Filho.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering plant-insect interactions at the molecular level is one of the major topics of interest in contemporary plant biology research. In the last few years, various aspects of the plant response to insect damage have been investigated, including the characterization of direct and indirect resp [...] onses, the regulation of gene expression resulting from insect attack and the signal transduction pathways. Such research has resulted in the proposal of new methods to enhance host resistance to insect pests, including the use of insecticidal genes that can be transferred by genetic engineering into target crops. By integrating the understanding of how plants react to insect damage with the techniques of molecular biology researchers should be able to increase the wide range of methods available for the control of insect pests. The sugarcane transcriptome project (SUCEST) has allowed the identification of several orthologues genes involved in the plant response to insect damage. In this paper we summarize several aspects of the complex interaction between plants and insects and describe the use of in silico analysis to provide information about gene expression in different sugarcane tissues in response to insect attack.

  11. Root system stabilization of sugarcane fertigated by subsurface drip using a minirhizotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andre Luiz; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    To improve the efficiency of water use in irrigation practices and to provide information for modeling the knowledge of plants root system becomes necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies about the root system of sugarcane were performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system, which enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the time required for stabilization of the root system growth of sugarcane cultivar IACSP-5000 around the access tube in which images were captured. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The fertigation was applied by a subsurface drip system.. The soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution were monitored through solution extractor. Two access tubes with 1.05 m length were used, with 7 days difference between installations. The images were captured at 110, 128, 136, 143 and 151 days after harvest cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon), with the Root Scanner CI-600 ™ and were analyzed the number of roots and root length in each layer in different depths in the soil profile by software RootSnap! ™. The results show that the highest rates of increase in the number and length of roots were observed in the first 27 days. Absolute growth rates of up to 81 mm day-1 and 38 mm day-1 were presented in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer respectively. The number of roots stabilized from 27 days after installation of the tube, while the length of the root system stabilized between 30 and 40 days. Root growth was more intense in the first two layers (0 to 0.4 m depth) of soil profile, which presented more than 80% of the total root length after the stabilization.

  12. Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo D., Drummond; Claudia T., Guimarães; Juliana, Felix; Fernando E., Ninamango-Cárdenas; Newton P., Carneiro; Edilson, Paiva; Marcelo, Menossi.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Alumínio (Al) é um dos principais fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento de plantas em solos ácidos, reduzindo substancialmente a produtividade agrícola. Na América do Sul, cerca de 66% da superfície do solo apresenta acidez, onde a alta saturação de alumínio é uma das maiores limitações à prática agr [...] ícola. Apesar do crescente número de estudos, uma compreensão completa das bases bioquímicas e moleculares da tolerância ao alumínio em plantas está longe de ser alcançada. No caso da cana-de-açúcar, não há nada publicado sobre a regulação gênica induzida durante o stress por alumínio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genes de cana-de-açúcar relacionados com as várias vias metabólicas reconhecidamente envolvidas na resposta à toxidez do alumínio em outras espécies de plantas e leveduras. Para a maioria dos genes relacionados com alumínio em outras espécies foram identificados similares em cana-de-açúcar, tais como aqueles que codificam enzimas que combatem o stress oxidativo ou a infestação por patógenos, proteínas responsáveis pela exudação de ácidos orgânicos e pela transdução de sinais. O papel desses genes na tolerância ao alumínio é revisado. Devido ao alto grau de conservação do genoma entre espécies próximas de gramíneas como milho, cevada, sorgo e cana-de-açúcar, esses genes serão uma ferramenta valiosa para a melhor compreensão e manipulação da tolerância ao alumínio nestas espécies. Abstract in english Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The b [...] iochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.

  13. Manejo de Pythium sp. y Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn en bancos de enraizamiento de Gypsophila paniculata L. Management of Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonía solaní kuhn in rooting benches of Gypsophíla paniculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés de Granada Emira

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo, se evaluó el efecto que sobre los patógenos Pythium sp. Y Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., tienen los aislamientos de Trichoderma harzianum (T 17 y T 13 y Trichoderma sp. (T18, lo mismo que tratamientos químicos aplicados en bancos de enraizamiento de Gypsophila paniculata L., con altos índices de contaminación. Para evaluar el control de la pudrición del cuello de la raíz de Gypsophila paniculata L., se realizaron observaciones semanales en las cuales se tuvieron en cuenta los porcentajes de esquejes sanos, de esquejes muertos y de esquejes en los cuales se desarrollaban raíces. Los resultados muestran que es más efectivo el control de la pudrición con la aplicación semanal de fungicidas. Sin embargo, se recomienda el empleo de cepas de Trichoderma sp., pero aplicadas con una frecuencia, por lo menos igual, a la empleada con los fungicidas, ya que se observa su efecto inmediato, pero no permanente y, además, porque parecen influir sobre el desarrollo de las plantas.

  14. Processing of porcelain stoneware tile using sugarcane bagasse ash waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian A.S. Schettino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of waste materials are discarded in the sugarcane industry. This work investigates the reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as an alternative raw material for porcelain stoneware tile bodies, replacing natural quartz by up to 5 wt.%. The tile pieces were fired at 1230 °C using a fast-firing cycle (< 60 min. The technological properties of the fired tile pieces (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength were determined. The sintering process was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. The results show that up to 2.5 wt.% sugarcane bagasse ash waste can be used as a partial replacement for quartz in porcelain stoneware tile (group BIa, ISO 13006 standard, providing excellent technical properties. Hence, its application in high-quality ceramic tile for use in civil construction as a low-cost, alternative raw material could be an ideal means of managing sugarcane bagasse ash waste.

  15. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Introduction to models of economic growth with a great deal of focus on the Solow Growth Model both its theory and testing it with data. Also contains a discussion of the effects of the Greenspan Put. From a macroeconomics course at the the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  16. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOPHILIC CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULASE SYNTHESIZED BY Bacillus sp. GROWING ON SUGARCANE BAGASSE IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. Q. M., Padilha; L. C. T., Carvalho; P. V. S., Dias; T. C. S. L., Grisi; F. L. Honorato da, Silva; S. F. M., Santos; D. A. M., Araújo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The production and characterization of cellulase from thermophilic strain Bacillus sp. C1AC5507 was studied. For enzyme production, sugarcane bagasse was used as carbon source. The produced carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) had a molecular weight around 55 kDa and its activity varied between [...] 0.14 and 0.37 IU mL-1 in conditions predicted by Response Surface Methodology. The optimum temperature and pH for the CMCase production were 70 °C and 7.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited mostly by Cu+2 and activated mostly by Co+2, Mn2+, Ca+2 and Fe+3. Our findings provide a contribution to the use of natural wastes such as sugarcane bagasse as substrate for growth and production of thermophilic CMCase. Further optimization to increase the production of cellulase enables the use in industrial applications.

  17. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether), which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorg...

  18. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US$1=R$2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. - Research highlights: ?The relative cost of ethanol produced in the US and imported from Brazil is shown to depend on currency exchange rate, feedstock costs, and co-product credits. ?In 2006-2008, the cost of corn ethanol is estimated to be 15% lower ththanol is estimated to be 15% lower than the cost of imported sugarcane ethanol at US ports. ?A carbon pricing policy could affect relative costs in favor of sugarcane ethanol, but only at a high carbon price.

  19. PREPARATION OF CELLULOSIC FIBERS FROM SUGARCANE FOR TEXTILE USE

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Davina; Bachelier, Bruno; Drean, Jean-yves; Harzallah, Omar

    2013-01-01

    The production of natural fibers is not sufficient to accommodate the textile needs of the growing world population. Therefore, textile research is exploring alternative natural resources to produce fibers. Though typically known for its nutritional use, the sugarcane can also be used for textile production because of its high fiber content.The aim of our study was to extract fibers from sugarcane and to analyze their mechanical behavior. Cane particles were treated with an alkaline solution ...

  20. Evaluating sugarcane diets for dairy cows using a digestion model

    OpenAIRE

    Kebreab, E.; Assis, A.G.; Dijkstra, J.; J. France

    2001-01-01

    To eliminate unnecessary feeding trials, a mechanistic model of sugarcane digestion was used in the search for suitable supplements to improve milk production. Milk production simulated by the model was compared with data observed in four feeding trials published in the tropical literature where crossbred dairy cows were fed sugarcane/urea diets with different types of supplements. The predicted effects of the supplements on the ruminal microbial population, concentrations of ammonia and vola...

  1. Cloning, expression and characterization of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) transketolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, Nahid; Nulit, R; Go, Rusea

    2013-10-01

    Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants. PMID:24132392

  2. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, L. A. B.; Go?mez, E. O.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics an...

  3. Biotechnological interventions in sugarcane improvement: strategies, methods and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work has been conducted towards employing in vitro culture system combined with radiation induced mutagenesis in the improvement of sugarcane. Several radiation induced mutants with agronomically desirable traits were isolated and evaluated under field conditions, besides studying abiotic stress responses using biochemical, physiological and molecular tools. This article describes the developments in the in vitro culture systems and related biotechnologies that are evolving as novel strategies in the recent years for use in sugarcane improvement

  4. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation contribution in sugarcane plants originated from seeds and inoculated with nitrogen-fixing endophytes Avaliação da contribuição da fixação biológica de nitrogênio em cana-de-açúcar originada de sementes e inoculada com endófitos fixadores de nitrogênio

    OpenAIRE

    Erineudo de Lima Canuto; André Luis Martinez de Oliveira; Verônica Massena Reis; José Ivo Baldani

    2003-01-01

    The inoculation technique with endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in sugarcane has been shown as an alternative practice to plant growth promotion. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) contribution by different strains of Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane plant inoculated from seeds. The seeds were planted in pots filled with non-sterile soil, inoculated with the bacterial strains and grown 10 months outside of th...

  5. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  6. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Christine L. [Energy Biosciences Institute, 1115 IGB Bldg., 1206 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Khanna, Madhu [Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 301A Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Barton, Jason [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Giuliani, Eduardo [Venture Partners do Brasil, Rua Iguatemi 354 82, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Weber [Av. Padua Dias 11 - CP 9, Forest Sciences Departament - ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, 13148-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO{sub 2} is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  7. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jancso Mario A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3 of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.

  8. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  9. Factors that Interfere in Dextran Production By Sugarcane Contaminating Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia Oliveira Hauly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dextrans are polysaccharides produced by microorganisms, specially bacterias from the Leuconostoc genus. Dextrans have a high molecular weigh and most of the glycosidic bonds are a(1®6. For the sugar manufacture, dextran is a problem which changes the quality of sugar and the industry efficiency. Dextrans are synthesized when the sugarcane is spoiled before the harvest period, through the sugarcane fissures, which permit the penetration of microorganisms that deteriorate the sugarcane. This work aims at improving the sugar quality and the industry efficiency by isolating dextran producing microorganisms, comparing the time of burning with the infection index and the dextran concentration in the sugarcane juice. Dextran producing microorganisms were isolated from sugarcane juice during the 97/98; 99/00 and 2001 harvests. The isolated strains were maintained in MRS agar at the temperature of 4°C. The fermentation was carried out in MRS broth for 72 hours at 28°C with 180 rpm. Dextran was analyzed by spectrophotometry at 485 nm. Only three isolated strains showed good dextran production. The average of dextran production in MRS broth was 390 mg%. It was observed that a burning period above 72 hours increases the sugarcane contamination and causes high dextran production, and consequently the reduction of the industry efficiency of the sugar factory.

  10. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  11. Characterization of the Microbial Community Involved in the Suppression of Pythium aphanidermatum in Cucumber Grown on Rockwool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Joeke; Geraats, Bart P J; Pastoor, Rob; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2005-07-01

    ABSTRACT The root pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum induced lower levels of disease in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants on unsterilized, re-used rockwool slabs than on heat-sterilized, re-used rockwool. Several recolonization treatments of the sterilized rockwool enhanced the suppressiveness of the rockwool. Microbial community structures in the different rockwool treatments were investigated by plate counts on selective media. Disease suppressiveness in the different rockwool treatments showed the highest correlation with the culturable number of filamentous actinomycetes in both experiments (r = 0.79 and 0.94), whereas the numbers of Trichoderma spp. correlated with suppression only in the first experiment (0.86). The numbers of total culturable bacteria, fluorescent pseudomonads, Bacillus spores, and fungi all showed lower correlations with disease suppressiveness. The filamentous actinomycetes enumerated with the plate counts were mainly Streptomyces spp., of which 10% were antagonistic toward P. aphanidermatum in dual culture. The composition of the bacterial and actinomycete populations was studied with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Multivariate analyses of these patterns with canonical correspondence analysis showed significant correlations between the microbial composition and the disease suppressiveness. However, none of the bands in PCR-DGGE patterns occurred exclusively in the treatments that had enhanced disease suppressiveness. Bands extracted from the actinomycete-specific DGGE gels showed closest similarity with members of several actinomycete genera, i.e., Streptomyces, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Rhodococcus, Curtobacterium, and Tsukamurella. The possible mechanism of disease suppressiveness in used rockwool slabs, based on the results obtained with culture-dependent and culture-independent detection methods, is discussed. PMID:18943014

  12. Efecto del tratamiento de semilla con zinc y ácido giberélico sobre la emergencia y el crecimiento inicial de las plantas de caña de azúcar / EFFECT OF SEED TREATMENT WITH ZINC AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE EMERGENCY AND INITIAL GROWTH OF SUGARCANE PLANTS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Rengel; Fernando, Gil; José, Montaño.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de comparar la aplicación de una suspensión concentrada a base de zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, con el uso de ácido giberélico (ÁG3) en el tratamiento de semilla y evaluar su efecto sobre emergencia y crecimiento inicial de plantas de caña de azúcar, Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, se co [...] ndujo un ensayo en la Fundación Azucarera para el Desarrollo, la productividad y la Investigación (FUNDAcAñA), ubicada en chivacoa, municipio Bruzual, estado Yaracuy. Para tal fin se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones, donde el primero de ellos correspondió al testigo sin aplicación (T0). los tratamientos T1, T2 y T3 consistieron en sumergir secciones de tallo de 5 cm de longitud con una yema viable (mini esquejes) por 10 min en soluciones de Teprosyn Zn® al 1%, 2% y 3%, respectivamente, mientras que en el último tratamiento (T4) la semilla se sometió a inmersión en una solución de 1 g Activol® 100 l agua-1 durante el mismo tiempo. la siembra se realizó en bolsas plásticas negras, utilizando un sustrato obtenido a través de una mezcla de suelo y compost de cachaza en una proporción 1:1. los datos fueron analizados con el programa Statistix 8. Los resultados indican que el tratamiento de semilla con Teprosyn Zn® promovió la emergencia, el crecimiento inicial de raíces, el peso aéreo seco y la producción de materia seca (MS) total de las plantas, favoreciendo el establecimiento del cultivo. la utilización de ÁG3 sólo afectó la longitud total de raíces Abstract in english In order to compare the application of a concentrated suspension based on zinc (Zn), Teprosyn Zn®, with the use of gibberellic acid (GA3) in the treatment of seed and evaluate its effect on emergence and early growth of sugarcane plants , Saccharum spp., var. cp 742005, a trial was conducted in the [...] Sugar Development Foundation, productivity and Research (FUNDAcAñA), located in chivacoa, municipality Bruzual, Yaracuy. For this purpose was used a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications, the first one corresponded to the control application (T0). Treatments T1, T2 and T3 consisted in immersing stem sections 5 cm long with a viable bud (mini cuttings) for 10 min in solutions of Teprosyn Zn® 1%, 2% and 3% respectively, while in the last treatment (T4) seed was subjected to immersion in a solution of 1 g Activol®/ 100 l water during the same time. The sowing was performed in black plastic bags using a substrate obtained from a mixture of soil and filter cake compost in a 1:1 proportion. Data were analyzed with the program Statistix 8. The results indicate that seed treatment with Teprosyn Zn® promoted the emergence, initial growth of roots, the dry weight and dry matter production (MS) in whole plants, favoring the crop establishment. GA3 using only affected the total length of roots

  13. Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Potgieter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

  14. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m² e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promoveu o controle de plantas daninhas, avaliado através do peso da matéria seca das plantas emergentes aos 21 dias após o transplante das mudas, semelhantemente ao herbicida oxidiazon.Two months solarization of a soil naturally infested with Pythium sp. promoted a level of control similar to what was obtained with the application of methalaxyl + mancozeb for the chrysanthemum crop. The average rate of dead plants was 9.0% with the application of fungicides (1 g of methalaxyl + 4.8 g of mancozeb/ m²; 2.3% in solarized plots; 1.0% in solarized plots which received half the dosages of the fungicides and 38.9% in control plots. Similar control of weeds was obtained in solarized plots and plots treated with the herbicide oxidiazon.

  15. Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

    2012-12-01

    The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro-regions) from Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009); (ii) One index that indicates the degree of relative occurrence of vulnerable areas in relation to contamination risk of surface and groundwater by effluents from sugarcane agroindustry from a model made by Barbalho e Campos (2010); (iii) two indicators that evaluate the commitment degree of the available water to meet the demand of sugarcane potential expansion distinctly for dryland and irrigation system; (iv) two indicators that evaluate the attendance level of the sugarcane water demand considering the limits of available water from local water resource in terms of maximum area that the culture can expand in a sustainable way For the estimation of water supply was used a spatially distributed model of specific flow (FERRAZ, 2012). The results show that the indicators were able to characterize and distinguish the different territorial units of analysis and the spatial models used satisfactorily met, in terms of level of detail, the purposes explained. The Sudoeste de Goiás and Quirinópolis microregions exhibit higher favorability, from the point of view of water sustainability therefore have areas where culture can be grown in dry system and still rely on higher available water volumes to supply the demand of sugarcane cultivation in the areas of compulsory irrigation.

  16. Augmentation and Aldicarb Treatment of Nematodes in Selected Sugarcane Weed Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Showler, A. T.; Reagan, T. E.; Flynn, J L

    1991-01-01

    In a single experiment, field-grown Louisiana sugarcane was augmented with phytoparasitic nematodes, treated with aldicarb, or left untreated in both weedy and weed-free habitats to study interactions among nematodes, weeds, sugarcane, and sugarcane free amino acid titers. Aldicarb reduced three of the six phytoparasitic nematode genera at various times during the two growing seasons and was associated with 17% more free proline in the sugarcane. Nematode augmentation resulted in higher field...

  17. Radiation Induced In Vitro Mutagenesis, Selection for Salt Tolerance and Characterization in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one the major environmental stresses affecting plant productivity. Combined use of mutagenesis and tissue culture can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt-stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane damage (electrolyte leakage) was threefold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of better water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress, indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. Insalt tolerant lines and control plants. In addition, plantlets regenerated form irradiated calli of sugarcane cv. CoC-671, Co 86032 and Co 94012 were field planted and agronomically desirable variants were identified for economic traits like cane yield and sucrose (Brix). The genetic stability of the variants is being evaluated at field level in M3 generation. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

  18. Louisiana sugarcane entomology: A look at the back and a peek at the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling insect pests is an important consideration for sugarcane farmers seeking to minimize losses and maximize profits. Research in managing insects has been conducted for almost as long as sugarcane has been grown in Louisiana. This presentation reviews Louisiana sugarcane entomology from the...

  19. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiebaut Flávia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

  20. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Luís Nunes, Carvalho; Rafael, Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon s [...] upply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes) were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM) production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1) and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1) of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

  1. Long-term decomposition of sugarcane harvest residues in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop residues returned to the soil are important to preserve fertility and sustainability. This research addressed the long-term decomposition of sugarcane post-harvest residues (trash) under reduced tillage, therefore field renewal was performed with herbicide followed by subsoiling and ratoons were deprived of interrow scarification. The trial was conducted in the northern Sao Paulo State, Brazil during four consecutive crops (2005–2008) where litter bags containing 15N-labeled trash were disposed in the field attempting to simulate two distinct situations: the previous crop trash (PCT) or residues incorporated in the field after tillage, and post-harvest trash (PHT) or the remains of plant-cane harvest. Decomposition rates regarding dry matter (DM), carbon (C), root growth, plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S), lignin (LIG) cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) contents were assessed for PCT (2005 ndash;2008) and for PHT (2006–2008). There were significant reductions on DM and C:N ratio due to C losses and root growth within the litter bags over time. The DM from PCT and PHT decreased 96% and 73% after four and three crops, respectively, and the higher nutrients release were found for K, Ca and N. The LIG, CEL and HCEL concentrations in PCT decreased 60%, 29%, 70% after four crops and 47%, 35%, 70% from PHT after three crops, respectively. Trash decomposition was driven mainly by residues biochemical composition, root growth within the trash blanket and the climatic conditions during the crop cycles. -- Highlights: ? Degradation of sugarcane previous or post-harvest trash (PCT or PHT) was evaluated. ? Dry matter and C decreased due to microbial and root growth within trash blankets. ? C:N ratio of PCT linearly decreased 23% per year during four consecutive crops. ? Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose concentration averagely declined 54, 41 and 70%. ? PCT and PHT are long-term sources of C, K, Ca and N to the soil-plant system.

  2. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-ovipoe shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

  3. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndorfer, A.P.; Grisoto, E.; Vendramim, J.D., E-mail: korndorfer@hotmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

  4. Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga-Vicente, A.

    2011-12-01

    The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

  5. Mutator System Derivatives Isolated from Sugarcane Genome Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetti, M E; Rossi, M; Cruz, G M Q; Saccaro, N L; Nakabashi, M; Altebarmakian, V; Rodier-Goud, M; Domingues, D; D'Hont, A; Van Sluys, M A

    2012-09-01

    Mutator-like transposase is the most represented transposon transcript in the sugarcane transcriptome. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from sequenced transcripts provided evidence that at least four distinct classes exist (I-IV) and that diversification among these classes occurred early in Angiosperms, prior to the divergence of Monocots/Eudicots. The four previously described classes served as probes to select and further sequence six BAC clones from a genomic library of cultivar R570. A total of 579,352 sugarcane base pairs were produced from these "Mutator system" BAC containing regions for further characterization. The analyzed genomic regions confirmed that the predicted structure and organization of the Mutator system in sugarcane is composed of two true transposon lineages, each containing a specific terminal inverted repeat and two transposase lineages considered to be domesticated. Each Mutator transposase class displayed a particular molecular structure supporting lineage specific evolution. MUSTANG, previously described domesticated genes, are located in syntenic regions across Sacharineae and, as expected for a host functional gene, posses the same gene structure as in other Poaceae. Two sequenced BACs correspond to hom(eo)logous locus with specific retrotransposon insertions that discriminate sugarcane haplotypes. The comparative studies presented, add information to the Mutator systems previously identified in the maize and rice genomes by describing lineage specific molecular structure and genomic distribution pattern in the sugarcane genome. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12042-012-9104-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22905278

  6. [(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

    2014-10-01

    In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

  7. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

  8. Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

  9. Xylanase production by Trichoderma harzianum rifai by solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Maria Inês

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse was used as substrate for xylanase production by means of a strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai isolated from decaying Aspidosperma sp. (peroba wood. The bagasse was washed, dried, milled and wetted with minimal salts medium and the cultures grown at 28 ± 2ºC for 7 days. Two extraction methods were tested for enzyme recovery: (A Tween 80, 0.1% (v/v, in physiological saline, and (B 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, under agitation (180rpm for 15, 30 and 60min. After a single extraction, both extraction methods recovered an average of 15U/ml of xylanase activity, independent on the time of shaking. A second and third extraction recovered 10.4 and 6.6U/ml xylanase, respectively. The effect of volume size for extraction, and sugarcane bagasse concentration, on xylanase production were also investigated. The growth profile of Trichoderma harzianum was followed over 20 days on 14% (w/v bagasse, and highest xylanase activity (288U/ml appeared on the seventh day. The enzymatic extract after precipitation with ammonium sulphate was submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels and showed 4 protein-staining bands, one of which exhibited xylanase activity.

  10. Response of Moderate Pest Resistant and Susceptible Cultivar of Sugarcane to Silicon Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of a silicon (Si application on the biomass, chlorophyll level and silicon level of sugarcane moderate pest resistance (RB72454 and susceptible (SP801842 cultivars were tested. Investigations were also carried out to assess the effect of silicon on Diatraea saccharalis infestation. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using the treatments consisting moderate pest resistant and susceptible culivar, with or without silicon application. The silicon was applied to the soil around the plants. The experiment was laid in complete randomized design with 4 treatments and 10 replicates. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance, and the averages were compared using the Tukey test (p ? 0.05. Significant changes were observed in the fresh and dry masses of the aerial portions and the root system, as well as in the plant chlorophyll and silicon levels. The silicon content increased in the susceptible variety which was significantly equal for moderate resistance variety. Chlorophyll content increased in silicon treated cultivars. Sixty days after the last application, 10 adult D. saccharalis moths were released onto each pot. However, due to the low infestation, the effects of silicon on the insect incidence could not be determined. One can conclude that silicon is beneficial for the growth of the aerial portions of sugarcane and causes a significant increase in chlorophyll levels.

  11. Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

  12. The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from sugarcane wastes for solubilizing phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Atekan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of P in agricultural soils is in unavailable forms for plant growth. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria can increase soil P availability. This study was aimed to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from sugarcane waste compost and to test ability of the isolated bacterial to dissolve phosphate. The bacteria were isolated from three types of sugarcane waste, i.e. filter cake compost, bagasse compost, and a mixture of filter cake + bagasse + trash biomass compost. The potential colony was further purified by the Pikovskaya method on selective media. Eight isolates of phosphate solubilizing bacteria were obtained from all wasted studied. Amongst them, T-K5 and T-K6 isolates were superior in dissolving P from Ca3(PO42 in the media studied. The two isolates were able to solubilize P with solubilizing index of 1.75 and 1.67 for T-K5 and T-K6, respectively. Quantitatively, T-K6 isolate showed the highest P solubilization (0.74 mg / L, followed by T-K5 isolate (0.56 mg / L, while the lowest P solubilization (0.41 mg / L was observed for T-K4 isolate. The increase of soluble P was not always followed by the decrease in pH.

  13. Improved Citric Acid Production by Radiation Mutant Aspergillus niger Using Sugarcane Bagasse Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to huge demand of citric acid, attempts are taking to introduce its efficient production either by using low cost substrates or by improving the potency of the fermentation microorganisms. In this study, sugarcane bagasse extract was used for citric acid production using wild type Aspergillus niger CA16 and its radiation mutant 79/20 by submerged fermentation. Fermentation was carried out up to 15 days using 5, 10, 15 and 20% of sugarcane bagasse extract which contained 21.06, 32.60, 43.50 and 53.20 g L-1 sugar, respectively. The fermentation medium was supplemented with prescott salt. With the increasing concentration of baggase extract, total titratable acidity and citric acid production was increased. Moreover, radiation mutant A. niger 79/20 had higher citric acid production than A. niger CA16. Maximum amount of citric acid (12.81 g L-1 was produced in the 20% bagasse extract medium by A. niger 79/20, whereas, CA16 produced 10.25 g L-1 citric acid in the same fermentation medium. Maximum substrate uptake, growth yield co-efficient and productivity were also found higher in case of the strain 79/20. Thus, radiation mutation induced improved citric acid production in A. niger 79/20.

  14. Mutagenesis and selection in vitro for salinity tolerance and molecular characterization in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    can greatly facilitate the selection and isolation of useful tolerant lines. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerant lines in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv. CoC-671. Embryogenic cultures were gamma irradiated (10-50 Gy) and challenged with different levels of NaCl (42.8 - 256.7 mM). Salt stressed calli exhibited lower relative growth rate, decreased cell viability and higher levels of free proline and glycine betaine. The membrane stability (electrolyte leakage) was 3-fold more under salt stress compared to control. The ion levels were drastically affected under salt stress as leached out Na+ and K+ was much more than that of retained in tissue in both adapted and unadapted callus cultures. The tolerance could also be related to the maintenance of an ample water status and a high to low level of K+ to Na+ under salinity stress indicating that sugarcane can be a Na+ excluder. Plant regeneration was observed in 10 and 20 Gy irradiated calli up to 171.1 mM NaCl selection. A total of 147 plantlets were selected on different salt levels and the tolerant lines are being evaluated at field level. Molecular characterization using RAPD markers revealed genetic polymorphism among selected putative salt tolerant lines and control plants. The proper evaluation of these variants for salinity tolerance may be useful for economic cultivation under the stress reg economic cultivation under the stress regime. (author)

  15. Diversity of 16S rRNA genes from bacteria of sugarcane rhizosphere soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Pisa; G.S., Magnani; H., Weber; E.M., Souza; H., Faoro; R.A., Monteiro; E., Daros; V., Baura; J.P., Bespalhok; F.O., Pedrosa; L.M., Cruz.

    1215-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important agricultural product of Brazil, with a total production of more than 500 million tons. Knowledge of the bacterial community associated with agricultural crops and the soil status is a decisive step towards understanding how microorganisms influence crop productivity. Howeve [...] r, most studies aim to isolate endophytic or rhizosphere bacteria associated with the plant by culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent approaches allow a more comprehensive view of entire bacterial communities in the environment. In the present study, we have used this approach to assess the bacterial community in the rhizosphere soil of sugarcane at different times and under different nitrogen fertilization conditions. At the high taxonomic level, few differences between samples were observed, with the phylum Proteobacteria (29.6%) predominating, followed by Acidobacteria (23.4%), Bacteroidetes (12.1%), Firmicutes (10.2%), and Actinobacteria (5.6%). The exception was the Verrucomicrobia phylum whose prevalence in N-fertilized soils was approximately 0.7% and increased to 5.2% in the non-fertilized soil, suggesting that this group may be an indicator of nitrogen availability in soils. However, at low taxonomic levels a higher diversity was found associated with plants receiving nitrogen fertilizer. Bacillus was the most predominant genus, accounting for 19.7% of all genera observed. Classically reported nitrogen-fixing and/or plant growth-promoting bacterial genera, such as Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Burkholderia were also found although at a lower prevalence.

  16. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium?1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  17. OPTIMIZED AGRICULTURAL PLANNING OF SUGARCANE USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Salles Scarpari* and Edgar Gomes Ferreira de Beauclair**

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimized agricultural planning is a fundamental activity in business profitability because it can increase the returns from an operation with low additional costs. Nonetheless, the use of operations research adapted to sugarcane plantation management is still limited, resulting in decision-making at management level being primarily empirical. The goal of this work was to develop an optimized planning model for sugarcane farming using a linear programming tool. The program language used was General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS as this system was seen to be an excellent tool to allow profit maximization and harvesting time schedule optimization in the sugar mill studied. The results presented support this optimized planning model as being a very useful tool for sugarcane management.

  18. Tracking soil transport to sugarcane industry using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil as mineral impurity in sugarcane loads impacts the Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry with rising production and maintenance costs as well as decreased productivity. The mechanical harvesting of sugarcane was conceived as a technology with potential to increase the raw material quality thereby has been gradually replacing manual harvesting throughout the country. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for determination of soil tracers in order to compare the performance of both harvesting systems in terms of mineral impurities. There were no significant differences in the amount of soil transported to sugarcane industry despite the technological progress aggregated to mechanical harvesting. However, for both harvesting systems there were significant differences on the amount of such mineral impurity between clay and sandy soils. (author)

  19. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  20. Pretreatment strategies for delignification of sugarcane bagasse: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susan Grace, Karp; Adenise Lorenci, Woiciechowski; Vanete Thomaz, Soccol; Carlos Ricardo, Soccol.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The valorization of agro-residues by biological routes is a key technology that contributes to the development of sustainable processes and the generation of value-added products. Sugarcane bagasse is an agro-residue generated by the sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil (186 million tons per year), [...] composed essentially of cellulose (32-44%), hemicellulose (27-32%) and lignin (19-24%). The conversion of sugarcane bagasse into fermentable sugars requires essentially two steps: pretreatment and hydrolysis. The aim of the pretreatment is to separate the lignin and break the structure of lignocellulose, and it is one of the most critical steps in the process of converting biomass to fermentable sugars. The aim of this review is to describe different pretreatment strategies to promote the delignification of the sugarcane bagasse by thermo-chemical and biological processes.

  1. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, Kajihara; Fabiana de, Godoy; Thais Alves, Hamaji; Silvia Regina, Blanco; Marie-Anne, Van Sluys; Magdalena, Rossi.

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “m [...] olecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  2. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kajihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  3. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior cultivar information.

  4. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Lima D.U.; Santos H. P.; Tiné M.A.; Molle F.R.D.; Buckeridge M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br) resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads) which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes) with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they ca...

  5. Comparison of Improved Sugarcane Genotypes on Farmer`s Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Bahadar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of five sugarcane varieties viz. Bannu-1, Naurang-98, COL-75, S-86-US-422 and PAS-132 was evaluated at 39 locations on farmer`s field in Bannu division for four consecutive years. The study revealed that varieties Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 out yielded other varieties during the entire period of investigation. However, amongst these, Naurang-98 exhibited better sugar recovery. Variety S-86-US-422 possessed higher sugar contents as compared to PAS-132 and COL-75. On the basis of results obtained, sugarcane varieties Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 were recommended for general cultivation in the area.

  6. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.A.B., CORTEZ; E.O., GÓMEZ.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combus [...] tion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  7. Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Balcázar-López, Edgar; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese ...

  8. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D were tested in their respective commercial doses regarding their impact on the growth of the bacteria in liquid medium DIGs. For this, we determined the duration of lag phase, generation time and maximum cell density of H. seropedicae, calculated from optical density data obtained at regular intervals during the incubation of cultures for 33 h at 32oC. We also evaluated the impact of herbicides on nitrogenase activity of H. seropedicae grown in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium. The effects of herbicides on the growth variables and the ARA were compared with the untreated control by Dunnett test. A completely randomized design was used. The herbicides paraquat, imazapyr, ametryne, glyphosate and oxyfluorfen inhibited the growth of H. seropedicae in vitro. Ametryne, oxyfluorfen and glyphosate caused a small reduction in the duration of the lag phase of diazotrophic bacteria H. seropedicae. Oxyfluorfen, ametryne and imazapyr resulted in increased the generation time by H. seropedicae. Glyphosate promoted drastic reduction in biological nitrogen fixation in vitro by H. seropedicae. The other tested herbicides did not affect the growth or the same BNF by H. seropedicae.

  9. A biorefining process: Sequential, combinational lignocellulose pretreatment procedure for improving biobutanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haifeng; Liu, Gang; He, Mingxiong; Tan, Furong

    2015-07-01

    Here, for the first time, we designed a sequential, combinatorial lignocellulose pretreatment procedure (SCLPP) for microbial biofuel fermentation to reduce generation of microbial growth inhibitors and furthermore increase sugar yields. We tested this pretreatment process using sugarcane bagasse as substrate and assessed the effectiveness by analysis of biobutanol production through microbial clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 conversion. Our results showed that there were no inhibitory effects when using the hydrolysates as fermentation substrate. Under the SSF scheme, we observed the highest concentrations of butanol (6.4g/L) and total ABE (11.9g/L), resulting in a higher ABE productivity, compared with the SHF method. These findings suggest that the SCLPP is a feasible method for improving ABE production, lowering microbial inhibitor generation, and ensuring success in the subsequent fermentation process. Therefore, our work demonstrated developing a tractable integrated process that facilitates to increase biofuel production from agricultural residues rich in lignocellulose is feasible. PMID:25846185

  10. Plant regeneration of sugarcane cv. RB931003 and RB98710 from somatic embryos and acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberson Dibax

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for regeneration and acclimatization of sugarcane (RB931003 andRB98710 cultivars from somatic embryos. For the cultivar RB931003, the concentration of 0.25 mg L-1 BAP wasefficient and provided the shoot induction in 80% of embryogenic masses. For the cultivar RB98710, the highestpercentage of shoot induction was observed in 0 and 0.25 mg L-1 BAP, which promoted 70% and 75% of shootsfrom embryogenic masses, respectively. The MS medium without growth regulators proved to be appropriate forelongation and rooting of shoots and the use of substrate composed by vermiculite and MS salts was effective in theacclimatization of plants for both cultivars analyzed.

  11. Study of elemental variations during somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane using photon induced X-ray probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) has been extensively used to characterize trace element profiles during plant growth under stress and development. In this study, elemental accumulation was analyzed using EDXRF technique during somatic embryogenesis, from de-differentiated callus (S1) to proembryogenic callus (S2), embryogenic callus with developing embryos (S3) and embryo converted plantlets (S4, S5). There was much variation in Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Higher Mg (4.6%) K (1068 ppm) and Fe accumulation was observed in proembryogenic callus (S2) stage compared to other stages suggesting specific elemental accumulation in embryogenic callus. The results suggest that the information on the accumulation of elements during developmental stages in vitro could be useful for formulating a media for induction of high frequency of embryogenesis in sugarcane

  12. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Glaucia Mendes, Souza; Ana Carolina Quirino, Simoes; Katia Cristina, Oliveira; Humberto Miguel, Garay; Leonardo Costa, Fiorini; Felipe dos Santos, Gomes; Milton Yutaka, Nishiyama-Junior; Aline Maria da, Silva.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O sequenciamento de ESTs (etiquetas de sequencias transcritas) tem possibilitado a descoberta de muitos novos genes em uma ampla variedade de organismos. Um aumento do aproveitamento desta informação pela comunidade científica tem sido possível graças ao desenvolvimento de base de dados contendo seq [...] üências completamente anotadas. O trabalho aqui relatado teve como objetivo a identificação de ESTs de cana de açúcar seqüenciadas através do projeto SUCEST (http://sucest.lad.ic. unicamp.br) que codificam para proteínas envolvidas em mecanismos de transdução de sinal. Nós também preparamos um catálogo dos componentes de transdução de sinal da cana de açúcar (SUCAST) englobando as principais categorias e vias conhecidas (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp. br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm). ESTs codificadoras de enzimas envolvidas nas rotas de biossíntese de hormônios (giberelinas, etileno, auxinas, ácido abscíssico, ácido jasmônico) foram encontradas e sua expressão específica nos tecidos foi inferida a partir de seu enriquecimento nas diferentes bibliotecas. Quando possível, transmissores do sinal hormonal e da resposta a peptídeos produzidos pela planta foram associados a suas respectivas vias. Mais de 100 receptores foram encontrados na cana de açúcar, entre os quais uma grande família de receptores Ser/Thr quinase e também de fotoreceptores, receptores do tipo histidina quinase e seus respectivos reguladores da resposta. Proteínas G e GTPases pequenas foram também analisadas e comparadas com membros destas famílias já conhecidos em mamíferos e plantas. As vias principais que envolvem a participação de proteínas quinases e fosfatases foram mapeadas, em especial as vias da quinase MAP quinase e do inositol que são bem estudadas em plantas. Abstract in english EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane [...] expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br) that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm) that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.

  13. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Mendes Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.O sequenciamento de ESTs (etiquetas de sequencias transcritas tem possibilitado a descoberta de muitos novos genes em uma ampla variedade de organismos. Um aumento do aproveitamento desta informação pela comunidade científica tem sido possível graças ao desenvolvimento de base de dados contendo seqüências completamente anotadas. O trabalho aqui relatado teve como objetivo a identificação de ESTs de cana de açúcar seqüenciadas através do projeto SUCEST (http://sucest.lad.ic. unicamp.br que codificam para proteínas envolvidas em mecanismos de transdução de sinal. Nós também preparamos um catálogo dos componentes de transdução de sinal da cana de açúcar (SUCAST englobando as principais categorias e vias conhecidas (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp. br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm. ESTs codificadoras de enzimas envolvidas nas rotas de biossíntese de hormônios (giberelinas, etileno, auxinas, ácido abscíssico, ácido jasmônico foram encontradas e sua expressão específica nos tecidos foi inferida a partir de seu enriquecimento nas diferentes bibliotecas. Quando possível, transmissores do sinal hormonal e da resposta a peptídeos produzidos pela planta foram associados a suas respectivas vias. Mais de 100 receptores foram encontrados na cana de açúcar, entre os quais uma grande família de receptores Ser/Thr quinase e também de fotoreceptores, receptores do tipo histidina quinase e seus respectivos reguladores da resposta. Proteínas G e GTPases pequenas foram também analisadas e comparadas com membros destas famílias já conhecidos em mamíferos e plantas. As vias principais que envolvem a participação de proteínas quinases e fosfatases foram mapeadas, em especial as vias da quinase MAP quinase e do inositol que são bem estudadas em plantas.

  14. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  15. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  16. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leila Luci, Dinardo-Miranda; Juliano Vilela, Fracasso.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand ou [...] t the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  17. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  18. Databasing Molecular Identities of Louisiana, Florida, and Texas Sugarcane Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) clones (cultivars and superior breeding lines) are routinely exchanged across geographic locations for field-testing or crossing. It is crucial to maintain the genetic identity of these clones during field collection, shipping, and quarantine. Traditionally, suga...

  19. Acoustic detection of Melolonthine larvae in Australian sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision support systems have been developed for risk analysis and control of root-feeding white grub pests in Queensland sugarcane, based partly on manual inspection of cane soil samples. Acoustic technology was considered as a potential alternative to this laborious procedure. Field surveys were...

  20. RB002504 - New early-maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Marcos, Iaia; Ricardo Augusto de, Oliveira; Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de, Melo; Edelclaiton, Daros; Djalma Euzébio, Simões Neto; Gerson Quirino, Bastos; Francisco José de, Oliveira; Andrea, Chaves; Tassia Taiana Abreu Tavares de, Melo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high sucrose content, RB002504 is indicated for harvesting in the early harvest period, from September to November, in the Northeastern region of Brazil. Planting on medium texture soils is recommended. The cultivar is highly responsive to ideal production environments and resistant to th [...] e major sugarcane diseases.

  1. Use of precision agriculture techniques for sugarcane pathology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    While resistance is the most effective and economical method of controlling diseases in sugarcane, in some situations, varieties must be grown that are susceptible. For example, following the introduction of a new disease, it may take several years before resistant varieties replace susceptible one...

  2. Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars for resistance to colletotrichum falcatum went

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for resistance against Colletotrichum falcatum was performed In 96 test lines of sugarcane by artificially inoculation method under field conditions for two consecutive years (1998-99). Out of these 96 cultivars, 43 were graded intermediately resistant and 53 intermediately susceptible on the basis of 0-9 scale. (author)

  3. Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The increase of stem yield due to irrigation was observed in the ratoon sugarcane cycle and promoted significant effect in RTR in the last two ratoons sugarcane cycles. There were no negative effects in technological attributes by using irrigation. On the other hand in second ratoon the irrigation improved Brix, Pol and ATR in relation to non irrigated plants. The use of double planting spacing provided higher of stem yield when compared to simple spacings, with an average gain per cycle of 13.4 and 11.1 Mg ha-1 in relation to treatments S1 and S2 respectively. The double rows planting improved RTR in plant-sugarcane and also in second ratoon sugarcane cycles in relation to other spacings. There was no interaction between irrigation and spacing on production of stems. The stem production presented positive interaction between irrigation and spacing only in the second cycle of sugarcane ratoon. In this case higher RTR yield occurred in irrigated plots in double spacing cultivation (S3). The irrigation promoted higher yield when compared to rainfed cultivation, with average values of 141.3 and 132.4 Mg ha-1, respectively. The irrigated sugarcane plants provided higher RTR compared to non irrigated ones averaging 1.5 Mg ha-1, representing an increase of approximately 6 Mg ha-1 in four yields cycles. In general, results showed beneficial use of irrigation by SDI in sugarcane over the four years of production.

  4. Evidence for signaling between the phytopathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum and Pseudomonas fluorescens F113: P. ultimum represses the expression of genes in P. fluorescens F113, resulting in altered ecological fitness.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedi, S.; Tola, E.; Moe?nne-loccoz, Y.; Dowling, D. N.; Smith, L. M.; O Gara, F.

    1997-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that communication between members of the same species, as well as members of different species, is important for the survival of microorganisms in diverse ecological niches, such as the rhizosphere. To investigate whether the phytopathogen Pythium ultimum could alter gene expression in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113, which protects the roots of sugar beet from the fungus, a screening system was developed to detect differential expression of ba...

  5. Nitrogen fertilizer trials with sugarcane in Louisiana (Re-evaluation leads to lower recommended nitrogen fertilizer rates for Sugarcane)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) is considered the nutrient, which most often limits crop production, yet its optimal management remains a somewhat elusive goal. Sugarcane, a high biomass crop that demands high N inputs, is particularly difficult to manage for efficient N utilization. Excessive N can delay maturity, in...

  6. Field Screening of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Mutant and Commercial Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalermpol KIRDMANEE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and physiological attributes and sugar quality parameters are considered key criteria for screening sugarcane cultivars for salt tolerance. Maximum cane growth and yield were found in a positive check (‘K88-92’ as well as in cv. ‘(A3AE1-18’ when subjected to salt affected soil. Percent reduction in Fv/Fm, quantum efficiency of PSII (?PSII and water use efficiency (WUE due to salt stress was considerably low in ‘K88-92’, ‘(A3AE1-18’ and ‘KK3’ which was associated with very low salt-induced reduction in net photosynthetic rate and growth characters such as shoot length, number of internodes, and internodal length as well as yield traits. In addition, brix, polarlization, fiber, purity and commercial cane sugar (CCS in ‘(A18AE2-15’ and ‘(A3AE1-18’ were well maintained under saline stress. By subjecting the data for various physiological, growth, yield and sugar quality parameters to the Ward’s cluster analysis ‘K88-92’ (positive check, ‘(A3AE1-18’ and ‘KK3’ were identified as salt tolerant, whereas ‘(A11AE1-114’ and ‘K97-32’ as salt sensitive.

  7. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Johann S.; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L.; Bonnett, Graham D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1?months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment.

  8. Shiitake (lentinula edodes) production on a sterilized bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Ivan Henrique; Monteiro Antonio Carlos; Machado José Octavio; Andrioli João Luciano; Barbosa José Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This investigation was performed to evaluate the biological efficiency (BE), mean mushroom weight (MMW), mean number of mushroom (MNM) and mushroom quality of Shiitake [ Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] when grown on a sterilized substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses. The proportions of rice bran were 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse); and the concentrations of sugarcane molasses were 0, 30 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry wei...

  9. Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Hemerly Adriana S; Vo, Figueira Antonio; Almeida Raul S; Galbiatti João A; Zingaretti Sônia M; Ulian Eugênio C; Rodrigues Fabiana A; Medeiros Ane H.; Barsalobres Carla; Vinagre Fabiano; de Rosa Vicente E; Dc, Duarte Rodrigo; Vicentini Renato; Zn, Ve?ncio Ricardo; Nishiyama Milton Y

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cD...

  10. Cultivar Evaluation and Essential Test Locations Identification for Sugarcane Breeding in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Luo; Yong-Bao Pan; Liping Xu; Hua Zhang; Zhaonian Yuan; Zuhu Deng; Rukai Chen; Youxiong Que

    2014-01-01

    The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE) Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable s...

  11. The mutagenic effect on the sugarcane callus irradiated with 60Co-? rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results showed that there was a great number of variations in phenotype of regenerated plants from sugarcane callus cells which were irradiated with 60Co-? rays. Two lines of high-yield and high-sucrose were obtained from 1340 regenerated plants through a few generation selections. The results indicated that sugarcane callus cell irradiated with 60Co-? rays can be a useful way in sugarcane breeding

  12. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-ju?nior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a com...

  13. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tcc, Rachid Caio; Piccolo Marisa C; Leite Deborah Catharine A; Balieiro Fabiano C; Coutinho Heitor Luiz C; van Elsas Jan; Peixoto Raquel S; Rosado Alexandre S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the di...

  14. Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    D. Dzaba; D. Nganga; L. Moundzeo; J. Pandzou

    2011-01-01

    This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E). The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane...

  15. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucas Carvalho Basilio de, Azevedo; Sidney Luiz, Stürmer; Marcio Rodrigues, Lambais.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular my [...] corrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

  16. Sugarcane proteomics: An update on current status, challenges, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ramadass, Ashwin; Amalraj, Ramesh Sundar; Palaniyandi, Malathi; Rasappa, Viswanathan

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated worldwide for the production of crystal sugar, ethanol, and other related by-products. Unlike other comparable monocots like sorghum, maize, and rice, sugarcane genome by virtue of its polyploidy nature remains yet to be fully deciphered. Proteomics-an established complementary tool to genomics is at its infancy in sugarcane as compared to the other monocots. However, with the surge in genomics research accomplished by next-generation sequencing platforms, sugarcane proteomics has gained momentum. This review summarizes the available literature from 1970 to 2014, which ensures a comprehensive coverage on sugarcane proteomics-a topic first of its kind to be reviewed. We herewith compiled substantial contributions in different areas of sugarcane proteomics, which include abiotic and biotic stresses, cell wall, organelle, and structural proteomics. The past decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the pace with which sugarcane proteomics is progressing, as evident by the number of research publications. In addition to extensively reviewing the progress made thus far, we intend to highlight the scope in sugarcane proteomics, with an aspiration to instigate focused research on sugarcane to harness its full potential for the human welfare. PMID:25641866

  17. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade, Landell; Maximiliano Salles, Scarpari; Mauro Alexandre, Xavier; Ivan Antônio dos, Anjos; Antônio Sampaio, Baptista; Cláudio Lima de, Aguiar; Daniel Nunes da, Silva; Márcio Aurélio Pitta, Bidóia; Sandro Roberto, Brancalião; José Antônio, Bressiani; Marcelo Ferraz de, Campos; Paulo Eduardo Martins, Miguel; Thiago Nogueira da, Silva; Victor Hugo Pavelqueires da, Silva; Luciana Oliveira Souza, Anjos; Bruna Harumi, Ogata.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy produ [...] ction. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  18. Establishment of an in vitro regeneration system for genetic transformation of selected sugarcane genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, S; Rana, I A; Khan, I A; Saleem, M

    2012-01-01

    A good culture system provides considerable quantities of highly regenerable target tissues. Embryogenic callus cultures are ideal for micro-projectile-mediated transformation, because regenerable cells are not very stable. Effective exploitation of genetic transformation requires good regeneration systems. We selected three sugarcane genotypes for the establishment and optimization of good in vitro regeneration systems, viz., S-2003-us-359, S-2006-sp-30, and S-2003-us-165. Three callus induction media were investigated. These media were composed of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium salt plus 1, 2, and 3 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Medium with 3 mg/L 2,4-D gave the greatest mass of embryogenic calli. The calli produced on the three callus induction media were transferred to 18 types of regeneration media (RM1-RM18). They varied with respect to plant growth regulators and sucrose levels but the basal medium was MS. Two levels of sucrose (30 and 40 g/L), three levels of 2,4-D (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 mg/L) and three levels of 6-benzylaminopurine (0, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L) were studied in the regeneration media. The effects of callus age on regeneration were evaluated by transferring the calli to regeneration media after 15, 21, 28, and 35 days of culture. The 21-day-old callus of the genotype S-2003-us-359 on RM3 yielded the largest number of plants and was selected as the best for transformation. Six RAPD DNA primers were used to check genetic stability; this medium did not affect the sugarcane genomes. PMID:22535387

  19. In vitro mutagenesis and selection for salinity tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) is a highly polyploid plant (2n=36-170) grown in different parts of the world from the tropics to subtropics, and accounts for around 60% of the world's sugar. It is also one of the important cash crops in many developing/developed countries, with a high trade value. In this study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerance in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars CoC- 671, Co 86032 and Co 94012. Embryogenic callus cultures were subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50). Radio sensitivity estimation indicated that 20 Gy irradiated cultures exhibited almost 50 per cent survival response. Relative growth rate and cell mass accumulation were recorded after irradiation and 30 days of post- irradiation culture. The plants regenerated from the calli irradiated at 20, 30 and 40 Gy were hardened and field planted to study their performance. The embryogenic callus cultures were also exposed to inhibitory levels of NaCl (42.8, 85.6, 128.3, 171.1, 213.9, 256.7 mM). The biochemical responses to the salt stress were studied in terms of proline, glycine betaine accumulation, membrane stability and cell viability. The variegated plants were also observed following gamma irradiation and were analyzed by different molecular markers (RAPD and Ac homologous transposons). The salt selected plants were further field evaluated and the desirable clones are now being evalud the desirable clones are now being evaluated in the second generation for their genetic stability. The proper evaluation of these induced variants with desirable traits may prove useful for cultivation under stress conditions

  20. IMPROVING ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BY BIOLOGICAL/PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PRETREATMENT USING TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND BACILLUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chularat Krongtaew Sakdaronnarong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, laccase biosynthesis of two microorganisms, Trametes versicolor TISTR 3224 and Bacillus sp. TISTR 908 isolated in Thailand, was investigated using sugarcane bagasse (SCB as substrate. Two-stage biological/physico-chemical pretreatment of SCB on delignification and saccharification yield was studied. A two-level full factorial design was applied and 3 factors influencing delignification and saccharification processes of SCB were studied including C:N ratio (10:1 to 20:1, temperature (100 to 140°C, and alkali concentration (0 to 5% w/w NaOH. It was found that during biological pretreatment of SCB, a greater amount of laccase was produced from T. versicolor in the early stage of growth compared with Bacillus sp. Nitrogen supplement enhanced laccase biosynthesis of T. versicolor. By contrast, Bacillus sp. required a smaller amount of nitrogen source to produce laccase. Biological treated bagasse was subsequently subjected to a physico-chemical treatment. The results showed that the highest xylose and glucose yield of 51.97% w/w based on carbohydrate content was obtained from T. versicolor cultivation at a C:N ratio of 20:1, and consecutively treated in 5% w/w NaOH solution at 140°C for 1 h. Bacterial/alkali and alkali pretreatment yielded xylose and glucose in smaller degrees compared with fungal/alkali pretreatment. T. versicolor preferentially degraded lignin in sugarcane bagasse relative to cellulose and hemicelluloses constituents, while Bacillus sp. simultaneously attacked both lignin and carbohydrate moieties, as indicated by analysis of relative FT-IR intensities ratios of pretreated and untreated sugarcane bagasse.

  1. In vitro selection of transgenic sugarcane callus utilizing a plant gene encoding a mutant form of acetolactate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vyver, Christell; Conradie, Tobie; Kossmann, Jens; Lloyd, James

    2013-04-01

    Selection genes are routinely used in plant genetic transformation protocols to ensure the survival of transformed cells by limiting the regeneration of non-transgenic cells. In order to find alternatives to the use of antibiotics as selection agents, we followed a targeted approach utilizing a plant gene, encoding a mutant form of the enzyme acetolactate synthase, to convey resistance to herbicides. The sensitivity of sugarcane callus (Saccharum spp. hybrids, cv. NCo310) to a number of herbicides from the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone classes was tested. Callus growth was most affected by sulfonylurea herbicides, particularly 3.6 ?g/l chlorsulfuron. Herbicide-resistant transgenic sugarcane plants containing mutant forms of a tobacco acetolactate synthase (als) gene were obtained following biolistic transformation. Post-bombardment, putative transgenic callus was selectively proliferated on MS medium containing 3 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 20 g/l sucrose, 0.5 g/l casein, and 3.6 ?g/l chlorsulfuron. Plant regeneration and rooting was done on MS medium lacking 2,4-D under similar selection conditions. Thirty vigorously growing putative transgenic plants were successfully ex vitro-acclimatized and established under glasshouse conditions. Glasshouse spraying of putative transgenic plants with 100 mg/l chlorsulfuron dramatically decreased the amount of non-transgenic plants that had escaped the in vitro selection regime. PCR analysis showed that six surviving plants were als-positive and that five of these expressed the mutant als gene. This report is the first to describe a selection system for sugarcane transformation that uses a selectable marker gene of plant origin targeted by a sulfonylurea herbicide. PMID:23543883

  2. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  3. Molecular Detection of Endophytic Bacteria on Plantlet Tissue of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIK EKO WIDAYATI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria live in plant host tissues without causing any symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the indigenous endophytic bacteria on sugarcane plantlets produced from the young leaf cells by using tissue culture techniques. To detect the existence of endophytic bacteria in the plantlet tissue, a series of molecular method based on PCR were applied by using ribosomal intergenic spacer (RIS primer followed by 16S rDNA partial sequence and single strand conformation polymorphism (SCCP. The results showed that the molecular method could detect the existence of bacteria in the tissues. Using the same methods, the bacteria were also found in other developmental stages of sugarcane (explants, differentiated tissues and callus.

  4. Butanol-acetone fermentation of sugar-cane juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, E.V.

    1958-01-01

    Sixteen new varieties of Clostridium acetobutylicum of varying activity were isolated from different sources. The most active one was obtained from sugar-cane roots. The effects of 86 additives were studied. The following formulation gave a 32% yield (with respect to sucrose) of solvent mixture (73% BuOH, 19 to 23% acetone, and 3 to 4% EtOH) sugar-cane juice (I) (20/sup 0/ Brix) 250 ml, ground Vicia sativa 1 g, KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ 2.5 g, CaCO/sub 3/ 4 g, H/sub 2/O 1000 ml; the pH of this solution was 5.6 to 6.0. Unclarified, it was inverted by invertase; the other components were added and the mixture was sterilized (20 minutes, 15 pounds).

  5. Management of sugarcane insect pests through environment-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment ecofriendly techniques like cultural and biological control are effective to manage sugarcane insects like borers and sucking pests on an area-wide basis in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. Among the cultural practices for the management of shoot borer of sugarcane (Chilo infuscatellus Snell), a major pest of this region, planting in the early season of December-January proves to be more efficient, followed by a system of trash mulching on the ridges or raising intercrop pulses like green gram or black gram immediately after planting. The benefit-cost ratio in the trash mulching and intercropping systems was higher than in the sugarcane monocrop. The reduction of shoot borer in the intercropped system ranged from 45.8% to 51.4% while the reduction was 50.5% in the trash mulched system. Early season planted sugarcane was minimally infested by shoot borer and stray incidence was only recorded. Another cultural practice of increasing the sugarcane sett/seed rate, while planting at 20% over and above the normal recommended rate during the late season when the incidence of shoot borer is highest in this region, recorded reduction in infestation to the extent of 26.8% during the two seasons trials conducted from 2002-2004. Another effective cultural practice of removal of older and dried up leaves of sugarcane twice during 5th and 7th months after planting reduced sucking pests likes white fly (Aleurolobus barodensis Mask) nymphs by 42.1% and puparia by 63.s Mask) nymphs by 42.1% and puparia by 63.9%; and leaf hopper (Pyrilla perpusilla Wlk.) to the extent of 66% respectively. Among the biocontrol techniques the release of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) reared under artificial conditions, at fortnightly intervals at 2.5cc/ha six times commencing from 5th month stage of crop reduced internode borer (Chilo sacchariphagus indicus Kapur) only to the extent of 20%, which is the least among the other practices tested. The natural field parasitisation of another egg parasitoid, Telenomus beneficiens Zehnt. (Scelionidae: Hymenoptera) was more predominant from September to March (32.3 to 73.5%), though rearing under artificial conditions as for T. chilonis was not successful. The sugarcane leafhopper Pyrilla perpusilla was managed by the release of its nymphal-adult ecto-parasitoid Epiricania melanoleuca Fletcher, twice after the onset of infestation, which reduced the overall mean nymphal parasitisation by 28.4% (500 egg masses/ha) or 47.2% (1,000 cocoons /ha). The IPM demonstration trials carried out during the two seasons of 2002-2004 incorporating the cultural components of trash mulching on ridges immediately after planting, detrashing of older leaves on 5th and 7th months and biological component of release of egg parasitoid T. chilonis during vegetative phase of the crop, resulted in increased cane yield of 23.3 and 17.3% over and above the plots where these practices were not followed up during 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 respectively. The incidence of shoot borer was reduced by 33.6 and 42.4% during these two years, while the internode borer incidence was reduced by 19.69 and 13.74% respectively. The experiments on eco-friendly techniques for warding off insect pests of sugarcane and subsequent demonstrations in the field prove that cultural practices coupled with biological control techniques could reduce borers and sucking pest infestation and result in subsequent yield increase

  6. Development of IgY antibodies in chickens and IgG in rabbits immunized against proteins of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses in the state of Rio de Janeiro / Desenvolvimento de Anticorpos IgY em galinhas e IgG em coelhos imunizados contra proteínas de Pythium insidiosum isolado de equinos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Fabíola Nunes, Rangel; Luciana da Silva, Lemos; Cláudia Maria Costa de, Almeida; Lério Gama, Sales; Olney Vieira-da, Motta.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitiose é causada por Pythium insidiosum e a doença foi descrita em equinos no Norte e Noroeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A doença foi descrita em bovinos, ovelhas, humanos e cavalos em diferentes estados e regiões do país. Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de anticorpos policlonai [...] s, IgY e IgG, em galinha e coelho, respectivamente, contra proteínas extraídas de kunkers e hifas de P. insidiosum de cavalos doentes. As proteínas foram reconhecidas por anticorpos de galinha, coelho e cavalos contra as bandas majoritárias de 27 e 34 KDa em imunodifusão e Western blot tituladas por ELISA. Os anticorpos IgY desenvolvidos pela primeira vez contra cepas brasileiras de P. insidiosum podem representar um valioso instrumento na detecção de antígenos de patógenos e contribuem para novos estudos baseados na imunoterapia e no entendimento sobre esta doença em áreas endêmicas no Rio de Janeiro e em todo o país. Abstract in english Pythiosis is caused by Pythium insidiosum and the occurrence of disease in horses was described in the North and Northwest State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The disease was described in cattle, sheep, humans, and horses in different states and regions across the country. This paper describes the deve [...] lopment of IgY and IgG polyclonal antibodies, in chicken and rabbits, respectively against proteins extracted from kunkers and hyphae of P. insidiosum from affected horses. The proteins were recognized by chicken, rabbit and horse antibodies by immunodiffusion and Western blot against majority bands of 27 and 43 KDa, and titrated by ELISA. The antibodies IgY developed by the first time against Brazilian strains of P. insidiosum may represent a valuable tool in the detection of antigens of the pathogen and contribute to further studies aimed at immunotherapy and knowledge about this disease in endemic areas in Rio de Janeiro and in Brazil.

  7. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Jancso Mario A.; Sculaccio Susana A.; Thiemann Otavio H.

    2001-01-01

    Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy de...

  8. Efficiency of biparental crossing in sugarcane analyzed by SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    João Messias dos Santos; Geraldo Veríssimo Souza Barbosa; Cícero Eduardo Ramalho Neto; Cícero Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane has hermaphrodite flowers, however, selfing and cross pollination may occur, resulting in selfed or hybrid progeny. The aim of this study was to analyze the paternity of progenies from biparental crosses, in order to identify true hybrids or progenies originating from pollen of unknown origin. Seventy-six progenies from four crosses were analyzed using three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (SSR). Progenies showed moderate genetic similarity and were grouped int...

  9. Combining ability for yield and quality in Sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    S.Alarmelu, G.Hemaprabha, R.Nagarajan and R. M..Shanthi

    2010-01-01

    Combining ability variances and effects were estimated for important yield and quality traits in sugarcane using line xtester mating design.Seven clones were used as females (lines) and three as males (testers). Five characters viz., numberof millable canes, stalk diameter, stalk height, single cane weight and Brix % were considered in the present study.Twenty one crosses, obtained from seven lines x three testers were studied for sca, gca effects, per-se performance andheterosis. The study r...

  10. Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: Present knowledge and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil the long-term continuous cultivation of sugarcane with low N fertiliser inputs, without apparent depletion of soil-N reserves, led to the suggestion that N2-fixing bacteria associated with the plants may be the source of agronomically significant N inputs to this crop. From the 1950s to 1970s, considerable numbers of N2-fixing bacteria were found to be associated with the crop, but it was not until the late 1980s that evidence from N balance and 15N dilution experiments showed that some Brazilian varieties of sugarcane were able to obtain significant contributions from this source. The results of these studies renewed the efforts to search for N2-fixing bacteria, but this time the emphasis was on those diazotrophs that infected the interior of the plants. Within a few years several species of such 'endophytic diazotrophs' were discovered including Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans and Burkholderia sp. Work has continued on these endophytes within sugarcane plants, but to date little success has been attained in elucidating which endophyte is responsible for the observed BNF and in what site, or sites, within the cane plants the N2 fixation mainly occurs. Until such important questions are answered further developments or extension of this novel N2-fixing system to other economically important non-legumes (e.g. cereals) will be seriously hindered.(e.g. cereals) will be seriously hindered. As far as application of present knowledge to maximise BNF with sugarcane is concerned, molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. An abundant water supply favours high BNF inputs, and the best medium term strategy to increase BNF would appear to be based on cultivar selection on irrigated N deficient soils fertilised with Mo. (author)

  11. Structural characterization of the lignins from sugarcane bagasse and straw

    OpenAIRE

    Lino, Alessandro Guarino; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Lima, Claudio F.; Martínez Ferrer, Ángel Tomás; Río Andrade, José Carlos del

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the lignins of sugarcane bagasse and straw was investigated. The lignins were characterized both in situ and in isolated preparations (Milled-Wood Lignin, MWL, and Cellulolytic Lignin, CEL) by Py-GC/MS and 2D-NMR. It was concluded that they are p-hydroxyphenyl-guaiacyl-syringyl lignins with associated pcoumarates and ferulates. 2D-NMR indicated that the main substructures present are ?–O–4´-ethers, followed by ?–5´ phenylcoumarans and with lower amounts of ?–?´...

  12. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Pan; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2015-03-01

    2,3-Butanediol has been known as a platform green chemical, and the production cost is the key problem for its large-scale production in which the carbon source occupies a major part. Sugarcane molasses is a by-product of sugar industry and considered as a cheap carbon source for biorefinery. In this paper, the fermentation of 2,3-butanediol with sugarcane molasses was studied by reducing the medium ingredients and operation steps. The fermentation medium was optimized by response surface methodology, and 2,3-butanediol production was explored under the deficiency of sterilization, molasses acidification, and organic nitrogen source. Based on these experiments, the fermentation medium with sugarcane molasses as carbon source was simplified to five ingredients, and the steps of molasses acidification and medium sterilization were reduced; thus, the cost was reduced and the production of 2,3-butanediol was enhanced. Under fed-batch fermentation, 99.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin was obtained at 60 h with a yield of 0.39 g/g sugar. PMID:25586489

  13. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  14. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  15. Molecular chaperone genes in the sugarcane expressed sequence database (SUCEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Júlio C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some newly synthesized proteins require the assistance of molecular chaperones for their correct folding. Chaperones are also involved in the dissolution of protein aggregates making their study significant for both biotechnology and medicine and the identification of chaperones and stress-related protein sequences in different organisms is an important task. We used bioinformatic tools to investigate the information generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project in order to identify and annotate molecular chaperones. We considered that the SUCEST sequences belonged to this category of proteins when their E-values were lower than 1.0e-05. Our annotation shows that 4,164 of the 5? expressed sequence tag (EST sequences were homologous to molecular chaperones, nearly 1.8% of all the 5? ESTs sequenced during the SUCEST project. About 43% of the chaperones which we found were Hsp70 chaperones and its co-chaperones, 10% were Hsp90 chaperones and 13% were peptidyl-prolyl cis, trans isomerase. Based on the annotation results we predicted 156 different chaperone gene subclasses in the sugarcane genome. Taken together, our results indicate that genes which encode chaperones were diverse and abundantly expressed in sugarcane cells, which emphasizes their biological importance.

  16. Isolation and Characterisation of Endophytic Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangthong, Ampiga; Youpensuk, Somchit; Rerkasem, Benjavan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of industrial variety (cv. U-Thong 3; UT3), wild and chewing sugarcane plants grown for 6 weeks in nitrogen (N)-free sand. Eighty nine isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained on N-free agar. An acetylene reduction assay (ARA) detected nitrogenase activity in all 89 isolates. Three isolates from the chewing (C2HL2, C7HL1 and C34MR1) sugarcane and one isolate from the industrial sugarcane (UT3R1) varieties were characterised, and their responses to different yeast extract concentrations were investigated. Three different responses in nitrogenase activity were observed. Isolates C2HL2 and C7HL1 exhibited major increases with the addition of 0.005% yeast extract, C34MR1 exhibited no response, and UT3R1 exhibited a significant decrease in nitrogenase activity with 0.005% yeast extract. In all the isolates, nitrogenase activity decreased with further increase of the yeast extract to 0.05%. The highest nitrogenase activity was observed in isolates C2HL2 and C7HL1, which had 16S rRNA gene sequences that were closely related to Novosphingobium sediminicola and Ochrobactrum intermedium, respectively.

  17. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km2 resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  18. Zinc abatement from simulated and industrial wastewaters using sugarcane biomass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BO, Opeolu; O, Bamgbose; OS, Fatoki.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of heavy metals and their compounds in industrial applications has resulted in their occurrence in various environmental media including water bodies. Conventional methods of heavy metal removal from wastewaters are very expensive, when available, especially in developing countries. This stu [...] dy therefore assessed the potential of sugarcane biomass to remove zinc from standard solutions and industrial (paint and textile) wastewaters. Parameters studied include contact time, biomass weight, metal concentration, pH, agitation, temperature and particle size. Physico-chemical characteristics of biomass were also studied. Adsorption of zinc increased with increases in contact time, biomass weight, pH and agitation speed, while adsorption decreased with increasing particle size and for temperatures above 50ºC. Sugarcane biomass was responsible for over 90% adsorption of Zn2+ in both effluents. Under conditions of agitation, 100% adsorption was achieved. Percentage ash, particle density, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and porosity are important physico-chemical properties which influenced Zn2+ adsorption. Percentage ash and CEC are positively correlated to percentage adsorption while particle density and porosity are negatively correlated. Percentage desorption was over 90 for both effluents. Sugarcane biomass is therefore a potential alternative to expensive synthetic resins. Its biodegradability makes disposal environmentally friendly. However, there is the need to further study the biomass in flow-through systems for industrial applicability.

  19. Brewer's yeast and sugarcane yeast as protein sources for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M S; Sakomura, N K; Souza, D F; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Vasconcellos, R S; Carciofi, A C

    2014-10-01

    Brewer's yeast (BY), autolysed sugarcane yeast (ASCY) and integral sugar cane yeast (ISCY) were studied in two experiments as ingredients for dog diets. In the first experiment, 28 dogs were randomly assigned to four diets; one reference diet and three test diets containing 15% of BY, ASCY or ISCY and 85% of the reference diet (as-fed basis). The digestibilities of the yeasts were calculated by the substitution method. In the second experiment, 35 dogs were randomized to five diets with similar chemical composition but different levels of sugarcane yeast inclusion (0%, 7.5% ASCY, 15% ASCY, 7.5% ISCY and 15% ISCY). In both experiments, the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients was determined through total collection of faeces. During experiment, two additional analyses of food palatability, nitrogen balance and urea postprandial responses were performed. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, and the means were compared by orthogonal or polynomial contrasts or Tukey's test (p faecal score and DM content were reduced with ISCY inclusion (p dogs, but its effect on faecal formation needs to be considered. No clear advantage for the use of ASCY over ISCY was found. In conclusion, we find that sugarcane yeast is suitable for inclusion in dog food and can enhance the overall palatability of the diet. PMID:24304448

  20. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  1. Glyphosate Control of Orange and Brown Rusts in Glyphosate-Sensitive Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Brown and orange rust diseases cause substantial yield reductions on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida and other regions where sugarcane is grown. Brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust caused by Pucci...

  2. Diversity and antifungal activity of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria colonizing sugarcane in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    The price of nitrogen continues to increase and is a major input in sugarcane production. Sugarcane grown in Egypt was screened for the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-free medium LGI-P was used to isolate bacteria from cane stalks. Among the 52 isolates subjected to acetylene redu...

  3. Digestion of feed fractions and intake of heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regis Luis, Missio; Mauro Dal Secco de, Oliveira; Mariana Paula Rossi, Sforcini; Francisco Palma, Rennó; José Esler, Freitas Júnior; Denise Adelaide Gomes, Elejade; Viviane Borba, Ferrari; Guilherme de Carvalho, Abud.

    1737-17-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, in Nellore heifers, intake and digestibility of hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, four diets, four Nellore heifers with ruminal cannulas (initial body weight 285.4±23.08 kg and averag [...] e initial age 14 months) and four periods of 21 days. The diets were composed by fresh sugarcane (time zero) or hydrolyzed sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime, stored for 24, 48 or 72 hours, as the unique forage. Intake and digestibility of feed fractions, nitrogen balance, microbial synthesis efficiency, total number of ruminal protozoans and ammoniacal nitrogen did not significantly change by storing sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime. Sugarcane pH varied quadratically for storage time, with maximum pH of 7.02 after 24 hours from lime addition. Ruminal liquid pH values were higher for heifers fed fresh sugarcane, in comparison with those fed hydrolyzed sugarcane. Sugarcane treated with 0.5% of hydrated lime stored for up to 72 hours does not change ruminal digestion to alter the amount of feed consumed by pubescent Nellore heifers. Thus, lime is a viable technology, once it allows long-duration storage and bee control on treated forage, which contributes to animal feeding logistics.

  4. Varietal susceptibility to the corn wireworm Melanotus Communis (Coleoptera:>Elateridae) in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wireworms (larval Elateridae) reduce the stand of newly planted sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) directly by damaging growing points and indirectly by facilitating disease introduction. No research has evaluated resistance or tolerance of sugarcane genotypes grown in Florida. Eleven ge...

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Sugarcane Plantation in the Niari Valley in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dzaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study targeted for evaluating the carbon sequestration in the industrial plantations of sugarcane in the Niari valley (4-4°15’S and 12-13°E. The industrial plantations of sugarcane occupy an area of about 16,000 hectares. The sequestration evaluation of the carbon by the sugarcanes plantations in the Niari valley has been carried out on the basis of different varieties of the sugarcane from the measures of the biomass. The results show that the carbon sequestration in the sugar cane plantations of the Niari valley amounts to 50 tons per hectare. This carbon sequestration presents important values ranging from 60 to 80 tons per hectare (p<0.05 during the first two years of the new sprout (R 570 and Co 997 and a more or less stationary level up to the tenth new sprout of sugar cane for the variety NCO 376. These results depend on the environment conditions, the burning of sugarcane fields before harvesting to facilitate the processing of sugarcanes and also the flexibility in terms of adaptability of the sugarcane varieties cultivated. The sugarcane plantations contribute a great deal in the struggle against climate changes and their use in terms of bio fuel.

  6. Climatic effects on sugarcane ripening under the influence of cultivars and crop age

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nilceu Piffer, Cardozo; Paulo Cesar, Sentelhas.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information about the effects of cultivars, crop age and climate on the sugarcane (Saccharum ssp.) crop yield and quality has been the primary factor impacting the sugar-ethanol sector in Brazil. One of the processes about which we do not have a satisfactory understanding is sugarcane ri [...] pening and the effects of cultivars, crop age and climate on that. Sugarcane ripening is the process of sucrose accumulation in stalks, which is heavily influenced by several factors, mainly by climatic conditions such as air temperature and water deficits. Because it is a complex process, studies of the variables involved in sugarcane ripening can provide important information, resulting in a better use of commercial cultivars, bringing advantages to growers, processing units, breeding programs and scientific community. In this review, we discuss the available knowledge of the interaction between climate conditions and sugarcane ripening, under the influence of genotypic characteristics and crop age. In several studies, the main conclusion is that sugarcane ripening depends on a complex combination of climate variables, the genetic potential of cultivars and crop management. Soil moisture and air temperature are the primary variables involved in sugarcane ripening, and their combination stimulates the intensity of the process. In addition, the need for studies integrating the effects of climate on plant physiological processes and on the use of chemical agents to stimulate sugarcane ripening is highlighted.

  7. Sugarcane yield responses of four cultivars to three planting dates in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) farms are increasing in size thus the period of planting has been extended. Both earlier and later dates are used in an effort to maximize farm efficiency as growers contend with having to plant fields and harvest sugarcane for processing where planting is delaye...

  8. Location Contributions Determined via GGE Biplot Analysis of Multievironment Sugarcane Genotype-Performance Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the contributions of the location with a sand soil to the final stage of multi-environment testing of sugarcane genotypes in Flor...

  9. Short-term physiological changes in roots and leaves of sugarcane varieties exposed to H2O2 in root medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karina I; Sales, Cristina R G; Marchiori, Paulo E R; Silveira, Neidiquele M; Machado, Eduardo C; Ribeiro, Rafael V

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential sensitivity of sugarcane genotypes to H2O2 in root medium. As a hypothesis, the drought tolerant genotype would be able to minimize the oxidative damage and maintain the water transport from roots to shoots, reducing the negative effects on photosynthesis. The sugarcane genotypes IACSP94-2094 (drought tolerant) and IACSP94-2101 (drought sensitive) were grown in a growth chamber and exposed to three levels of H2O2 in nutrient solution: control; 3 mmol L(-1) and 80 mmol L(-1). Leaf gas exchange, photochemical activity, root hydraulic conductance (Lr) and antioxidant metabolism in both roots and leaves were evaluated after 15 min of treatment with H2O2. Although, root hydraulic conductance, stomatal aperture, apparent electron transport rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency have been reduced by H2O2 in both genotypes, IACSP94-2094 presented higher values of those variables as compared to IACSP94-2101. There was a significant genotypic variation in relation to the physiological responses of sugarcane to increasing H2O2 in root tissues, being root changes associated with modifications in plant shoots. IACSP94-2094 presented a root antioxidant system more effective against H2O2 in root medium, regardless H2O2 concentration. Under low H2O2 concentration, water transport and leaf gas exchange of IACSP94-2094 were less affected as compared to IACSP94-2101. Under high H2O2 concentration, the lower sensitivity of IACSP94-2094 was associated with increases in superoxide dismutase activity in roots and leaves and increases in catalase activity in roots. In conclusion, we propose a general model of sugarcane reaction to H2O2, linking root and shoot physiological responses. PMID:25703773

  10. Identification, classification and expression pattern analysis of sugarcane cysteine proteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Coelho Correa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases are peptidyl hydrolyses dependent on a cysteine residue at the active center. The physical and chemical properties of cysteine proteases have been extensively characterized, but their precise biological functions have not yet been completely understood, although it is known that they are involved in a number of events such as protein turnover, cancer, germination, programmed cell death and senescence. Protein sequences from different cysteine proteinases, classified as members of the E.C.3.4.22 sub-sub-class, were used to perform a T-BLAST-n search on the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags project (SUCEST data bank. Sequence homology was found with 76 cluster sequences that corresponded to possible cysteine proteinases. The alignments of these SUCEST clusters with the sequence of cysteine proteinases of known origins provided important information about the classification and possible function of these sugarcane enzymes. Inferences about the expression pattern of each gene were made by direct correlation with the SUCEST cDNA libraries from which each cluster was derived. Since no previous reports of sugarcane cysteine proteinases genes exists, this study represents a first step in the study of new biochemical, physiological and biotechnological aspects of sugarcane cysteine proteases.Proteinases cisteínicas são peptidil-hidrolases dependentes de um resíduo de cisteína em seu sítio ativo. As propriedades físico-químicas destas proteinases têm sido amplamente caracterizadas, entretanto suas funções biológicas ainda não foram completamente elucidadas. Elas estão envolvidas em um grande número de eventos, tais como: processamento e degradação protéica, câncer, germinação, morte celular programada e processos de senescência. Diferentes proteinases cisteínicas, classificadas pelo Comitê de Nomenclatura da União Internacional de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (IUBMB como pertencentes à sub-sub-classe E.C.3.4.22, foram usadas na busca de clusters no banco de dados do SUCEST (SUgarCane EST project, utilizando-s o programa T-BLAST-n. Homologia de seqüências foram encontradas com 76 clusters que correspondem a prováveis proteinases cisteínicas. O alinhamento destas seqüências com a de outras proteases cisteínicas, de diversas origens, forneceu informação quanto à classificação e possível função das proteinases de cana-de-açúcar. Além disso, o padrão de expressão de cada gene foi postulado a partir da correlação direta com as bibliotecas de cDNA do SUCEST dos quais os clusters foram derivados. Uma vez que nenhum gene de protease cisteínica foi anteriormente evidenciado em cana-de-açúcar, este estudo representa uma etapa inicial para o estudo de novos aspectos bioquímicos, fisiológicos e biotecnológicos destas enzimas.

  11. Phenotype adaptability and stability of sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane belt of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the agroindustrial performance of 25 sugarcane genotypes adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, within the microregions Mata Norte, Mata Sul, Região Central, Litoral Norte, and Litoral Sul. The variables analyzed were POL tonnage per hectare, sugarcane tonnage per hectare, fiber and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare, using a randomized block design with four repetitions. Combined variance of experiments, genetic parameter estimates, decomposition of the genotype-environment interaction, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotype adaptability and stability were also analyzed. The various genotypes presented great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern to the microregions Centro and Mata Sul of the state of Pernambuco. Genotypes RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB953180, SP81-3250, RB75126, and RB942520 were better in productivity and phenotype adaptability and stability compared to genotypes RB892700, RB943365, SP79-1011, Q138, RB943538, SP78-4764, RB953281, RB943066, RB928064, RB93509, RB72454, RB952675, RB952991, RB943161, RB942898, RB872552, RB952900, and RB942849. These genotypes are recommended as cultivation options in the sugarcane belt in the state of Pernambuco, since they stand out in terms of phenotype adaptability and stability as evaluated using the method by Annicchiarico, Lin and Bins, and the method by Eberhart and Russel. PMID:25177966

  12. Conservação in vitro de germoplasma de cana-de-açúcar / In vitro conservation of sugarcane germplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eurico Eduardo Pinto de, Lemos; Micheline de Souza, Ferreira; Liduína Maria Calheiros de, Alencar; Cícero Eduardo, Ramalho Neto; Marcondes Maurício de, Albuquerque.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura, de sacarose, manitol e sorbitol, como fontes de carbono e reguladores osmóticos, e do ácido abscísico, como regulador de crescimento na conservação in vitro de germoplasma de cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizadas, como material vegetal, gemas [...] apicais de plantas de 10 meses de idade, do banco de germoplasma in vivo, da Universidade Federal de Alagoas. Brotos da quarta repicagem, no estádio de multiplicação in vitro, foram a fonte de explantes para três experimentos. Houve efeito positivo da diminuição da temperatura e da utilização da sacarose como fonte de carbono e regulador osmótico na manutenção da viabilidade dos explantes conservados in vitro. O ácido abscísico (1 mg/L) foi essencial para manter os explantes em crescimento mínimo por 12 meses (52 semanas). O uso das concentrações de 1 mg/L de ácido abscísico e de 20 g/L de sacarose associadas às condições de temperatura reduzida (15°C) demonstraram que os brotos permaneceram viáveis por um ano no mesmo meio de cultura, sem a necessidade de serem subcultivados. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperature, of sucrose, sorbitol and manitol, as carbon source and osmotic regulator, and of abscisic acid, as growth regulator, on in vitro germplasm conservation of sugarcane. Stem tips of 10 month old plants collected from the sugarcane ge [...] rmplasm bank of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas in Brazil were introduced in vitro and secondary shoots were produced in a multiplication medium. New shoots collected after four subcultures were used in three conservation experiments. There was a positive effect of the low temperature and sucrose as an osmotic regulator and carbon source in maintaining the viability of the explants cultured in vitro. Abscisic acid (1 mg/L) was essential to maintain the explants in a reduced growth condition for 52 weeks without any subculture. The explants promptly returned to normal growth in vitro or were readily acclimatized after 52 weeks of conservation, in the medium with abscisic acid (1 mg/L) plus sucrose (20 g/L) at 15ºC.

  13. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  14. Expression of sugarcane genes induced by inoculation with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Eduardo de Matos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Brazilian sugarcane varieties have the ability to grow with little addition of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers, showing high contributions of Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF. A particular type of nitrogen-fixing association has been described in this crop, where endophytic diazotrophs such as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. colonize plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. In order to gain insight into the role played by the sugarcane in the interaction between this plant and endophytic diazotrophs, we investigated gene expression profiles of sugarcane plants colonized by G. diazotrophicus and H. rubrisubalbicans by searching the sugarcane expressed sequence tag SUCEST Database (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/en/. We produced an inventory of sugarcane genes, candidates for exclusive or preferential expression during the nitrogen-fixing association. This data suggests that the host plant might be actively involved in the establishment of the interaction with G. diazotrophicus and H. rubrisubalbicans.

  15. cDNA cloning, Phylogenic Analysis and Gene Expression Pattern of Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mahmoud, Hashemitabar; Maryam, Kolahi; Mohammad Reza, Tabandeh; Parisa, Jonoubi; Ahmad, Majd.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to clone and characterize a full length cDNA of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (SoPAL). Differential tissue expression pattern of the SoPAL transcript and its enzyme activity was also analyzed during the tillering stage of growth. The f [...] ull-length of SoPAL cDNA was 2118 bp long and contained a protein with 706 amino acids, determined by encoding technique. The amino acid sequence and phylogenic analysis of the cloned SoPAL showed high similarity to PAL from other monocotyledonous such as sorghum (96%), maize (93%) and Bamboos (87.12%). The highest levels of SoPAL transcript were observed in the root and stem, while its minimal gene expression levels were in the leaves and sheath, respectively. The highest level of SoPAL enzyme activity was in the leaves. These results helped to understanding the characteristics of PAL biosynthesis and its regulation at the molecular level in sugarcane. This information could be critical for the manipulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in the plant using biotechnological processes.

  16. Assessment of contender sugarcane clones for morphological traits and biotic tolerance under agro-climatic conditions of tando jam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane germplasm comprises different phases (Advance and station yield trial) were planted at the experimental farm of NIA, Tando Jam to evaluate the growth and biotic tolerance performance during September, 2012-13. The selected clones were originated from 09 tissue culture, 7 Canal Point USA, 4 Australia, 3 Barbados and 6 local germplasm sources. Considerable differences for all traits among the advanced lines tested were observed, two clones originated through In vitro mutagenesis showed better performance in term of cane yield as compared to other clones and local checks. In station yield trial only three clones, CSSG-2453, BNIA-87 and soma-clone NIA-1026-P3 produced higher cane yield than the control, Thatta-10. Sugarcane germplasm were evaluated for 09-characters and analyzed for genotypic and phenotypic correlation. These characters revealed that cane yield was associated positively with most of the agronomic traits such as cane height, internodes length and cane thickness. The study of path analysis for yield related traits the highest positive direct effect on cane yield was exerted by cane height. Study of diseases scoring only 05 lines produced disease symptoms. (author)

  17. Effect of trash mulch and nitrogen application on the cane yield and quality of sugarcane variety thatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of trash mulching and nitrogen application on the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane variety Thatta-10 at NSCRI, farm Thatta during 2008-09. The data revealed that the plots received 225 N kg ha-1+ trash mulch showed better results for cane yield, yield components and quality. It was further observed that that the plots with mulching and varying doses of nitrogen application had low weed occurrence as compared to control plots receiving 175 N kg ha-1 + no mulch. Economic analysis data revealed that there could be no additional income from the control treatment, which received low levels of N fertilizer (175 N kg/ha) with no mulching. However, all fertilizer levels with trash mulching proved profitable over control. Moreover, better response was observed at 225 N kg/ha+ trash mulch. It is recommended that 225 N kg ha-1 application with trash mulch was profitable for obtaining maximum production of sugarcane. (author)

  18. Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A. Nikam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray-induced in vitro mutagenesis and selection for salt (NaCl tolerance were investigated in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Embryogenic callus cultures were irradiated (10 to 80 Gy and subjected to in vitro selection by exposure of irradiated callus to NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol L? 1. Increasing NaCl concentrations resulted in growth reduction and increased membrane damage. Salt-selected callus lines were characterized by the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine, and Na+ and K+ concentration. Higher accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was observed in NaCl stressed callus irradiated at 20 Gy. Na+ concentration increased and K+ concentration decreased with increasing salt level. Irradiated callus showed 50–60% regeneration under NaCl stress, and in vitro-regenerated plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse, with 80–85% survival. A total of 138 irradiated and salt-selected selections were grown to maturity and their agronomic performance was evaluated under normal and saline conditions. Of these, 18 mutant clones were characterized for different agro-morphological characters and some of the mutant clones exhibited improved sugar yield with increased Brix%, number of millable canes, and yield. The result suggest that radiation-induced mutagenesis offers an effective way to enhance genetic variation in sugarcane.

  19. Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

  20. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario A., Jancso; Susana A., Sculaccio; Otavio H., Thiemann.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A via de síntese de purino nucleotídeos é considerada uma via de central importância para todas as células. Na maioria dos organismos, os purino nucleotídeos são sintetizados ''de novo'' a partir de precursores não-nucleotídicos como amino ácidos, amônia e dióxido de carbono. O conhecimento das enzi [...] mas envolvidas na via de síntese de purinas da cana-de-açúcar vai abrir a possibilidade do uso dessas enzimas como alvos no desenho racional de inibidores no combate a agentes fitopatogênicos, como esta sendo feita com diversos parasitos e células cancerosas. A seguinte estratégia esta sendo utilizada na identificação de genes de cana-de-açúcar para cada membro da via de síntese de purinas: Seqüências representativas dos genes que compões a via foram escolhidas do banco de dados NCBI. Essas seqüências de peptídeos estão sendo utilizadas em buscas ao banco de dados gerado pelo SUCEST pelo programa BLAST (implementação tBLASTn). Alinhamentos com os clusters de cana-de-açúcar são posteriormente analisados para sua significância estatística pela implementação PRSS3 do algoritmo conhecido como Monte Carlo shuffling. Para calibrar a análise dos resultados de PRSS3, foram empregadas seqüências conhecidas de diferentes taxas ao longo da arvore filogenética. Essas seqüências são comparadas duas a duas e com o cluster da cana-de-açúcar. A tabela de valores-p resultante indica o grau estatístico de similaridade e divergência entre as seqüências já descritas e entre essas e os clusters de cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados obtidos dessas análises estão descritos neste artigo. Abstract in english Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility o [...] f using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3) of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.

  1. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima D.U.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they came. The only significant correlations that we found between cell wall genes and/or their expression within particular libraries were neutral or synergetic. Genes related to cellulose biosynthesis were from the CesA family, and were found to be the most abundant cell wall related genes in the SUCEST database. We found that the highest number of CesA reads came from the root and stem libraries. The genes with the greatest number of reads were those involved in cell wall hydrolases (e.g. beta-1,3-glucanases, xyloglucan endo-beta-transglycosylase, beta-glucosidase and endo-beta-mannanase. Correlation analyses by surface mapping revealed that the expression of genes related to biosynthesis seems to be associated with the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, pectin hydrolases being mainly associated with xyloglucan hydrolases. The patterns of cell wall related gene expression in sugarcane based on the number of reads per cluster reflected quite well the expected physiological characteristics of the tissues. This is the first work to provide a general view on plant cell wall metabolism through the expression of related genes in almost all the tissues of a plant at the same time. For example, developing flowers behaved similarly to both meristematic tissues and leaf-root transition zone tissues. Besides providing a basis for future research on the mechanisms of plant development which involve the cell wall, our findings will provide valuable tools for plant engineering in the near future.

  2. Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3?years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217?mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns. PMID:21895946

  3. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  4. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA3, 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at wh was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  5. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ? Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ? High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ? CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO2 production. ? At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to char formation by aromatization and repolymerization.

  6. Ratooning Capacity in Some Promising Genotypes of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Bahadar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ratooning of seven sugarcane varieties during 1996-97, 1998-99 and 1999-2000 revealed that Bannu-1, S-84-I-351 and Naurang-98 out yielded rest of the genotypes. Varieties S-84-I-351, S-86-US-422 and Naurang-98 showed higher sugar recovery over others. While, PAS-132 and COL-75 ranked poor in quantity as well as quality attributes. Varieties Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 have already been released for general cultivation while, S-84-I-351 is a candidate variety for approval.

  7. Composition of sugarcane waxes in rum factory wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuissier, Gladys; Bourgeois, Paul; Grignon-Dubois, Micheline; Pardon, Patrick; Lescure, Marie Hélène

    2002-11-01

    Wastes produced during fermentation and distillation of crude sugarcane juice in rum factories were evaluated as a new source of waxes. The chemical composition of the crude wax extracted from adsorbat of the wastes on fuller's earth was studied by GC-mass spectrometry. Series of linear alkanes (C19-C33), and wax esters constitute the main components. In addition, phytosterols, triterpene methyl ethers, ethyl and methyl esters of fatty acids, and free fatty acids were found as minor components. Acid (predominance of C16 and C18) and alcohol portions (C26-C32) of the wax esters were analysed after saponification. PMID:12423895

  8. Model-free kinetics applied to sugarcane bagasse combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramajo-Escalera, B.; Espina, A.; Garcia, J.R. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Sosa-Arnao, J.H. [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nebra, S.A. [Interdisciplinary Center of Energy Planning, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), R. Shigeo Mori 2013, 13083-770 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-09-15

    Vyazovkin's model-free kinetic algorithms were applied to determine conversion, isoconversion and apparent activation energy to both dehydration and combustion of sugarcane bagasse. Three different steps were detected with apparent activation energies of 76.1+/-1.7, 333.3+/-15.0 and 220.1+/-4.0kJ/mol in the conversion range of 2-5%, 15-60% and 70-90%, respectively. The first step is associated with the endothermic process of drying and release of water. The others correspond to the combustion (and carbonization) of organic matter (mainly cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) and the combustion of the products of pyrolysis. (author)

  9. Molecular chaperone genes in the sugarcane expressed sequence database (SUCEST)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Júlio C., Borges; Maria C., Peroto; Carlos H.I., Ramos.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas proteínas ao serem sintetizadas necessitam do auxílio de chaperones moleculares para seu correto enovelamento. Chaperones também estão envolvidas na dissolução de agregados protéicos, fazendo com que seu estudo seja de relevância biotecnológica e médica. Portanto, a identificação de seqüênci [...] as de chaperones moleculares é uma tarefa importante. Nós usamos ferramentas de bioinformática para procurar informações geradas pelo sugarcane EST Genome Project (SUCEST) a fim de identificar e anotar chaperones e proteínas relacionas ao estresse. As seqüências do SUCEST eram anotadas como pertencentes a uma categoria de proteínas se o E-value encontrado fosse menor que 1,0e-05. Nossas anotações mostram que 4.164 seqüências 5’ EST são homólogas a chaperones moleculares, aproximadamente 1,8% de todos os 5’ EST que foram seqüenciados pelo SUCEST. Deste total, cerca de 44% pertence à família Hsp70 e suas co-chaperones, 10% à família Hsp90 e 13% à peptidil cis, trans isomerase. Do resultado da anotação, nós predizemos a existência de 156 diferentes subclasses de genes relacionados a chaperones no genoma da cana-de-açúcar. Juntos, nossos resultados apontam que os genes que codificam para estas proteínas são diversos e abundantemente expressos, o que enfatiza sua importância biológica. Abstract in english Some newly synthesized proteins require the assistance of molecular chaperones for their correct folding. Chaperones are also involved in the dissolution of protein aggregates making their study significant for both biotechnology and medicine and the identification of chaperones and stress-related p [...] rotein sequences in different organisms is an important task. We used bioinformatic tools to investigate the information generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST) genome project in order to identify and annotate molecular chaperones. We considered that the SUCEST sequences belonged to this category of proteins when their E-values were lower than 1.0e-05. Our annotation shows that 4,164 of the 5’ expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were homologous to molecular chaperones, nearly 1.8% of all the 5’ ESTs sequenced during the SUCEST project. About 43% of the chaperones which we found were Hsp70 chaperones and its co-chaperones, 10% were Hsp90 chaperones and 13% were peptidyl-prolyl cis, trans isomerase. Based on the annotation results we predicted 156 different chaperone gene subclasses in the sugarcane genome. Taken together, our results indicate that genes which encode chaperones were diverse and abundantly expressed in sugarcane cells, which emphasizes their biological importance.

  10. Performance of Exotic Sugarcane Clones at NIA, Tandojam

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Ahmed Khan; Muhammad Aslam Javed; Abdullah Khatri; Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui; Kashif Riaz Khan, M.; Dahar, Nazir A.; Muhammad Hussain Khanzada; Raziullah Khan

    2002-01-01

    Eight exotic sugarcane clones imported from ARS, USDA, Canal Point, Florida, USA and two commercial checks were evaluated for cane and sugar yield potential at Tandojam for two consecutive years. Significant (P?0.05) differences were observed amongst all entries for cane yield, sugar yield and their respective components. The highest cane yield was produced by CL41-223 (185.16 t ha-1) followed by CP74-2005 (176.03). These were significantly superior to both the checks in cane yield. ...

  11. Identification of sugarcane cDNAs encoding components of the cell cycle machinery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mírian Helene, Andrietta; Núbia Barbosa, Eloy; Adriana Silva, Hemerly; Paulo C.G., Ferreira.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Resultados recentes da pesquisa sobre divisão celular em plantas sugerem que a maioria dos reguladores fundamentais do ciclo celular são conservados em relação aos outros organismos eucariotos, mas que os mecanismos de controle superimpostos à maquinária básica, e a sua integração com o crescimento [...] e desenvolvimento são processos característicos das plantas. Até agora, a maioria dos estudos de divisão celular em plantas tem sido conduzido em dicotiledôneas. Entretanto, as plantas monocotiledôneas tem estratégias de desenvolvimento próprias, que irão afetar a regulação da divisão nos meristemas. Objetivando avançar o conhecimento de como a divisão celular é integrada com os mecanismos básicos que controlam a progressão do ciclo celular em monocotiledôneas, uma busca exaustiva por genes de cana de açúcar envolvidos em divisão celular foi feita no banco de dados do SUCEST (sugarcane EST project). Os resultados obtidos incluem a descrição de várias classes de quinases dependentes de ciclinas (CDKs), de ciclinas do tipo A, B, C, D, e H; de proteínas que interagem com CDK; de quinases que ativam e inibem a atividade de CDKs, de proteínas homólogas ao gene retinoblastoma, e de fatores de expressão da família E2F. Grande parte dos genes do ciclo celular de cana de açúcar parecem ser codificados por famílias multigênicas. Assim como em plantas dicotiledôneas a transcrição do CDK-a não é restrita a celulas em divisão, mas a grande maioria dos ESTs de CDK-b são encontrados em regiões de alta proliferação. A expressão dos genes que codificam CKI é bem mais forte em regiões de pouca divisão celular, notadamente em gemas laterais. Padrões de expressão compartilhados de grupos de genes foi revelado por "Northern blot" digital, sugerindo que uma abordagem semelhante pode ser usada para identificar genes que participam da mesma via regulatória. Abstract in english Data on cell cycle research in plants indicate that the majority of the fundamental regulators are conserved with other eukaryotes, but the controlling mechanisms imposed on them, and their integration into growth and development is unique to plants. To date, most studies on cell division have been [...] conducted in dicot plants. However, monocot plants have distinct developmental strategies that will affect the regulation of cell division at the meristems. In order to advance our understanding how cell division is integrated with the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth and development in monocots, we took advantage of the sugarcane EST Project (Sucest) to carry an exhaustive data mining to identify components of the cell cycle machinery. Results obtained include the description of distinct classes of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs); A, B, D, and H-type cyclins; CDK-interacting proteins, CDK-inhibitory and activating kinases, pRB and E2F transcription factors. Most sugarcane cell cycle genes seem to be member of multigene families. Like in dicot plants, CDKa transcription is not restricted to tissues with elevated meristematic activity, but the vast majority of CDKb-related ESTs are found in regions of high proliferation rates. Expression of CKI genes is far more abundant in regions of less cell division, notably in lateral buds. Shared expression patterns for a group of clusters was unraveled by transcriptional profiling, and we suggest that similar approaches could be used to identify genes that are part of the same regulatory network.

  12. Identification of sugarcane cDNAs encoding components of the cell cycle machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Helene Andrietta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on cell cycle research in plants indicate that the majority of the fundamental regulators are conserved with other eukaryotes, but the controlling mechanisms imposed on them, and their integration into growth and development is unique to plants. To date, most studies on cell division have been conducted in dicot plants. However, monocot plants have distinct developmental strategies that will affect the regulation of cell division at the meristems. In order to advance our understanding how cell division is integrated with the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth and development in monocots, we took advantage of the sugarcane EST Project (Sucest to carry an exhaustive data mining to identify components of the cell cycle machinery. Results obtained include the description of distinct classes of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs; A, B, D, and H-type cyclins; CDK-interacting proteins, CDK-inhibitory and activating kinases, pRB and E2F transcription factors. Most sugarcane cell cycle genes seem to be member of multigene families. Like in dicot plants, CDKa transcription is not restricted to tissues with elevated meristematic activity, but the vast majority of CDKb-related ESTs are found in regions of high proliferation rates. Expression of CKI genes is far more abundant in regions of less cell division, notably in lateral buds. Shared expression patterns for a group of clusters was unraveled by transcriptional profiling, and we suggest that similar approaches could be used to identify genes that are part of the same regulatory network.Resultados recentes da pesquisa sobre divisão celular em plantas sugerem que a maioria dos reguladores fundamentais do ciclo celular são conservados em relação aos outros organismos eucariotos, mas que os mecanismos de controle superimpostos à maquinária básica, e a sua integração com o crescimento e desenvolvimento são processos característicos das plantas. Até agora, a maioria dos estudos de divisão celular em plantas tem sido conduzido em dicotiledôneas. Entretanto, as plantas monocotiledôneas tem estratégias de desenvolvimento próprias, que irão afetar a regulação da divisão nos meristemas. Objetivando avançar o conhecimento de como a divisão celular é integrada com os mecanismos básicos que controlam a progressão do ciclo celular em monocotiledôneas, uma busca exaustiva por genes de cana de açúcar envolvidos em divisão celular foi feita no banco de dados do SUCEST (sugarcane EST project. Os resultados obtidos incluem a descrição de várias classes de quinases dependentes de ciclinas (CDKs, de ciclinas do tipo A, B, C, D, e H; de proteínas que interagem com CDK; de quinases que ativam e inibem a atividade de CDKs, de proteínas homólogas ao gene retinoblastoma, e de fatores de expressão da família E2F. Grande parte dos genes do ciclo celular de cana de açúcar parecem ser codificados por famílias multigênicas. Assim como em plantas dicotiledôneas a transcrição do CDK-a não é restrita a celulas em divisão, mas a grande maioria dos ESTs de CDK-b são encontrados em regiões de alta proliferação. A expressão dos genes que codificam CKI é bem mais forte em regiões de pouca divisão celular, notadamente em gemas laterais. Padrões de expressão compartilhados de grupos de genes foi revelado por "Northern blot" digital, sugerindo que uma abordagem semelhante pode ser usada para identificar genes que participam da mesma via regulatória.

  13. Carbon stock and humification index of organic matter affected by sugarcane straw and soil management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline, Segnini; João Luís Nunes, Carvalho; Denizart, Bolonhezi; Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira, Milori; Wilson Tadeu Lopes da, Silva; Marcelo Luiz, Simões; Heitor, Cantarella; Isabella C. de, Maria; Ladislau, Martin-Neto.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) straw on a soil surface increases the soil carbon (C) stocks, but at lower rates than expected. This fact is probably associated with the soil management adopted during sugarcane replanting. This study aimed to assess the impact on soil C stocks and the [...] humification index of soil organic matter (SOM) of adopting no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) for sugarcane replanting. A greater C content and stock was observed in the NT area, but only in the 0-5 cm soil layer (p

  14. Highly improved chromium (III) uptake capacity in modified sugarcane bagasse using different chemical treatments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Cristina Gonçalves Dos, Santos; Antonio de Pádua Andrade, Salvado; Douglas Cardoso, Dragunski; Débora Nobile Clausen, Peraro; César Ricardo Teixeira, Tarley; Josiane, Caetano.

    1606-16-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on improving chromium (III) uptake capacity of sugarcane bagasse through its chemical modification with citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. The chemical modifications were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, with an evident peak observed at 1730 cm-1, attributed to carbony [...] l groups. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h, and the kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The highest chromium (III) maximum adsorption capacity (MAC) value was found when using sugarcane bagasse modified with sodium hydroxide and citric acid (58.00 mg g-1) giving a MAC value about three times greater (20.34 mg g-1) than for raw sugarcane bagasse.

  15. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    OpenAIRE

    Minussi Rosana Cristina; Soares-Ramos Juliana Rocha Lopes; Coelho Jorge Luiz Cavalcante; Silva Daison Olzany

    1998-01-01

    The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG) by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3) in a rotary shaker (150 rpm) for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium pro...

  16. STUDIES ON THE MYCOFLORA IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Deshmukh*, SS Dange, PV Jadhav, SS Deokule and NA Patil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rhizosphere mycoflora of two varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. was studied qualitatively and quantitatively from sugarcane plantation in Baramati tehsil. Two sugarcane varieties viz. CO 86032 and CO 0265 were investigated. With age activities of fungi increased. When near maturity the number of colonies declined. Isolated fungi from both rhizosphere and non rhizosphere soil were dominated by Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Rhizopus. Fungi including Fusarium spp., and dark sterile mycelia were present in higher frequencies on root surfaces than in the surrounding soils. Although the results were slightly varying the number and the type of fungal colonies in both the varieties were nearly same.

  17. Sequential solid-state and submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger on sugarcane bagasse for the production of cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, F M; Esperança, M N; Zangirolami, T C; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S

    2012-05-01

    Sequential solid-state and submerged cultivation with sugarcane bagasse as substrate for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger A12 was assessed by measuring endoglucanase activity. An unconventional pre-culture with an initial fungal growth phase under solid-state cultivation was followed by a transition to submerged fermentation by adding the liquid culture medium to the mycelium grown on solid substrate. For comparison, control experiments were conducted using conventional submerged cultivation. The cultures were carried out in shake flasks and in a 5-L bubble column bioreactor. An endoglucanase productivity of 57 ± 13 IU/L/h was achieved in bubble column cultivations prepared using the new method, representing an approximately 3-fold improvement compared to conventional submerged fermentation. Therefore, the methodology proposed here of a sequential fermentation process offers a promising alternative for cellulase production. PMID:22409979

  18. Somaclonal variation of sugarcane for salinity resistant using sodiumcloride as selection agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to study morpho-physiological mechanism of resistance to salinity in sugarcane. Acclimatized plantlets were exposed to selection process to study their growth characteristic which indicated resistance to salinity based on testing under laboratory and screen house condition. Sixteen putative somaclones resistant to salinity were produced in vitro from six varieties using mutagenic agent sodium azide (NaN3). Treatment of NaCl (0 g L-1, 4 g L-1, 8 g L-1, 12 g L-1, 16 g L-1) consisted of three units were repeated three times. Screen house experiment was also carried out using randomized block design consisting of the 16 putative somaclones. Concentration of NaCl treatments were 0 g L-1, 4 g L-1, 8 g L-1 of Hoagland's hydroponics media. Laboratory experiment showed that Q81, R579, SM86 and TK26 varieties produced salinity resistance somaclones up to 8 g L-1 NaCl. Growth characteristics which can be used as indicator for salinity resistance in vitro were callus color and texture, length and volume of root, height and fresh weight of plantlet. There is closed correlation between diluted total protein and morphological character of plantlet regenerated by mutagenic induction under laboratory condition. There may be changes in salinity resistance between somaclones based on their protein and isozyme pattern during mutagenic induction. Scree pattern during mutagenic induction. Screen house experiment showed somaclones from R579 and Q81 varieties can withstand up to 8 g L-1 NaCl and may be concluded as resistant clones. Normal growth in screen house experiment indicated by index of root length, root quantity, relative water contents, K-Na absorption selectivity, K-Na translocation selectivity, K, Na and Cl translocation, and photosynthesis index may be used as parameters to determine resistance. Further test of R579 and Q81 mutant clones for field growing experiment using sea water are being planned. (author)

  19. Secretome analysis of Ganoderma lucidum cultivated in sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavalan, Tamilvendan; Manavalan, Arulmani; Thangavelu, Kalaichelvan P; Heese, Klaus

    2012-12-21

    Harmful environmental issues of fossil-fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable alternative fuels such as biofuel. Agricultural crop residues represent an abundant renewable resource for future biofuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically feasible, and should also be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We used these criteria to evaluate the white rot basidiomycota-derived fungus Ganoderma lucidum that secretes substantial amounts of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes useful for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass that were not described hitherto. The current bottleneck of lignocellulosic biofuel production is the hydrolysis of biomass to sugar. To understand the enzymatic hydrolysis of complex biomasses, we cultured G. lucidum with sugarcane bagasse as substrate and qualitatively analyzed the entire secretome. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and diverse enzymes were found, of which several were novel lignocellulosic biomass hydrolyzing enzymes. We further explored G. lucidum-derived cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degrading enzymes as valuable enzymes for the second generation of biofuel obtained from a lignocellulose substrate such as sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23000217

  20. Secretome analysis of Ganoderma lucidum cultivated in sugarcane bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manavalan, Tamilvendan; Manavalan, Arulmani

    2012-01-01

    Harmful environmental issues of fossil-fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable alternative fuels such as biofuel. Agricultural crop residues represent an abundant renewable resource for future biofuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically feasible, and should also be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We used these criteria to evaluate the white rot basidiomycota-derived fungus Ganoderma lucidum that secretes substantial amounts of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes useful for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass that were not described hitherto. The current bottleneck of lignocellulosic biofuel production is the hydrolysis of biomass to sugar. To understand the enzymatic hydrolysis of complex biomasses, we cultured G. lucidum with sugarcane bagasse as substrate and qualitatively analyzed the entire secretome. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and diverse enzymes were found, of which several were novel lignocellulosic biomass hydrolyzing enzymes. We further explored G. lucidum-derived cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degrading enzymes as valuable enzymes for the second generation of biofuel obtained from a lignocellulose substrate such as sugarcane bagasse.

  1. Microwave-induced torrefaction of rice husk and sugarcane residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study utilized microwave irradiation to induce torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) of rice husk and sugarcane residues by varying different parameters, including microwave power level, processing time, water content, and particle size of biomass. Proper microwave power levels are suggested to be set between 250 and 300 W for the torrefaction of these two agricultural residues. With proper processing time, the caloric value can increase 26% for rice husk and 57% for sugarcane residue. Compared to dry rice husk, both maximum reaction temperature and mass reduction ratio increased with higher water content (not over 10%). Moreover, the particle size of biomass needs not to be very small. The mass reduction ratios were 65 wt.%, 69 wt.%, and 72 wt.%, when the sizes were 50/100 mesh, 100/200 mesh, and >200 mesh, respectively. Microwave-induced torrefaction reduces more oxygen/carbon ratio of biomass in comparison with traditional torrefaction. Microwave-induced torrefaction is considered as an efficient and promising technology with great potential. -- Highlights: ? Microwave-induced torrefaction is promising compared to conventional methods. ? Neither high microwave power nor small particle size is needed. ? High energy yield can be met under mild microwave power. ? Caloric value can increase up to about 60%.

  2. Flow cytometry reliability analysis and variations in sugarcane DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A C L; Pasqual, M; Bruzi, A T; Pio, L A S; Mendonça, P M S; Soares, J D R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of flow cytometry analysis and the use of this technique to differentiate species and varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum spp) according to their relative DNA content. We analyzed 16 varieties and three species belonging to this genus. To determine a reliable protocol, we evaluated three extraction buffers (LB01, Marie, and Tris·MgCl2), the presence and absence of RNase, six doses of propidium iodide (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ?g), four periods of exposure to propidium iodide (0, 5, 10, and 20 min), and seven external reference standards (peas, beans, corn, radish, rye, soybean, and tomato) with reference to the coefficient of variation and the DNA content. For statistical analyses, we used the programs Sisvar(®) and Xlstat(®). We recommend using the Marie extraction buffer and at least 15 ?g propidium iodide. The samples should not be analyzed immediately after the addition of propidium iodide. The use of RNase is optional, and tomato should be used as an external reference standard. The results show that sugarcane has a variable genome size (8.42 to 12.12 pg/2C) and the individuals analyzed could be separated into four groups according to their DNA content with relative equality in the genome sizes of the commercial varieties. PMID:26125928

  3. Mutation breeding of new sugarcane variety Guifu 98-296

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new sugarcane variety Guifu 98-296 was selected by mutation breeding. In different sugarcane growing test areas of Guangxi, t Guifu 98-296 cane output was 118.95 t/hm2, sugar output was 16.65 t/hm2, and higher 32.98% and 29.07% respectively than those of ROC22 which was main variety in Guangxi, and the differences between the two were very significant. At the sixth national test for cane growing areas, Guifu 98-296 was the fourth in cane yield, and the third in sugar yield among all eleven participated varieties. The cane yield and sugar yield were significant 11.41% and 12.6% higher than control variety of ROC16 respectively, and the sugar percentage was 0.11% higher than ROC16. Guifu 98-296 grows quickly with middle stalks,strong resistance to insect and disease,good ratoon performance, and is suitable for growing in the drought and slope upland of Guangxi Province. (authors)

  4. Molecular characterization of Indian sugarcane streak mosaic virus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswari, B; Bagyalakshmi, K; Viswanathan, R; Chinnaraja, C

    2013-02-01

    Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), a member of the genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae, is an important viral pathogen affecting sugarcane cultivation in India. The complete nucleotide sequence of a SCSMV isolate from India (SCSMV-IND) was determined. The linear, assembled, single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of SCSMV-IND was 9,786 nucleotides in length (excluding the poly (A) tail) and encoded a polyprotein of 3,131 amino acid residues. The genome of SCSMV-IND shared high degree of sequence identity with SCSMV-PAK (93 % at nucleotide and 97 % at amino acid), and shared only 81 % nucleotide and 94 % amino acid identities with all the four SCSMV isolates (SCSMV-JP1, -JP2, -ID, and -THA). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the complete genome sequences of SCSMV isolates revealed that they can be clustered into two groups. SCSMV-IND and -AP isolates showed 18 % (nucleotide) divergence within the highly conserved 3' partial genome, suggesting a high level of genetic diversity among the Indian SCSMV isolates. PMID:23011777

  5. Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Maria Oliveira, Borgatti; José, Pavan Neto; André Luiz Veiga, Conrado; Carolina Tobias, Marino; Paula Marques, Meyer; Paulo Henrique Mazza, Rodrigues.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%), plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2) [...] +1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH), limestone (CaCO3), urea (CO(NH2)2), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), quicklime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). The material was ensiled in 52 laboratory silos using plastic buckets with 12 L of capacity. Silos were opened 60 days after ensiling, when organic acids concentration, aerobic stability and chemical composition were determined. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) was calculated by the slope ratio method, using the data obtained from ratio between desirable and undesirable silage products, according to the equation: D/U ratio = [lactic/(ethanol + acetic + butyric)]. All additives affected dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber contents and buffering capacity. Except for urea and quicklime, all additives increased the in vitro dry matter digestibility. In general, these additives altered the fermentative pattern of sugarcane silage, inhibiting alcoholic fermentation and improving lactic acid production. The additive that showed the best RBE in relation to sodium hydroxide (100%) was limestone (89.4%). The RBE values of urea, sodium bicarbonate and hydrated lime were 49.2%, 47.7% and 34.3%, respectively.

  6. Assessment of genetic variability in somaclonal population of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study plant tissue culture technique was used to create the genetic variability in three sugarcane clones NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026. Callus induced in these clones in media containing MS + 2, 4 D (2mg 1it-1) and Dicamba (1mg1it-1). The embryogenic calli then regenerated in media containing MS basal media + Kinetin (2mg1it-1) + IBA (2mg1it-1) + IAA (2mglit-1). After shooting and rooting, plants were exposed to green house and acclimatization of the somaclones in the field condition. RAPD markers were used to evaluate the genetic variation at DNA level between parents and somaclones of NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026 developed through callus culture. Fourteen RAPD primer chosen randomly were used to amplify DNA from plant material to assess the genetic variation between parents and regenerated somaclones. The highest similarity was obtained between BL4 parent and BL4 somaclone (96%). While minimum similarity found between NIA-98 parent and AEC82-1026 somaclone (69%). In this study, we used RAPD to investigate the somaclonal variation in sugarcane clones derived from callus cultures. (author)

  7. Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%, plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2+1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH, limestone (CaCO3, urea (CO(NH22, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, quicklime (CaO and hydrated lime (Ca(OH2. The material was ensiled in 52 laboratory silos using plastic buckets with 12 L of capacity. Silos were opened 60 days after ensiling, when organic acids concentration, aerobic stability and chemical composition were determined. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE was calculated by the slope ratio method, using the data obtained from ratio between desirable and undesirable silage products, according to the equation: D/U ratio = [lactic/(ethanol + acetic + butyric]. All additives affected dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber contents and buffering capacity. Except for urea and quicklime, all additives increased the in vitro dry matter digestibility. In general, these additives altered the fermentative pattern of sugarcane silage, inhibiting alcoholic fermentation and improving lactic acid production. The additive that showed the best RBE in relation to sodium hydroxide (100% was limestone (89.4%. The RBE values of urea, sodium bicarbonate and hydrated lime were 49.2%, 47.7% and 34.3%, respectively.

  8. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elaine Y., Matsubara; Stella M., Lala; José Maurício, Rosolen.

    1877-18-01

    Full Text Available Materiais carbonaceos com diferentes estruturas são preparados da carbonização do bagaço da cana de açúcar. Os materiais obtidos são caracterizados utilizando-se microscopia de varredura eletrônica e técnicas eletroquímicas. Dependendo das condições de carbonização é possível obter fuligens ricas de [...] partículas tipo flocos ou tipo colméia de abelha, cuja concentração tem grande influência sobre a armazenagem de lítio nos eletrodos. Para fuligens ricas de partículas do tipo colméia observa-se uma capacidade específica reversível da ordem de 310 mAh g-1. Os resultados sugerem que o bagaço da cana pode ser um percursor com potencial para o desenvolvimento de materiais anódicos para baterias de ions de lítio. Abstract in english Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into elect [...] rodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g-1. The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries.

  9. Process integration and pinch analysis in sugarcane industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Process integration techniques were applied, particularly through the Pinch Analysis method, to sugarcane industry. Research was performed upon harvest data from an agroindustrial complex which processes sugarcane plant in excess of 3.5 million metric tons per year, producing motor fuel grade ethanol, standard quality sugar, and delivering excess electric power to the grid. Pinch Analysis was used in assessing internal heat recovery as well as external utility demand targets, while keeping the lowest but economically achievable targets for entropy increase. Efficiency on the use of energy was evaluated for the plant as it was found (the base case) as well as for five selected process and/or plant design modifications, always with guidance of the method. The first alternative design (case 2) was proposed to evaluate equipment mean idle time in the base case, to support subsequent comparisons. Cases 3 and 4 were used to estimate the upper limits of combined heat and power generation while raw material supply of the base case is kept; both the cases did not prove worth implementing. Cases 5 and 6 were devised to deal with the bottleneck of the plant, namely boiler capacity, in order to allow for some production increment. Inexpensive, minor modifications considered in case 5 were found unable to produce reasonable outcome gain. Nevertheless, proper changes in cane juice evaporation section (case 6) could allow sugar and ethanol combined production to rise up to 9.1% relative to the base case, without dropping cogenerated power. (author)

  10. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  11. Use of sugarcane straw ash for zeolite synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro, Thais Vitória da Silva Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of biomass combustion residue is growing nowadays due to constant increasing demands of biomass utilization. The biomass ash produced currently is disposed on agricultural ?elds. The presence of metals, chlorine, sulphur and other species may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. The main challenge is related to the increase of possible applications of this byproduct. Sugarcane straw ash (SCSA was used in a study on synthesis of zeolitic material by alkaline conventional hydrothermal treatment. Different experimental conditions, such as, reaction time, alkali hydroxide concentration and liquid/solid ratio were studied. Raw ash material and synthesis products were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy powder, X-ray diffraction, cation exchange capacity and scanning electron microscopic. The presence of zeolite hydroxysodalite confirms successful conversion of native SCSA into zeolitic material. Sugarcane straw ash utilization minimizes the environmental impact of disposal problems and further appears as an alternative for the future sustainable large-scale management of biomass ash.

  12. Potassium Nutrition In Ratoon Sugarcane Under A Conservation Cropping System

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rilner, Alves Flores; Renato, De Mello Prado; Hilário, Júnior De Almeida; Márcio Alexandre, Pancelli; Jonas Pereira, De Souza Junior; Anelisa, De Aquino Vidal Lacerda Soares.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ratoon sugarcane response to potassium is dependent on the environmental conditions of the region. Cropping systems that do not burn crop biomass after harvest leave crop residues on the soil, affecting the soil-plant nutrient dynamics