WorldWideScience

Sample records for suez canal egypt

  1. Environmental aeroradioactivity levels in the Suez-Canal Zone, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals essentially with the establishment of the environmental radioactivity levels in the Suez Canal Zone. It will provide basic information that can be used as a reference to detect and determine the amount and extent of any possible future variations in the natural radioactivity level in that part of Egypt, that might result from nuclear testing or accidents involving release of nuclear radiations and fallout of nuclear fission products that might affect both the terrestrial and atmospheric environments. According to the statistical analysis of the radio active measurements recorded over the Suez Canal Zone, it was found that its mean radiometric background is 7.76 millirem/year. Seven lithological units were separated, each was found to be homogeneously distributed, as far as radioactivity is concerned and has its own characteristic statistics. They form the environmental terrestrial aeroradioactivity map of the area. The Suez Canal Zone is characterized by the presence of extensive water surfaces represented by the Gulf of Suez, Bitter Lakes, El Temsah and El Manzalah Lakes. These represent the lowest radiometric level (0.03-5.16 millirem/year) in the studied zone in spite of the presence of a slightly higher level around the rim of the great Bitter Lake. The highest radiometric level was (4.4-15.3 millirem/year) found associated with El Shat formation of Middle Miocene age and which is composed mainly of sandstone, clay, limestone and gypsum. In that regard the present study demonstrated that periodical aerial radiometric surveying for the entire Suez Canal area is highly recommended for monitoring changes in its environmental radioactivity levels. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Mohammed Kishk; Mohamed Fouad Mandour; Rasha Mohamed Farghaly; Ahmed Ibrahim; Nader Attia Nemr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI) is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Meth...

  3. Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdy A. Aboulela; Mohamed M. El-Omla

    2012-01-01

    Eight surface sabkha soils samples were collected from Ismailia—Suez roadbed, southwestern of Suez Canal district. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses were conducted using grain size; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Grain size analysis indicates high contents of fine sand and mud as well as presence of salts. X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDAX tool clarified that the sabkha soils are enriched by quartz, sulfate minerals (gypsum, an...

  4. ASTER Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  5. Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal beaches, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal

  6. Predictors of job satisfaction among practicing dentists at hospitals in Suez Canal Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Ekram Fahim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the level of job satisfaction and the work factors associated with it among practicing dentists in Suez Canal governorates hospitals. Materials and Methods: Four hundred forty nine dentists were contacted, and 277 agreed to participate (response rate 61.7%. They were surveyed through a self-administered questionnaire based on items from the Dentist Satisfaction Survey (DSS questionnaire, which included 29 questions covering items related to the overall satisfaction level and work environment factors; answers were reported on 5 point Likert scale. Results: The mean score of overall job satisfaction among studied dentists was 3.24 out of 5. As regards work environment factors, the most satisfying aspect was patient relations (3.71 and the least was personal time (2.71. Multiple regression analysis model verifi ed that patient relations, value of income, personal time, staff, and training opportunities accounted for 36% of variation in overall job satisfaction score. The majority of the variance was explained by patient relations. Conclusions: This study suggests that patient relations, perception of income, personal time, staff, and specialty training are important work environment factors for job satisfaction among the dentists. These fi ndings might help policy makers to design plans to increase the level of job satisfaction among dentists at their workplaces.

  7. Taxonomic Study on the Feather Stars (Crinoidea: Echinodermata) from Egyptian Red Sea Coasts and Suez Canal, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M. Hellal

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomic study on the crinoids (feather stars) collected from 34 sites from the Red Sea coasts and islands as well as the Suez Canal was done during the period from 1992 to 2003. A total of 15 species are now known from the Red Sea belonging to eleven genera under six families. Among them four species are endemic to the Red Sea and the two spe- cies, Decametra chadwicki and Lamprometra klunzingeri, are recorded from the Suez Canal for the first time. Also, the two species, Oligometra serri...

  8. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  9. Effect of transplantation on heavy metal concentrations in commercial clams of Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Howaida R. Gabr; Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

    2008-01-01

    Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra are commercially fished clamswith a wide distribution in the shallow inshore waters of Lake Timsah, Egypt.They are usually contaminated with heavy metals. Consumption of suchcontaminated clams can pose a public health risk. To minimise this risk,therefore, the clams should be removed from the contaminated waters andtransferred to an approved area to reduce the high levels of metals beforebeing marketed. The aim of this work was to study the effect...

  10. Effect of transplantation on heavy metal concentrations in commercial clams of Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howaida R. Gabr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra are commercially fished clamswith a wide distribution in the shallow inshore waters of Lake Timsah, Egypt.They are usually contaminated with heavy metals. Consumption of suchcontaminated clams can pose a public health risk. To minimise this risk,therefore, the clams should be removed from the contaminated waters andtransferred to an approved area to reduce the high levels of metals beforebeing marketed. The aim of this work was to study the effect of transplantation on levels of heavy metals(Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb in these clams. The clams were removed from their polluted site and transplantedto a relatively clean area for a period of 120 days. Although the salinity atthe transplantation site was higher than at the polluted site, it was stableand did not appear to have any adverse effect on clam growth. Heavy metalswere analysed in the water, sediment and clam tissues from both the pollutedand the transplantation sites. Although in both species transplantationevidently reduced heavy metal levels, these still exceeded the maximumpermissible levels laid down by the WHO (1982.

  11. Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Analyses Techniques For Optimum Land Use Planning, West of Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study aims at using remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for optimum landuse planning of the area located north Ismaillia - south Port Said Governorates on the western side of Suez Canal. It is bounded by longitudes 32 degree 10 and 32 degree 20 E and latitudes 300 4 rand 31 0 00' N. Great part of this area is under reclamation and suffering from improper landuse. Ten geomorphologic units were recognized i.e. clay flats, decantation basins, overflow basins, sand sheets, gypsiferous flats, old river terraces, sand flats, turtle backs, lake beds, and recent river terraces. Using US Soil Taxonomy, two soil orders could be identified; Entisols and Aridisols which are represented by ten great groups: Typic Haplosalids, Typic Haplogypsids, Typic Toriorthents, Vertic Argigypsids, Vertic Torrijluvents, Vertic Natrargids ,Typic Torripsamments, Typic Torrifluvens, Aquic Torriorthents and Typic Psammaquents. Surface and ground water with respect to salinity and alkalinity hazards were investigated ,where surface water of the main canals was classified as C2-S 1, C3-S 1 ,C4-S2 and C4-S4, meanwhile the ground water was classified as C3-S 1, C3 -S 1 ,C4-S2 ,C4-SI and C4-S4 .Optimum landuse planning of the studied area includes three approaches i.e., physical planning, optimum cropping pattern and other uses. Physical planning includes designing of three geospatial models. I-treatment plant site selection model. 2-central village site selection model and 3- shortest path for new Canal model. Current cropping pattern was obtained by matching the crop requirements with soil characteristics, where soils of high sand flats and low gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, alfalfa and cotton, soils of low sand flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for olive, citrus and melon, soils of low recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, cotton, corn and rice ,soils of moderately recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, potato and rice, soils of high recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, rice and cotton, soils of high gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for corn, cotton, and citrus, soils of decantation basins are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, rice, corn, cotton, soils of turtle bake are currently highly suitable (S2) for melon, potato, cotton, soils of overflow basins are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus, peach, soils of sand sheets and old river terraces are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus

  12. A review of potential tsunami impacts to the Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkl, C.; Pelinovsky, E.

    2012-04-01

    Destructive tsunamis in the eastern Mediterranean and Red seas, induced by earthquakes and/or volcanic activity, pose potential hazards to docked seaport shipping and fixed harbor infrastructure as well as to in-transit international shipping within the Suez Canal. Potential vulnerabilities of the Suez Canal to possible tsunami impacts are reviewed by reference to geological, historical, archaeoseismological, and anecdotal data. Tsunami catalogues and databases compiled by earlier researchers are perused to estimate potential return periods for tsunami events that could affect directly the Suez Canal and its closely associated operational infrastructures. Analysis of these various records indicates a centurial return period, or multiples thereof, for long-wave repetition that could generally affect the Nile Delta. It is estimated that tsunami waves 2 m high would have a breaking length about 5 km down Canal whereas a 10 m wave break would occur about 1 km into the Canal. Should a tsunami strike the eastern flanks of the Nile Delta, it would damage Egypt's maritime infrastructure and multi-national commercial vessels and military ships then using the Canal.

  13. The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)

  14. Heavy metals and hydrocarbon concentrations in water, sediments and tissue of Cyclope neritea from two sites in Suez Canal, Egypt and histopathological effects

    OpenAIRE

    Sharaf, Hesham M.; Shehata, Abdalla M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals and hydrocarbons are of the most common marine pollutants around the world. The present study aimed to assess the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in tissues of the snail cyclope neritea, water and sediments from two sites of the study area (Temsah lake and Suez canal) represent polluted and unpolluted sites respectively. The results showed that, the levels of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Mg and Zn) in the polluted area have reached harmful limits recorde...

  15. Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the Suez Canal Bank is going to be highlighted. (author)

  16. Heavy metals and hydrocarbon concentrations in water, sediments and tissue of Cyclope neritea from two sites in Suez Canal, Egypt and histopathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Hesham M; Shehata, Abdalla M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals and hydrocarbons are of the most common marine pollutants around the world. The present study aimed to assess the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in tissues of the snail cyclope neritea, water and sediments from two sites of the study area (Temsah lake and Suez canal) represent polluted and unpolluted sites respectively. The results showed that, the levels of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Mg and Zn) in the polluted area have reached harmful limits recorded globally. Lead in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached to 0.95 ppm, 4.54 ppm and 7.93 ppm respectively. Cadmium reached 0.31 ppm, 1.15 ppm and 3.08 ppm in the corresponding samples. Cobalt was not detected in water, but it reached 1.42 ppm and 10.36 ppm in the sediment and snails tissue respectively. Magnesium in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached 3.73 ppm, 9.44 ppm and12.6 ppm respectively. Zinc reached 0.11 ppm, 3.89 ppm and 12.60ppm in the corresponding samples. Meanwhile, hydrocarbons in the polluted area (site1) reached 110.10 ?g/L, 980.15 ?g/g and 228.00 ?g/g in water sediment and digestive gland tissues of the snails respectively. Whereas, hydrocarbons in the unpolluted area (site2) were estimated as 14.20 ?g/L, 55.60 ?g/g and 22.66 ?g/g in water, sediment and tissue of the snails respectively. The combination of histopathological image with monitoring of the metal level in the digestive gland of the present snail provides an important tool for early detection of impending environmental problems and potential public health issues. Petroleum hydrocarbons are toxic to the marine fauna when present above certain limit in the marine water. The major detoxification organ in molluscs is the digestive gland, which has been used as a bioindicator organ for toxicity assessment. The effect of high crude oil on the digestive gland tubules of exposed snails when examined microscopically reveals a series of histological changes which indicates that the cellular compensatory mechanism is activated by hydrocarbons. These changes include vacuolation and presence of pyknotic nuclei. PMID:25878794

  17. Assessment of the impact from transporting radioactive materials in the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study in Egypt, carried out as the subject of an IAEA research contract, has used the INTERTRAN Code to provide an assessment of doses to handlers and the collective dose to the population, due to transport of radioactive material through the Suez Canal. Calculations were carried out using the data appropriate to the Canal, based on actual statistics and observations and default data built into the Code. The average collective dose per year was calculated to be 4.5 man rem and doses to handlers under normal transport conditions represented 97% of the total. Use of built-in default data gave results 106 times higher. 11 refs, 16 tabs

  18. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF6 packages traversing the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF6 shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF6 on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

  19. Risk assessment during transport of radioactive materials through the Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabek, M. G.; El-Shinawy, R. M. K.; Gomaa, M.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper a study for risk assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials, during the period 1986-1992, through the Suez Canal of Egypt is given. The code RADTRAN-IV was used for this study. The results of the code, for a normal case, show that the transportation of low activity materials such as uranium (U 3O 8) represent the main items that contribute significantly to the collective dose within the Suez Canal area (Port-Said, Ismailia and Suez). The values of the annual collective dose due to transportation of all radionuclide materials was found to be at a maximum in Suez town and is equal to 5.04 × 10 -8 Man-Sv for the whole populations. If we only consider the workder at the harbour (estimated to be 50 persons), the value of the annual collective dose is about 3.33 × 10 -4 Man-Sv. These values are less than the exemption value of 1 Man-Sv recommended by the IAEA. For the accident case, the following pathways are considered by the code: ground-shine, direct inhalation, inhalation of resuspended material and cloud-shine. The total values of the estimated risks for each radionuclide material are presented in table form and, in addition, health effects (genetic effects, GE, and latent cancer fatality), LCF) are discussed. The calculated values of the radiological risks are very low for the three towns, showing that no radiation-induced early deaths are to be expected.

  20. Egypt's first subsea completion: A Gulf of Suez case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.'s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt's first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations

  1. Evaluating the atmospheric dispersion characteristics of Suez Canal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric dispersion characteristics of Suez Canal area were determined for subsequent estimation of the environmental impacts of transporting radioactive or hazardous material through the Suez Canal and for the study of environmental pollution resulting from fossil power plants. The atmospheric stability classes were determined at three stations: Port Said, Ismailia and Port Tawfiek (Suez). For achieving this purpose, a computer program was developed through which the atmospheric stability classes A - F and insolation were determined by combining the measured meteorological parameters and the sun elevation which was calculated by another developed computer program with the help of astronomical tables. The results show that the most frequent stability class at Port-Said and Suez is stability class D (neutral condition), whereas at Ismailia area the moderately stable class F, which is the inversion condition with unfavourable dispersion characteristics, is prevailing. The determination of the frequency of stability classes will make it possible to calculate the concentration of a pollutant at a given distance from the source and therefore will be used in dose assessment

  2. Sorption behaviour of cobalt-60 on Suez Canal bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralogical, elemental analysis and sorption behaviour of the Suez Canal bottom sediments in the Port Said area were investigated. It was found that the bottom sediment consist mainly of quartz, feldspars and traces of calcite mineral. The cation-exchange capacity was found to increase as the particle size of the sediment decreased. Sorption of 60Co by the bottom sediment increased with contact time up to 6 h. Variation of the solution pH from 4 to 9 showed limited increase in the sorption of 60Co. As carrier concentrations increase from 10-7N to 10-3N, sorption of Co was found to increase linearly following Freundlich isotherm. The presence of Mg2+ and Fe3+ in solution depressed the sorption of 60Co by the sediments. The desorption of 60Co from bottom sediment with distilled and Suez Canal water was found to increase with contact time. (author)

  3. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF6) packages tracking Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF6) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF6) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF6) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested

  4. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF{sub 6}) packages tracking Suez Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF{sub 6}) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF{sub 6}) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF{sub 6}) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested.

  5. Uptake study of some radionuclides by Suez Canal bottom sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and physical analyses of Suez Canal bottom sediment at its south entrance (Port Taweffek) were carried out. The sediment was separated into its particle size fractions (clay, silt and sand). The different sediment fractions can be arranged with respect to their sorption capacity as follows: clay, natural sediment, sit and sand. The increase of pH results in small increase in the uptake reaching in some cases a maximum value of pH 6 or 8. More significant increase of uptake is observed when the carrier concentration is increased from 10-6 to 10-2 M/L

  6. Uranium concentrations in sediments of the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suez Canal bottom sediment samples have been analyzed by alpha-spectrometry for the measurement of uranium. This method is based on the extraction of uranium with trioctylphosphine oxide/cyclohexane (TOPO) followed by reextraction and separation on anion exchange resins, and finally electrodeposition. The ?-activity of 238U and 234U were measured by surface barrier detectors, in Bq/kg dry weight. The obtained results were compared with concentrations determined by ? measurements. The results point to a state of disequilibrium between 238U and RaeU (radium equivalent uranium) which is attributed to the escape of radon. (author)

  7. Sea-level Variation Along the Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, F. M.; Sharaf El-Din, S. H.; Alam El-Din, K. A.

    1997-05-01

    The variation of sea level at 11 stations distributed along the Suez Canal was studied during the period from 1980 to 1986. The ranges of variation in daily mean sea level at Port Said and Port Tawfik are about 60 and 120 cm, respectively. The minimum range of daily variation is at Kantara (47 cm). The fluctuations of the monthly mean sea level between the two ends of the Suez Canal vary from one season to another. From July to December, the sea level at Port Said is higher than that at Port Tawfik, with the maximum difference (10·5 cm) in September. During the rest of the year, the mean sea level at Port Tawfik is higher than that at Port Said, with the maximum difference (31·5 cm) in March. The long-term variations of the annual mean sea level at both Port Said and Port Tawfik for the period from 1923 to 1986 showed a positive trend. The sea level at Port Said increased by about 27·8 cm century -1while it increased by only 9·1 cm century -1at Port Tawfik. This indicates that the difference between sea level at Port Said and Port Tawfik has decreased with time.

  8. Suez's Culture of Resistance, its causes and its future.

    OpenAIRE

    Sélégny, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Suez is a seaport city which is one of the two gates of the Suez Canal. Most media talked about Tahrir Square in Cairo as the epicenter of the Arab Spring in Egypt. However the truth is that Suez was genuinely the center of the unprecendented uprising, as it was the first city to rise up against Hosni Mubarak. Likewise, Suez was also sadly known for being the city where the first protester was killed in Egypt during the January 2011 uprisings. Therein, Suez was renowned across Egypt for carry...

  9. Analysis of compressed air energy storage for large-scale wind energy in Suez, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramadan, O.; Omer, Siddig; Jradi, Muhyiddine; Sabir, H; Riffat, S

    2015-01-01

    renewable energy sources, in particular wind and solar, there are major concerns with the large integration of these technologies in many of the current grid systems. This paper presents a parametric analysis of sizing a large-scale energy storage system that may help to stabilize energy supply based on...... large-scale grid integration in Suez area in Egypt. The system is based on a Compressed Air Energy Storage, which has the ability to accommodate a large volume of energy from large-scale wind energy integration to the Suez electricity grid system. The paper analyses the characteristics of Suez grid...... system and the expected wind generation, based on the current integration projections. The results show how compressed air energy storage could add value to the installation of large-scale wind farms in the Suez area in Egypt and indicate the technical ability and successful operation of the proposed...

  10. Marine radioactivity studies in the Suez Canal: Modelling hydrodynamics and dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper comprises the work carried out under the IAEA Technical Co-operation Project EGY/07/002. The main goal was to develop a modelling study on the dispersion of radioactive pollution in the Suez Canal

  11. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Egyptian Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivers Grown in Suez Canal and Sinai Region Using RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Mohammed A.; Laila E. Mekki; Hassan Mansour

    2014-01-01

    DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions) mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were se...

  12. Ascidian introductions through the Suez Canal: The casestudy of an Indo-Pacificspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Rius, Marc; Shenkar, Noa

    2012-01-01

    Although marine biological invasions via the Suez Canal have been extensively documented, little is known about the introduction of non-indigenous ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea), a group containing particularly aggressive invasive species. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to study the introduction of the ascidianHerdmania momus into the Mediterranean Sea. We reviewed its taxonomy and global distribution, and analyzed how genetic variation is partitioned between sides of the Suez C...

  13. The Suez Canal as a habitat and pathway for marine algae and seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, A. A.

    The Suez Canal supports a diversified benthic algal flora; 133 species of benthic algae are now known from the Canal, as compared with only 24 in 1924. The vertical and horizontal distribution of algae is considered in relation to hydrographic factors. The algae display zonation and 3-4 algal belts are distinguished on the Canal banks on buoys and pier supports. Associated fauna include Balanus amphitrite and Brachidontes variabilis, together with various hydroids, sponges, ascidians, asteroids, ophiuroids and crustaceans. Merceriella enigmatica thrives well in brackish water habitats. The algal flora in the Bitter Lakes resembles that in the Red Sea. The number of Red Sea species decreases from Suez to Port Said in the littoral zone. On the other hand, bottom algae predominantly belong to Red Sea flora. Thirty of the species of algae found belong to the Indo-Pacific flora; half of these are new records to the Canal. Several of these Indo-Pacific algae have recently become established in the Eastern Mediterranean, whereas only two of the Mediterranean macro-algal flora (viz. Caulerpa prolifera and Halopteris scoparia) have been found in the Gulf of Suez. Two seagrasses, Halopia ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii, are recorded for the first time in the Canal. Only Halophila stipulacea has found its way into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, but none of the Mediterranean seagrasses is found either in the Canal or in the Red Sea.

  14. Coccoliths From Some Paleogene Rocks In The Gulf Of Suez Area, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El Dawoddy, Ahmed Sami [???? ???? ???????

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates the calcareous nannoplankton (coccoliths) recorded in 240 samples collected from the Paleogene rocks in Wadi Belayim/Wadi Nukhul surface sections. Gulf of Suez area. Egypt. Thirty species of cocoliths belonging to 14 genera and 4 families of the Suborder Coccolithineae Order Coccolithophorales are defined. A shortened discussion on their stratigraphic occurrences is presented. Analysis of the nannoflora has led to the definition of two proposed nannopla...

  15. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy G. Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  16. Growth volatility and trade: evidence from the 1967-1975 closure of the Suez Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Parinduri, Rasyad

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade on economic growth and growth volatility. Using the 1967-1975 closure of the Suez Canal as an instrument for trade, I find that trade leads to higher economic growth, and lower probability of recession or economic slowdown. There is no evidence that trade reduces growth volatility, however.

  17. Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.

  18. Direct gamma-ray measurement of different radionuclides in the surface water of Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity levels of naturally-occurring 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K and anthropogenic 137Cs in surface water from eight locations in the Suez Canal have been assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The samples were further characterized by determination of the common cations and anions using ion chromatography. A comparison of 137Cs radioactivity levels in surface water from the Suez Canal with those of other sea waters is presented. The radioactivity levels of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K from sea water are also reported. The effect of total dissolved solids (T.D.S.), chloride, sulphate ion concentrations on the radioactivity levels of 238U, 232Th and 226Ra is discussed. (authors)

  19. Determination and partitioning of metals in sediments along the Suez Canal by sequential extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Azim, H.; El-Moselhy, Kh. M.

    2005-06-01

    The application of sequential extraction technique was used to determine the chemical association of heavy metals in five different chemical phases (exchangeable F1, bound to carbonate F2, bound to Fe-Mn oxides F3, bound to organic matter F4 and residual F5) for sediment samples collected from the Suez Canal. From the obtained data, it can be seen that the surplus of metal contaminants introduced into the sediment from sources usually exists in relatively unstable chemical forms. A high proportion of the studied metals remained in the residual fraction. Most of remaining portion of metals was bound to ferromanganese oxides fraction. The low concentrations of metals in the exchangeable fraction indicated that the sediments of Suez Canal were relatively unpolluted.

  20. Bio indicator for monitoring radioactive pollution in Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elseredie or pinctada radiatata bivalve oyster used as a food stuff in town of Suez; was found to be a good bio indicator for Co-60 and Cs-134. This laboratory study; under similar marine environment including ph, salinity and temperature; indicated that these oysters concentrate Cs-134 in the soft tissue higher than in the shell. This may be due to similarity between Cs and K. Contrary to Cs, co was concentrated in the shell more than in the soft tissue. This was attributed to physico-chemical adsorption of Co by shell. The release (loss) of Co-60 and Cs-134; carried out under the same conditions of the field environment; was found to follow the same trends of their uptake. Release of Cs-134 was fast and di phasic reaction whereas in case of Co-60 it is slow continuous and monophasic reaction

  1. Marine Radioactivity Studies in the Suez Canal, Part I: Hydrodynamics and Transit Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, J. M.; Abdel-Aal, M. M.

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes work carried out under the IAEA Project EGY/07/002 to study the dispersion of radioactive material in the Suez Canal. This effort is linked with the increased public concern about radiation safety through this important trade route. To follow the fate of radioactive wastes along this waterway, we had to solve the hydrodynamics of the water, governed mainly by tides, atmospheric forcing and the drift currents produced by horizontal salinity gradients and by differences in mean sea level (MSL) at the two entrances of the Canal. The hydrodynamics has been studied using both 1-D and 2-D modelling approaches, and a reasonable calibration has been possible from the data set prepared with the collaboration of the Suez Canal Authority. Dispersion of conservative pollutants has been preliminarily studied by using a 1-D-Gaussian approach. Thus, we are computing the path of the plumes and the time evolution of concentrations for different scenarios of discharges and under different seasonal conditions. The transit times can vary enormously during the year, ranging from a few days to several months, depending on the differences in MSL at the two entrances of the Canal.

  2. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using ? spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238U series, 232Th series and 40K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238U series and 40K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq l-1 for stream water. (author)

  3. Corridor X: The challenge for Serbia's strategy toward the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duji? Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author points to a great significance of the Corridor X and the Danube-Morava-Vardar-Thessalonica bay projects. It would create conditions for connecting not only Serbia and the surrounding countries but the whole Europe with the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal. The author is of the opinion that there are good opportunities for cooperation on these projects between Serbia and the interested countries, and between the national and the world capital. These two projects, as well as the 'Južni tok' pipeline, should be one of the priority aims in the development strategy of the country.

  4. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahawy, M. S.; Farouk, M. A.; Ibrahiem, N. M.; El-Mongey, S. A. M.

    1994-07-01

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using ? spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238U series, 232Th series and 40K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238U series and 40K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq 1-1 for stream water.

  5. La crisis del Canal de Suez en 1956: el fin de una época en el Medio Oriente y el comienzo de otra

    OpenAIRE

    Efraim Davidi

    2006-01-01

    La crisis del Canal de Suez (o Campaña de Suez, Guerra de Suez u Operación Kadesh) fue una guerra que estalla en 1956 en territorio egipcio. El conflicto que opone a Egipto a una alianza formada por Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel se produce a consecuencia de la nacionalización del Canal de Suez por el dirigente egipcio Gamal Abdel Nasser. Esta alianza entre dos estados europeos e Israel respondió a intereses comunes: económicos, comerciales y políticos. Durante el curso del mes que siguió a l...

  6. Marine radioactivity studies in the Suez Canal. A modelling study on radionuclide dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes work carried out under the IAEA Project EGY/07/002 to study the dispersion of radioactive material in the Suez Canal and the Bitter Lakes. This effort is linked with increased public concern about radiation safety through this important trade route. We apply a sequence of related modelling approaches, covering: (1) hydrodynamics, (2) transport of dissolved pollutants, (3) suspended loads and sediment dynamics, and (4) electrolytic reactions in aqueous suspension and in-sediment water pores. The final stage is a kinetic-reactive transport model for these tidal waters. The hydrodynamics have been studied using both 1D and 2D modelling approaches, and a reasonable calibration has been possible from the data set prepared with the collaboration of the Suez Canal Authority. Diffusion coefficients are calibrated from field tracing experiments included in the IAEA Project. They have been implemented in 1D and 2D models. Suspended matter dynamics and electrolytic reactions are documented from the available literature. Finally, different scenarios of discharges for both conservative and non-conservative radionuclides have been investigated

  7. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Egyptian Mango (Mangifera indica L. Cultivers Grown in Suez Canal and Sinai Region Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes.

  8. Turismo de eventos: los cruceros españoles en la inauguración del canal de suez de 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Cerchiello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El 17 de noviembre de 1869 tuvo lugar el solemne acto de inauguración del Canal de Suez. Largamente celebrado por los medios de información, el histórico acontecimiento atrajo visitantes de toda Europa, generando asimismo la promoción de varios viajes organizados. Tras una breve introducción sobre los principales hechos que condujeron a la apertura de la nueva ruta marítima, este artículo se ocupa de dos singulares proyectos de cruceros turísticos españoles, en una época en la que los viajes de recreo al extranjero, y el turismo en general, sólo proliferaban entre las élites foráneas. Su estudio ayuda a esclarecer, por otra parte, algunos rasgos diferenciales de las primeras experiencias crucerísticas en España, que habían empezado a llevarse a cabo desde mediados del siglo XIX.

  9. Facies and sequence stratigraphy of some Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Mowafi, Ahmed; Al-Malky, Mazen

    2015-01-01

    The shallow-water siliciclastics and carbonates of the Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt represent an epiric ramp. The facies are characterized by stacked high-frequency cycles with restricted ramp to shoal margin sequences. Based on an extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, six lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. A sequence-stratigraphic analysis was carried out by integrating lithostratigraphic marker beds, facies relationships, stratigraphic cycles, and biostratigraphy. The investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. S1, is interpreted to correspond to the Late Burdigalian stage (18-16.38 My), S2 corresponds to the Late Burdigalian-Early Langhian stage (16.38-14.78 My), and S3 represents the Late Langhain-Early Serravallian stage (14.78-13.66 My). Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles.

  10. Use of the INTERTRAN code for risk assessment of radioactive materials being transported through the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INTERTRAN computer code developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency was used to predict the radiological risks resulting from the transport of radioactive materials through the Suez Canal under both normal and accident conditions. Large amounts of input data were used, including the actual statistical accident rates, standard shipment data for the period 1980-1985, population density data, and meteorological dispersion parameters based on analysis of actual data from the Ismailia region during the year 1986. The results indicate that there has been a considerable increase in the transport of radioactive materials through the canal since 1980. The increase in 1984 and 1985 was 7 and 11 times that of 1980, respectively. The average collective dose per year was found to be 4.5 man·rem, which is negligible value if the high population density within the Suez Canal zone is considered. Low specific activity materials such as uranium and thorium make the most significant contribution to the total collective dose to the public. In general, of the different population subgroups involved, handlers receive more than 97% of the total dose. The radiological risks calculated from actual input data were found to be lower by a factor of 106 than those calculated from default input data. This can be attributed to the low accident probability in the Suez Canal compared with that in the open sea. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Boundary layer structure observed by Shipborne Doppler Sodar in the Suez Canal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of the boundary layer with a monostatic Sodar and other instrumentation were carried out in the Suez canal zone in January and March 1979, from the Italian m.v. Salernum on its way to and from a GARP assignment. The Sodar was operated almost continuously throughout the passages. In addition to the intensity records, an off-line Doppler analysis involving the use of the fast Fourier transform of the digitized Sodar echoes has provided the vertical component w of the velocity. In general, because of efficient filtering and of the good quality of the data, a vertical profile of w has been determined for each transmitted pulse. During a prolonged stay in the Bitter lakes vertical profiles of temperature and humidity were also obtained by deploying a tethered balloon. Large temporal and spatial temperature contrasts exist in the canal zone due to the presence of the desert and of large and small bodies of water. The ensuring phenomenology during the time of observation was quite varied. (author)

  12. Physico-chemical conditions for plankton in Lake Timsah, a saline lake on the Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, H. A. H.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1992-02-01

    Lake Timsah receives high salinity water from the Suez Canal, mainly from the south, and freshwater from a Nile canal and other sources, producing a salinity stratification with surface salinities of 20-40‰ and over 40‰ in deeper water. Water temperature at a depth of 50-70 cm fell to below 20 °C in winter and rose to above 30 °C in summer; oxygen concentration at the same depth ranged between 6-10 mg l -1 and the pH was 8·1-8·3, and at mid-day this water was supersaturated with oxygen through 6-8 months of the year. The main chemical nutrients reached their highest levels in winter (December-February) and their lowest levels in summer (May-August), silicate varying between 1-7 ? M, phosphate between 0·1 and 0·8 ? M and nitrate between 4-10 ? M; nitrite varied in a more complex manner, usually between 0·25 and 0·4 ? M. The atomic ratio of N/P was generally well above the Redfield ratio level, except for a few months in midwinter. These nutrient concentrations are high in comparison with those of unpolluted seas of the region, but are typical of the more eutrophic coastal waters in most parts of the world.

  13. Distribution of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia thurstoni Herdman, 1890 (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae along Suez Canal and Egyptian Red Sea coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecteinascidia thurstoni is a colonial sea squirt. It has a seasonal rhythm and a tropicaland subtropical distribution; it is usually present during the summer months.It synthesizes a group of molecules called ecteinascidins. One of these is ET-743, a compound that has a most original anti-tumoral activity and is today considered to be one of the most promising substances effective against various solid-type tumors (currently sold under the trade name of Yondelis for the treatment of sarcomas and related tumors; it is undergoing phase II/III clinical trails for other kinds of tumors.Worldwide, Ecteinascidia species represent the only available source of this bioactivecompound, which was first discovered in E. turbinata.During the present study, the ecology of E. thurstoni along the Suez Canal and Red Seawas investigated. Its populations were observed to be highly gregarious due in partto their low larval dispersal, which is very localized; larvae therefore tendto settle close to their parent colonies. It is only recorded in shallow waters (0.5-1.5 mas an epiphyte on the pneumatophores of mangroves by the Red Sea, on the pilings of jetties,and the metal or cement banks of the Suez Canal. The morphometric characteristics(zooid length, zooid weight, colony weight of the Suez Canal population differsignificantly from those of the Red Sea. Studying the distribution of this speciesand locating its different populations along the Suez Canal and Red Sea could helpto characterize their genetics, chemistry and bacterial communities at differentisolated locations.Ultimately, this will help to define the sources of ET-743 and hence promote itsbiosynthesis on a commercial scale.

  14. The interaction between adults and recruitments in the brachidontes variabilis l. (lamellibranchiata) bed in the bitter great lake, suez canal

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, S. Z [??? ????? ????

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test two hypotheses concerning the interactions between adults and recruitments in the densly-packed assemblages of a population of suspension feeder (Brachidontes variabilis L.) in the Great Bitter Lake, Suez Canal. The hypothesis that the adults of B. variabilis inhibit the settlement of their own recruits was not supported. The size-class structure of B. variabilis population revealed no dominance of large individuals, indicating that older cohort...

  15. La crisis del Canal de Suez en 1956: el fin de una época en el Medio Oriente y el comienzo de otra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Davidi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La crisis del Canal de Suez (o Campaña de Suez, Guerra de Suez u Operación Kadesh fue una guerra que estalla en 1956 en territorio egipcio. El conflicto que opone a Egipto a una alianza formada por Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel se produce a consecuencia de la nacionalización del Canal de Suez por el dirigente egipcio Gamal Abdel Nasser. Esta alianza entre dos estados europeos e Israel respondió a intereses comunes: económicos, comerciales y políticos. Durante el curso del mes que siguió a la nacionalización del Canal, un acuerdo secreto fue firmado en Sèvres, en las afueras de Paris, en el cual se selló la cooperación militar de Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel contra Egipto.

  16. Petroleum biomarkers as environment and maturity indicators for crude oils from the Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Moharrem Bek, Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ (Egypt); Hegazi, A.H. [Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster Univ. (Germany); El-Gayar, M.S. [Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Andersson, J.T. [Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Depositional environment and maturation assessments of source rocks from the central Gulf of Suez, Egypt were evaluated utilizing the biomarker distributions in nine crude oils derived from a syn-rift tectonic sequence of the central Gulf of Suez province. No obvious variations were observed amongst the studied crude oils, suggesting that these oils are all of the same genetic type. These oils feature a predominance of oleanane, reaching 24%, and a relatively low gammacerane concentration of 10%, suggesting that these oils were derived from a terrigenous organofacies source rock with a significant angiosperm higher land plants input deposited within the marginally mature syn-rift shale of Lower Miocene Nukhul, Rudeis and Kareem formations of mixed kerogen types II-III. Maturity parameters based on various sterane isomerisation distributions, i.e. C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}). C{sub 29}{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}20S/(S+R) and TAS/(TAS+MAS) and aromatic sulfur compounds such as 4-MDBT/ 1-MDBT, 4,6/-1,4-DMBT, 2,4/-1,4-DMDBT and the DBT/phenanthrene indicate a low thermal maturation level for the generated hydrocarbons within the syn-rift lithostratigraphic succession. These similarities in geologic occurrences and biomarker characteristics suggest the possibility that the hydrocarbon expulsion could have been initiated from deeply buried Miocene source rocks and trapped within the syn-rift structures throughout the extensional faults of the central Gulf of Suez province. (orig.)

  17. Do Suez ao Canal do Panamá e além: A influência de Gamal Abdel Nasser na América Latina / From the Suez to the Panama Canal and Beyond: Gamal Abdel Nasser's influence in Latin America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Federico, Vélez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo explora a influência do líder egípcio Gamal Abdel Nasser na América Latina. Na década de 1950, uma geração de intelectuais e políticos latino-americanos viram, no sucesso do emergente nacionalismo árabe, simbolizado por Nasser, um exemplo a im [...] itar. No Panamá, a nacionalização egípcia do Canal de Suez, em 1956, desencadeou nova onda de demandas contra o controle e a posse do canal interoceânico pelos Estados Unidos. Em toda a região, frente ao aparecimento de regimes reacionários, intelectuais de esquerda enfatizaram a necessidade de um Nasser latino-americano; um caudilho moderno, que emergiria do interior das Forças Armadas imbuído de potente nacionalismo sem concessões e compromisso inegociável com o progresso social. Abstract in english This article explores the influence of the Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser in Latin America. In the 1950's, a generation of Latin American intellectuals and politicians saw in the success of the emergent Arab Nationalism, epitomized by Nasser, an examp [...] le to emulate. In Panama, the 1956 Egyptian nationalization of the Suez Canal would trigger a new wave of demands against the control and ownership of the interoceanic canal by the United States. Across the region, confronted with the onset of reactionary regimes, intellectuals from the left would call for the need of a Latin American Nasser; a modern day caudillo, that would come from the Armed Forces donned with the force of an uncompromised nationalism and a unnegotiable commitment to social progress.

  18. Multiphase flowmeter successfully measures three-phase flow at extremely high gas-volume fractions -- Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.B.; Borling, D.C. [Amoco Egypt Oil Co., Cairo (Egypt); Powers, B.S. [Amoco Sharjah Oil Co. (United Arab Emirates); Shehata, K. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co. (Egypt); Halvorsen, M. [Fluenta A/S (Norway); AboElenain, A. [Cross-Countries (Egypt)

    1998-02-01

    A multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) installed in offshore Egypt has accurately measured three-phase flow in extremely gassy flow conditions. The meter is completely nonintrusive, with no moving parts, requires no flow mixing before measurement, and has no bypass loop to remove gas before multiphase measurement. Flow regimes observed during the field test of this meter ranged from severe slugging to annular flow caused by the dynamics of gas-lift gas in the production stream. Average gas-volume fraction ranged from 93 to 98% during tests conducted on seven wells. The meter was installed in the Gulf of Suez on a well protector platform in the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co. (Gupco) October field, and was placed in series with a test separator located on a nearby production platform. Wells were individually tested with flow conditions ranging from 1,300 to 4,700 B/D fluid, 2.4 to 3.9 MMscf/D of gas, and water cuts from 1 to 52%. The meter is capable of measuring water cuts up to 100%. Production was routed through both the MPFM and the test separator simultaneously as wells flowed with the assistance of gas-lift gas. The MPFM measured gas and liquid rates to within {+-} 10% of test-separator reference measurement flow rates, and accomplished this at gas-volume fractions from 93 to 96%. At higher gas-volume fractions up to 98%, accuracy deteriorated but the meter continued to provide repeatable results.

  19. Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric parameters, the frequency of occurrence, abundance and density analyses, the seaweed C. prolifera is more frequent, abundant and dense in Suez Canal than the seagrass H. stipulacea, which is very rare. Instead C. prolifera forming extended dense meadows with percentage cover nearly 100% m–2 at many sites. This mainly happened; due to the competitive success of C. prolifera which seems to be related to its big size, high density, rapid growth, high efficiency in dim light conditions, high tolerance to severe nutrient limitation and salinity and temperature fluctuations and to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. The presence of these toxic secondary metabolites explains why C. prolifera is avoided by many of macro invertebrates as a habitat or feeding grounds.

  20. Desorption of Sr 89, Co 60 and Cs 134 from Suez Canal bottom sediments (Port Tawfeek Area)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and physical properties of Suez Canal Bottom Sediments (S.C.B.S) and seawater at Port Tawfeek, the south entrance of Suez Canal, were studied. The (S.C.B.S) was separated into its size fractions (natural sediment, sand, silt and clay). These different sediment fractions were allowed to be in equilibrium with Strontium 89, Cobalt 60 and Cesium 134 solutions. Desorption studies were carried out on these contaminated sediments. The release of Strontium 89 and Cesium 134 was found to be identical and the sequence of this release was as follows : sand> silt> natural sediment> clay. The effect of seawater is 6-8 times that of bidistilled water. In case of Cobalt 60 the above sequence was disturbed and the salinity effect was only 2 times that of bidistilled water. It was also found that Strontium and Cobalt were more easily desorbed from the sand fraction a behaviour which can be explained by their loose attachment to the crystal surface

  1. Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gab-Alla, Ali A.-F. A.

    Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric parameters, the frequency of occurrence, abundance and density analyses, the seaweed C. prolifera is more frequent, abundant and dense in Suez Canal than the seagrass H. stipulacea, which is very rare. Instead C. prolifera forming extended dense meadows with percentage cover nearly 100% m-2 at many sites. This mainly happened; due to the competitive success of C. prolifera which seems to be related to its big size, high density, rapid growth, high efficiency in dim light conditions, high tolerance to severe nutrient limitation and salinity and temperature fluctuations and to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. The presence of these toxic secondary metabolites explains why C. prolifera is avoided by many of macro invertebrates as a habitat or feeding grounds.

  2. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

  3. Oligocene lacustrine tuff facies, Abu Treifeya, Cairo-Suez Road, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Motelib, Ali; Kabesh, Mona; El Manawi, Abdel Hamid; Said, Amir

    2015-02-01

    Field investigations in the Abu Treifeya area, Cairo-Suez District, revealed the presence of Oligocene lacustrine volcaniclastic deposits of lacustrine sequences associated with an Oligocene rift regime. The present study represents a new record of lacustrine zeolite deposits associated with saponite clay minerals contained within reworked clastic vitric tuffs. The different lithofacies associations of these clastic sequences are identified and described: volcaniclastic sedimentary facies represent episodic volcaniclastic reworking, redistribution and redeposition in a lacustrine environment and these deposits are subdivided into proximal and medial facies. Zeolite and smectite minerals are mainly found as authigenic crystals formed in vugs or crusts due to the reaction of volcanic glasses with saline-alkaline water or as alteration products of feldspars. The presence of abundant smectite (saponite) may be attributed to a warm climate, with alternating humid and dry conditions characterised by the existence of kaolinite. Reddish iron-rich paleosols record periods of non-deposition intercalated with the volcaniclastic tuff sequence.

  4. Marine Radioactivity Studies in the Suez Canal, Part II: Field Experiments and a Modelling Study of Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, J. M.; Abdel-Aal, M. M.; Al-Gamal, S. A.; Abdel-Hay, F. A.; Zahar, H. M.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we take advantage of the two field tracing experiments carried out under the IAEA project EGY/07/002, to develop a modelling study on the dispersion of radioactive pollution in the Suez Canal. The experiments were accomplished by using rhodamine B as a tracer, and water samples were measured by luminescence spectrometry. The presence of natural luminescent particles in the canal waters limited the use of some field data. During experiments, water levels, velocities, wind and other physical parameters were recorded to supply appropriate information for the modelling work. From this data set, the hydrodynamics of the studied area has been reasonably described. We apply a 1-D-Gaussian and 2-D modelling approaches to predict the position and the spatial shape of the plume. The use of different formulations for dispersion coefficients is studied. These dispersion coefficients are then applied in a 2-D-hydrodynamic and dispersion model for the Bitter Lake to investigate different scenarios of accidental discharges.

  5. Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil and Beach Samples of the Western Coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two soil samples from six main coastal regions, Ain Sokhina, Al Zafrana, Ras Gharib, Ras Shokeir, Gebel El Zeit and Hurghada (all lie along the Western Coast of the Gulf of Suez ) were collected and investigated. The specific activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K as well as the anthropogenic radionuclide of 137 Cs in the samples were determined using HPGe ? - ray spectrometry. The average specific activities (range) of natural radionuclides in all samples are 9.9±0.8 ( 2.25-30.58 ) Bq kg-1 for 226 Ra, 6.6±0.9 (1.18-24.37) Bq kg-1 for 232 Th and 172.15±5.4 (5.4-587.3) Bq kg-1 for 40 K. For 137 Cs, the specific activity concentration results in most of the soil samples were below detection limits. Moreover, the radiation hazard parameters such as, absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index are also calculated

  6. Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

    2007-01-01

    Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric paramete...

  7. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Rudies sandstone (Lower Miocene), Warda Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2012-05-01

    The Lower Miocene Rudies sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southeastern part, Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their provenance and diagenesis and their impact in reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Warda field, representing the Lower and Middle Rudies, were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rudies sandstones have an average framework composition of Q85F7.2R7.8, and 83% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Middle Rudies sandstones are only slightly more quartzose with an average framework composition of Q90F7R3 and 86% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. Rudies sandstones are mostly quartz arenite with subordinate subarkose and sublithic arenites and their bulk-rock geochemistry support the petrographic results. The modal analysis data of studied samples suggest influence of granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks. The geochemical data interpretation on the basis of discriminate function diagrams reveal the source material was deposited on a passive margin. Textural attributes possibly suggest long-distance transport of grains from the source region and indicates a cratonic or a recycled source. Tectonic setting of Rudies Formation reveals that the lower Rudies sandstones are typically rift sandstone and their deposition constrained the beginning of the faulting, while the middle Rudies sandstones were transported from the far along the rift. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

  8. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and reservoir quality of the sandstones of the Kareem Formation, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2013-09-01

    The Middle Miocene Kareem sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their diagenesis and provenance and their impact on reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Zeit Bay Oil Field, and the East Zeit Oil Field represent the Lower Kareem (Rahmi Member) and the Upper Kareem (Shagar Member), were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rahmi sandstones have an average framework composition of Q95F3.4R1.6, and 90% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Upper Shagar sandstones are only slightly less quartzose with an average framework composition of Q76F21R3 and 82% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. The Kareem sandstones are mostly quartzarenite with subordinate subarkose and arkose. Petrographical and geochemical data of sandstones indicate that they were derived from granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks and deposited in a passive continental margin of a syn rift basin. The sandstones of the Kareem Formation show upward decrease in maturity. Petrographic study revealed that dolomite is the dominant cement and generally occurs as fine to medium rhombs pore occluding phase and locally as a grain replacive phase. Authigenic quartz occurs as small euhedral crystals, locally as large pyramidal crystals in the primary pores. Authigenic anhydrites typically occur as poikilotopic rhombs or elongate laths infilling pores but also as vein filling cement. The kaolinite is a by-product of feldspar leaching in the presence of acidic fluid produced during the maturation of organic matter in the adjacent Miocene rocks. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

  9. Mapping Geological Structures In Wadi Ghoweibaarea, Northwest Gulf Of Suez, Egypt, Using Aster-Spot Data Fusion And Aster DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical and economical constraints prompt the need of obtaining lithological and structural information for development of desert areas with reduced field effort. The fusion of multi-sensor satellite data is an effective mean of exploiting the complimentary nature of different data types. This technique allows fusion of spectral-spectral information of multi-source data with high accuracy. In the present study, fusion of SPOT and ASTER data was applied to test the potentiality of this technique in mapping geological formations and structural lineaments in Wadi Ghoweiba area, to the west of the northwestern tip of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. ASTER data is characterized by a wide range of spectral bands (14 bands), while SPOT panchromatic data is characterized by high (10 meters) spatial resolution. Based on spectral characteristic analysis (SCA) of the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands of ASTER data, two false-color band-ratio images (1/3, 2/5, and 4/ 9) and (1/5, 8/9, and 4/6) in R, G, B were produced for better lithological discrimination. SPOT panchromatic image data was fused with ASTER band ratio images data using principal component (PC) and color normalization or Brovey transformation techniques. The fused images proved to be excellent for lithological discrimination. ASTER data includes bands 3N (Nadir) and 3B (Backward) that are acquired in the spectral range of near infrared region (from 0.78 to 0.86 microns) allowing extraction of digital elevation model (DEM). Three-dimensional perspective views were generated by draping SPOT-ASTER ratio fused images over ASTER DEM. This technique was used to enhance morphologically-defined structures. The fused images and the 3D perspective views were interpreted to produce a photo geological-structural map that was verified using the available geological maps and subsequent field check. The produced photo geological map indicates that fusion of SPOT and ASTER ratio image's data is a reliable technique for geological mapping especially in remote and inaccessible areas

  10. Sea transport of radioactive materials in Egypt (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the experience gained. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the Canal from 1963 to 1996 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. (author)

  11. Bioaccumulation of mercury in some marine organisms from Lake Timsah and Bitter Lakes (Suez Canal, Egypt)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Moselhy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present work is devoted to determine the level of total mercury in the different tissues of fish Mugil seheli, crab Portunus pelagicus, shrimp Metapenaeus stebbingi, and bivalves Paphia undulata and Gafrarium pectinatum collected from Lake Timsah and Bitter Lakes during spring 2003. In addition, factors affecting the accumulation of mercury in these organisms were studied. Levels of Hg in the edible parts of the investigated organisms showed the ranges 2.62 – 25.45 and 0.94 – 7.94 ng/g we...

  12. Seasonal composition and population density of zooplankton in Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated seasonally at ten sites in Lake Timsah and the adjacent, connected western lagoon in relation to the physico-chemical conditions. A total of 42 taxa (including larval stages were identified, among them 21 species of copepods, 6 rotifers, 5 cladocerans, 1 chaetognath and 1 urochordate. Copepods represented the predominant component (77.7% of the total community, followed by rotifers, molluscs, cladocerans and (9.2, 4.7 and 3.9% respectively, while other groups collectively formed about 4.5% of the total zooplankton population. Summer was the most productive season with an average count of 40 864 individuals m-3. The dominant copepod species were Paracalanus crassirostris and Oithona nana representing 28.3 and 24.3% of the total zooplankton respectively. The total zooplankton count, including copepods, and its dominant species showed significant positive correlations with temperature, pH and total phytoplankton density. However, negative correlations were detected between densities of rotifers, and salinity and dissolved oxygen.

  13. Seasonal composition and population density of zooplankton in Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt:

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Ali Gab-Alla

    2011-01-01

    Zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated seasonally at ten sites in Lake Timsah and the adjacent, connected western lagoon in relation to the physico-chemical conditions. A total of 42 taxa (including larval stages) were identified, among them 21 species of copepods, 6 rotifers, 5 cladocerans, 1 chaetognath and 1 urochordate. Copepods represented the predominant component (77.7% of the total community), followed by rotifers, molluscs, cladocerans and (9.2, 4.7 and 3.9% respecti...

  14. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of family physicians regarding diabetic neuropathy in family practice centers: Suez Canal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mabrouk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic neuropathy (DN can affect any part of the nervous system and should be suspected in all patients who have had diabetes for more than 5 years. Family physicians (FPs can play an important role with the care and education of people with diabetes. They can augment the knowledge and motivate the diabetics to acquire a healthy life style, which would further lead to a good glycemic control providing protection from the chronic complications. Lack of compliance with the guidelines on the part of the diabetic subjects, indicates deficiencies in the FPs' knowledge, implementation techniques, and attitude problems. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess FPs' knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding DN for further educational interventions that will improve their quality of care for diabetic patients in family practice centers. Materials and Methods: The study population was 60 FPs working in family practice centers affiliated to Suez Canal University Hospitals. The questionnaire composed of three groups of questions to collect data for evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice; two written patient problems to assess their practice and two questions to assess barriers and recommendations of physicians. To pass the evaluation; 50, 80, and 60% were the cut off points to pass the evaluation for knowledge, attitude, and practice, respectively. Results: 48.3, 66.7, and 43.3% of the evaluated FPs passed the knowledge, attitude, and practice assessment, respectively. Eighty-five percent of physicians felt that they need more knowledge and training in DN management. Physicians' qualification (P = 0.037 was a significant variable in passing the knowledge test, but qualification and experience years (P = 0.007 and 0.035, respectively were significant variables in passing the practice test. There was a positive significant (P = 0.021 correlation between practice and knowledge score. Postgraduate knowledge accounts the majority (78.3% as a source of information about DN. Providing physicians with standardized guidelines (81.7%, continuous medical education seminars (76.7% and training courses (76.7% came at the top of physician's recommendations to improve DN care by FPs. Conclusion: This study has identified the need for improvement in family medicine physician practices for treating and educating diabetics and recommended that awareness and educational programs are necessary to update the FPs on screening, effective treatment of diabetes and prevention of DN.

  15. Seismic Resolvable Frequency Band For The Pre-Miocene Oil Targets Ras Budran, Gulf Of Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sakr, M. M. E. [???? ???? ??? ???

    1988-01-01

    Seismic attenuation problem in Ras Budran area, Gulf of Suez was tackled by defining the resolvable frequency band. This band can transmit through the Miocene evaporitic cyclic section and hit pre-Miocene oil targets. This resolvable frequency band, which suffer minimum attenuation, was defined by using the area V.S.P. and its frequency-energy analysis. Also, the attenuation rates, through the Miocene evaporitic section, were defined. These results can serve for an accurate frequency processi...

  16. Geochemical studies using trace elements analysis of source rocks and related crude oil in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Younes, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of trace elements in source rocks and crude oils is used to asses the process of geochemical exploration. Rock and crude oil samples representing the giant fields of the Gulf os Suez province were collected and analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Ti, V, Zn, and Zr. The analyzed data were treated statistically to find some factors and clusters concerning the interrelation between the source rock and crude oils. The application of both factor...

  17. Hydrocarbon potential, structural setting and depositional environments of Hammam Faraun Member of the Belayim Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabawy, Bassem S.; El Sharawy, Mohamed S.

    2015-12-01

    The Middle Miocene Belayim Formation is one of the most prolific formations in the Southern Gulf of Suez. It consists of four members; two members are evaporitic (Baba and Feiran) and the other two members are prospective, mostly clastics (Hammam Faraun and Sidri). The hydrocarbon potential and depositional environment of Hammam Faraun Member, the target of the present study, have been studied in 11 wells distributed in the southern province of the Gulf of Suez. The traditional well log data, as well as the Spectral Gamma-Ray logs 'SGR' and dipmeter data were used to evaluate the petrophysical properties and distribution of the Hammam Faraun Member in the Southern Gulf of Suez. It varies greatly in thickness with the greatest thicknesses in GS 365 (372 ft) and GS 373 (430 ft) fields in the central parts and the thinnest at the basin margins of the studied area at GH376 (65 ft) and Ras El Bahar (67.5 ft) fields. It is composed of clastic rocks, mainly shales and sometimes reef carbonates. The very good petrophysical properties of the studied sequence indicate a good reservoir in some fields with good to very good porosity (13.5 ≤ ∅ ≤ 25.0%). The shale volume of this reservoir sequence is less than 33% and the water saturation is less than 42.3%, while the net-pay thickness is up to 58 ft. The SGR and Pe logs indicate that, the studied rocks were deposited mostly in lagoonal to shallow marine environments, with illite and montmorillonite as dominant clay minerals. The dipmeter data obtained in some wells indicate slightly tilted beds, mostly less than 20° with an overall dip direction towards the SW, which represents the regional dip in the Southern Gulf of Suez. Based on dipmeter data, two major angular unconformities can be detected; one at the top of the sequence, separating it from the overlying South Gharib evaporates, and another one at the base of the sequence, separating it from the underlying Feiran Member.

  18. Egypt & Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    MANSOUR, Tamer Abdel-Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

  19. A contrução do canal de Suez e a formação do conflito: a força de paz brasileira na Faixa de Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carla Santos Ferrer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ocorrerem ainda inúmeros conflitos, após 1945 as nações uniram-se em busca de paz. A ONU passou a intervir em conflitos armados sempre que achasse necessário para a manutenção da paz. Entretanto, o imperialismo havia deixado suas marcas em diversos países da África, que após a Segunda Guerra Mundial se lançaram na luta por independência. Este foi o caso de Suez. No presente artigo apresentamos nossa análise sobre a formação do conflito árabe-israelense na Faixa de Gaza e da efetiva participação brasileira, como força de paz enviada pela ONU, na Guerra dos Seis Dias.

  20. Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f0) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A0) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest

  1. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt) and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various...

  2. The Procedures for Transit of Ships Carrying Radioactive Materials in Regional Waters and Sea Ports of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian Legislation related to the safe transport of radioactive materials, a license is required for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Egyptian territorial water and sea harbors of Egypt including Suez Canal. The License is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the license have been developed according to the International and Egyptian Legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive material in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive material in the Egyptian territorial water and its sea harbors including Suez Canal according to the national and international regulations

  3. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author)

  4. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shinawy, Rifaat M. K.

    1994-07-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 to 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned.A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes

  5. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    OpenAIRE

    Galal H El-Gazzaz; Azza H El-Elemi

    2010-01-01

    Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up w...

  6. Environmental studies on water quality of the Ismailia Canal/Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Ralph [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Ramadan, Abou Bakr [Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    The inorganic chemical water quality of the Ismailia Canal / Egypt was studies in 2003 and 2004 at seventeen different sites from the main canal between Cairo and Ismailia. Additional samples were taken from selected discharges and groundwater sources. As the Ismailia Canal is fed by water from the Nile some samples were taken from the Nile near Aswan for comparative reasons too. Water samples were analysed for sum parameters, salts, heavy metals and natural radioactivity. Especially in the Greater Cairo Area due to different uncontrolled discharges pH and conductivity changed significantly when proceeding from up to downstream sites. The water temperature increased significantly during the first 20 km. The main reason was the discharge of warm water used to cool machinery in the industrial suburb of Cairo. Iron, Zinc and Manganese were found in low concentrations. Because of dilution effects the amounts of dissolved salts were still below the German ''Trinkwasserverordnung''. A higher total organic carbon level indicated the presence of organic contaminants however. The natural radioactivity level was in the normal range. (orig.)

  7. Wind farm planning at the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, N.E.; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Clausager, I. [Hedeselskabet A/S, Viborg (Denmark); Pagh Jensen, F. [National Environmental Res., Copenhagen (Denmark); Georgy, L.; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt, (Egypt)

    2004-11-01

    The Wind Atlas for Egypt project is an element in a national effort to provide the best possible basis for planning of future environmentally sustainable development and utilization of wind energy resources and technology in Egypt. The present report compiles the data, information and recommendations available for planning of wind farm projects in the Gulf of Suez. (au)

  8. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

  9. Failures in American Diplomacy: The Suez Crisis,1956/// Amerikan Diplomasisinde Ba?ar?s?zl?k: Süvey? Krizi ( 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Hart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In October 1956 Great Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt over control of the Suez Canal. The allies believed Egypt’s actions violated the 1888 principles regarding control and use of the waterway. The United States played a role in the mediation of the parties. It is widely believed that the Eisenhower administration’s influence prevented more conflict and stood up to the Soviet intrusion into the area. The evidence shows that this was not the case. In fact, it was American failures in diplomacy which brought about the crisis in the first place, created the pathway for Soviet adventurism into this vital area, and inevitably caused a war between the nations involved. In effect America’s interest was dedicated to damage control of the situation rather than the peaceful resolution of the issue. This essay argues that American failures were the main cause of the Suez Crisis in 1956, and was the primer for more instability and war in the region long after the Eisenhower administration had ended.

  10. A new cascaded hydropower plants in El Sheikh Zayed Canal in the new valley in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosny Fahmy, Faten [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    With the streaks of the light looming in the horizon, heralding the dawn of the 21st century and the closing of the 20th century, the whole people of the world specially the sons of Egypt are full of hopes and dreams. The south Egypt development project is translation of this concept viewed from comprehensive strategic vision embracing a number of development fields covering activities in the field of agriculture, industry, transport, communication and roads as well as social aspects services such as health and education that would drive Egypt to the horizons of the 21st century. This new projects are: Toshka, New Valley or New Delta, Sheik Zayed which will feed more than a million feddans, transforming the desert into a green carpet, turning the wheels of industries and shedding off the stiffing nightmare of the choking narrow valley. This paper presents a new idea and application to know to use the water flow from the Nasser lake after raising and pumping with certain speed according to the ground slope. A series of hydro power plants are designed on certain interested points on El Sheikh Zayed Canal to generate electrical energy which will be required to feed several projects in this new valley. The results show the comparison between these eight hydro power plants w.r.t: it's generated electrical energy water release, water contents and the head of water inside each one. Also, the study contains the mathematical models of each hydropower station and the mathematical description of each reservoir, barrages and power stations. [Spanish] Con los rayos de luz asomandose en el horizonte, anunciando el amanecer del siglo XXI y el ocaso del siglo XX, todas las personas del mundo, especialmente los hijos de Egipto, estan llenos de suenos y esperanza. El proyecto de desarrollo del sur de Egipto traduce este concepto desde una vision estrategica integral que incluye un gran numero de areas de desarrollo que abarcan actividades en el campo de la agricultura, la industria, el transporte, las comunicaciones y los caminos, asi como servicios sociales salud y educacion, los cuales dirigiran a Egipto a los horizontes del siglo XXI. Estos nuevos proyectos son los de Toshka, Nuevo Valle o Nuevo Delta y Sheikh Zayed que alimentaran mas de un millon de almas, transformando el desierto en una alfombra verde, moviendo las ruedas de las industrias y despojandose de la pesadilla de muerte sobre un asfixiante valle estrecho. Este articulo presenta una nueva idea y aplicacion para saber utilizar el flujo del agua desde el lago Nasser despues de elevar y bombear a cierta velocidad de acuerdo al declive del suelo. Una serie de plantas hidroelectricas estan disenadas en ciertos puntos de interes en el Canal El Sheikh Zayed para generar energia electrica que se necesitara para alimentar varios proyectos en este nuevo valle. Los resultados muestran la comparacion entre estas ocho plantas hidroelectricas o sea: Su generacion electrica, su liberacion de agua por energia electrica generada, almacenamiento de agua y carga hidraulica de cada una. El estudio contiene tambien modelos matematicos de cada planta hidroelectrica y la descripcion matematica de cada embalse, represas y planta electrica.

  11. Aqaba-Levant transform-related faults in the Gulf of Suez rift: The Durba-Araba fault, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Abdelmaksoud, Ashraf S.

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf of Suez rift is dominated by NNW- to NW-striking “Clysmic” faults trending parallel to the rift. In addition there are NNE- and WNW-striking (oblique) faults that trend at an angle to the rift. The Durba-Araba fault (DAF) in southwestern Sinai represents one of several NNE-striking faults. It separates the Durba fault block on its NW from the Araba fault block on its SE. Detailed (1:20,000 scale) field mapping and structural studies of the DAF and the onshore area to the east of Belayim Bay (eastern margin of the central Gulf of Suez rift), indicate that the exposed part of the DAF extends for 7.5 km NNE from the mouth of Wadi Araba, at which point it bends and splays into three N- to NNW striking faults, forming a horse tail structure. The fault shows 4 km of pure sinistral strike-slip displacement. Northerly plunging fault propagation folds in the Phanerozoic rocks adjacent to the DAF accommodated the sinistral displacement. These folds are cut and displaced by the splay faults. Near its northern end, the middle splay fault affects the Pliocene El Qa'a Formation. At Gebel Qabeliat a group of en echelon left-stepping NNE- to N-striking faults overlaps the DAF generating a pull-apart (rhomb) graben, in which Pliocene and Quaternary sediments are downthrown against the Upper Miocene rocks. Kinematic indicators on most of these faults show major sinistral strike-slip movement. Palaeostress analysis of slip striae indicates sub-horizontal ENE to NNE extension, comparable to the present day stress regime. Cross-cutting relationships indicate that the NNE- to N-striking oblique faults are younger than the NW-striking Clysmic faults. These faults are probably presently active since they affect Pliocene and Quaternary sediments. It is proposed that these faults are related to the Aqaba-Levant transform that has been active since the Middle Miocene.

  12. Dubský´s Voyage through the Suez Canal in 1874: Erwin Dubský´s Collection of Photographs and his Diary found at Moravian Castle Lysice.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomelová, Marcela

    Praha : Roman Míšek, 2008 - (Holaubek, J.; Navrátilová, H.; Oerter, W.), s. 215-224 ISBN 978-80-86277-61-5. ISSN 1803-4373. - (4). [Egypt and Austria IV. Brno (CZ), 25.09.2007-27.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : journey around the world * trade and cultural relations * collection of photographs * archival file - the personal journal Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Characterization of Oligocene Sands and Gravels, Wad Ghoweiba, Northwest Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Using Spectral Signature and Principal Component Analysis of Terra Aster Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multi-spectral imager that was launched on board NASA's TERRA Spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER covers a wide spectral region with 14 bands from the visible to thermal infrared with high spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions. An additional backward looking near-infrared band provides stereo coverage. The spatial resolution varies with wavelength; 15 m in the visible and near infrared (VNIR, 3 bands), 30 m in the short wave infrared (SWIR, 6 bands), and 90 m in the thermal infrared (TIR, 5 bands). Each ASTER scene covers an area of 60 X60 km. In the present study the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands have been used to discriminate the Oligocene sands and gravels from the surrounding rock units that are exposed near the mouth of Wadi Ghoweiba, at the northwestern side of the Gulf of Suez. Spectral reflectance curves of 9 rock units were extracted from ASTER data and were subsequently examined. The spectral reflectance curve for the Oligocene sands and gravels shows a spectacular unique behavior compared to the spectral reflectance curves of the other 8 rock units. Based on the spectral reflectance behavior, ASTER bands 1, 2 and 5 are found to be the most suitable bands for discriminating the Oligocene sands and gravels from the surrounding 8 rock units. Therefore, the highest percentages of information of these bands were quantitatively extracted from the principal component (PC) analysis using Eigen matrix. The highest percentages of information contributed by bands 1,2 and 5 were found to be in PC2, PC6 and PC9, respectively. A principal component color image (PC2, PC6 and PC9 in B, G, R) showed the Oligocene sands and gravels in a characteristic orange color. This result was verified using the available geological maps followed by field check. The method used here is effective for exploring new sites of the Oligocene sands and gravels that are being extensively used as raw materials for concrete and other building purposes

  14. Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Peter; Laursen, Thomas; Robertson, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the short- and long-run economic impact of Egypt's energy subsidy reform in July 2014 (without and without compensating transfers for the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution) and the decline in global energy prices, as well as the long-run impact of phasing out the energy subsidies over a 5 year period. The analysis uses a Computable General Equilibrium model w...

  15. Volcano-sedimentary characteristics in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez District, Egypt: Example of dynamics and fluidization over sedimentary and volcaniclastic beds by emplacement of syn-volcanic basaltic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, E. A.; Abdel Motelib, A.; Hammed, M. S.; El Manawi, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the Neogene lava-sediment mingling from the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez district, Egypt. The lava-sediment interactions as peperites have been identified for the first time at the study area and can be used as paleoenvironmental indicators. The identification of peperite reflects contemporaneous time relationship between volcanism and sedimentation and this finding is of primary importance to address the evolutional reconstruction of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Characterization of the facies architecture and textural framework of peperites was carried out through detailed description and interpretation of their outcrops. The peperites and sedimentary rocks are up to 350 m thick and form a distinct stratigraphic framework of diverse lithology that is widespread over several kilometers at the study area. Lateral and vertical facies of the peperites vary from sediment intercalated with the extrusive/intrusive basaltic rocks forming peperitic breccias to lava-sediment contacts at a large to small scales, respectively. Peperites encompass five main facies types ascribed to: (i) carbonate sediments-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (ii) lava flow-hosted blocky peperites, (iii) volcaniclastics-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (iv) sandstone/siltstone rocks-hosted blocky peperites, and (iv) debris-flows-hosted blocky peperites. Soft sediment deformation structures, vesiculated sediments, sediments filled-vesicles, and fractures in lava flows indicate that lava flows mingled with unconsolidated wet sediments. All the peperites in this study could be described as blocky or fluidal, but mixtures of different clast shapes occur regardless of the host sediment. The presence of fluidal and blocky juvenile clasts elucidates different eruptive styles, reflecting a ductile and brittle fragmentation. The gradual variation from fluidal to blocky peperite texture, producing the vertical grading is affected by influencing factors, e.g., the viscosity, magma temperature, confining pressure, sediment fluidization, and vapor film at the magma-sediment interactions. Peperites in the study area record deposition within a shallow marine and fluvio-lacustrine environment accumulated in a rift-related basin developed during pre- to syn-rift phase, respectively. The facies transitions (peperites) in this area resulted from the explosive and sediment depositional processes, which were mingled separately by volcanism under contrast geological conditions. The development of such contrast in the depositional sequences reflects variation in the accommodation to sediment supply in the same accumulation space inside the depocenters during the rifting of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Hydrothermal mineralizations comprising quartz and carbonate are restricted to peperites and lava flows.

  16. Habitat and Plant Communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt II. Irrigation and Drainage Canal Bank Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Mashaly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides quantitative analysis of the vegetation and spatial variations of environmental factors controlling the abundance and distribution of vegetation in canal and drain banks in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Five vegetation groups have been recognized: group A codominated by Arundo donax and Polygonum equisetiforme, group B codominated by Rumex dentatus and Polypogon monspeliensis, group C dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, group D codominated by Phragmites australis and Echinochloa stagnina and group E dominated by Typha domingensis. The total number of weeds recorded in the study area is 113 species belonging to 36 families. Therophytes (48.67% and geophytes (14.16% are the most frequent life-forms. The major chorotypes in the study area are Mediterranean (42.48%, Cosmpolitan (19.47%, Pantropical (13.27% and Palaeotropical (12.39%. The relationships between the vegetation gradients and edaphic factors showed that, potassium and sodium cations, potassium adsorption ratio, chlorides, sodium cation adsorption ratio, pH value and water-holding capacity are the main controlling edaphic factors.

  17. Impact of human activities on Aluminum contamination in the drainage canals in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alne-na-ei A. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is released into Sabal drainage canal through the emissions of recycled aluminum industries, the discharge of stations of water purification that contain huge amount of aluminum sulfate (alum and the extensive use of clay in the industry of packed bricks. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of human activities on Al accumulation on water and fish consumption. The field and laboratory studies of water samples and different fish tissues (muscles, liver and ovary revealed that water samples had higher levels of Aluminum if compared to those collected from other localities. Tissue samples of the fish, Tilapia zillii had higher levels of Al which exceeded the international permissible limits. From a public health standpoint, the increased concentrations of Al in water samples and the fish tissues in the are is a matter of concern. Therefore, the research suggests the elimination of illegal aluminum industries and replace the smaller and old stations of sewage treatment by another modern type capable of collecting and treating huge amount of sewage, with high efficiency of treatment and purification.

  18. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iman F Abou-El-Naga

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host–parasite relationship at a molecular level.

  19. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection agency on water quality criteria (W.Q.C.)

  20. [Migrations and economic and social change in Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ged, A

    1985-01-01

    The inexistence in the Arab world of institutions to facilitate development led Egypt to adopt the infitah, a policy of economic opening which is not a voluntarist economic strategy but rather is intended to create a climate favorable to a more capitalistic orientation for individuals with access to petroleum income. Egypt's gross national product grew by 4.6%/year in the dozen years through 1965, but thereafter growth was sluggish or even negative. After 1967 the choices of the dominant economic classes were oriented toward liberalism, and the arrival of Sadat allowed this orientation to prevail even before the infitah. The various measures of the infitah were designed to promote investment, reactivate the private sector, and reorganize the public sector. Most of the specific projects approved through 1978 were in the tertiary sector, they did little to stimulate further development, and the total number of jobs created was relatively insignificant. The transformation of the Egyptian economy is due not so much to the infitah as to 4 other elements: oil, income from the Suez canal, tourism, and emigration. At present petroleum represents 30% of Egypt's exports, the Suez canal will probably bring in $1.5 billion annually in coming years, and tourism brought in $1 billion in 1984, but in terms of economic and social impact on the total population emigration is much more important. The number of emigrants increased from 100,000 in 1973 to over 3 million in 1984 and the extent of their remittances increased from $184 million in 1973 to nearly $4 billion at present. Serious shortages of skilled and unskilled labor have been created by the departure of 10-15% of the overall labor force and a higher proportion for some skilled professions. The number of workers in construction more than doubled from 1971-79, while 10% of the agricultural labor force departed. Agricultural wages increased by an average of 7.1% in these years as agricultural workers were attracted to the higher wages of construction. However, the actual levels of agricultural wages were very low at outset. Differences between Egyptian wages and those paid in the Gulf states became so significant that they disrupted the prevailing norms and hierarchies of remuneration. The development of migration thus represents an individual response to 2 types of problems: the incapacity of the Egyptian state to develop an economy that creates employment, and the development of methods to allow each Arab state to benefit from petroleum income. But the future course of migration to the Gulf states is not known, and whether the improvements already observed in the lives of rural Egyptians can be sustained over the long term is a vital question. PMID:12280371

  1. Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (?3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

  2. Occult HBV infection status among chronic hepatitis C and hemodialysis patients in Northeastern Egypt: regional and national overview

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohamed, Mandour; Nader, Nemr; Atef, Shehata; Rania, Kishk; Dahlia, Badran; Nashaat, Hawass.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is considered to be one of the major risks for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis (HD) and patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study compared the prevalence of OBI among these two [...] high-risk groups in the Suez Canal region, Northeastern Egypt, to obtain a better national overview of the magnitude of OBI in this region. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 165 HD patients and 210 chronic HCV-infected patients. Anti-HCV antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HCV RNA was detected using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and HBV was detected using a nested PCR. RESULTS: All patients were negative for HBsAg. A total of 49.1% and 25.2% of the patients in the HD and HCV groups, respectively, were anti-HBc-positive. In addition, more anti-HBs-positive patients were detected in the HD group compared to the HCV group (52.1% and 11.4%, respectively). Three cases were positive for HBV DNA in the HD group, while eighteen positive cases were detected in the HCV group. Both study groups showed significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level as well as anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV-DNA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was more prevalent among chronic HCV patients than HD patients in the Suez Canal region, Egypt, with rates of 8.5% and 1.8%, respectively. However, more precise assessment of this infection requires regular patient follow-up using HBV DNA detection methods.

  3. Occult HBV infection status among chronic hepatitis C and hemodialysis patients in Northeastern Egypt: regional and national overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mandour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI is considered to be one of the major risks for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD on regular hemodialysis (HD and patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. This study compared the prevalence of OBI among these two high-risk groups in the Suez Canal region, Northeastern Egypt, to obtain a better national overview of the magnitude of OBI in this region. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 165 HD patients and 210 chronic HCV-infected patients. Anti-HCV antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, total hepatitis B core (anti-HBc antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HCV RNA was detected using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and HBV was detected using a nested PCR. RESULTS: All patients were negative for HBsAg. A total of 49.1% and 25.2% of the patients in the HD and HCV groups, respectively, were anti-HBc-positive. In addition, more anti-HBs-positive patients were detected in the HD group compared to the HCV group (52.1% and 11.4%, respectively. Three cases were positive for HBV DNA in the HD group, while eighteen positive cases were detected in the HCV group. Both study groups showed significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST level as well as anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV-DNA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was more prevalent among chronic HCV patients than HD patients in the Suez Canal region, Egypt, with rates of 8.5% and 1.8%, respectively. However, more precise assessment of this infection requires regular patient follow-up using HBV DNA detection methods.

  4. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step forward in the application of the wind atlas methodology in Egypt. Not only does it provide a coherent and consistent overview of the wind energy resource over the entire land (and sea) area of Egypt, the results of the mesoscale modelling are further available in a database (numerical wind atlas) which may be employed directly for detailed wind resource assessments and siting of wind turbines and wind farms. Utilising this database together with elevation maps derived from the Space Shuttle Topography Mission and land-use maps constructed from satellite imagery, the wind resource and likely power production of a given wind farm can be estimated in a matter of hours – anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published in a Wind Atlas for Egypt.

  5. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Dupont; Perrine Ferauge; Romina Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recruitmen...

  6. Towards a new intermediate hub region in container shipping? Relay and interlining via the Cape route vs. the Suez route

    OpenAIRE

    Notteboom, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    The Suez Canal plays a pivotal role in today’s global container shipping network, in particularly in accommodating vessels sailing on the important Asia–Europe trade lane. This paper analyses to what extent and for which trade lanes the Cape route could develop into a competitive alternative to the Suez route. The market potential of the Cape route is analysed using a distance analysis, a transit time analysis and a generalized cost analysis for a large set of O/D relations. We compare vessel...

  7. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal H El-Gazzaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62 and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48; 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12; Hepatitis B (HBV-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54% developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

  8. Prevalence of female genital cutting among Egyptian girls / Prévalence des mutilations génitales féminines chez les filles en Egypte / Prevalencia de la mutilación genital femenina entre las niñas en Egipto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammed A, Tag-Eldin; Mohsen A, Gadallah; Mahmoud N, Al-Tayeb; Mostafa, Abdel-Aty; Esmat, Mansour; Mona, Sallem.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El concepto de mutilación genital femenina (MGF) abarca en general las prácticas tradicionales que entrañan la ablación parcial o total de los genitales externos femeninos por razones no terapéuticas, culturales o de otro tipo. En Egipto, el resultado de la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud r [...] ealizada en 2000 reveló que un 97% de las mujeres casadas participantes en la encuesta habían sufrido MGF. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó un método de muestreo aleatorizado polietápico para seleccionar los sitios. Primero, el país se dividió en cinco zonas geográficas: área metropolitana de El Cairo, Bajo Egipto, Alto Egipto, Sinaí y región del Canal de Suez. Segundo, en cada prefectura se seleccionaron al azar dos distritos educativos (excepto Luxor). En cada uno de los distritos seleccionados, las escuelas se clasificaron en primarias, preparatorias y secundarias. En cada nivel educativo, las escuelas se clasificaron en rurales, urbanas, públicas y privadas. El número total de mujeres entrevistadas fue de 38 816. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto era del 50,3%. El porcentaje era de un 46,2% en las escuelas públicas urbanas, 9,2% en las escuelas privadas urbanas, y 61,7% en las escuelas rurales. Los niveles educativos de la madre y el padre estaban inversamente relacionados con la MGF (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Female genital cutting (FGC) is the collective name given to traditional practices that involve partial or total cutting away of the female external genitalia whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. In Egypt, the result of the Demographic Health Survey in 2000 revealed that [...] 97% of married women included in the survey experienced FGC. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt. METHODS: Multistage random technique was applied for site selection. First, Egypt was divided into five geographical areas; Greater Cairo, Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Sinai and Suez Canal Region. Second, from each governorate, two educational districts were selected randomly (except Luxor). In each of the selected districts, the schools were divided into primary, preparatory and secondary schools. In each education stage, the schools were divided into rural, urban, government and private. The total number of females interviewed was 38 816. FINDINGS: The prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt was 50.3%. The prevalence of FGC was 46.2% in government urban schools, 9.2% in private urban schools and 61.7% in rural schools. Educational levels of mother and father were negatively associated with FGC (P

  9. Suez and the energy and environmental stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents the project of merger between Suez Group and Gaz de France Group with the ambition of becoming one of the first gas and electric utility in the world. One goal of the future Gaz de France/Suez group will be the diversification of the energy mix and the development of infrastructures for the transport, storage and liquefaction of natural gas. LNG is developing and is expected to play a more and more important role in this evolution. The aim is to answer the future energy and environmental stakes of the European Union. (J.S.)

  10. Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A.M.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

  11. Assets and liabilities : refugees from Hungary and Egypt in France and in Britain, 1956-1960

    OpenAIRE

    De Aranjo, Alexandre G. A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the reception and treatment of the refugees from Hungary and Egypt who arrived in France and in Britain after the Hungarian revolution and the Suez crisis. The thesis argues that the reception of the refugees from Hungary and from Egypt was primarily linked to the French and British immigration policies and influenced by the Cold War context. The first part deals with the creation of the Hungarian refugees and their reception in France and Britain. Chapter two giv...

  12. Development of El-Salam Canal Automation System

    OpenAIRE

    Noha Samir Donia

    2012-01-01

    In Egypt irrigation water is becoming more scarce with the continuously increasing demand for agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes. To face this increasing irrigation demand, the available water supply in Egypt is supplemented by the reuse of agricultural drainage water as in El-Salam Canal that do not satisfy water quality standards defined for the canal. This paper introduces an automation system for El-Salam Canal to control the flow of the fresh water and drainage water supplied ...

  13. Evaluation Of The Hydraulic Connection Between The Surface Water And The Groundwater Along El-Salam Canal, North Eastern Coast, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the interconnection between the surface water of El-Salam Canal and the shallow groundwater in the adjacent aquifer has been discussed using both the environmental isotopes and the chemical analyses of the different water bodies along the canal trajectory from Faraskour in the west to Balousa in the east. The isotopic techniques were applied to investigate this relationship and to estimate the possible contribution from various sources such as groundwater, sea water and/or irrigation water, and finally to determine the extent of mixing between El-Salam Canal and the adjacent aquifers. Since the groundwater in the area is saline (more than 10000 ppm) while the mixed canal water is mainly fresh (less than 1000 ppm), the interconnection between the canal water and surrounding shallow groundwater leads to one of the following two hydrologic processes; seepage from the canal water to the shallow groundwater which means fresh water losses or leakage from the groundwater into the surface water which means water quality deterioration The present study aims to detect the hydraulic interconnection between the two water bodies by using environmental isotope techniques as well as detailed chemical analysis. For this purpose, 31 water samples from both surface water and groundwater were collected and analyzed for 18O and 2H contents as well as 44 representative water samples were collected and analyzed for the chemical components (anions and cations) as a major ions and minor constituents. The distribution of the analyzed samples on the 18O vs. D diagram indicated that the samples could be classified into three genetic groups representing different sources of water. The first group reflects a contribution from evaporated rain water prior to infiltration to the groundwater, the second group represents a mixing trend between both of El-Farma drain water and El-Manzala lake water with the groundwater which have enriched isotopic values as well as high salinity due to seawater intrusion. The third group reveals also mixing between surface water and groundwater where in this case, the isotopic concentration of surface water is subjected to evaporation processes and mixing with groundwater body

  14. Impact of pollination and fertilization on sesame production in the reclaimed lands, Ismailia governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blal Abd Elfatah H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the sesame growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. For the purpose of studying the impact of insect pollination and nitrogen fertilization on sesame production, the experiment was divided into 13 treatments of open pollination and non open pollination with three different levels of ammonium nitrate (N and one level of seryalin as bio-fertilizer. Non open pollination treatments were covered before the start of flowering period with a perforated net bag to allow the air to pass through and to prevent insects from approaching the plants. Quantitative and qualitative parameters were measured as follows: number of capsules per plant, capsule weight, number of seeds per capsule, weight of 1000 seeds, germination rate, seedling vigour and oil content. Results clearly demonstrate that qualitative and quantitative parameters of sesame crop significantly increased with open pollination and with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level up to 95 kg N/ha plus or minus seryalin in reclaimed sandy soils in Ismailia, Egypt.

  15. Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m2, and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity-producing wind turbine installations. The regional wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The numerical wind atlas database, in combination with SRTM 3 elevation data and satellite imagery, provide the means for immediate WAsP wind resource assessments anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published in a Wind Atlas for Egypt.

  17. Estimation of the Pollution Level in El Timsah Lake, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide range of activities surrounding El Timsah Lake and the discharge effluent at the north and eastern parts of the lake led to high level of anthropogenic pollution in lake water more than the navigation activities. Heavy metals concentration increases in low salinity water toward the land from the discharging effluent. Whereas, oil hydrocarbon and water salinity increase toward Suez Canal current water. This indicates some dispersion of oil ballast water of shipping tankers or from petroleum companies during transportation in the Suez Canal. Chemical and isotopic results indicate lake water stratification, low mixing rate due to slow current of lake water. This led to long residence time of the pollution load enhancing accumulation and precipitation of the heavy metals to the bottom sediment near the boundaries of the lake

  18. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m3. According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m3, placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range of economic and political measures, are seeking to favour natural gas exports to restore the balance of payments in the hydrocarbons sector and to establish the position of Egypt as a gas supply hub for the Middle East. Hence, to guarantee a market for Egyptian gas, the main foreign operators present in Egypt have proposed the following export projects: Agip is promoting the idea of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Israel; BP Amoco has submitted a bid for the construction of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan; British Gas has recently been authorized to set up the Egypt LNG company, in partnership with an Egyptian company, to sell the gas produced on offshore fields discovered in early 1999 off the Western Delta, probably in the form of LNG; Shell intends to submit a similar request. (authors)

  19. Offensive strategy: Suez wants to hustle EdF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Electrabel, its new energy pole, the private company Suez is looking for multiple ways of entry to reinforce its positions in France in the gas and electric power sectors in the prospect of the complete opening of energy markets in 2004. This article analyzes the strategy of Suez to become the most credible challenger of EdF, the French historical national electric utility: reorganization of its industrial and commercial activities, gain of new clients and definition of a new strategy for the gas market. (J.S.)

  20. Threats and control of the brown necked ravens (Corvus ruficollis) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahrawy, Awad A F; Vijver, Martina G; De Snoo, Geert R

    2007-01-01

    The Suez Canal region is a small fertile area in Egypt that is placed under enormous pressure of existing resources. In these areas, intensive agricultural practices are performed in combination with high population densities. The described problem is that together with agricultural practices and urbanization, Brown necked ravens (Corvus ruficollis) are in huge amounts attracted. The birds are very aggressive and showed to be a serious pest. They spread germs and diseases for human health and food production. Therefore, the birds need to be controlled. Our research focuses on identifying food preferences of raven and on the way raven control is most effective. Ravens are omnivorous birds. From our laboratory study it was seen that most preferable foods were, in descending order: fresh fishes, cow liver, crustacean, watermelons, tomatoes and yoghurt. Under field conditions where stomach content was dissected, animal matters showed to a more preferred food source than plant matters. Observations on olfactory sensitivity showed that ravens could easily locate their food. Biological observations in the field on reproduction of ravens showed that raven females lay two to six eggs. Average number of babies per nest was between one and four. Average number of raven flock before sun rise was more than 100, while it was less than 100 before sun set. The impact of mechanical, biological and chemical control was investigated. Without control, approximately flock numbers of more than 100 ravens were recorded. The average number of raven flock was 60 before mechanical control operation (nests destroyed and using net), while it was 40 after mechanical control. Results of the biological control showed that kestrel (Falco tinnunculus rupicolaeformes) predated raven babies more effective than barn owls (Tyto alba). Within the chemical control experiments, Brodifacoum (0.0005%) was most effective against ravens, followed by Zink phosphide (19%) and Methomyl (90%, carbamate compound). PMID:18399444

  1. Realizm in the International Relations in the Example of French Invasion of Egypt //// M?s?r'?n Frans?zlar Taraf?ndan ??gali Örne?inde Uluslarras? ?li?kilerde Realizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erdemir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Osmanl? (Ottoman State struggled for its very existenceagainst the imperialist powers’ partition plans, particularly, in thenineteenth century. The imperialist competition of the Europeanpowers on Egypt influenced on the Osmanl? rulers’ internationalpolicies. Egypt was an important place in the region andinternational relations from the ancient to the modern periods. Theopening of the Suez Canal increased this geo-political significancefurther, which fuelled the confrontation among the Europeanpowers. The Osmanl? rulers’ policies regarding on Egypt wereadapted to the internal and external developments.Egypt’s proximity to the French colonies in the north andcentral African countries were important for France as well as forGreat Britain. Egypt shortened the way to India and South EastAsian colonies, which made Egypt a focal point for France, Russiaand Britain. European power struggles in Europe and other partsof the world were reflected in their Egyptian policies and itsimmediate region. The Osmanl? authorities were well aware of thefact that the Armed forces could not be able to deal with all theseimperialist powers at a time. Therefore, policies were finely tuned‘balanced policies’ one to another between the imperialist powers’expectations and confrontations. Egypt with its all specialities wasperfectly used for the policies of the Osmanl? State and others.This study discusses the confrontation and power strugglesof the imperialist powers for Egypt, and how the Osmanl? Stateresponded to such policies. What kinds of roles Egypt played in thecreation of the Osmanl? policies towards the European powers?What would be beneficial outcome of such policies for the Osmanl?State and Egypt? The study highlighted that how an internalmatter can be an international issue to determine the influential powers’ policies. How international interests creates internationalconflicts and alliances as in the examples at the beginning of thenineteenth century in Egypt. //// Osmanl? Devleti özellikle 19ncu yüzy?lda emperyalistgüçlerin bölme planlar?na kars? hayatta kalma mücadelesivermistir. Avrupal? Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerindeki yar?slar?Osmanl? yönetiminin uluslararas? politikalar?n? etkilemistir. M?s?r,Eskiça?’dan günümüze bölgede ve uluslararas? iliskilerde önemlibir yere sahiptir. Süveys kanal?n?n aç?lmas? M?s?r’?n jeopolitikönemini art?r?rken Avrupal? güçlerin aralar?ndaki mücadeleleri deateslemistir. Osmanl?’n?n M?s?r ile ilgili politikalar? da içte ved?sar?da meydana gelen yeni gelismelere göre sürekli uyarlanm?st?r.M?s?r’?n Kuzey ve Orta Afrika’daki Frans?z kolonilerine olanyak?nl??? Fransa için önemli oldu?u kadar Büyük Britanya için dehayatidir. M?s?r’?n Hindistan ve Güney Do?u Asya ülkelerindekisömürgelere giden yolu k?saltmas? Fransa, Rusya ve ?ngiltere içinönemli bir ilgi oda?? haline gelmesine sebep olmustur. Avrupal?güçlerin Avrupa ve dünyan?n di?er bölgelerindeki mücadeleleriM?s?r politikalar?nda yans?maktad?r. Osmanl? eskisi gibi silahl?kuvvetlerinin emperyalist güçlere kars? ayn? anda mukabeleedemeyece?i gerçe?inin fark?ndad?r. Bu yüzden oldukça hassasayarlar gerektiren “denge politikalar?” Emperyalist güçlerinbeklentileri ve çat?smalar? dikkate al?narak ayarlanm?st?r. BöyleceM?s?r kendine has bütün özellikleriyle Osmanl? Devleti’nin özel vegenel ç?karlar? için de?erlendirilmistir.Bu çal?sma, Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerinde güçmücadeleleri ve çat?smalar?n? ele al?rken Osmanl? Devleti’nin bupolitikalara nas?l cevap verdi?ini incelemektedir. Avrupal? güçlerekars? Osmanl? politikalar?nda M?s?r nas?l bir rol oynam?st?r? Bupolitikalar?n Osmanl? Devleti ve M?s?r için olumlu sonuçlar? nelerolmustur? Çal?smada, bir iç meselenin etkili güçlerinmüdahaleleriyle nas?l bir uluslararas? konu haline getirildi?i vepolitikalar? etkiledi?i gösterilmektedir. Uluslararas? ç?karlar

  2. Studies on the Indo-Pacific Tridacnidae (Tridacna maxima) from the Northern Red Sea, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Manal S. Mekawy; Hashem A. Madkour

    2012-01-01

    In Egypt, Tridacna Maxima are found in Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea. Tridacna Maxima are very important ecological species as seafood source and as a substrate for reef-associated organisms; therefore we should protect it from extinction. Recently, these species are exposed for many factors of pollution (human activities, tourism and natural resources) that affect the distribution and abundance of it. The main objective of this research is to s...

  3. Earthquakes focal mechanism and stress field pattern in the northeastern part of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Emad K.; Hassoup, A.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Othman, Adel A. A.; Hamed, Diaa-Eldin M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Egypt is characterized by moderate size seismicity where earthquakes are distributed within several active regions. In the present study, we investigated the source mechanism of earthquakes using the digital waveform data recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) during the period from 2004 to 2008. The focal mechanisms are constructed with high reliability based on the polarity of the first motion of P-wave. These solutions are used to examine the mode of tectonic deformation and the present-day stress field pattern affecting on different tectonic provinces in the northern part of Egypt. The results demonstrate mainly a normal faulting mechanism with minor strike slip component generally trending parallel to the northern Red Sea, the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez and Cairo-Alexandria trend. The inversion technique scheme is used also in the present study for determining the regional stress field parameters for earthquake focal mechanism solutions based on the grid search method of Gephart and Forsyth (1984). The Results of the stress tensor using focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes show a prevailed tension stress field in N52°E, N41°E and N52°E for the northern Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba zone respectively.

  4. The most common insect pollinator species on sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L.) in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Kamel; A.H. Blal; H.M. Mahfouz, et al.

    2013-01-01

    A survey of insect pollinators associated with sesame, Sesamun indicum L. (Pedaliaceae) was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. All different insect pollinators which found on the experimental site were collected for identification. Sampling was done once a week and three times a day. Three methods were used to collect and identify insects from the sesame plants (a sweep net, pitfall traps, d...

  5. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  6. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  7. Evaluation Of Hydraulic Parameters For Dara .Area (Gulf Of Suez), Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sewidan, A. S. [???? ???? ??????

    1991-01-01

    This work aims to furnish a basis for evaluating the water resources in Dara Area which is one of the vergin areas assigned for the purpose of land reclamation. Analysis of pumping and recovery tests performed in the study area is done by six methods manually and three methods using computer program. The data obtained by both methods show close similarity, and accordingly, the computer programs used are recommended for future analysis. The results show that the aquifer in the area is of th...

  8. Petrophysical and petrographic evaluation of Sidri Member of Belayim Formation, Badri field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudeif, A. M.; Attia, M. M.; Radwan, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    Presence of sandstone streaks in Sidri Member within Belayim Formation that lies between two productive zones; Kareem Formation and Hammam Faraun Member, was the main reason to perform this study. It may represent a good hydrocarbon reservoir and will be added to the Egyptian oil production in some wells of Badri field. This Member has high resistivity signature on Electric-logs responses which attracted the attention to investigate its occurrence in the field, to delineate its distribution all-over the area, to evaluate the petrographic and petrophysical characteristics and to evaluate its productivity. Petrographic and petrophysical analyses of these sand zones were undertaken using thin section samples. The electric logs and subsurface geologic data was used to evaluate the main reservoir characteristics of the Sidri sandstone such as lithology, cementation, shale volume, porosity (Φ), effective porosity (Φ eff), estimated permeability (K), fluid saturation, fluid type and Net pay thickness. This study revealed that, Sidri sandstone facies was classified into two mainly sandy facies; blocky sandy facies which located at the northern part of the field and streaky sandy facies at the southern area of the field. These two facies are separated by shaley facies. Some wells were studied to represent the two sandy facies in Sidri Member and these sand intervals have not been tested yet. These sands consist of quartz grains with grey and pink feldspars as accessory minerals, with siliceous and calcareous cementation, with good porosity. Petrophysical evaluation of this sand unit indicated that it is hydrocarbon bearing formation in three wells and water bearing one in other wells. Electrical logs analysis (Resistivity, Density-Neutron, Sonic and Gamma-Ray) revealed that The volume of shale in this sandstone, the effective porosity, the water saturation, the estimated permeability, the hydrocarbon saturation, and the net-pay thickness are varying from 9 to 13%, 19%-22%, 26%-34%, 200 and 600 mD, 66 and 74%, 20-35 feet respectively. The fluid types are oil, gas and water.

  9. GdF-Suez inflates its underground gas stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storengy, a daughter-company of GdF-Suez, is investing 1.4 billion euros for the development of gas underground storage. The company now owns a storage capacity of 10 billion m3 shared between 12 sites in France, 3 in Germany and one in England. The overall of these sites represents 17% of the European storage capacity. Moreover, thanks to its participation to Intragaz, Storengy exploits 120 million m3 of gas in Quebec (Canada). In France, Storengy has to share its activities with another smaller operator, TIGF (former Elf) settled in the region of Pau (SW of France). (J.S.)

  10. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  11. The present-day stress field in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Badawy

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present-day stress field has been investigated by the analysis of the directions of maximum horizontal stress (ó 1 inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts in Egypt. The results indicate that strike-slip and normal faulting movements characterize the majority of the earthquake focal mechanisms; only a few events are of reverse faulting type. The analysis of 35 mechanisms suggests that the present-day stress field in Southern Egypt is dominated by a strike-slip stress regime (SS and it is mainly transtensional (NS: normal faulting with strike-slip component in Northern Egypt. The orientation of P-axes reflects that the maximum horizontal stress (ó 1 in Southern Egypt is uniform and aligned to nearly E-W direction while in Northern Egypt it is aligned with an even mix of NW-SE and nearly E-W compression. Along the Gulf of Aqaba, the southern part of the Dead Sea Fault (DSF, the focal mechanism solutions indicate that the maximum horizontal stress is presently oriented NW-SE, corresponding to a strike-slip mechanism in concert with geological evidence. More detailed investigations have been performed for the Gulf of Suez. We compare our results to the near-surface stress measurements from borehole breakouts to see if there is a change in orientations with depth. Shallow stress directions derived from borehole breakouts are not consistent with the deep stress directions derived from earthquakes focal mechanisms. About 73% of 30 borehole breakouts measurements indicate NW-SE alignment of the maximum horizontal stress and 27% are ENE-WSW. The direction of ó 1 inferred from the focal mechanism solutions is changing from NE-SW to ENE-WSW. Therefore, at least in this area, the stress direction is not constant throughout the crust.

  12. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  13. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  14. Geodiversity assessment of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy; Farghaly, Enas

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a triangular plateau lies in NE corner of Egypt, its head in the south at Ras Mohammed and its other sides between the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez and the triangle base on the Mediterranean Sea. Sinai Peninsula is the most attractive region from the geological, geomorphological and environmental stand points of view because it displays a variety of simple and complex structural and landforms, (Abu Al-Izz,1971). In general, Sinai Peninsula reflects all geologic column of Egypt. Geomorphologically, Sinai Peninsula comprises many geomorphologic units such as mountains blocks, cliffs, isolated hills, wadies, hogbacks, questas, sand ridges, muddy and marshy lands, lakes and shorelines. This paper aims to define and measure geodiversity assessment index of the Sinai Peninsula as the quantitative variety of geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features. Some geodiversity indices maps for the above features produced for Sinai Peninsula were based on the methodology presented by (Pereira et al, 2012), it depends upon calculate of some geodiversity elements for overlay grid of the study area, which divided topographic, geological maps of the Sinai Peninsula with scale 1:500000 and satellite image (landsat 8, 27th October 2014, 12 bands, 30m). It divided into 743 squares (10x10 km), and some partial geodiversity indices such as geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil indices were calculated by counting the number of each element inside each square, then the overall geodiversity index map produced by calculate the total number of all indices inside each square, the geodiversity index map were classified into some gradual categories by using isolines: very low, low, medium, high and very high.

  15. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils

  16. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jernigan, Dann A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay Josephine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nissen, Mark R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lopez, Carlos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vermillion, Nancy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  17. Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The ?- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

  18. Iraqi refugees in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn Yoshikawa

    2007-01-01

    Egypt is host to an estimated 150,000 Iraqi refugees. Initiallyarriving with high hopes of resettlement, their resources arenow depleted, they are unable to work, their children are outof school and their community is fractured by divisions

  19. Development of the Qattara Project, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Nile, as a huge source of cheap hydroelectric energy, was fully exploited in Egypt upstream of Aswan in 1968 by the construction of the famous Aswan and High Dam Hydroelectric Complex. The growth of demand for electrical power is such that an additional large source of energy is required. The Qattara Project would offer not only an ideal source of low cost power production, but a vital boost for Egypt's national economy. The fundamental idea of the scheme is to channel Mediterranean Sea water into the Qattara Depression, using the difference in levels to produce hydroelectric power. The rate of discharge of sea water into the depression should be equivalent to the rate of evaporation from the lake surface. This situation will arise ten years after starting to fill the lake, when the water has reached a level of 60 m below sea level. The possibility of using PNE to excavate a Mediterranean Sea - Qattara Depression canal was first postulated by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Establishment in 1971. In 1973 a pre-feasibility study was prepared, based on preliminary site investigations performed during the period 1964-1965, namely geological and cartographic surveys, as well as on comparative economic evaluation of various solutions. The study showed clearly that the project including both base-load and peak-load hydroelectric power stations and using nuclear excavation of a canal between the sea and the depression offers a competitive solution for cheap power production. A subsequent feasibility study, which was started in 1975, investigates alternative ways of constructing the canal/tunnel system, using conventional tunnelling and PNE. For the nuclear solution, two cases are considered, one using unlimited yields and another with 150 kt maximum yield. A preliminary assessment of the effects of the explosion and costs of the nuclear component of the project are given. (author)

  20. Five offshore wind farms by EDF, GDF Suez and Iberdrola. France; Vijf offshore windparken door EDF, GDF Suez en Iberdrola. Frankrijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Leemreis, J. [TWA Netwerk, Paris (France)

    2012-02-15

    Five offshore wind farms are planned to be built off the Northwest coast of France. On 11 January 2012, three international consortia, led by the French businesses EDF EN (Energie Nouvelles), GDF Suez and the Spanish business Iberdrola, submitted their project proposals to this end. The French government highly values the contribution that offshore wind farms can make to the development of a new industrial sector. This would bring highly needed benefits to the French economy [Dutch] Voor de Noordwest-kust van Frankrijk moeten vijf offshore windparken komen. Op 11 januari 2012 hebben drie internationale consortia onder leiding van de Franse bedrijven EDF EN (Energies Nouvelles), GDF Suez en het Spaanse Iberdrola hun projectvoorstellen hiervoor ingediend. De Franse regering hecht veel waarde aan de bijdrage die offshore windparken kunnen leveren aan de ontwikkeling van een nieuwe industriele sector. De Franse economie zou dit goed kunnen gebruiken.

  1. Structural set-up of Southern Sinai and Gulf of Suez areas indicated by geophysical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rabeh

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the evaluation of the structural set-up of the southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez and western part of Gulf of Suez from magnetic, gravity, and seismic data. The utilised techniques including the Least Squares separation method suggest NW, NE, and E-W trends. The trend analysis shows north 35°-45° west, north 15°-25° east and E-W which may be related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea stresses.The Euler deconvolution illustrates that the area is highly affected by these trends. Depths range from 1 km to more than 3 km below sea level and its magnetic susceptibility ranges between 1 to 3 SI units. The 2.5D magnetic modelling and analytical signal techniques confirm the depths to the magnetic sources deduced by the Euler method, whereas the depth to the basement rocks ranges between 0 km to about 3 km indicating that it is subjected to strong tectonic activities. In addition, two seismic sections (EG-31 and MP-70, compiled by the Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation (EGPC, were interpreted together with a geologic cross section. The studied area may be divided into several major blocks along the Gulf of Suez area. It can be concluded that the sedimentary was affected by basement tectonics as revealed by the two seismic sections.

  2. Iraqi refugees in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Yoshikawa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is host to an estimated 150,000 Iraqi refugees. Initiallyarriving with high hopes of resettlement, their resources arenow depleted, they are unable to work, their children are outof school and their community is fractured by divisions

  3. Role of Lithology and Subsurface structures detected by potential field data in controlling the radioactive mineral accumulation at Natash area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shadia, Elkhodary; Taha, Rabeh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La zona de Wadi Natash se encuentra en la parte sur del desierto del este de Egipto. Tiene una gran importancia, ya que cuenta con gran acumulación de minerales radiactivos, como uranio, torio y potasio. En esta zona se llevó a cabo un estudio de potencial integrado, con el objetivo de localizar a p [...] rofundidades factibles cuerpos con susceptibilidad magnética suficiente para representar intrusiones magmáticas relacionadas con la radiactividad del lugar y delinear las estructuras del subsuelo que afectan la zona. Tanto los datos magnéticos y de Bouguer como los datos radiométricos se interpretaron rápidamente por la posición de la fuente y las profundidades. Lo anterior fue factible al utilizar la deconvolución de Euler y de Werner, además de técnicas de modelado en 3D. Los resultados deducidos del análisis de tendencias muestran que la tendencia de la falla principal que afecta a la zona tiene una dirección de NNW-SSE (Mar Rojo-Golfo hacia Suez) y atraviesa por el menos predominante NNE-SSW (El Golfo de Aqaba-dirección Mar Muerto) y por WnW-ese (sistema de falla Najd). Los organismos causantes fueron fotografiados a profundidades que van de 0,3 kilómetros hasta 1,5 km. Las profundidades a lo largo de las discontinuidades se deben a la presencia de la falla NNW-SSE y actúan como canales de paso para las soluciones hidrotermales. Puede afirmarse que las acumulaciones de minerales radiactivos fueron causadas por las soluciones hidrotermales ricas en minerales radiactivos como resultado de la intrusión volcánica Natash a las rocas graníticas. Los clásticos Qouseir y la piedra de la arena Nudian se vieron afectados por estas soluciones y muestran una respuesta positiva de los minerales radiactivos. Abstract in english Wadi Natash area is located in the southern part of the Eastern desert of Egypt. It has a great importance for containing accumulations from the radioactive minerals of Uranium, Thorium and Potassium. An integrated potential study was carried out on the study area with the aim of locating depths to [...] causative bodies with sufficient magnetic susceptibility that may represent magmatic intrusions with relation to the radioactivity location and delineate the subsurface structures affecting the area. Both magnetic and Bouguer data as well as radiometric data were interpreted rapidly for source positions and depths using Euler deconvolution, Werner deconvolution and 3D modeling techniques. The results deduced from the trend analyses show that the major fault trend affecting the area have NNW-SSE (Red Sea-Gulf of Suez trend) direction intersected by the less predominant NNE-SSW(The Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea trend) and WNW-ESE (Najd Fault System) fault trends. The causative bodies were imaged at depths ranging from 0.3 km to about 1.5 km. The depths along the interpreted profiles display discontinuities in potential field markers due to presence of the NNW-SSE fault trends act as pass channels for the hydrothermal solutions. It can be stated that the radioactive mineral accumulations were caused by the hydrothermal solutions rich with radioactive minerals as a result of intruding Natash volcanic to the granitic rocks. The Qouseir clastics and the Nudian sand stone were affected by these solutions and show a positive response for the radioactive minerals.

  4. Effects of salicylic acid elicitor against aphids on wheat and detection of infestation using infrared thermal imaging technique in Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Farag Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum sativum L. is one of the most important cereal crops in Egypt. Insect pests, such as aphids, are major threats in terms of yield reduction. Induced resistance in wheat using salicylic acid as a foliar application was tested on the farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University during 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Three wheat cultivars, Gemeza 9, Sakha 93 and Giza 168, were sprayed three times with two concentrations of salicylic acid (SA, 200 mg/l and 100 mg/l, after early detection of aphid infestation by infrared thermal imaging. The infrared thermal imaging technique is based on significant differences in surface temperature between infested and healthy leaves. Imaging data are digital, and a computer program can be used to detect infestation rapidly. The results showed that aphid infestation raised the temperature of infested leaves, compared to healthy leaves. The range temperature difference between maximum and minimum temperatures (At was 1.1 ºC in healthy leaves and 3.9 ºC in infected leaves. The results of SA application showed significant differences in the mean number of aphids and in reduction of infestation among treatments and cultivars. The higher of the two SA rates (200 mg/l gave higher efficacy in the three cultivars than the lower rate (100 mg/l over the five weeks of trial. The highest efficacy against aphids was reached one week after application (86.28% for Giza, 85.89% for Gemesa and 70.54% for Sakha. Moreover, SA treatment enhanced the wheat yield of all three cultivars, compared with control plants. The three cultivars (Giza, Gemesa and Sakha produced higher yields than the control when sprayed with 200 mg/l SA. Their grain yield was 2,491.5, 2,455.0, and 2,327.25 kg/feddan (1 fed = 0.42 ha, respectively. In conclusion, infrared thermal imaging can be employed in identification of infected leaves. Also, the application of SA on wheat induced plant resistance to aphids.

  5. Report on the supply costs of GDF Suez. CRE's expertise mission. September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors first propose an analysis of European practices in terms of regulated tariffs. They outlines that these tariffs have disappeared in most of the historic member countries, but are still present in new coming countries but with different practices, and that tax-excluded prices for households in France are greater than the European average. They show that the tariff formula in the public service contract 2010-2013 between the State and GDF Suez does not take some supply cost optimization possibilities into account. They discuss the fact that the market context is still characterized by a separation between market prices on the one hand, and gas prices defined in long term contracts on the other hand. They show GDF Suez supply diversification allows a cost optimization

  6. Transient deformations in the Suez-Sinai area from GPS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Riguzzi, F; Pietrantonio, G; Mahmoud, S M

    2005-01-01

    We analyze data from four GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2002 on a network of 11 sites in the Suez-Sinai, the area of collision between the African and the Arabian plates. This is the key area to understand how and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played between seismic and geodetic (long term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion (in terms of ITRF00 velocities) matches African plate motion (NNR-NUVEL-1A model). However, the baseline length variations show transient deformations in Sinai and across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of about 1.5 cm in five years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we worked under the hypothesis that a contribute may be due to post-seismic relaxation. Under this hypothesis, we compared the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occ...

  7. Some predicted peak ground motions for nuclear cratering explosions along the Qattara alignment in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some predicted peak free-field ground motions at shot depth for the nuclear explosive excavation of a canal in Egypt are summarized. Peak values of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and radial stress are presented as a function of slant range from the working point. Results from two-dimensional TENSOR cratering calculations are included. Fits to ground motion measurements in other media are also shown. This summary is intended to help specify engineering design requirements for detonating nuclear explosive salvos which are required to efficiently excavate the canal. It also should be useful in guiding estimates for gage response ranges in ground motion measurements

  8. Iraqi Refugees in Egypt: Legal Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    BADAWY, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the legal situation of Iraqi refugees and asylum-seekers in Egypt. Despite Egypt’s obligation to integrate refugees, several obstacles make such a process exceptionally difficult as far as Iraqi refugees are concerned. As the paper will reveal, while some of these obstacles are particular to the Egyptian legal system, others impediments concern the Iraqi community alone. The paper will also demonstrate that although Iraqis initially benefitted from Egypt’s hosp...

  9. Moving towards implementation of a clinical ethics consultation program in Egyptian liver transplant units

    OpenAIRE

    A H El-Elemi; G H El-Gazzaz

    2010-01-01

    A H El-Elemi1, G H El-Gazzaz21Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, 2Hepatobiliary and General Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAbstract: The high prevalence of chronic liver disease in Egypt has led to increasing numbers of patients with end-stage liver disease in need of liver transplantation. To date, cadaveric liver transplantation is not legal in Egypt. However, introducing living-donor liver transplantation seems appropriate for patients who need...

  10. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  11. Responding t o the Challenges of Breast Cancer in Egypt and Other Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt.

  12. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  13. Paleocene stratigraphy in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    The Egyptian Paleocene is widely distributed with vertical and lateral facies changes geographically separated and subject to different tectonic and sedimentary regimes. Five coeval facies associations of the Paleocene outcrops are identified and named from south to north: Garra El-Arbain, Nile Valley, Farafra, Sinai, and Southern Galala. Ten Paleocene third-order depositional sequences (Ds Da1 to Ds Th9) are tentatively distinguished in Egypt. These are bounded at their base and top by ten sequence boundaries (Eg.Da-1, Eg.Da-2, Eg.Da-3, Eg.Da-4, Eg.Da-5, Eg.Da-6, Eg.Se-7, Eg.Th.-8, Eg.Th.-9, and Eg.Eo-10). The relative ages and correlation of the Paleocene depositional sequences are based on planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. Comparison of identified Paleocene sequences in and outside Egypt are referred to eustatic sea-level changes and partly to regional tectonics events, which have caused hiatuses of variable durations and different configurations of Paleocene sedimentary regimes from place to place.

  14. Transect workshop held in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazangi, Muawia

    A workshop on the progress of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project in the Middle East and Africa (see maps) was held January 15-17 in Cairo, Egypt. (Transect plans in the region have been described in Eos, 69, p. 124). It was jointly organized and funded by the Egyptian National Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Lithosphere Program coordinating Committee CC-7 of GGT. A. Ashour of Cairo University, Egypt, chaired the workshop; the general secretary was S. Riad of Assiut University, Egypt, who was responsible for most of the organization, scheduling and implementation of the workshop.

  15. Current motion and short-term deformations in the Suez Sinai area from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguzzi, Federica; Pietrantonio, Grazia; Piersanti, Antonio; Mahmoud, Salah M.

    2006-07-01

    We analyze observations from eight GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2005 on a network of 13 sites in the Suez-Sinai area, where separation between the African and the Arabian plates takes place. This is the key area to understand if and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played by seismic and geodetic (long-term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion, in terms of ITRF00 velocities, matches the African plate motion defined by the NNR-NUVEL-1A model. The horizontal principal strain rate axes estimated separately in the Gulf of Suez area and in the northern Sinai vary from compression across the Gulf (-2.2 ± 1.2) × 10 -8 year -1 to NE extension (1.0 ± 1.5) × 10 -8 year -1 in the North, showing the presence of two distinct domains, so that in our opinion Sinai cannot be considered simply a unique rigid block. The analysis of GPS baseline length variations shows short-term deformations across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of more than 1 cm in 8 years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we work under the hypothesis that a contribute may be expected by post-seismic relaxation effects. Under this hypothesis, we compare the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occurred in the area, testing two different viscoelastic models. Our results show that the detected short-term deformations are better modeled for viscosity values of 10 18 Pa s in the lower crust and 10 20 Pa s in the asthenosphere. However, since the modeled post-seismic effect results modest and a certain amount of the detected deformation is not accounted for, we think that an improved modeling should take into account the lateral heterogeneities of crust and upper mantle structures.

  16. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution. This...... paper examines from a micro-perspective, the life of Egyptians resettled in the new lands. The first part of the paper provides an introduction to the discourses of land reclamation, to the policies of reclaimed land distribution, and to the background of the settlers. The second part is based on...... villages, and lack of good schools and other public services may cause families to split up. For some, however, resettlement in the new lands entails new social and economic possibilities. The paper concludes that while land reclamation may not be ecologically or economic sustainable, the new lands provide...

  17. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of... Marketing North America, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United... for five years as a power marketer using existing international transmission facilities. GSEMNA...

  18. Canals, Henry Jim Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Henry Jim Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  19. Canals, Yellowstone Feeder Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Yellowstone Feeder Canal'. Data by this publisher are often...

  20. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

  1. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath the continental rifting area of the Gulf of Suez from earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2016-02-01

    Suez rift is one of the active seismic zones in the northward continuation of the Red Sea, as indicated by recent earthquake records from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN). We present a new model of P and S wave velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Gulf of Suez and surrounding areas, including the northern portion of the Red Sea. Using the records from 94 seismic stations, we analyzed ~ 66,000 P and ~ 17,000 S wave arrival times from 9700 events. The travel time tomography inversion was performed using the iterative LOTOS code. The spatial resolutions of the derived models were assessed using several synthetic tests. The most prominent anomaly is a sharp high-velocity anomaly beneath the Red Sea, which is observed in both the P and S models at all depth intervals. We interpret this anomaly to be oceanic crust that was formed through extension associated with a dispersed system of spreading centers. Beneath the Gulf of Suez, the upper and middle crusts appear to be strongly heterogeneous and are dominated by low-velocity anomalies, indicative of the continental nature of the crusts. In contrast, at a depth of 30 km, we observe a prominent high-velocity anomaly along Gulf of Suez, which is interpreted to be the result of crustal thinning associated with extension between the Sinai block and the African Plate. The thickness of the crust beneath the rift is estimated to be approximately 25 km, whereas that in the surrounding areas appears to be 30-35 km. In the northwestern part of the area, we observe a low-velocity zone in the middle and lower crusts that coincide with intense seismicity and a well-developed system of recent faults on the surface. This region may mark a possible area of northward propagation of the Suez Rift zone.

  2. Spinal canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.)

  3. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  4. On Canal Surfaces in E³

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with the geometric properties of canal surfaces in E³. Further, the first and second fundamental form of canal surfaces are presented. By the use of the second fundamental form, the Gaussian and mean curvature of canal surfaces are obtained. Finally, the visualization of canal surfaces which their spine curves are unit circle and a straight line are presented.

  5. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  6. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  7. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  8. External auditory canal osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sente Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteomas are a slow growing benign neoplasm of unknown etiology very rarely involving the temporal bone. They develop in the external auditory canal on squamous sections, in the mastoid, middle and inner ear. By bone composition they are divided into spongious (osteoma spongiosum and compact osteomas (osteoma eburnum; by growth direction, into outward-growing (exosteoma and in inwardgrowing (endosteoma; into unilateral and bilateral; by size, into small and gigantic; by surface structure, into smooth and multilobular; by number, into solitary and multiple; into symmetrical and asymmetrical. The symptoms of intracanalicular osteomas are the result of auditory canal obstruction. Diagnosis is made based on case history, clinical examination, audiological processing and radiography (temporal bone CT scan, and confirmed by histopathological examination of the bone. In terms of differential diagnosis, they must be distinguished from exostoses, bone tissue proliferation and osteoid osteomata. The progress of the disease is prolonged, as they are slow growing, asymptomatic and benign tumours. Therapy is surgical only. Case Outline. The report presents the case of a 70-year old patient with the osteoma of the right external auditory canal. In our patient, the osteoma arose in the auditory canal, the most frequent localization; it was unilateral, solitary, multilobular and compact. It was discovered accidentally, during otoscopic examination. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of the temporal bone. We applied surgical therapy by retroauricular approach. The removed bone change was about 12 mm high, 13-14 mm deep and about 8 mm wide. Histopathological findings confirmed osteoma. Conclusion. Due to their slow growth, the rate of auditory canal osteomas develop asymptomatically for a long time without the characteristic clinical features. In most cases, they are discovered accidentally during otoscopic or radiographic examination. The method of choice in diagnosis is temporal bone CT scan. Therapy is surgical.

  9. 78 FR 10172 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ...Italy, Egypt, Panama, Jamaica, and Canada, on the one hand, and U.S. East Coast ports via the Panama and Suez canals, on the other hand, as well as ports and points served via such U.S. and foreign ports. Agreement No.:...

  10. Effects of Three Questioning Strategies on EFL Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

    This study investigated the effects of three classroom questioning strategies on the reading comprehension of learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Subjects were 86 first-year EFL students in the school of education of Suez Canal University (Egypt), randomly assigned to three treatment groups. The same instructor taught the three groups…

  11. Effect of Instruction in Story Grammar on the Narrative Writing of EFL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

    A study investigated the effects of explicit versus implicit instruction in story grammar on the narrative writing skills of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students at the university level. Subjects were 83 freshmen enrolled in English at the Faculty of Education at Suez Canal University (Egypt). The subjects were randomly assigned to…

  12. In-Service Education within Schools: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahawy, Bayoumi M.

    This paper prepared in the United States by a visiting faculty member of the Suez Canal University in Egypt, presents a comparative study that finds that school-based in-service training sessions, in which teachers learn within their own teaching environments, do much to encourage more teachers to adopt a more positive attitude to the…

  13. Cultural Considerations for Evaluation Consulting in the Egyptian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    Reflecting on his experiences as an evaluation consultant at the Suez Canal University Faculty of Medicine in Egypt the author discusses: (1) implications of the Egyptian political context; (2) adapting to the host culture; and (3) maintaining distance from one's own culture. Personal qualities to complement the recommended naturalistic methods…

  14. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  15. Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4?g/g and 0.032-0.17 ?g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 5 Vols. Annexes 6--10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Edward E.; Teagan, Peter; Little, Arthur D.; Kaplan, George; Kunze, Jay; Warchol, Edward J.

    1979-04-01

    Annex 6, which investigates the possible hydroelectric resources of Egypt, reveals that presently the only existing sites are on the upper Nile at the High and Aswan Dams. There are 8 sites on the Nile where it is practical to add hydroelectric generation and, of these, only 4 are feasible for immediate construction. There are also pumped-storage sites on the Nile and the Red Sea. There is also the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert which can be utilized for conventional, as well as pumped-storage generation, by bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea to the depression by canal or tunnel. The options were considered for construction of hydro plants to met the electric load growth of Egypt when other forms of energy supply would be integrated into a comprehensive supply pattern. In Annex 7, the prospective use of nuclear energy to meet Egypt's resources (uranium and thorium) to implement a nuclear energy program, and potential effects of the expanded use of nuclear energy are discussed. Annex 8 discusses solar energy (technology descriptions and impacts, solar thermal power, photovoltaics). Also wind power generation, biomass utilization, desalination, solar air conditioning and refrigeration, and cost of power from diesel engines are discussed. Annex 9 covers geothermal potentials in Egypt, discussing resources with temperatures above 180/sup 0/C; from 150 to 180/sup 0/C; from 100 to 150/sup 0/C; and with temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. Annex 10 discusses the electric power systems in Egypt. The following subjects are covered: existing electric power systems; electrical power facilities under construction or planned for construction by 1985; past and projected growth of electrical energy; distribution; and electrical power system projected from 1985 to 2000. (MCW)

  17. Aquaculture business opportunities in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rothuis, A.J.; Van Duijn, A.P.; Roem, A.J.; Ouwehand, A.; Pijl, W., van der; Rurangwa, E.

    2013-01-01

    Egyptian fish farming has witnessed a spectacular development resulting in an industry that is number 7 worldwide and number 2 in tilapia production. As such the industry is an important contributor to Egypt's economy as well as a major provider of cheap fish protein. However there are a number of developments that potentially could result in a stagnation or even collapse of the industry.

  18. Egypt air radioactive sources warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would like to give me this chance, of being here among famous scientists. I wish to thank the general director of cargo division, and the general manager of import for providing all facilities for me to be present at this scientific meeting. At this conference, I wish to explain the role played by egypt air (as public sector company) in the officiant of radiation physics. The atomic energy authority, ministry of health, and ministry of civil aviation; have provided instructions that were essentially required to complete the work of the national radioactive warehouse located in egypt air terminal in Cairo. Now the license for operating the store has been granted. Prior to constructing the warehouse, the radioactive sources were distributed among the foreign cargo terminals at Cairo airport, such as swiss air, air france, saudi arabia, the Ice stores, as well egypt Air. Cargo terminals. The control of radiation hazard was therefore difficult. The ministry of Civil aviation then issued a decree dictating the storage of all radioactive sources exclusively at the national store of egypt air. All foreign cargo terminals should transfer all imported radioactive sources to the national warehouse at Cairo air port. According to that decree. 6 figs, 2 tabs

  19. MAJOR PROJECTS THAT INFLUENCE WORLD TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1869, with the opening of the Suez Canal, world trade entered a new era of development. The commercial routes linking the Far East to the western countries were shortened considerably as compared to the maritime corridor around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal sealed the new deal in world trade, opening for business the shortest commercial routes around the world. After 145 years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal, world trade is on the eve of a new expansion. Two major projects: the expansion of both the Suez and Panama canals, planned to be completed in the next two years, will double their transit capacity. This paper does a comparative analysis of these two strategic projects, underlining the main benefits for Egypt, Panama and world trade, based on the available statistical data, reports and literature in the field.

  20. Canal Lock Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Blanton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project we determine the time needed for a pump to raise the water level in a canal lock in order for a boat to continue upstream. Using calculus methods and elementary physics, it was determined that it would take roughly 5 minutes for a single 60 horsepower pump to raise the water level the required 10 feet. We conclude that the lock is fairly efficient but offer some suggestions to increase the time efficiency of the lock system.

  1. Canal Lock Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Blanton

    2010-01-01

    In this project we determine the time needed for a pump to raise the water level in a canal lock in order for a boat to continue upstream. Using calculus methods and elementary physics, it was determined that it would take roughly 5 minutes for a single 60 horsepower pump to raise the water level the required 10 feet. We conclude that the lock is fairly efficient but offer some suggestions to increase the time efficiency of the lock system.

  2. Egypt's fundamentalists say condoms immoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S

    1995-06-01

    The first AIDS case in Egypt was reported almost 10 years ago, yet Egypt still does not have reliable statistics on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (officially, 513 HIV infections and 88 AIDS cases; more likely, 3000 and 10,000, respectively). HIV/AIDS bears a stigma. The government claims that every HIV-infected Egyptian acquired the infection through a blood transfusion while in the Gulf or through sexual intercourse in Europe. Cultural, social, and religious norms that discourage promiscuity may explain the low HIV/AIDS rate but these same taboos put women at risk by making it difficult for them to protect themselves. Islamic fundamentalist women reinforce the Islamic principle of forbidding sex education. They consider AIDS a plague of immoral Western society. They refuse to accept the fact that many men do not practice safer sex. These women consider condoms immoral. They think God will curse women who refuse to have sexual intercourse at their husbands' bidding. Many nongovernmental organizations consider an intensive education program as the only means to avert disaster. Egypt has yet to implement its model AIDS program. All hospitals in Cairo and some hospitals in rural areas have equipment to test for HIV. Surveillance systems have been limited to high risk groups. In Egypt, it is mandatory to test foreigners for HIV. Prisoners, prostitutes, homosexuals, and blood donors are tested randomly without their consent. Positive results are often reported to authorities before the persons learn their HIV status. A campaign for widespread sex education is the only action recommended so far. It includes a mass media component and community meetings and conferences. An Egyptian physician has found an anti-viral drug that stimulates the immune system, but his work does not receive much coverage outside Egypt. Egyptians need to tackle their cultural taboos about discussion of sex to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. PMID:12289036

  3. Hazards influencing coastal plains management along the Eastern stretch of the Gulf of Suez, using remote sensing and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M.H.; Abdel-Kader, O.H.; Kaiser, M F

    2007-01-01

    This research aims at to assess the impact of natural hazards on the human activities and development planning held along the eastern coastal stretch of the Gulf of Suez. Change detection technique was used in combined with geologic and topographic maps, GIS and field investigations to specify and categorize environmental hazards along the concerned area. This site is characterized by enormous natural resources, including hot vents in Hammam Faroun and Ayun Mousa, oil exploration and mineral ...

  4. El-Salam canal is a potential project reusing the Nile Delta drainage water for Sinai desert agriculture: Microbial and chemical water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. Othman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available More than 12 × 109 m3/year of Nile Delta drainage water is annually discharged into the Mediterranean Sea. El-Salam (peace canal, having a mixture of such drainage water and the Nile water (1:1 ratio, crosses the Suez canal eastward to the deserts of north Sinai. The suitability of the canal water for agriculture is reported here. Representative samples were obtained during two successive years to follow effects of seasonal and spatial distribution, along the first 55 km course in north Sinai, on the water load of total bacteria, bacterial indicators of pollution, and chemical and heavy metals contents. In general, the canal water is acceptable for irrigation, with much concern directed towards the chemical contents of total salts (EC, Na and K, as well as the trace elements Cd and Fe. Extending the canal course further than 30 km significantly lowered the fecal pollution rate to the permissible levels of drinking water. Results strongly emphasize the need for effective pre-treatment of the used drainage water resources prior mixing with the Nile water.

  5. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  6. Comparative Study of Canal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Umare

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available India is basically an agrarian country and crop-water is supplied through the system of canals. In conventional design of canal system, canals seepage losses are a big concern for an engineer. An approximate estimation of seepage under the un-lined canal is 7 Cumec per Million Square Meter & that of Lined Canal is 2.5 Cumec per Million Square Meter. To address the problem, Prof. P K Swamee has suggested an alternate design philosophy based on minimum seepage loss. Swamee presented simplified algebraic equations for computation of seepage loss for various sectioned canals, which accurately replace the cumbersome evaluation of complex integrals. Swamee, concluded that using these seepage loss equations and the general uniform flow equation canal can be designed for minimum seepage under the canal system. But, in India so far, only conventional design is adopted all over the state. The calculation of seepage is based on the thumb rule or the field observations done in the past for similar structures ; and to reduce the seepage losses, canal lining is adopted which involves the heavy cost of construction & maintenance as well. This approach does not suits to the present environmental conditions where scarcity of water has become the concern and is being felt by the entire world. In such situation, adaptability of Swamee’s approach needs to be examined. This paper studies the comparison of the design philosophy suggested by Prof. P K Swamee with conventional design philosophy adopted by government agencies in tropical country like India.

  7. Solar-hydrogen energy system for Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for a solar-hydrogen energy system for Egypt has been developed by obtaining relationships for and between the main energy and energy related parameters. The magnitude and trends of the parameters, with and without hydrogen introduction, have been investigated over a period of time. The results indicate that the fossil fuel resources in Egypt could be exhausted within one to two decades. They also indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would extend the availability of fossil fuel resources, reduce pollution, and establish a permanent energy system for Egypt. They show that Egypt could become an exporter of hydrogen. (author)

  8. 3 FIELD SQUADRON, SAEC (PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Van Zyl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1884 when Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal became a member of the French Academy, he was welcomed by Ernest Renan. In his speech Renan remarked that not only had two inland seas been connected, but the site of a future battlefield had been marked. During the Second World War his prediction came true when control of the Middle East became of utmost importance for the continuation of the Allied war effort: the economic blockade of Europe and the defence of Allied oil supplies depended on the Allies retaining Egypt and control of the Suez Canal.

  9. Remote sensing, planform, and facies analysis of the Plain of Tineh, Egypt for the remains of the defunct Pelusiac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, Jessica; Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Zalat, Abdel-Fattah A.

    2013-11-01

    The Pelusiac Branch was a distributary river in the Nile Delta that splits off from the main trunk of the Nile River as it flowed toward the Mediterranean. At approximately 25 A.D., it was chocked by sand and silt deposits from prograding beach accretion processes. The lower course of the river and its bifurcation point from the trunk of the Nile have been hypothesized based on ancient texts and maps, as well as previous research, but results have been inconsistent. Previous studies partly mapped the lower course of the Pelusiac River in the Plain of Tineh, east of the Suez Canal, but rapid urbanization related to the inauguration of the Peace Canal mega-irrigation project has covered any trace of the linear feature reported by these previous studies. The present study used multispectral remote sensing data of GeoEYE-1 and Landsat-TM to locate and accurately map the course of the defunct Pelusiac River within the Plain of Tineh. Remote sensing analysis identified a linear feature that is 135 m wide at its maximum and approximately 13 km long. It extends from the Pelusium ruins to the Suez Canal, just north of the Peace Canal. This remotely located linear feature corresponds to the path of the Pelusiac River during Roman times. Planform geomorphology was applied to determine the hydrological regime and paleodischarge of the river prior to becoming defunct. Planform analysis derived a bankfull paleodischarge value of ~ 5700 m3 s- 1 and an average discharge of 650 m3 s- 1, using the reach average for the interpreted Pelusiac River. The derived values show a river distributary similar in discharge to the modern dammed Damietta river. Field work completed in April of 2012 derived four sedimentary lithofacies of the upper formation on the plain that included pro-delta, delta-front and delta-plain depositional environments. Diatom and fossil mollusk samples were also identified that support coastal beach and lagoonal environments of deposition. Measured section columns and a shoreline parallel transect were also constructed to portray the paleogeography of the Mediterranean coastline in the Plain of Tineh at ~ 25 A.D. and indicate that the sampled study area is the downdrift margin of an asymmetric delta with barrier lagoon systems.

  10. The Ten Plagues of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Wotton

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The ten Plagues of Egypt described in the Bible were central to the liberation of the Jewish people from the oppression of the Egyptians. The succession of disasters demoralised the Egyptians and were seen as a victory for Jewish monotheistic beliefs. In this essay, natural explanations for most of the Plagues are proposed and a chronology of events is provided. Could the mythological explanation of these arguably natural phenomena still have a profound influence on the modern world?

  11. Mesozoic Igneous Activity In Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Meneisy, M. Y. [???? ???? ?????

    1986-01-01

    A geochronological sequence of the main phases of igneous activity in Egypt during the Mesozoic is presented in this paper. This is essentially based on scrutinized isotopic age data. New K / Ar ages are also included. Three main phases are outlined: 1. Early Triassic- Late Permian (230 ± 10 Ma). 2. Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous (140 ± lOMa). 3. Late Cretaceous (90 * lOMa). An attempt is made to relate these phases with tectonic events.

  12. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  13. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  14. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  15. The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

  16. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  17. Egypt Post Success Story: Distinguished Services Made Possible with ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Amr Badr-El-Din

    2013-01-01

    Without exaggeration, Egypt Post (EP) is the oldest and most honored governmental institute in Egypt. Its headquarters, located in Ataba Square in downtown Cairo, is considered a central and prominent place in Cairo and Egypt. Khedive Ismail unveiled the inauguration of the headquarters officially.However, sometime within its lifespan until 2005, Egypt Post (EP) was considered one of the worst governmental institutes in Egypt from a quality of service point of view. In addition, EP had not be...

  18. Infraorbital canal bilaterally replaced by a lateroantral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; S?ndulescu, M; Ilie, O C

    2015-11-01

    The infraorbital canal (IOC) normally courses above the maxillary sinus in the orbit floor. During a retrospective study of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, we found a previously unknown variant of the IOC. The IOCs were absent, being replaced by lateroantral canals coursing around and not above the maxillary sinus to open at infraorbital foramina which were located above the second upper premolar teeth. On coronal multiplanar reconstructions, the lateroantral canals were located anatomically at the outer limit of the zygomatic recess of each maxillary sinus, while the upper wall of the sinus was devoid of any canal. Such rare variant should be kept in mind by dental practitioners and surgeons, as it can determine modifications of common procedures. In this regard, the anatomy of maxilla, as well as mandible, should be evaluated in CBCT on a case-by-case basis. PMID:25823691

  19. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  20. The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

  1. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  2. The Kamil Crater in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, Luigi; Di Martino, Mario; El Barkooky, Ahmed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lethy, Ahmed; Urbini, Stefano; Nicolosi, Iacopo; Hafez, Mahfooz; Cordier, Carole; van Ginneken, Matthias; Zeoli, Antonio; Radwan, Ali M; El Khrepy, Sami; El Gabry, Mohamed; Gomaa, Mahomoud; Barakat, Aly A; Serra, Romano; El Sharkawi, Mohamed

    2010-08-13

    We report on the detection in southern Egypt of an impact crater 45 meters in diameter with a pristine rayed structure. Such pristine structures are typically observed on atmosphereless rocky or icy planetary bodies in the solar system. This feature and the association with an iron meteorite impactor and shock metamorphism provides a unique picture of small-scale hypervelocity impacts on Earth's crust. Contrary to current geophysical models, ground data indicate that iron meteorites with masses of the order of tens of tons can penetrate the atmosphere without substantial fragmentation. PMID:20651117

  3. Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oil spills detection. • Image enhancement techniques. • Aeromagnetic data processing and interpretation. -- Abstract: Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE–SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa–Hurghada coastal zone

  4. Pattern of irritable bowel syndrome and its impact on quality of life in primary health care center attendees, Suez governorate, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmajeed, Ahmed; Rabab, Mohamed A; Sliem, Hamdy A; Hebatallah, Nour Eldein

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common disorders diagnosed by gastroenterologists and a common cause of general practice visits. Although this disease is not life threatening, patients with IBS seem to be seriously affected in their everyday life. The study was designed to explore the pattern of IBS in clinical practice and the impact on the quality of life. Methods This is a case control descriptive study. 117 individuals were included in this study. Rome II cr...

  5. Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Mohamed A.; Emara, Ahmed M.

    2006-05-01

    Levels of the heavy metals Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) were determined in coastal water, sediments and soft tissues of the gastropod limpet, Patella caerulea, and the bivalve, Barbatus barbatus, from seven different stations in the western coast of the Gulf of Suez. The concentrations of heavy metals in water ranged between 3.37-4.78, 18.83-21.46, 2.75-3.17, 0.22-0.27, 0.99-1.21, 2.69-3.65, 3.75-4.56 ?g L - 1 and 23.82-32.78 mg g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The corresponding concentration values in the sediments were 8.65-12.16, 51.78-58.06, 36.52-42.15, 3.23-3.98, 9.03-12.75, 34.31-49.63, 3.28-4.56 and 64.20-70.22 ?g g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The highest accumulated metals were Fe, Zn and Mn in both P. caerulea and B. barbatus, while the lowest one was Cd. The accumulation of metals was more pronounced in P. caerulea than B. barbatus. The highest concentrations of all metals in water, sediments and mollusca were recorded at Adabiya harbour north of the Gulf, while the lowest concentrations were recorded at Gabal El-Zeit and Hurghada. Land based activities and ships awaiting berth are the main source of metal pollution in the northern part of the Gulf.

  6. Source parameters and moment tensor of the ML 4.6 earthquake of November 19, 2011, southwest Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gad-Elkareem Abdrabou; Omar, Khaled

    2014-06-01

    The southern part of the Gulf of Suez is one of the most seismically active areas in Egypt. On Saturday November 19, 2011 at 07:12:15 (GMT) an earthquake of ML 4.6 occurred in southwest Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. The quake has been felt at Sharm El-Sheikh city while no casualties were reported. The instrumental epicenter is located at 27.69°N and 34.06°E. Seismic moment is 1.47 E+22 dyne cm, corresponding to a moment magnitude Mw 4.1. Following a Brune model, the source radius is 101.36 m with an average dislocation of 0.015 cm and a 0.06 MPa stress drop. The source mechanism from a fault plane solution shows a normal fault, the actual fault plane is strike 358, dip 34 and rake -60, the computer code ISOLA is used. Twenty seven small and micro earthquakes (1.5 ? ML ? 4.2) were also recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) from the same region. We estimate the source parameters for these earthquakes using displacement spectra. The obtained source parameters include seismic moments of 2.77E+16-1.47E+22 dyne cm, stress drops of 0.0005-0.0617 MPa and relative displacement of 0.0001-0.0152 cm.

  7. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each eye moving away from the SSCD ear. Stimuli that result in outward motion of the stapes footplate (such as negative pressure applied to the external ear canal) or that increase intracranial pressure (such ...

  8. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Kumar; Madhu,; Prashant,; Sreenivasa

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodo...

  9. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  10. The most common insect pollinator species on sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L. in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of insect pollinators associated with sesame, Sesamun indicum L. (Pedaliaceae was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. All different insect pollinators which found on the experimental site were collected for identification. Sampling was done once a week and three times a day. Three methods were used to collect and identify insects from the sesame plants (a sweep net, pitfall traps, digital camera and eye observation. A total of 29 insect species were collected and properly identified during the survey. Insect pollinators which recorded on the plants were divided into four groups, 18 belonged to Hymenoptera, 7 to Diptera, 3 to Lepidoptera and one to Coleoptera. Results revealed that Honybee, Apis mellifera was the most dominant species in the 2011 season and the second one in the 2012 season. Whereas small carpenter bee, Ceratina tarsata was the most dominant species in the 2012 season and the second one in the 2011 season. The percentage of Hymenoptera was higher in the two studied seasons by 90.94% and 89.59%, followed by Diptera by 3.93% and 5.38%, then Lepidoptera by 3.58% and 3.62, and in the last Coleoptera by 1.53% and 1.39%, respectively.

  11. Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 2--Patterns of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, F; el-Emam, M; Abdel Kader, A; el-Din, A S; el-Hommossany, K; Shiff, C

    1999-08-01

    The distribution, abundance and seasonality of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were studied for 2 years (1992-1994) in two newly reclaimed areas, namely El Manayef and El-Morra areas located on both sides of Suez Canal near Ismailia City. The results confirm the occurrence of transmission of both Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium since infected snails of both species were recovered in these areas. This consequently proves that reclamation of parts of the desert utilizing Nile water had led to spread of schistosomiasis to these areas. Analysis of the data shows that the infected snails, especially B. alexandrina, were found clustered in a relatively few numbers of transmission sites and furthermore the greater majority of these sites were found located within a less number of transmission foci. This pattern of focality is clearly demonstrated by Geographical Information System (GIS) produced maps. Infected B. alexandrina snails fluctuated seasonally showing 2 peaks, a minor peak in August and a higher one in November. Only one peak of infected B. truncatus was recognized in July. PMID:10605512

  12. Water Resources Management: Alarming Crisis for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Randa El Bedawy

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most important inputs for economic development and sustainable development; as the demandincreases, so too does the importance of water. The future looks miserable if Egypt does not succeed in formulatingand implementing water resources management approach which can match the limited freshwater supply with theincreasing demand. This study intended to shed the light on the future water status in Egypt based on the currentstatus of the available water resources, the water d...

  13. Clean waste management: Egypt's way to sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Elnokaly, Amira; Elseragy, Ahmed; Elgebaly, Ingy

    2007-01-01

    Today Egypt is in an enormous energy conflict; it faces choices about what energy sources it will use in the future. Conventional fuels are becoming increasingly expensive and there is recognition that these fuel resources are finite. Some estimates indicate that native natural gas and oil reserves, on which Egypt's electricity generation currently relies, will run out in about 30 or 40 years, making the transition to alternative energy sources a pressing need to avoid stagnant economic devel...

  14. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoono...

  15. Distribution of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia thurstoni Herdman, 1890 (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) along Suez Canal and Egyptian Red Sea coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

    2008-01-01

    Ecteinascidia thurstoni is a colonial sea squirt. It has a seasonal rhythm and a tropicaland subtropical distribution; it is usually present during the summer months.It synthesizes a group of molecules called ecteinascidins. One of these is ET-743, a compound that has a most original anti-tumoral activity and is today considered to be one of the most promising substances effective against various solid-type tumors (currently sold under the trade name of Yondelis for the treatment of sarcomas ...

  16. Nuclear desalination in Egypt: activities and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of freshwater resources in Egypt is the River Nile. The Egyptian share of the Nile water was limited to 55.5x109 m3/year in the Nile Water Treaty concluded with Sudan in 1959. Due to the rapid population growth, the annual per capita freshwater resources declined from 2560 m3 in 1955 to 970 m3 in 1995. Consequently, desalination plants of various sizes and technologies have been introduced to Egypt in the past three decades. The Egyptian desalination inventory increased from less than 2000 m3/day in 1970 to almost 175000 m3/day in 1997, of which 54% was seawater desalination. The energy-intensive seawater desalination technologies are expected to play an increasing role in mitigating future potable water deficit in Egypt. Egypt has been considering for a number of years the introduction of nuclear energy to meet the combined challenge of increasing electricity and water demand on one hand and the limited primary energy and water resources on the other hand. In this regard, Egypt has been carrying a number of national, regional and international activities. This paper presents an overview of the Egyptian activities in the field of nuclear desalination including, feasibility studies and Research and Development activities. The results of recent studies are presented regarding: quantification of seawater desalination market in Egypt and preliminary economic assessment of potable water production by various combinations of energy sources and desalination processes proposed for El-Dabaa site. (author)

  17. 75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco Mission Description The U.S. Department...in Egypt (Cairo and Alexandria) and Morocco (Casablanca and Tangier), March 25...order to identify supplier contacts. Morocco Morocco is the only African country...

  18. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S; Peutzfeldt, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill s...

  19. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodontic complexity 1 . The need for some manner of root canal preparation pri or to root canal filling has long been recognized as an essential step in endodontic t reatment. Concepts concerning the role and purpose of this canal preparation, however, have differ ed remarkably at different times in the development of endodontics and in the hands of diffe rent practitioners 2

  20. Evolution of living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem Khalaf; Mahmoud El-Meteini; Talaat El-Sefi; Alaa F. Hamza; Galal El-Gazaz; Saleh, Saleh M.; Ibrahim Moustafa; Hesham Gad; Ayman Yosry; Ehab El-Hussainy; Medhat Khafaga; Amr Helmy

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To date, cadaveric organ donation is illegal in Egypt. Therefore, Egypt recently introduced living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), aiming to save those who are suffering from end stage liver disease. Herein, we study the evolution of LDLT in Egypt. METHODS In Egypt, between August 2001 and February 2004, we approached all centers performing LDLT through personal communication and sent a questionnaire to each center asking for limited information regarding their LDLT ex...

  1. The cancerous growths of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this monograph is development methods of early diagnostics and adequate treatment of different forms cancerous growths of anal canal. Was pose a problems: development the classification and staging of cancerous growths of anal canal, to study and describe in detail the clinical presentation of different forms cancerous growths of anal canal, to develop well-defined system of diagnostics of different forms cancerous growths of anal canal

  2. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to the... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade...

  3. Egypt Public Land Management Strategy : Volume 1. Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the Egypt Public Land Management Strategy is to provide the Government of Egypt (GOE) with practical and politically feasible policy recommendations to reform existing public land management policies and practices in the aim of improving the business climate in Egypt. This study is presented in two volumes: Volume one with the main policy note, supported by Volume two...

  4. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the N...

  5. Computed tomography of the thoracic canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 100. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th1, Th2 levels and round at Th3-Th10 and large oval at Th11, Th12. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (author)

  6. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  7. Root canal treatment of a mandibular second premolar with atypical canal pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Kararia, Nitin; Kararia, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    To present a unique case of mandibular second premolar with an atypical canal pattern. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology, appropriate assessment of the pulp chamber floor, and critical interpretation of radiographs are a prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. Mandibular premolars frequently exhibit variable and complex root canal morphology and are one of the most difficult cases to treat endodontically. These teeth may require skillful and special root canal preparation ...

  8. Radiopharmaceuticals production activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the field of nuclear medicine in Egypt have increased so rapidly in the last few years. At present, a large number of hospitals are utilizing these radioisotopic techniques for both diagnosis and treatment. The following production activities are taking place in the Egyptian Radioisotope Production laboratories. By utilizing the research reactor a large number of radioisotopes which find wide applications in nuclear medicine were produced, such as iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-24, potassium-42 and molybdenum-99 / technetium-99m generators. Gallium-67, indium-111 and iodine-123 will be produced locally after installation of the cyclotron at the end of 1998. A large number of Tc-99m based kits for diagnostic medical applications have been produced. Also, many radiopharmaceuticals labelled with iodine-131 were produced. The radioisotope production laboratory is able to supply many hospitals with the radioimmunoassay kits of the thyroid related hormones (T4, T3 and TSH). Research and development activities are taking place in the field of monoclonal antibodies and tumor markers with special consideration of AFP, CEA, PSA and ?hCG. (author)

  9. Iraqi Refugees in Egypt: Socio-Political Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ROMAN, Howaida

    2009-01-01

    (En) In the last two decades, Egypt has become host to many different kinds of migrants from both North and South. In the 1990s, Egypt witnessed a massive inflow from Africa, while the Iraqi migration began after the American-led invasion in 2003. This paper looks at the situation of Iraqi refugees in Egypt, and tackles; first, the causes of Iraqi migration in Egypt and trends within that migration; second, the living conditions of Iraqis in Egypt including the question of access to servic...

  10. The number and probability of canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Just, W; Konvalina, J; Just, Winfried; Shmulevich, Ilya; Konvalina, John

    2003-01-01

    Canalizing functions have important applications in physics and biology. For example, they represent a mechanism capable of stabilizing chaotic behavior in Boolean network models of discrete dynamical systems. When comparing the class of canalizing functions to other classes of functions with respect to their evolutionary plausibility as emergent control rules in genetic regulatory systems, it is informative to know the number of canalizing functions with a given number of input variables. This is also important in the context of using the class of canalizing functions as a constraint during the inference of genetic networks from gene expression data. To this end, we derive an exact formula for the number of canalizing Boolean functions of n variables. We also derive a formula for the probability that a random Boolean function is canalizing for any given bias p of taking the value 1. In addition, we consider the number and probability of Boolean functions that are canalizing for exactly k variables. Finally, ...

  11. Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt / Monitoramento de cistos parasitarios no cerebro de um rebanho de ovinos no Egito

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shehata, Anwar; Emad, Mahdy; Khalid Ali, El-Nesr; Khaled Mohamed, El-Dakhly; Adel, Shalaby; Tokuma, Yanai.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cistos cerebrais parasitários constituem um grande problema para o gado. Entre estes, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são predominantes. Aqui, um número total de 60 ovelhas obtidas em uma fazenda particular na província Suez, Egito, foram examinadas post-mortem para a detecção de cistos parasitários visív [...] eis e microscopicamente para detectar cistos de pequenas dimensões. A necropsia revelou cistos medindo entre 0,5-6,5 cm de diâmetro, preenchidos com um fluido transparente, contendo um grande número de protoscolices. Por conseguinte, os cistos foram identificados como o metacestóide Coenurus cerebralis. Entre as ovelhas examinadas, 11 animais (7 machos e 4 fêmeas) (18,3%) estavam infectados. A maior parte dos cistos estavam localizados nos hemisférios cerebrais, com números variando de um a três em ovinos infectados. O efeito da presença de cistos no tecido do cérebro foi avaliado. Histopatologicamente, pseudocistos de Toxoplasma gondii foram encontrados em dois animais sem reações inflamatórias detectáveis. Em conclusão, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são graves problemas parasitários que desempenham um papel significativo no manejo de ovelhas no Egito, como resultado do contacto íntimo dos animais com os cães e gatos, que desempenham um papel crítico no ciclo de vida desses parasitas. Abstract in english Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to dete [...] ct small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscolices. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites.

  12. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2007-01-01

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment. Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert imp...

  13. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the environment shapes the genome. PMID:21248857

  14. Comparison of health care financing arrangements in Egypt and Cuba: Lessons for health reform in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A Gericke

    2004-01-01

    Egypt and Cuba are both lower-middle income countries with a history of socialist rule and which have embarked on economic liberalisation since the 1990s. Health status in both countries is extremely different. While life expectancy of the Cuban population in all age-groups is similar to that of many high-income industrialised countries, health status in Egypt is relatively poor compared to countries with a similar national income and compared to regional comparators. Health care systems in b...

  15. Root canal treatment of a mandibular second premolar with atypical canal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kararia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To present a unique case of mandibular second premolar with an atypical canal pattern. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology, appropriate assessment of the pulp chamber floor, and critical interpretation of radiographs are a prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. Mandibular premolars frequently exhibit variable and complex root canal morphology and are one of the most difficult cases to treat endodontically. These teeth may require skillful and special root canal preparation and obturation techniques. This article reports an unusual case of a mandibular second premolar with atypical canal pattern that was successfully treated endodontically.

  16. Rochdale Canal cSAC

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This is the report on Habitats Directive, the Review of Consents Stage 1 and 2 by the Environment Agency of the Rochdale Canal cSAC. The Habitats Directive has the main aim to promote the maintenance of biodiversity by defining a common framework for the conservation of wild plants and animals and habitats of community interest. The Directive establishes a European ecological network known as "Natura 2000". The network comprises Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) and Special Protection Ar...

  17. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  18. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)

  19. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  20. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  1. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  2. Alexandrie: réhabilitation urbaine du quartier historique (Egypte)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabessa, Gaëlle; Skröder, Nermine

    2008-01-01

    Le quartier traité se situe sur la presqu'île, au Nord-Ouest de la ville d'Alexandrie, en Egypte. Il est délimité au sud par deux rues de souk et au nord par la plus grande mosquée de la ville. Malgré un patrimoine riche en histoire, mêlant des styles arc

  3. Egypt, Arab Republic : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade, Egypt made significant efforts to align corporate financial reporting requirements with the International Accounting Standards (IAS) and to close the compliance gap in both accounting and auditing practices. Consequently, important improvements have been achieved in accounting and disclosure requirements for the publicly traded companies and financial institutions a...

  4. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2007-01-01

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment. Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social relationships. Not only do the children grow up in a different physical context, they are also exposed to new norms, values and behaviour that influences their everyday life and shape their identity. Especially the change from living in large, extended families to living in nuclear families as well as women’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed’ countries

  5. Egypt : Gulf of Aqaba Environmental Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB); European Union

    2000-01-01

    The intensive development of tourism in the Gulf of Aqaba presents both an opportunity and a dilemma for Egypt. Intensive tourism, if left unmanaged, can inflict irreversible damage on coral reef and desert ecosystems and curtail the area's economic potential. Together with current projections for a rapid expansion of the tourism base in the Aqaba coast, degradation from mounting recreatio...

  6. Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld

    1998-04-01

    The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.

  7. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions and independent experts. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture and a full understanding of the energy industry and market in Egypt, the way they operate and their long-term perspectives

  8. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kassab SE; Al-Shafei AI; Salem AH; Otoom S

    2015-01-01

    Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Ahmad I Al-Shafei,2 Abdel Halim Salem,3 Sameer Otoom4 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 4Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), Busaiteen, Bahrain Purpose: Thi...

  9. Enhancement of Seed Yield and Its Components in Some Promising Sesame Lines Using Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. Against Soil-borne Fungal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. S. El-Bramawy; E. E. El-Sarag

    2012-01-01

    Biological control by Trichoderma spp. has been considered as a biocontrol agents to protect plants against diseases in several crops. Its environmentally friendly antagonists against plant pathogenic fungi, especially soil born fungi, compared with chemical control. Therefore, a pot experiment at the Experimental Plant Breeding Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt was conducted over two years (2009 and 2010) to study the possibility of enhancement the yield an...

  10. Comparison of minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy and conventional thyroidectomy: a single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gouda Mohamed El-labban

    2010-01-01

    Gouda Mohamed El-labbanDepartment of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAim: We aimed to test the hypothesis that minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) affords comparable safety and efficacy as open conventional surgery in patients with unilateral thyroid nodules or follicular lesions in terms of cosmetic results, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative pain, and hospital stay.Methods: A single-blinded randomized...

  11. Lecturing skills as predictors of tutoring skills in a problem-based medical curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Kassab SE; Hassan N; Abu-Hijleh MF; Sequeira RP

    2016-01-01

    Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Nahla Hassan,1 Marwan F Abu-Hijleh,2 Reginald P Sequeira3 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Purpose: Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL) programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. ...

  12. Nanomedicine for drug targeting: strategies beyond the enhanced permeability and retention effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nehoff H; Parayath NN; Domnanovich L; Taurin S; Greish K

    2014-01-01

    Hayley Nehoff,1 Neha N Parayath,1 Laura Domanovitch,1 Sebastien Taurin,1 Khaled Greish1,2 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt Abstract: The growing research interest in nanomedicine for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory-related pathologies is yielding encouraging results. Unfortunately, enthusiasm is tempered by the limited specificity of the enhanced permeabi...

  13. Subclinical atherosclerosis in obese adolescents with normal left ventricular function.

    OpenAIRE

    Amina M. Abdel-Wahab; Hoda A. Atwa; Azza Z. El-Eraky; Mohamed A. El-Aziz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of obesity on carotid intima media thickness and left ventricular (LV) mass in obese adolescents. METHODS The study included 52 obese adolescents (mean age 14.16+/-2.64 years) and 52 healthy adolescents who served as a control group (mean age 12+/-2.3 years), who were attended the outpatient clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. The study population was submitted for medical history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations ...

  14. Seabass and seabream market : situation and potential in Mediterranean Mahgreb countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Denis

    1996-01-01

    The five mediterranean Maghreb countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt) present similar natural characteristics which explain numerous observations about seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)and seabream (Sparus aurata) production and market. From the Atlantic coast to the Suez canal, if the coastline is not favourable to aquaculture, as safe moorings in sheltered bays are limited, several lagoons (300 000 ha) and brackishwater lakes (400 000 ha) are available. Traditionally, local consum...

  15. Genetic Control of Flowering Traits, Yield and its Components in Maize (Zea mays L.) at Different Sowing Dates

    OpenAIRE

    Manal Hefny

    2010-01-01

    The present research was designed to study the combining ability effects of 15 parents of maize (13 inbred lines and 2 testers) crossed in line x tester scheme and assessed for yield and its components. The genetic materials were evaluated using randomized complete block design with three replications in two sowing dates, June, 1 and July, 1 at the experimental farm of Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt in 2009 cropping season. Parents and crosses showed significant differences for all me...

  16. Triangular model integrating clinical teaching and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz A; Koshak E

    2014-01-01

    Adel Abdelaziz,1,2 Emad Koshak3 1Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt; 3Dean and Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indi...

  17. Integrating radiology vertically into an undergraduate medical education curriculum: a triphasic integration approach

    OpenAIRE

    Al Qahtani F; Abdelaziz A

    2014-01-01

    Fahd Al Qahtani,1 Adel Abdelaziz2,31Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 3Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAbstract: Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines ...

  18. Retinopathy and risk factors in diabetic patients from Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sisi A; Shawky N; El-Bab MF; Akhtar M

    2012-01-01

    Mohamed F El-Bab1, Nashaat Shawky2, Ali Al-Sisi3, Mohamed Akhtar31Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Faculty of Medicine, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, Egypt; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ohud Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by chronic and dangerous microvascular changes affecting most body systems, es...

  19. The Effect of Morphactin (Methyl 2-Chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate) on the Growth and Anatomical Features in Soybean (Glycine max (L). Merril) Cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser M. Awad; A-G.I.O. Baz; Mohamed M. Sakr; Ok, Yong Sik

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of morphactin, on the growth and anatomical features of soybean plants (Glycine max L. Merrill) cv. Crawford. Field experiments were conducted under different irrigation regimes (every 5 and 10 days) on soybeans (Glycine max L. Merril) that were planted in a newly reclaimed sandy soil at the Experimental Farm at Suez Canal University, Egypt during seasons of 1998 and 1999. Different concentrations of the morphactin (0, 50 and 200 mg L...

  20. Association of cluster of differentiation 36 gene variant rs1761667 (G>A) with metabolic syndrome in Egyptian adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayoumy, Nervana M; Mohamed M. El-Shabrawi; Hamdi H. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between cluster of differentiation (CD)36 gene variant rs1761667 (G>A) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Egyptian patients. METHODS This case-control study was conducted on MetS patients attending Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt from November 2010 to October 2011. Peripheral blood was collected from 100 patients and 100 healthy controls for DNA extraction. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) CD36 gene rs176166...

  1. Diversity of insect pollinators with reference to their impact on yield production of canola (Brassica napus L. in Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman M. Kamel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of insect pollinators and their impact on canola yield was conducted during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons. The study was carried out at an experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia. The results revealed that 21 species of insect pollinators belonging to 14 families under four orders visited canola flowers. The abundance of Hymenoptera insects reached the maximum of 67.90%, followed by Diptera 14.97%, Coleoptera 13.61%, then Lepidoptera 2.26% as average of both seasons. In open pollination, Colletes lacunatus had the maximum percent abundance in the two seasons (30.45 and 29.34%, respectively followed by Apis mellifera (12.34 and 17.73%, respectively, compared to other bees and different pollinators. Peaks of foraging activity of both C. lacunatus and A. mellifera were mainly observed from 1:00 to 3:00 pm and they corresponded to the number of flowering plants. Open pollination increased the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, weight of 1000 seeds, yield per plant, yield per feddan (1 fed = 0.42 ha and seed germination, compared to non-open pollination.

  2. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

  3. Tumors in the facial nerve canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Bumb, P.

    1986-11-01

    The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid.

  4. Tumors in the facial nerve canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

  5. Complicated canal morphology of mandibular first premolar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Vyapaka; Kumar, Janga Ravi; Mandava, Ramesh Babu; Rao, Subramanian Hari

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article was to report an unusual anatomic variation of mandibular first premolar, with one root and three distinct canals, which leave pulp chamber and merge short of apex to exit as two separate apical foramina. The incidence of three canals existing as two apical foramina has only been documented in the literature by a few case reports. To achieve successful endodontic treatment, the clinician has to identify the different canal configurations and treat them properly. PMID:26538977

  6. Mandibular second premolar with three canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandibular premolars often show aberrant anatomy varying from one to three canals. The incidence of occurrence of 3 canals has been recorded to be 0.46 - 0.5 %. We report a case of mandibular second premolar with 3 canals, which was initially diagnosed radiographically by shift cone technique and confirmed by clinical examination. The tooth was successfully obturated and restored. It remained asymptomatic at one month recall. (author)

  7. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-01-01

    Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital) lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spon...

  8. Surgical Approaches to the Hypoglossal Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Gabriel; Isaacson, Brandon; Yoshor, Daniel; Oghalai, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe and illustrate three distinct surgical approaches that permit exposure and resection of extradural, intradural, and transdural lesions involving the hypoglossal canal. Study design: Case series. Setting: University medical center. Patients: Four patients with lesions of the hypoglossal canal were reviewed to illustrate our philosophy when selecting a surgical approach to the hypoglossal canal. Interventions: Three separate surgical approaches were used to approach lesio...

  9. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its develop...

  10. Root Canal Treatment of a Maxillary Second Molar with Two Palatal Canals: a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, MohammadReza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Mirhadi, Hosein; Ghahramani, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    Careful understanding of internal anatomy of root canal system is crucial for successful endodontic treatment. The presence of two palatal canals in maxillary second molar is unusual but noteworthy as an aid to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This paper reported a case of a maxillary right second molar with two root canals in the palatal root. The root canal treatment and case management were also explained. PMID:26636127

  11. Comparison of the effect of five root canal preparation techniques on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheykhrezaee MS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many methods and techniques of canal preparation work well in large and relatively straight canals. However, in severely curved canals, the complexity increases markedly, and techniques rendering good results in usual cases may be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five root canal preparation techniques on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 100 simulated canal blocks with similar hardness were made from polyester. The degree of curvature was 45º with a radius of 2.55 mm and a straight part of 8mm. The blocks were prepared with five different techniques (20 canals in each group as follows: 1-Stepback 2- Passive step back 3- Balanced force using flex-R files 4- Balanced force using Ni-Ti hand instruments 5- Hybrid using a rotary Ni-Ti system (XtremRace. Digital photographs were taken from pre- and post instrumentation colored canals. Then images were superimposed and analyzed by an image editing software. The amount of removed material from the inner and outer canal walls was measured at five levels: 1-The canal orifice (O 2-The halfway between the orifice and the beginning of the curve (HO 3-The beginning of the curve (BC 4-The apex of the curve (AC and 5-The endpoint of preparation (EP. Additionally, the time of instrumentation, instrument failure and changes in working length were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Mean transportation was towards the outer aspect of the curve at the EP in all canals but there were no significant differences between the studied groups. At the BC point, all of the canals were transported towards the inner aspect of the curve and there were significant differences for both transportation values & direction among different groups. The highest amount of transportation was in step back and the lowest, in hybrid group. The highest transportation value was in step back and the lowest in balanced force group. Fractured and deformed instruments were observed in Flex-R files. The shortest canal preparation time was seen in XtremRace and the slowest, in Passive step back groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, changes in canal curvature were less with techniques using nickel titanium instruments and the fastest technique with least transportation was XtremRace.

  12. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  13. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  14. Footbridge over the Bruber canal

    OpenAIRE

    Sinanovi?, Adis

    2013-01-01

    The graduation thesis discusses the calculation and design of the footbridge over The Gruber Canal. The structure was designed by Jaša Sketelj, a graduate of the Faculty of Architecture. The bridge is designed as a steel space frame truss to which a concrete slab is attached, which gives an extra rigidity to the structure. Since the footbridge is very slender and light weight for the design of the footbridge the ultimate limit state is not critical, but serviceability limit state is. Pedes...

  15. Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia Adel Nakhla; Mohamed Galal Hassan; Salah El Haggar

    2013-01-01

    Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to the expected detrimental impacts on coastal zones, agriculture, water security as well as indirect social and health impacts. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although Egypt is a non-annex I country not requiring any specific emission reduction or limitation targets under the Kyoto protocol, its National plans have included mitigation measures to reduce its greenhouse gases. The...

  16. New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschkind, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

    El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como estas prácticas lingüisticas guardan una similitud visual y oral con las grabaciones de vídeo, de baja resolución, que se hacen con teléfonos móviles y que aparecen después en los blogs políticos. Todas estas nuevas prácticas revelan formas emergentes de acción política y de disidencia en el Egipto actual.

  17. Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sebaity DM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalia M El-Sebaity1, Wael Soliman1, Asmaa MA Soliman2, Ahmed M Fathalla11Department of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, EgyptPurpose: To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt.Methods: All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalmology Department of Assiut University between July 2009 and July 2010 were included in the study. The demographic data of all patients and characteristics of the injury events were determined. The initial visual acuity and final visual acuity after 3 months follow-up were recorded.Results: One hundred and fifty patients were included. The majority of injuries occurred in children aged 2–7 years (50.7%. There were 106 (70.7% boys and 44 (29.3% girls. The highest proportion of injuries occurred in the street (54.7% followed by the home (32.7%. Open globe injuries accounted for 67.3% of injuries, closed globe for 30.7%, and chemical injuries for 2%. The most common causes were wood, stones, missiles, and glass. LogMar best corrected visual acuity at 3 months follow-up was: 0–1 in 13.3%; <1–1.3 in 27.3%; <1.3–perception of light (PL in 56%; and no perception of light (NPL in 3.3%.Conclusions: Pediatric ocular trauma among patients referred to our tertiary ophthalmology referral center in Upper Egypt over a period of 1 year was 3.7%. Of these, 67.3% of cases had open globe injury, 30.7% had closed injury, and only 2% had chemical injury. In Upper Egypt, socioeconomic and sociocultural status, family negligence, and lack of supervision are important factors in pediatric eye injuries, as 92% of children were without adult supervision when the ocular trauma occurred. Nearly 86.6% of children with ocular trauma end up legally blind. Modification of these environmental risk factors is needed to decrease pediatric ocular morbidity.Keywords: ocular trauma, pediatric, epidemiology

  18. Connecting the national and the virtual: can Facebook activism remain relevant after Egypt’s January 25 uprising?

    OpenAIRE

    Iskander, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to ground the debate about the connection between social media and popular uprisings in the specific context of recent social and political trends in Egypt. This is crucial when attempting to draw conclusions about the factors and mechanisms that produced Egypt’s January 25, 2011, revolution and, more importantly, whether social media can contribute to building a new political culture to support the revolution. Although it took just 18 days of protests to forc...

  19. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  20. 33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the...

  1. CANAL AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION AT MSIDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new canal automation system, known as SACMAN (Software for Automating Canal MANagement), has been developed at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in cooperation with Automata, Inc. through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. SACMAN works with a commercial Supervisory Control And ...

  2. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  3. School effects on educational attainment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Menshawy

    2012-01-01

    Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data for Egypt in 2007, this paper examines the determinants and gender inequality of educational attainment (test scores in Mathematics and Science). The complicated structure of the data is carefully addressed during all stages of the analysis by employing plausible values and jackknife standard error technique to accommodate the measurement error of the dependant variable and the clustering of students in classes and schoo...

  4. Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

  5. Turkish and Malaysian experiences: Lessons for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rezeg, Ali Abo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Egyptian uprising was triggered on January 25, 2011 after thirty years of political and economic corruption through Mubarak?s administration. The thirst for development, political freedom, and social equality were the most significant factors behind thisuprising. There are widespread discussions on which developmental experience Egypt might adopt in the post-Mubarak era. Turkey and Malaysia are the two cases that are mostly referred to aspossible models for the Egyptian case. Th...

  6. Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nagwa R.A. Hussein; Sohir T. Hamed; Muhammed A. Zaki; Osman, Ahmed K.

    2012-01-01

    The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the ide...

  7. Geomorphology of the Nagada Region Upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Yehia, M. A. [???? ???? ????

    2003-01-01

    Detailed geomorphological study of the Nagada region, west of-the Nile enables us to better understand the main landfonns in this part of Upper Egypt. Six geomorphic features are recognized including: the Thebaid plateau; the Plateau footslopes; the Pliocene and Quaternary terraces; the Nile flood plain, the drainage pattern and" the Nile channel. The study provided more data on the Pliocene - Quaternary terraces. These terraces are important because they host many predynastic sites.

  8. Corruption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Ghalwash

    2014-01-01

    Based on a theoretical consideration of economic growth model, this study empirically investigates the direct and indirect impact of corruption on economic growth by incorporating the corruption index in the growth model in the case of Egypt. The model provides a simple theoretical framework in which the level of corruption as well as the effects of corruption on output variables; forging direct investments, government expenditure, openness and political instability are iden...

  9. Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which European and other Western powers have played a role. Occidentalisms are additionally found to be influenced by the ideological background from which the images are crafted. This is shown by a threef...

  10. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  11. Canal-centering ability: An endodontic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During instrumentation of the root canal, it is important to develop a continuously tapered form and to maintain the original shape and position of the apical foramen. However, the presence of curvatures may cause difficulty in root canal instrumentation. The ability to keep the instruments centered is essential to provide a correct enlargement, without excessive weakening of the root structure. Several studies have shown that Ni-Ti instruments remain significantly more centered and demonstrated less canal transportation than stainless steel files. Considerable research has been undertaken to understand the several factors related to an instrument?s canal-centering ability. In this article, we have discussed the influence of various parameters such as alloys used in the manufacture of instruments, instrument cross-section, taper, and have given tips on canal-centering ability.

  12. Características de los Canales Radiculares de Molares Temporales / Characteristics of Roots Canals of Deciduous Teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esther, Vaillard Jiménez; Enrique, Huitzil Muñoz; Loida, Castillo Domínguez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigacion fue identificar en los canales radiculares de la dentición temporal las variantes anatómicas de la cavidad dentaria pulpar. Se realizó un estudio clínico, descriptivo, transversal ex vivo, que analizó una muestra de 60 dientes temporales pertenecientes a niños mexic [...] anos aparentemente sanos, cuya extracción se indicó por motivos terapéuticos. Los dientes fueron almacenados en agua destilada y posteriormente diafanizados. La identificación de canales radiculares se realizó por un solo observador durante dos ocasiones (k= 0,7947). Los dientes unirradiculares presentaron 50% de canales simples y laterales, 25% secundarios y 25% deltas. Los molares maxilares presentaron un 8% de canales simples en cada raíz, mientras que los molares mandibulares un 29%. Canales secundarios, paralelos y recurrentes se observaron en el 33% de los molares. El 100% de las raíces distales de molares mandibulares presentaron canales reticulares. Las fusiones radiculares se presentan en el 88% de las molares mandibulares. La anatomía de los canales radiculares de la dentición temporal es altamente compleja. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify in roots canals of deciduous teeth anatomical variants in pulpar cavity. In a clinical, descriptive, cross sectional ex vivo study was analyzed a sample of 60 deciduous teeth of healthy Mexican children. Each tooth was conserved in distillated water and were tra [...] nsparency with a technic modified for deciduous teeth. Identifications of root canals was made twice by a lonely observant (k= 0.7947). Simple root teeth show 50% simple and lateral root canal, 25% secondary, 25% delta. Upper molars show 8% simple canal in each root. Lower molars 29%. Secondary root canals, parallel and recurrent were identified in 33% of cases. 100% of distal roots of lower molars have reticular canals. Root fusions are presents in 88% of lower molars. In conclusion, root canals anatomy of deciduous teeth is high complex.

  13. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. Rosalie, David.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que ac [...] tualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades Abstract in english The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are current [...] ly being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseases

  14. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. PMID:25239124

  15. Rinderpest surveillance in Egypt 1992/1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest control in Egypt has focussed for many years on the annual vaccination of all animals. In 1992 it was decided to vaccinate adult animals only twice and to cease vaccination of animals under the age of one year in an attempt to detect any circulating rinderpest virus. A national serological survey was undertaken to determine the level of immunity of cattle to rinderpest, linked with a serological and clinical survey of cattle and buffaloes under one year of age to determine if rinderpest virus was circulating in this population. At the same time a survey was undertaken of sheep and goats to determine if any serological evidence could be found of rinderpest virus in this group. The results show that levels of immunity in cattle are around 70% and in buffaloes around 50%. No substantive evidence could be found indicating the presence of rinderpest virus in cattle, buffalo, sheep or goats in Egypt. Based on the above it is appropriate that Egypt cease rinderpest vaccination and make the OIE declaration of provisional freedom from rinderpest. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  16. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosalie David

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are currently being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseasesComprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que actualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades

  17. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on water availability in the Nile Basin over the longer term. Depending on the GERD fill rate, short-term (e.g., within its first 5 years of operation) annual losses in Egyptian food production may peak briefly at 25 percent. Long-term (e.g., 15 to 30 year) cumulative losses in Egypt's food production may be less than 3 percent regardless of the fill rate, with the GERD having essentially no impact on projected annual food production in Egypt about 25 years after opening. For the quick fill rates, the short-term losses may be sufficient to create an important decrease in overall household health among the general population, which, along with other economic stressors and different strategies employed by the government, could lead to social unrest. Third, and perhaps most importantly, our modeling suggests that the GERD's effect on Egypt's food and water resources is small when compared to the effect of projected Egyptian population and economic growth (and the concomitant increase in water consumption). The latter dominating factors are exacerbated in the modeling by natural climate variability and may be further exacerbated by climate change. Our modeling suggests that these growth dynamics combine to create long-term water scarcity in Egypt, regardless of the Ethiopian project. All else being equal, filling strategies that employ slow fill rates for the GERD (e.g., 8 to 13 years) may mitigate the risks in future scenarios for Egypt somewhat, but no policy or action regarding the GERD is likely to significantly alleviate the projected water scarcity in Egypt's Nile Basin. However, general beliefs among the Egyptian populace regarding the GERD as a major contributing factor for scarcities in Egypt could make Ethiopia a scapegoat for Egyptian grievances -- contributing to social unrest in Egypt and generating undesirable (and unnecessary) tension between these two countries. Such tension could threaten the constructive relationships between Egypt and Ethiopia that are vital to maintaining stability and security within and between their respective regional spheres of influence, Middle East and North Africa, and the Horn of Africa.

  18. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  19. Environmental and Irradiation Effect on the Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Some Local Bacterial Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty eight bacterial isolates were isolated from The Suez Gulf sea water from the coast of the El-Nasr Petroleum Company on Suez Canal and formation water from overhead of an oil well in western desert of Egypt named (M68). Sixteen bacterial isolates were obtained from The Suez Gulf sea water. Twelve bacterial isolates were obtained from formation water (M68). The bacterial isolates were screened for bio surfactant production by using emulsification activity and haemolytic activity. The most potent two isolates N8 and S8 were selected according to three parameters; the ability of isolate to grow and produce surfactant on wide range of ph, temperature and salinity. The most promising bacterial isolates were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve their abilities for bio surfactant production which resulted in a passive effect on bio surfactant production

  20. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  1. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  2. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt April 14-16, 2013, published at 78 FR 7752, February 4, 2013. The effect of this... participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced that the...

  3. 78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, to... FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced that... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade...

  4. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  5. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, W.H.A.M., van den; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the improvement of food security in Egypt in general and the reduction of post-harvest losses in particular.

  6. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  7. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.; Badger, J.; Jørgensen, B.H.; Hasager, C.B.; Paulsen, U.S.; Hansen, O.F.; Enevoldsen, K.; Youssef, L.G.; Said, U.S.; Moussa, A.A. E.-S.; Mahmoud, M.A.; Yousef, A.E.S.; Awad, A.M.; Ahmed, M.A.-E.R.; Sayed,M.A.M.; Korany, M.H.; Tarad, M.A.-E.B.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity-producing wind turbine installations. The regional...... wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods...... is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The numerical wind atlas database, in combination...

  8. First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt (Cairo, Egypt, May 21, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gara, Chloe

    This document is comprised of the papers presented at the First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt in May 2001. Participating in the symposium were representatives from the World Bank, the Amsterdam Institute for International Development, the Children's Project, and the Academy for Educational Development. The symposium opened with an…

  9. The relapses of cancerous growths of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter of book authors give information about general comprehensions of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths, the classification of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths, frequency of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths, the diagnostics of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths and prophylaxis and treatment of relapses

  10. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živkovi? Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  11. A Root Canal Therapy on the Maxillary First Molar Tooth with Five Canals: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Erhan; Gundogar Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary first molar usually exhibits a radicular anatomy of three roots and three or four canals. However, different anatomic variations like extra number of roots and canals are possible. For a successful treatment, clinicians must have well equipment and a thorough knowledge of the external and internal anatomy of teeth and its variation. Using of CBCT may help to locate extra canals by giving a chance to clinicians to see the root canal anatomy in 3-D view. The aim of this study was to p...

  12. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

  13. Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Eric

    2008-01-01

    in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

  14. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and ? Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  15. Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asnaashari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the aforementioned articles indicate that this laser is effective in combination with a rinsing solution such as sodium hypochlorite.Results from studies including several types of the different Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in disinfecting canals showed that all wavelengths used in disinfection for different thicknesses of dentin were efficacious without damaging thermal effect. Considering that use of different lasers in canals can be accompanied with temperature increase which can sometimes lead to damages to teeth and surrounding tissues, thus the use of photochemical phenomenon for elimination of microorganisms have attracted attention of many researchers. Studies in this field imply the efficacy of this method in reducing canal bacterial count and recommend its use as an adjunctive after biomechanical preparation of canals. Results from performed studies show removal of intra canal debris and smear layer by different lasers and particularly the Erbium laser family. Furthermore various laser wavelengths, particularly of Diode and Nd:YAG lasers can be effective in reducing intra canal microbial count. Maximum effect is obtained when laser light is used in canals in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating substance in appropriate concentration. Therefore use of laser energy can improve success rate of root canal treatments.

  16. Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. Tassie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest. It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.

  17. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid agitation using a closely fitting instrument or by sonic or ultrasonic activation. This review highlights a way forward by understanding the physical processes involved through physical models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. (topical review)

  18. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  19. Framework for Bridges Maintenance in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Abd Elkhalek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approaches for bridges maintenance is proven to be inefficient as they lead to random way of spending maintenance budget and deteriorating bridge conditions. In many cases, maintenance activities are performed due to user complaints. The objective of this paper is to develop a practical and reliable framework to manage the maintenance and repair activities of Bridges network in Egypt considering performance and budget limits. The model solves an optimization problem that maximizes the average condition of the network given the limited budget using Genetic Algorithm (GA. The main tasks of the system are bridge inventory, condition assessment, deterioration using markov model, and maintenance optimization. The developed model takes into account multiple parameters including serviceability requirements, budget allocation, element importance on structural safety and serviceability, bridge impact on network, and traffic. A questionnaire is conducted to complete the research scope. The proposed model is implemented in software, which provides a friendly user interface. The results of the framework are multi – year maintenance plan for the entire network for up to five years. A case study is presented for validating and testing the model with Data collected from “General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport” in Egypt.

  20. Egypt's nuclear power programme: Economic and financial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypts' needs for electric power up to the year 2002 is assessed. The potential of different energy resources in Egypt is evaluated. The nuclear option is discussed from economic, social, and technological point of view. The special situation of Egypt as a developing country with weak infrastructure and limited qualified manpower is stressed. Advanced nuclear technology is discussed from the perspective of its appropriateness to the needs and conditions prevailing in developing countries. Some national and international resources to finance nuclear power projects were proposed and the potential of each was assessed. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  2. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  3. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental United...continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of...via the importation of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. DATES: Effective...

  4. Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

  5. Designing A Competency Framework For Logistics Executives: The Case Of The Ready-Made Garments Manufacturers In Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Zarka, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The ready-made garments (RMG) manufacturing industry in Egypt is one of the main industries that supports the Egyptian economy through exports? earnings. Egypt?s RMG exports are considerably less in quantity than other RMG exporting countries despite the advantages that Egypt has in terms of availability of high quality raw materials „cotton?, the geographical proximity to main RMG importers and duty free trade agreements. Among the factors found to affect the competitiveness of Egypt?s RMG e...

  6. Economic evaluation of radiation inhibition of potato sprouting in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reviews the status of potato cultivation in Egypt, annual production, local consumption and export volume during the period 1976-1978. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual crop loss due to sprouting, fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of potatoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of potatoes harvested in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of potatoes for sprouting inhibition has always been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Extensive studies have been carried out in Egypt since the 1960s to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated potatoes. Nevertheless, not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. This is the objective of the paper. (author)

  7. Policy aspects of electricity and the environment in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is facing many challenges, most of which stem from the high population growth rate. Efforts to improve the standard of living require substantive development of Egypt's economic, technical, community, electricity and energy infrastructures. Over the past three decades, the electric energy demand has increased more than 15 fold, requiring development of sound national electric energy policies based on rational use of indigenous resources which are, unfortunately, limited. Realization of such policies faces a number of economic and social constraints, all of which need great efforts to overcome. Environmental considerations within Egypt's electric energy policies are focusing more attention on the degradation in environmental conditions, which is in line with growing public concern about this issue, both locally and internationally. An alarming increase in pollution levels in the urban areas of Egypt has necessitated the creation of new laws to curb pollution of the air and the environment, in addition to adhering to strict standards for effluents from thermal power stations. (author)

  8. The Middle Paleolithic of Southern Baharyia Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Ji?í

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 42, - (2004), s. 227-241. ISSN 0323-1119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8001916 Keywords : Middle Paleolithic cummulative settlements * lithic workshop, episodic sites * Egypt Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  10. Contemporary diagnostic imaging of spinal canal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal canal tumors occur relatively rarely in comparison with intracranial mass lesions. Because of their unspecific clinical symptoms the imaging methods play fundamental role in diagnosis of these tumors. New imaging methods - computed tomography (CT) and especially magnetic resonance (MR) - the imaging procedure of choice in diagnosis of spinal canal tumors - markedly reduced the significance of the older ones, like plain X-ray films, myelography and angiography, which are used nowadays occasionally. MR should be performed as soon as possible in any patient in whom a spinal canal neoplastic pathology is clinically suspected. Very good results in evaluation of staging of neoplastic processes are obtained with positron emission tomography (PET). Biopsy of the tumor, which can be performed under CT guidance or in open MR units, makes possible the definitive diagnosis. According to the space of origin spinal canal tumors are divided into extradural, intradural extramedullary and intramedullary. The most frequent neoplasmatic lesions in the spinal canal, which can localize in each of the spaces mentioned above are metastases. The most uncommon are intramedullary tumors. Some lesions occupy two of neighbouring spaces, most often neurinomas, which as '' dumbbell '' tumors, involve extradural and intradural extramedullary spaces. (authors)

  11. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been much debate over the costs for trade, the costs for the environment, national and regional security concerns, as well as major concerns related to political and economic relations in the region. Therefore, one of the main purposes of this study is to contribute to the debate on the possible impact of the devel-opment of the Kra Canal on ASEAN’s regional relations. In particular, it proposes that the development of the Kra Canal could threaten regional solidarity as it would physically divide maritime Southeast Asia from main-land Southeast Asia, which would ultimately result in an economic, cultural and political divide of ASEAN itself.

  12. The Egyptian legislation for safe transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian legislation related the safe transport of radioactive materials, a licence is required for the transport, import and or export these materials. The licence is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the NCNSRC-AEA licence to handle/ transport radioactive materials/wastes have been developed according to the international and Egyptian legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or to refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Suez Canal, in the Egyptian regional waters, in the sea harbours or in the exclusive economic zones of Egypt according to the national and international regulations. (author)

  13. Geophysical Reservoir Evaluation of Obaiyed Field, Western Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdel-Fattah Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The Obaiyed Gas Field is located in the Western Desert of Egypt, some 50 km south of the Mediterranean coast. It produces gas from the Upper Safa member of Khatatba Formation (Middle Jurassic). The Upper Safa reservoir has become an important exploration target in the Obaiyed field and has helped to revitalize exploration in the northwestern part of the Western Desert in Egypt. Therefore, the main purpose of this thesis is the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential of the Upper Safa reservoir th...

  14. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Carbonaceous Shale Deposits from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Temraz, Mostafa Gouda Mohamed Attia

    2005-01-01

    The present investigations focus on an integrated sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical evaluation of the carbonaceous shales from Egypt. The analysis of the black shales of the Ataqa Formation and the Safa Formation in both, Southern and Northern Sinai, indicate improved depositional environmental condititions during Carboniferous and Jurassic in Egypt. The dominance of detrital kaolinite, the enrichment in chemically immobile elements SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2 and high values of Chemic...

  15. The Egypt labor market panel survey: Introducing the 2012 round

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the 2012 round of the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS), a publicly-available nationally representative longitudinal household survey. We describe the key characteristics of the ELMPS, including the samples and questionnaires for each round. Additionally, we examine the attrition processes observed in the panel and discuss the creation of weights to correct for attrition. We compare our data to other statistical sources for Egypt to evaluate the sample's representa...

  16. Resistance to Mobile Banking Adoption in Egypt: A Cultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rehaballah Elbadrawy; Rasha Abdel Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Mobile banking (m-banking) faces various types of resistance that may hinder customers’ adoption inEgypt. This study identifies three groups of m-banking non-adopters, namely postponers, opponents andrejectors. The objective of the study is to explore the reasons for resisting m-banking services in Egypt andwhether it differs with regards to these customer groups. Accordingly, a questionnaire was distributed, Chisquare tests, Kruskal-Wallis H tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tes...

  17. Development And Climate Change In Egypt: Focus On Coastal Resources

    OpenAIRE

    El Raey, M.; Hagenstad, M.; Smith, J.; Agrawala, S.; van Aalst, M.; Conway, D.; Moehner, A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the integrated case study for Egypt carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Egypt are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities af...

  18. IMAGES OF EGYPT IN UNITED KINGDOM TOUR OPERATORS’ BROCHURES

    OpenAIRE

    Sabreen J. Abd El Jalil

    2010-01-01

    Tour operators and travel agents play a double role as distribution channels and image creators with tourist brochures playing an important role in the image creation process. This paper assesses tourist images of Egypt in the United Kingdom through content analysis of the brochures of United Kingdom tour operators using 35 image attributes which are rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Most of the brochures in the United Kingdom market present Egypt and its physical attractions - beaches, histo...

  19. Is Egypt Ready to Apply Inflation Targeting Regime?

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim L. AWAD

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to answer the question ‘Is Egypt ready to apply IT regime? The researcher presumed that; a country is ready to apply IT regime once the prerequisites for IT regime are available. Comparing the current position of Egypt with some emerging market economies, the conclusions point to the following: (i) the CBE is not factually independent. Although the CBE has been granted legal independent instrument, the existence of the government representatives as voting members ...

  20. Development of practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, A. M. A.; Allam, Mohd. F.; Habil, E. S.; Metwally, A. M.; Ibrahiem, N. A.; Radwan, M.; El-Gaafary, M. M.; Afifi, A.; Gadallah, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Although hemodialysis is the main modaility of treatment of end-stage renal disease, no practice guidelines are available in Egypt. Applying international guidelines for hemodialysis would not be suitable or feasible, because of different health system and lack of resources. The aim of this project was the development of evidence- and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt. The Egyptian guidelines were adopted from the standards developed by The College of Phys...

  1. Influences of Ancient Egypt on architecture and ornament in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, John Aidan

    2012-01-01

    This work seeks to identify the forms and origins of Ancient Egyptian architecture and the complex historical progress which brought these to Scotland, identifying the affinities shared by both countries and their evolving role from their first arrival to the present day. The thesis follows Egypt’s first appearance in Scottish legend and its later influence, at the close of the 16th century, in the practices of organised Freemasonry, to be followed, from the second quarter of t...

  2. Factors affecting adoption of eHealth in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mekawie, Nermeen Magdi

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the factors that affect technology acceptance in the eHealth domain with regard to Egypt. It also focuses on the impact of the perceptions and attitudes of online privacy, due to the sensitivity of healthcare information, and trust, in addition to the other technology acceptance factors affecting acceptance of eHealth in Egypt. The aims of the research were to (i) understand the impact of general attitudes to online privacy and associated concerns on the accep...

  3. Seed Diversity among Certain Species of Caryophyllaceae in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Zareh

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, data are used to re-asses the relationships between certain weed species of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt. Seed diversity of fourteen species belonging to five genera of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. These genera are Dianthus, Vaccaria, Silene, Stellaria and Spergula. Macromorphological criteria concerned with vegetative and reproductive organs were investigated. NTSYS-pc program was used for an...

  4. Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Abouzeid, Abdel-Zaher M.; Abdel-Aziz M. Khalid

    2011-01-01

    This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies...

  5. Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture of thoracic spinal canal using a cadaver vertebra. EMI CT 5005 scanner was used and 13 mm thick slice of cadaver vertebra was obtained. After obtaining of CT picture, we made a same thick specimen of cadaver vertebra and compared CT picture to softex x-ray picture. The best condition of thoracic spinal canal by CT showed nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle of thoracic spinal cannal was permitted within 100 in measurement and in configuration. The precise location of being scanned was known by using different length of radiopaque catheter markers taped on a patient's back and comparing CT pictures to x-ray picture. Normal thoracic spinal canal was examined and we observed normal thoracic spinal configurations and confirmed that the ratio of frontal diameter to sagittal diameter had a pattern. (author)

  6. Interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patond K

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Opinion is still divided over a standard surgical procedure to decompress lumbar canal stenosis. Both, laminectomy with or without facetectomy and foraminotomy and interlaminar fenestration have been advocated. In the present communication interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis has been discussed. Sixteen consecutive patients (7 males and 9 females with clinical, neurological and radiological features of lumbar canal stenosis were treated by interlaminar (fenestration decompression. The age of onset of symptoms ranged between 22-57 years. Adjoining lamina around interlaminar space of involved segment along with ligamentum flavum and part of facet joint (undercutting facetectomy, extending laterally (foraminotomy were removed at single or multiple levels. Follow-up response (93.7% over a period of two and half years showed the results as good in 73.3% and fair in 26.7% of cases, with uniformly uneventful post-operative period.

  7. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  8. Bronze Age Acrobats : Denmark, Egypt, Crete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    2014-01-01

    A Danish eighteenth-century find of some bronze figurines tells the story of the practising of similar ritual performances across Bronze Age Europe from Egypt to Scandinavia. The Danish figurines, as well as Swedish rock carvings, show backwards-bending female acrobats doing backward handsprings. The exact same appearance is found on Egyptian depictions related to ceremonies and festivals.OnMinoan Crete backwards-bent acrobats are related to bull leaping and bull ceremonies. Despite local variations, backwards-bent acrobatic performances carried out by topless female actorswere part of the immaterial, ritual and cosmological exchange that characterized the second and early firstmillennium BC.Beliefs and ritual practices went hand in hand with the adoption of a series of elite items and an aristocratic lifestyle, thereby creating a unique and fascinating European Bronze Age.

  9. Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration. They were important to insure the acceptance and success of the proposed project that takes Egypt to a new era of environmental protection. (author)

  10. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  11. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt: an illustrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, M A; Ayman, M; Ashour, S; Hassanin, M M; Zeina, A A

    1995-03-01

    The detailed features of right sided endomyocardial fibrosis are described in 15 out of 10,000 consecutive patients who all had infection with Schistosoma mansoni and came from rural Egypt. Laboratory investigations, 12 lead electrocardiography, chest radiography, and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients. Cardiac catheterisation and angiography were performed in eight. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained from the right ventricles of two patients and pericardial biopsy specimens from two. Pericardiocentesis was performed in all patients. All patients were infected with S mansoni and had schistosomal hepatic fibrosis and ascites. Eleven had splenomegaly. All patients had raised cervical venous pressure with prominent Y descent and atrial fibrillation. Eosinophilia was notably absent. Echocardiography showed apical fibrosis in the right ventricle, obliteration of the ventricle, and moderate to massive exudative pericardial effusion in all patients. Calcification and fibrosis extended into the right ventricular outflow tracts in two patients. Huge right atrial thrombi occurred in five patients. Tricuspid regurgitation (grades I-II) was detected in 11 patients by Doppler ultrasonography. Haemodynamic and angiographic data confirmed the pure right sided restrictive pathophysiology. Pericardial biopsy specimens showed perivascular inflammatory infiltrates in two patients and a schistosomal granuloma in one. Endocardial biopsy specimens showed dense fibrosis with many fibroblasts. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt is unique in several aspects. It always affected only the right side of the heart. Calcification and fibrosis extended to the right ventricular outflow tract. Pericardial inflammatory reaction was present. The relation to schistosomiasis and the link to periportal hepatic fibrosis in these patients is intriguing. PMID:7727191

  12. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das soluções introduzidas no espaço peridural.

  13. CANALES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN Y COMPETITIVIDAD EN ARTESANÍAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la Paz Hernández Girón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se explica cómo la relación entre canales de distribución y competitividad se ve influenciada por variables contextuales como el tipo de negocio, su ubicación, su antigüedad y el tipo de producto, en un ambiente de negocio que vive la artesanía en tres estados de la República Mexicana: Oaxaca, Jalisco y Guanajuato. La teoría central se enmarca en la mercadotecnia y sus estrategias. Los canales de distribución, dentro de la mezcla de mercadotecnia, sobresalen porque la creciente competencia global hace más difícil entrar, controlar y mantenerse en cualquier mercado.

  14. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.

  15. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  16. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  17. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  18. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J; Hosker, Gordon L; Lose, Gunnar; Kiff, Edward S

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  19. Adaptive Predictive Controller Applied to an Open Water Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Rato, Luís; Salgueiro, Pedro; Lemos, João Miranda; Rijo, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns to the application of adaptive control to a large scale water canal experimental plant. Water canals are complex spatially distributed systems which aim at distributing water either for irrigating, or domestic, or industrial purposes. In this paper a predictive adaptive control algorithm (MUSMAR) is applied to a large scale experimental water canal prototype. The experimental facilities with a fully instrumented canal, a PLC network and a SCADA system, are br...

  20. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Kirilova; Snezhanka Topalova-Pirinska; Dimiter Kirov

    2014-01-01

    Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of ...

  1. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. ...

  2. Hydropower potential of the New York State barge canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A. S.; Brown, R. S.

    1980-09-01

    The physical characteristics of the canal system as it relates to hydropower development were studied. The hydropower potential of the canal system was determined, including an inventory of existing and proposed hydropower plants. The remaining unrealized potential of the canal system was evaluated. Various sites were selected for further investigation on the basis of the unrealized potential of the barge canal system. Preliminary estimates of the engineering and economic feasibility of developing hydropower at these sites were also studied.

  3. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Vol. 75, No. 109, USCG 2010-0139, appearing on page 32275 in the issue of..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim... Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal Regulations....

  4. 78 FR 20372 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for...

  5. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious...

  6. Displacement of endodontic instruments in inferior alveolar canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitasha Gandhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic instrument breakage is a common occurrence during root canal treatment but the displacement of the separated instrument into the inferior alveolar canal is rare and has never been reported. We hereby present an unusual case of displacement of a separated instrument in the inferior alveolar canal and its retrieval by a simple technique.

  7. Computed tomography of the thoracic canal. Experimental and clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-05-01

    Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 10/sup 0/. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th/sub 1/, Th/sub 2/ levels and round at Th/sub 3/-Th/sub 10/ and large oval at Th/sub 11/, Th/sub 12/. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis.

  8. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present.

  9. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present

  10. QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  12. LOVE CANAL MONITORING PROGRAM. VOLUME 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the prime contractor activities during the monitoring phase of the Love Canal project. Since GCA Corporation was only responsible for data collection, no analytical results appear in this report. The program involved a multifaceted sampling and analytical e...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  14. Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Sumayya; Nafis A Faruqi; Mohd Salahuddin Ansari; Farah Ghaus

    2011-01-01

    Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inheren...

  15. Root and canal morphology of Indian maxillary premolars by a modified root canal staining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subbarao, Chandana; Ahuja, Roshni; Subbarao, Chandragiri Venkata

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary first and second premolars in Indians by a modified canal staining and tooth clearing technique. Maxillary first (350) and second (350) premolars were collected, and the morphology and number of roots analyzed. After cleaning, the teeth were immersed in India ink and placed in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber at 0.6 MPa for 2 h. The teeth were then demineralized and cleared. Digital images of the teeth were examined under magnification to evaluate the number of root canals, root canal system configurations, number of apical foramina, and intercanal communications. Root canal configurations were identified based on Vertucci's classification and Gulabivala's additional classes. The most common root morphology of the first premolars was the classical two separate root morphology (a Caucasian trait) and that of the second premolars was a single-root morphology (a Mongoloid trait), though other morphologies such as singlerooted first premolars and three-rooted first and second premolars were also identified. A "radiculous" first premolar was identified in two samples. The buccal roots of the first premolar showed the maximum variation, the most common being type I (Vertucci's classification), followed by type IV. The highest incidence of intercanal communications was found in the single-rooted first premolars. All roots exhibiting type IV and V canal configurations showed two separate apical foramina, while additional type 2-3 canal configurations showed three separate apical foramina. The root number and morphology as well as the canal morphology of Indian maxillary premolars showed both Mongolian and Caucasian traits. PMID:21271321

  16. The role of judiciary in Egypt´s failed transition to democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    This essay illustrates the inter-institutional dynamics and the fundamental role a constitutional court can play in a transition, the challenges when the court is heavily involved or alternatively when it plays a more reserved role. The essay deals with the role that judges and more precisely the Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) of Egypt played in the transitional moment, i.e. from the aftermath of authoritarian regime of Hosni Mubarak to the current judicial activity under the mandate of Abdelfatah al Sisi. The first section is an analysis of the conceptualization of transitions and transitology, the time interlude between two different political regimes. The section also provides a definition of post-revolutionary transitional moments as “constitutional moments” and the legal and political implications that this characterisation implies in terms of political governance and stability. The distinct nature of a transitional period is characterized by a legal and political uncertainty that places judges as guardians of constitutionalism and human rights in an uncharacteristic position. Because of this concrete casuistry, the dilemma between judicial activism and judicial restraint and the repercussion of judicial activity in transitional periods seem to be more transcendent. The second section explores the specific nature of the judiciary in Egypt in three different stages, based on a limited independence under Mubarak, an open conflict against Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood and connivance and co-participation with Sisi´s legal and political repression. The third section explores the political role and activism that the SCC has been playing in Egypt since its creation in 1979, even though constitutional control was established since 1969 by the Supreme Court. In the conclusion, the essay advocates for judicial restraint in transitional periods as a way to safeguard the transition and preserve some legal certainty and stability. A temporal restraint that as the period of transition has a term of expiration, once the transition is over the judiciary may be an active guardian of constitutionalism and human rights.

  17. Comparison of canal transportation in simulated curved canals prepared with ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Brenda Leite; Pires, Frederico; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Neves, Aline Almeida; Souza, Erick Miranda; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Maillefer) in maintaining the original profile of root canal anatomy. For that, ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer) was used as reference techniques for comparison. Materials and Methods Twenty simulated curved canals manufactured in clear resin blocks were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n = 10) according to the system used for canal instrumentation: PTU and PTG groups, upto F2 files (25/0.08). Color stereomicroscopic images from each block were taken exactly at the same position before and after instrumentation. All image processing and data analysis were performed with an open source program (FIJI). Evaluation of canal transportation was obtained for two independent canal regions: straight and curved levels. Student's t test was used with a cut-off for significance set at α = 5%. Results Instrumentation systems significantly influenced canal transportation (p < 0.0001). A significant interaction between instrumentation system and root canal level (p < 0.0001) was found. PTU and PTG systems produced similar canal transportation at the straight part, while PTG system resulted in lower canal transportation than PTU system at the curved part. Canal transportation was higher at the curved canal portion (p < 0.0001). Conclusions PTG system produced overall less canal transportation in the curved portion when compared to PTU system. PMID:26877984

  18. Morphology of root canals in adult premolar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózy?o, T K; Miazek, M; Rózy?o-Kalinowska, I; Burdan, F

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the morphology of root canals in premolar teeth with completely formed root apices. The material consisted of 139 extracted premolar teeth, including 83 first premolars (59.7%) and 56 second premolars (40.3%). Maxillary teeth made up 64% of the material and mandibular teeth 36%. In order to measure the actual root canal length an endodontic instrument was inserted into the root canal (in teeth with a single root canal this was instrument no. 25 and in teeth with two or three root canals no. 20) until its tip was visible in the anatomical foramen. The silicone limit was fixed at a reference point on the dental crown, and after removal of the instrument the real length was read using an endodontic ruler. The results were presented using descriptive statistical measures (mean, maximum, minimum, median value and quartiles). In order to compare mean values of root canal lengths the z test was used. Of the first maxillary premolars, 91% had two root canals and 9% had three root canals. As far as the second upper premolars are concerned, 14.7% were teeth with single root canals while as many as 85.3% were teeth with two root canals. The majority of the first lower premolars (89.3%) had one root canal and 10.7% of these teeth had two root canals. Most of the second lower premolars (68.2%) had a single root canal, while the remaining 31.8% had two root canals. None of the mandibular premolars examined had three root canals. PMID:19085869

  19. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  20. The Role of the Judiciary in Egypt´s Failed Transition to Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    This essay illustrates the inter-institutional dynamics and the fundamental role a constitutional court can play in a transition, the challenges when the court is heavily involved or alternatively when it plays a more reserved role. The essay deals with the role that judges and more precisely the...... repercussion of judicial activity in transitional periods seem to be more transcendent. The second section explores the specific nature of the judiciary in Egypt in three different stages, based on a limited independence under Mubarak, an open conflict against Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood and connivance...

  1. 78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' AGENCY... pertaining to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The referenced notice is corrected here to include... of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  2. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt, I. Afforestation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the ...

  3. Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses / Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    , Sumayya; Nafis A, Faruqi; Mohd Salahuddin, Ansari; Farah, Ghaus.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los def [...] ectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V) sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M)). Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en todos los niveles. Las alturas de los primeros dos cuerpos vertebrales lumbares mostraron variabilidad en los grupos adyacentes. Lo mismo se observó en los tres siguientes, que crecieron constantemente con el crecimiento de los fetos. El canal sacro mostró un crecimiento variable en longitud en los diferentes grupos. El crecimiento constante en la longitud y el diámetro del canal lumbar pueden ser utilizados para determinar la edad aproximada de los fetos por razones médico-legales. Abstract in english Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an [...] accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V) based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were analyzed by using Student's 't' test. Lumbar canal starts

  4. Root and Root Canal Morphology of Human Third Molar Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Shalavi, Sousan; Bandi, Shilpa; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-04-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on having comprehensive information regarding the root(s)/canal(s) anatomy. Dentists may have some complication in treatment of third molars because the difficulty in their access, their aberrant occlusal anatomy and different patterns of eruption. The aim of this review was to review and address the number of roots and root canals in third molars, prevalence of confluent canals in third molars, C-shaped canals, dilaceration and fusion in third molars, autotransplantation of third molars and endodontic treatment strategies for third molars. PMID:26067735

  5. Uranium resources and reserves in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resources and reserves of radioactive raw materials in Egypt include some conventional and nonconventional types discovered at some localities in the Eastern Desert, Sinai and the Western Desert. The conventional-type uranium and/or thorium include replacements in granitic rocks, and in alkaline dikes and sills. The nonconventional-types comprise marine phosphorites and black sand concentrations along the Mediterranean. Latent resource include some anomalous areas in carbonaceous shales, clays and phosphatized sandstones in the Western Desert. Some target areas are by now under development. In one locality some 3,000 tons of ore assayed at 0.108% U are proved through drilling and drifting. Marine phosphorites represent potential resources for uranium. The total estimated reserve and potential reserve of phosphatic rocks in Egypt amounts approximately to 2.5 billion tons. Assuming an average of 100 gm U3O8/ton, the above reserve contains as much as 250,000 tons U3O8. The economic potentiality of black sands with respect to uranium and thorium content must be viewed in terms of industrialization of the whole products coming out from black sands. Nevertheless, the estimated reserve of heavy minerals amounts to over 30 million tons in the top meter and over 600 million tons with 27% heavy minerals to a depth of 20 meters in the area of Damietta East, Rosetta East and West. Some other 42.6 million tons grading about 9% heavy minerals are proved to a depth of 20 meters east and west of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. Assuming an annual production of 12,000 tons monazite (this amount yields 54 tons U3O8, 720 tons Th O2 7,500 tons RE and 3,360 tons P2O5) and marketing of the other products coming out of black sands, it is estimated that the production cost of one pound. U3O8 amounts to $15 to $30. 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  7. Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  8. The electrical power equipment and services market in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a market overview of the electrical power equipment and services in Egypt and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Between 1997 and 2001, energy consumption in Egypt increased by 17 per cent. Electricity demand is expected to rise rapidly due to population and economic growth. Plans are underway to add 8,000 MW of installed energy capacity to Egypt's current 15,200 MW by 2010. Priority will be on providing universal access to electricity and reliability in rural areas. Egypt is also taking part in many international projects to link its electricity grid with nearby countries. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Recent legislation exempts foreign companies from corporation tax and from tax on income from movable capital for 5 to 10 years. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve electric power generation and transmission projects. Considerations for market-entry in Egypt were outlined. 29 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  10. Egypt's Policy Concerning Food Irradiation Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypt's policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  11. Mine detection in Egypt: Evaluation of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the central geographical location between Africa, Asia and Europe, Egypt was location for many battles. As a result of these battles, Egypt often cites a figure of twenty three million landmines and UXO emplaced in the country as a result of many wars since the World War II. The presence of such active mines caused many problems to Egypt. First, it obscures the development in the locations where it had been planted. Beside, many civilians and soldiers have been killed or maimed because of its unknown zones. Recently with the advances of geophysical techniques it becomes possible to use them in detecting landmines and UXO. Geoelectrical resistivity technique as a low cost, simple technique was used successfully to model the buried landmines and UXO objects in 2D. The technique was tested in Egypt using a newly adopted array of electrodes proposed by Kyushu University Mine Action Group (QMAG). The results are promising for future application using this tool in Egypt. Moreover, a new Advanced Landmine Imaging System (ALIS) developed at Tohoku University was also successfully evaluated at the Egyptian environment. The results show high efficiency for detecting both AP and AT mines. Accordingly, a new proposal for adopting both systems with robotic facility, to be applicable for wide area survey that can meet the Egyptian demand to solve the landmines problem there, is considered. (author)

  12. Assessment of Urban Sprawl on El Minya Archeological Sites, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. El-Bayomi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, thousands of known and unknown archaeological sites are at risk of destruction from urban sprawl and expanding development. Population growth is the main factor driven urban sprawl, Egypt’s population has witnessed a remarkable increase over the previous decades. The population rose from 35.3 million in 1970 to around 90 million today, doubling in less than 40 years. Hence, population issues are of the highest priority to the Government of Egypt. El Minya Governorate have a high population growth (i.e., 3.1% per year and hence the urban sprawl over the archeological sites in the desert fringes of the Nile valley is expected. Remote sensing and GIS are now providing new tools for advanced ecosystem management. The collection of remotely sensed data facilitates the synoptic analysis of earth’s system function patterning and change at local, regional and global scales. Overtime such data also provide an important link between intensive localized ecological research and regional, conservation and management of archeological areas. The basic premise in using remote sensing data and GIS for change detection is that the process can identify change between two or more dates that is uncharacteristic of normal variation. This research aims to assess the extent of urban sprawl and its impact on archeological sites in El Minya Governorate, Egypt.

  13. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  14. Atom Trap, Krypton-81, and Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    2003-10-01

    We are developing the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method for the analysis of two long-lived rare krypton isotopes, ^81Kr (t_1/2=2.3 × 10^5 years, I.A. ˜ 10-13) and ^85Kr (t_1/2=10.8 years, I.A. ˜ 10-11). ^81Kr analyses can be used to determine the ages of old ice and groundwater in a range (5 × 10^4 - 2 × 10^6 years) beyond the reach of radio-carbon dating; Analyses of ^85Kr , a fission product of uranium and plutonium, can serve as a means to help verify compliance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In ATTA, individual atoms of the desired isotope are selectively captured into a laser trap and detected by observing the fluorescence of trapped atoms. The first application of ATTA is dating the ancient groundwater of the Nubian Aquifer underneath the Western Desert of Egypt. This is one of the largest aquifers in the world. The residence time of its water are of great interest in fundamental geology as well as for utilitarian reasons. This work marks the beginning of a useful tool in Earth sciences. * This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Nuclear Physics, under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  15. Global perspectives--the Middle East: Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidaros, H

    2005-08-01

    The Middle East region is characterised by the grouping of 20 countries with similar cultural traditions and religious concepts. The majority of the population of this region follows the religion of Islam, which considers all animals as important as humans, and others follow Christianity and Judaism. The majority of people dealing with animals have their own religious concepts, but most countries have no clear enforced official animal welfare regulations. Animal welfare activities in the Middle East region, as in Egypt for example, are carried out by various individuals, non-governmental organisations and the official Veterinary Services. The slaughter of animals for human consumption is in accordance with Islamic rites, which is the least painful method for the animals. Extensive production systems are the predominant systems in the region, and it is not common for animals in the region to suffer stress during production processes or slaughter. Although some success has been achieved in the area of animal welfare, as seen in improvements in health care, the development of modern abattoirs with proper facilities, and the establishment of policies for combating stray dogs, there are still major constraints to the implementation of effective animal welfare measures, including those for wildlife. These constraints include the lack of finances and the absence of effective legislative measures to prevent the trapping and/or hunting of wild animals for pleasure or illegal trade. PMID:16358510

  16. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2015-11-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 uc(ad)) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  17. Implications of terrain movements in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mohamed M.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

  18. The prospective nuclear desalination market in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the unavoidable decline in the per capita share of the more or less constant natural fresh water resources in Egypt, water desalination is expected to play an increasing role in mitigating a future deficit in potable water supply, particularly in remote desert areas. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the evolution of potable water supply, demand and deficit, as well as the portion to be covered by sea water desalination. The future potable water supply was determined as the difference between the projected total renewable fresh water supply and the projected combined demand of the other consuming sectors. To project the future demand of potable water, the history of past consumption was studied and correlated with the population and gross domestic product. Three scenarios were contemplated for economic development, reflecting low, medium and high economic growth rates. The difference between potable water supply and demand is the deficit that has to be compensated for. Part of the future deficit may be covered through various means other than sea water desalination. Therefore, it was assumed that sea water desalination will cover only 10% of the deficit in potable water supply. It is concluded that there will be a demand for an additional desalination capacity of a sufficiently large magnitude around the year 2012 and beyond that will support the installation of desalination facilities larger than 100,000 m3/d. Desalination plants in this range coupled to nuclear power plants could be competitive with fossil fired plants. (author)

  19. Mandibular First and Second Molars with Three Mesial Canals: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminsobhani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canal system are mandatory for successful root canal treatment. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for the practitioner. The occurrence and location of the third mesial canal (Middle Mesial Canal in mandibular first and second molars in relation to other two mesial canals that were treated in private practice were studied. In 27 clinical cases, the presence of a middle mesial canal was demonstrated. The third canal was located in the middle of the distance between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals. This canal configuration was found in six second lower molars and twenty one first molars. Middle mesial canal in all of our cases joined to mesiobuccal or mesiolingual canals. None of the teeth consisted of three independent canals with three apical foramina. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth.

  20. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  1. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  2. Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance from the Hillsboro Canal pumping station and are the result of dilution by receiving canal waters.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  5. Sediment analysis of sewage contaminated canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediments of sewage contaminated Fuleli canal was sampled before and after addition of sewage for over 25 k.m. and analyzed for loss on ignition, pH, conductance, organic carbon, water soluble chloride, sulphate, carbonate, phosphates, Na, K, Ca and Mg. The sediments were also examined for total (Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, Zn, Pb, Co and Cd) and bioavailable (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) metal contents. The sediment showed alkaline character and contain wide rang of variation soluble salts. The major cations and total metal contents indicated following decreasing pattern Ca>Mg>Na>K; Fe>>Mn>Zn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Co>Cd. The bioavailability metal contents cross the save limits the for the use of sediments of contaminated portion of the canal for agriculture purposes. (author)

  6. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  7. No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance; N. 3017. Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete relative au projet de fusion entre Gaz de France et Suez, aux conditions de sa preparation et de son annonce et aux consequences de la privatisation de Gaz de France pour les usagers et l'equilibre du marche de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balligand, J.P.; Ayrault, J.M.; Hollande, F.; Besson, E.; Migaud, D.; Emmanuelli, H.; Brottes, F.; Bataille, Ch.; Ducout, P.; Gaubert, J.; Habib, D

    2006-04-15

    On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

  8. Variaciones Anatómicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo H Oporto V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interacción entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimático subyacente durante la Odontogénesis. La interacción anormal de estos tejidos podría resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupción de un diente anómalo, ectópico o con variación anatómica. El presente reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatómicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnóstico en los tres casos se efectuó por medio del análisis de radiografías. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos raíces y dos canales, el premolar maxilar presentó tres raíces y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este último, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitación. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatómicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologías que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicación de exámenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatómicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento.Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was performed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

  9. Variaciones Anatómicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales / Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo H, Oporto V; Ramón E, Fuentes F; Camila C, Soto P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interacción entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimático subyacente durante la Odontogénesis. La interacción anormal de estos tejidos podría resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupción de un diente anómalo, ectópico o con variación anatómica. El prese [...] nte reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatómicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnóstico en los tres casos se efectuó por medio del análisis de radiografías. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos raíces y dos canales, el premolar maxilar presentó tres raíces y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este último, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitación. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatómicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologías que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicación de exámenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatómicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento. Abstract in english Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report [...] shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was performed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  11. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter due to airborne particles washed out by rain events. Conversely, the AOD increases in summer because particle accumulation is favored by the absence of precipitation during this season. Moreover, in summer, photochemical processes in the atmosphere lead to slight increases in the values of aerosol optical characteristics, despite lower wind speeds [hence less wind-blown dust] relative to other seasons. This study has been conducted under the PEER 2-239 research project titled "the Impact of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Aerosols to Climate in Egypt". Project website: CleanAirEgypt.org

  12. Seed Diversity among Certain Species of Caryophyllaceae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Zareh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, data are used to re-asses the relationships between certain weed species of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt. Seed diversity of fourteen species belonging to five genera of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. These genera are Dianthus, Vaccaria, Silene, Stellaria and Spergula. Macromorphological criteria concerned with vegetative and reproductive organs were investigated. NTSYS-pc program was used for analyzing the data of seed and macromorphological characters. The taxonomic relationships between the studied taxa were discussed as well as SEM micrographs of seeds are provided.

  13. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  14. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, D J; Duncan, H F

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material 'entombs' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive 'monoblock' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:21779066

  15. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000. Median follow-up was 47 months (range, 2-148 months). Data on age, sex, symptoms, TNM status, histopathological diagnosis, surgery, adjunctive therapy, sequelae, recurrence, and status at follow-up were o...

  17. Anal canal plasmacytoma - An uncommon presentation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are rare plasma cell tumors that arise outside the bone marrow. They are most often located in the head and neck region, but may also occur in the other locations. The lower gastrointestinal EMP represents less than 5% of all cases, and location in the anal canal is exceedingly rare. Aim: We present an exceedingly rare case of anal canal plasmacytoma, aiming to achieve a better understanding of this rare entity. Methods: We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a bulky mass in the anal canal. The lesion measured about 6 cm and invaded in all layers of the anal canal wall. The biopsy was performed and revealed a round and plasmocitoid cell population with a solid growth pattern and necrosis. The tumoral cells have express CD79a and CD138 with lambda chains. There was no evidence of disease in other locations and these features were consistent with the diagnosis of an extra-osseous plasmacytoma. The patient was submitted to conformal radiotherapy 50.4 Gy total dose, 1.8 Gy per fraction. After 24 months, the patient is asymptomatic and the lesion has completely disappeared. Conclusions: EMP accounts for approximately 3% of plasma cell malignancies. The median age is about 60 years, and the majority of patients are male. The treatment of choice for extramedullary plasmacytoma is radiation therapy in a dosage of about 50 Gy. Patients should be followed-up for life with repeated bone marrow aspiration and protein studies to detect the development of multiple myeloma. (authors)

  18. Pleomorphic Adenoma of External Auditory Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Chadha, Snya; Pannu, Kulwant Kaur; Gill, Karamjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma comprises about 80% of the benign salivary gland tumours and is characterised by a slow growth and a clinically benign course. This tumour is known to occur at various other anatomical locations apart from the major salivary glands. Case reports of this tumour arising from the nasal septum, tongue, turbinate, upper lip, lungs, trachea and lacrimal glands have been found in the literature. But case reports of pleomorphic adenoma from the external auditory canal have been ex...

  19. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Geochemical and hydrological processes controlling groundwater quality in Assiut Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, R. G.; Tempel, R.; Gomaa, M.; Korany, E.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater in Assiut area, Egypt, is an important source of fresh water for human consumption, agriculture, and domestic and industrial purposes. Due to a growing population and expansion of agricultural reclamation projects in the desert fringes of the Nile Valley, there is an increasing water demand in this arid region. This study has investigated the geochemical and hydrological processes that control groundwater quality within the Pleistocene, Plio-Pleistocene, and Eocene aquifers in Assiut, in addition to the hydraulic relationships between surface and groundwater systems and the relations among the defined groundwater aquifers. A total of 28 surface and 160 groundwater samples were collected for geochemical analysis (major and minor element chemistry, and stable isotope analyses). Total dissolved solids = 182 to 5657 mg/L, water-delta 18O = -7.5 to +6.5%, and water-delta D = -55 to +32%. Geochemical and stable isotope data indicate that the principal source of recharge to the Pleistocene and Plio-Pleistocene aquifers is the surface water system (irrigation canals), while the prevalence of Na-Cl type waters in the Eocene aquifer indicates recharge by upward leakage from the underlying Nubian sandstone aquifer which contains the same Na-Cl water type. Evaporation prior to infiltration, mixing, and mineral equilibria (dissolution and precipitation) are the main factors that affect water quality. Ion exchange plays a secondary role in controlling the water chemistry of the Pleistocene aquifer, but is more effective in controlling water quality within the Plio-Pleistocene and Eocene aquifers due to the prevalence of clay minerals within the matrices. The fresh water exploited from the Eocene aquifer may be of great importance for land reclamation projects not only at the western desert fringes, but also at the eastern desert fringes of Assiut and similar settings around the River Nile south of Assiut Governorate. Results of this study will be helpful for sustainable development, and raising the standard of living of people in the Assiut area, which is one of the poorest regions of Egypt.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaškovi? Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All root canal sealers should have antimicrobial activity so that they could act against any remaining bacteria after root canal obturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five root canal sealers: AH26, a resin based paste; Apexit, calcium hydroxide based paste; Endomethasone and Tubliseal, zinc oxide eugenol based materials and Ketac Endo Aplicap, glass ionomer based sealer. Matherials And Methods: Antimicrobial activity was tested against S. mutans 70C and L.casei ATCC 27773 using ADT (agar diffusion inhibitory test on TYC SB, blood and MRS agars. Freshly prepared paste or cement was placed in grooves of 4 mm in diameter in agar plates. Prepared agar plates were incubated at 37ºC in GAS PAC system for 24hours. The antimicrobial effect was determined according to the diameter of growth inhibition zone around tested materials. Three measurements were done for each material and values were recorded in millimeters. Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney test. The results confirmed that epoxy resin and zinc oxide eugenol based sealers had the greatest antimicrobial effect. Calcium hydroxide and glass ionomer based sealers showed significantly lower antimicrobial activity compared to AH26, Endomethasone and Tubliseal. Conclusion: The greatest antimicrobial activity was found for epoxy resin based sealer (AH26 for both tested microorganisms.

  2. Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and related irrigation projects in Southwestern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongkon; Sultan, Mohamed

    2002-05-01

    A two-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed to investigate the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and the major land reclamation projects that use excess lake water in southwest Egypt. Egypt constructed (1964-1971) the Aswan High Dam, creating the Lake Nasser reservoir (length: 500 km; average width: 12 km) and is constructing the Tushka Canal to channel 5.0×10 9 m 3/yr of Lake Nasser water to reclaim 0.5×10 6 acres of desert lands. The model, constrained by regional-scale groundwater flow and near-lake head data, was successfully calibrated to temporal-observation heads from 1970 to 2000 that reflect variations in lake levels. Predictive analyses for the subsequent 50-yr period were conducted by employing the calibrated model. Simulations of long-term effects, beyond year 2000, of Lake Nasser on recharge and temporal groundwater head (base case scenario) show that recharge from the lake will continue at a much slower rate than during the 30-yr period of 1970-2000 (with approximately 86% reduction in 30-yr recharge). The modest projected pumping and injection activities in the study area are not expected to cause major deviation in the overall head distribution compared to the base case scenario. The investigation of effects of the new irrigation land development on the Nubian aquifer indicated that many of the proposed irrigation areas, especially those with small aquifer thickness, will become fully saturated with introduced water, resulting in potential flooding and salinization.

  3. Five canalled and three rooted mandibular first molar: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Success of endodontic treatment depends on the proper identification of all the canals, thorough chemo-mechanical preparation followed by three dimensional obturation with hermetic seal. Failure of any of these steps may occur due to unusual tooth morphology. Usually mandibular molars have two roots with three canals (mesiobucccal, mesiolingual and distal but in few teeth, the number of roots and canals vary. The variation in the number of roots is called radix entomolaris. This article presents a case report of mandibular first molar with extra distal root and five root canals. This report highlights the importance of radiographic examination and points out the need to look for additional canals and unusual canal morphology associated with a mandibular first molar.

  4. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  5. Design and implementation of an irrigation canal SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Rijo, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    In Portugal all of the upstream controlled canal systems work with flexible water delivery schedules and therefore canal operational losses can be significant. Real-time technologies can allow the canal managers to continuously compare the real operation with its optimal or target value and to take appropriate corrective steps as required and minimize the water operational losses. The paper presents the design, field solutions and tuning of an implemented SCADA system on a Portuguese upstrea...

  6. SCADA system with predictive controller applied to irrigation canals

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, João; Botto, Miguel; Rijo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies a model predictive controller (MPC) to an automatic water canal with sensors and actuators controlled by a network (programmable logic controller), and supervised by a SCADA system (supervisory control and a data acquisition). This canal is composed by a set of distributed sub-systems that control the water level in each canal pool, constrained by discharge gates (control variables) and water off-takes (disturbances). All local controllers are available through an industria...

  7. Local automatic control modes in an experimental irrigation canal

    OpenAIRE

    Rijo, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents two local PI automatic control modes developed, tuned and verified in an experimental automatic canal. The canal was used as a physical model and it will support further studies on canal automation domain. The control algorithms are installed in local PLC´s with the objective of controlling the water depths immediately upstream and downstream of the corresponding check gates. The strategy adopted to tune the PI controllers was to compare the frequency response of the state ...

  8. Simulation of automatic control of an irrigation canal

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano, David; Arranja, Carina; Rijo, Manuel; Mateos, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Improved water management and efficient investment in the modernization of irrigation schemes are essential measures in many countries to satisfy the increasing demand for water. Automatic control of the main canals is one method for increasing the efficiency and flexibility of irrigation systems. In 2005, one canal in the irrigation scheme ‘Sector BXII del Bajo Guadalquivir’ was monitored. This canal is representative of irrigation schemes in Southern Spain; it is divided into four pools and...

  9. Mandibular premolars with aberrant canal morphology: An endodontic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Sunandan Mittal; Tarun Kumar; Shifali Mittal; Jyotika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Complete cleaning and shaping is the key to successful endodontic treatment. A thorough understanding of the internal anatomy and morphology of the root canal system is an important consideration when performing cleaning and shaping procedures. Mandibular premolars are one of the most difficult teeth to treat endodontically because of aberrant root canal anatomy. This article describes case series of mandibular premolars with variations in root canal anatomy treated successfully by convention...

  10. Alternative Ear-Canal Measures Related to Absorbance

    OpenAIRE

    Neely, Stephen T.; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level (SIL), (2) forward-pressure level (FPL), (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance (TDR), and (4) cochlear reflectance (CR). These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wide-band stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from abso...

  11. Semi-Circular Canals Anomalies//Idiopathic Scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousie, D. L.; Deroubaix, J. P.; Joly, O; Salvetti, P.; Vasseur, J.; Berthoz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to a novel modelling programme to detect anomalies in the membranous semi circular canals (SSC) of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) we found severe anomalies mainly located in lateral SCC devoted to trunk rotation and lateral deviations. We also found a specific communication between the lateral and posterior canal involving the utricular chamber which is also highly suspected in scoliosis. Key points: - Membranous semi circular canals (SCC) modelling based on MRI revealed s...

  12. Biomechanics of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    OpenAIRE

    Rajguru, Suhrud M; Ifediba, Marytheresa A.; RABBITT, RICHARD D.

    2005-01-01

    Horizontal canal (HC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV) is a vestibular disorder characterized by bouts of horizontal ocular nystagmus induced during reorientation of the head relative to gravity. The present report addresses the application of a morphologically descriptive 3-canal biomechanical model of the human membranous labyrinth to study gravity-dependent semicircular canal responses during this condition. The model estimates dynamic cupular and endolymph displacements elic...

  13. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    OpenAIRE

    Karunakaran, J. V.; R Shobana; Kumar, Mohan; Kumar, Senthil; Mankar, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to ident...

  14. Mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar del adulto cubano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Expósito Rodríguez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar en estudios radiográficos simples de la columna lumbosacra en las vistas anteroposterior y lateral, en 200 adultos sin antecedentes de dolor y afección lumbar o ambos. Se utilizó la técnica recomendada por Eisenstein en 1976 para definir el margen posterior del canal. Se corroboró la importancia del diámetro sagital como parámetro esencial para determinar la estenosis del canal estando los límites de la normalidad entre 14,7 y 21 mm. Se establece como límite inferior de la distancia interpedicular 22,6 mm. El canal de las mujeres es menor que el de los hombres, y el canal de la raza negroide es menor al de la raza caucasiana y los mestizos en su diámetro sagital. Se recomienda este método con el fin de establecer un diagnóstico precoz de la estenosis del canal en el sector lumbar.Measurements of the lumbar spinal canal were made in simple radiographic studies of the lumbosacral column in the anteroposterior and lateral view in 200 adults with no antecedents of pain or lumbar affection. The technique recommended by Eisenstein in 1976 to define the posterior edge of the canal was used. The importance of the sagittal diameter as an essential parameter to determine the stenosis of the canal was corroborated. Normal limits are between 14.7 and 21 mm. An inferior limit of the interpedicular distance of 22.6 mm is established. The women's canal is smaller than that of men, whereas the canal of the black persons is lower than that of Caucasians and mestizos in its sagittal diameter. This method is recommended in order to made an early diagnosis of the stenosis of the canal in the lumbar sector.

  15. Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Moreira Júnior; Antônio Paulino Ribeiro Sobrinho; Bernardo Henrique Silva Bambirra; Felipe Henrique Silva Bambirra; Maria Auxiliadora Roque Carvalho; Luiz de Macedo Farias; Jacques Robert Nicoli; Elizabeth Spangler Moreira

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nu...

  16. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  17. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  18. MULTIPLE WATER REUSE IN POULTRY PROCESSING: CASE STUDY IN EGYPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An industrial-scale multiple water reuse system was under investigation for a period of four years at a modern poultry processing plant in Alexandria, Egypt. The system involved: chlorination of cooling water from the compressor; reuse of this water in the chiller; successive tra...

  19. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  20. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  1. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  2. Molecular Detection of Some Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry plants exhibiting distinct virus-like symptoms (stunting, mottling, yellowing, vein clearing, vein necrosis and vein banding) were collected from strawberry production fields and nurseries in Qalubia Governorate, Egypt (about 20 km north of Cairo). Plants of 'Festival' and 'Sweet Charlie'...

  3. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  4. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Vergne, Timothée; Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies.

  5. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

  6. Egypt, Arab Republic of - Food Subsidies : Benefit Incidence and Leakages

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Egypt's food subsidies, important for ensuring political stability, do not target specific groups. The subsidies were introduced during Second World War and have never been targeted. Egyptians seem to perceive food subsidies as the most concrete benefit they receive from government spending. Seen as an entitlement, food subsidies are politically sensitive. Section two gives the historical ...

  7. Medicine in Egypt at the time of Napoleon Bonaparte

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Thomas G; Russell, Terence M

    2003-01-01

    The scientists and doctors who accompanied Napoleon to Egypt in 1798 undertook a survey that is one of the great intellectual achievements of the 19th century. It left a record of the health and wellbeing of the people, especialy in Cairo

  8. First report of NDM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Mahmoud Zafer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt for the first time, and the presence of more than one blaMBL gene in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

  9. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  10. On new records of Barbastella leucomelas from Sinai, Egypt.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, P.; Andreas, M.; Dietz, C.; Lu?an, R. K.; Vallo, Peter

    Cluj-Napoca : Babe?-Bolyai University, 2008 - (Hutson, A.; Lina, P.). s. 23 [European Bat Research Symposium /11./. 18.08.2008-22.08.2008, Cluj-Napoca] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * Egypt Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.ebrs2008.org/docs/EBRS_2008_Abstracts.pdf

  11. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Arab Republic of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    Egypt's corporate governance system is framed by French civil law for corporations. Sharia law has no direct influence on corporate governance. Anglo-American influence is prevalent in the securities depository law and the new capital markets law shortly to be introduced to Parliament. There is one stock exchange with two trading floors: The Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchange (CASE) which...

  12. The Birth of a Refugee English Program, Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isteero, Jean W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the inception and development of an Ethiopian refugee English program in Cairo, Egypt. The following topics are addressed: (1) background; (2) teachers; (3) program; (4) classes; (5) materials; (6) content; and (7) day-to-day administration. An essay on "refugeehood" by a program participant is included. (BJV)

  13. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  14. Efficient and effective root canal retreatment without chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariasen, K L; Brayton, S M; Collinson, D M

    1990-06-01

    A root canal retreatment technique is described which eliminates the need for chloroform as a gutta percha solvent. This technique utilizes the gutta percha softening actions of both a self-heating instrument and the heat-potentiated solvent action of eucalyptol. In addition, sonics/ultrasonics and/or Gates-Glidden drills are suggested as useful adjuncts to canal debridement during re-preparation of the canal system. Given the controversy regarding the toxicity of chloroform, both for dental patients and dental personnel, practitioners may wish to consider using this retreatment technique to eliminate chloroform from endodontic retreatment procedures, while still achieving effective, efficient root canal retreatment. PMID:2369702

  15. Canal-centering ability of two rotary file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Tony M; McDonald, N J; Kuttler, Sergio; Strassler, Howard E; Dumsha, Thomas C

    2002-04-01

    The ability of two nickel-titanium rotary file systems to maintain the original path of the canal were compared by using a new split-mold design (the Endodontic Cube). The mesial roots of 10 mandibular first- and second-molar teeth with separate canals from orifice to foramen were divided into two groups based on canal curvature and morphology. Working lengths for each canal were determined 1.0 mm short of where the file tip was visible on the external surface of the root. The teeth were embedded in composite resin by using the Endodontic Cube as a mold and sectioned into five pieces. ProFile Ni-Ti.06 taper Series 29 and ProFile GT rotary instrumentation techniques were randomly assigned to one of the canals and used in a crown-down fashion to a 0.217 ProFile and a 0.06 GT master apical file, respectively. Digital photographs were made of the middle three sections and software features of Adobe Photoshop were used to measure the movement of the canal centers by superimposing the images of the instrumented and uninstrumented canals. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Both systems remained centered within the canal with minimal deviation from the original canal path. The largest mean movement was less than 0.15 mm. The Endodontic Cube was an effective tool for studying and comparing instrumentation techniques. PMID:12043864

  16. 100 years of ion beams: Willy Wien's canal rays

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karl, Wien.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available When Goldstein's report on the "positive light" (or what is known as "Kanalstrahlen", canal rays) in gas discharge tubes first appeared in 1886, Willy Wien had just finished his thesis at the Helmholtz Institute in Berlin. Eleven years later he performed his first experiments on canal rays and found [...] that they consisted of inert, charged and neutral particles. The charged component in canal rays could be de ected using electric and magnetic fields, enabling Wien to roughly determine their mass-to-charge ratio. Improving vacuum conditions and detection efficiency, Thomson finally resolved the lightest constituents of canal rays: the hydrogen ions H+ and H2+. This marked the beginning of mass spectrometry. The first mass spectrographs were parabola-image instruments being used by Thomson to discover isotopes. Until about 1923, canal rays became the most common ion source. Also Aston used canal rays as an ion source for the first double focussing mass spectrometer. - Wien continued his work on canal rays up to the end of his life (he died in 1928). He investigated their interaction with matter, i.e. the mean free path of canal rays in gases with respect to charge exchange and atomic excitation. His particular interest was addressed to the physics of light emission by canal rays, such as the line spectrum and the splitting of these lines in magnetic and electric fields, the Doppler effect and lifetimes.

  17. The radiological hazards of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus Lakes, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariout and Brullus were considered two of the highly fish productive lakes in Egypt as well as they widely used to drain huge quantities of industrial wastewater, sewage and agriculture drainage. Thousands of peoples inhabited the areas around the lakes and depend on them completely in their lives. The activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured in the upper most part of the surface sediments of the two lakes using gamma ray spectrophotometery. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher 238U and 232Th and lower 40K (17.22±2.49 Bq/kg, 10.0 ±56 Bq/kg and 299.7±17.78 Bq/kg) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53 Bq/kg, 7.24±0.76 Bq/kg and 518.75±46.24 Bq/kg respectively). Inversely, the mean average of absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose rate (mSvy-1), radium equivalent (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex) and the representative level index (Iγr) were; 32.01 nGy/h, 0.04 mSv/y, 62.95 Bq/kg, 0.17 and 0.50 at Mariout Lake higher than those in Brullus lake (26.42 nGy/h, 0.03 mSv/y, 54.25 Bq/kg, 0.15 and 0.41) respectively. The recorded and calculated values were lower than the acceptable limits published in the different localities around the world. The activity distributions of the radiological hazards show the highest intensities in the western part of Mariout Lake and decreasing gradually eastward and north eastward affecting by the drainage agriculture water from Kabary Drain, Umum Drain, S.W. Basin and Nubaria Canal. At Brullus Lake, the radiological hazard intensities were concentrated in the west and southwest influenced by Zaglul Drain, Rosetta Drain, Brembal canal, Drain 11, Drain 9, Drain 8 and partially by Drain 1 while the lowest intensities were in the north and northeast affecting by the interaction with the Mediterranean Sea. K-40 recorded positive correlations and significant linear regression relationships with radiological hazard parameters at Mariout Like meaning that 40K is the main gamma emitter in the lake, while the different radioelements are participating gamma emitters at Brullus Lake.

  18. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Egypt: Travel through Time: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida M.R. Barakat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (Trematodes of the genus Schistosoma (S.. It is well documented that schistosomiasis haematobium was endemic in Ancient Egypt. Infection was diagnosed in mummies 3000, 4000 and 5000 years old. Scott was the first to describe the pattern of schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. Schistosomiasis haematobium was highly prevalent (60% both in the Nile Delta and Nile Valley South of Cairo in districts of perennial irrigation while it was low (6% in districts of basin irrigation. Schistosoma mansoni infected 60% of the population in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Nile Delta and only 6% in the Southern part. Neither S. mansoni cases nor its snail intermediate host were found in the Nile Valley South of Cairo. The building of the Aswan High Dam -which was completed in 1967 – did not cause any increase in schistosomiasis prevalence. In 1990, a study conducted in nine governorates of Egypt confirmed the change in the pattern of schistosomiasis transmission in the Delta. There was an overall reduction in S. mansoni prevalence while Schistosoma haematobium had continued to disappear. In Middle and Upper Egypt there was consistent reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium except in Sohag, Qena, and Aswan governorates. However, foci of S. mansoni were detected in Giza, Fayoum, Menya and Assiut. All schistosomiasis control projects implemented in Egypt from 1953 to 1985 adopted the strategy of transmission control and were based mainly on snail control supplemented by anti-bilharzial chemotherapy. In 1997, the National Schistosomiasis Control Program (NSCP was launched in the Nile Delta. It adopted morbidity control strategy with Praziquantel mass treatment as the main component. In 1996, before the NSCP, 168 villages had S. mansoni prevalence >30%, 324 villages 20–30% and 654 villages 10–20%. By the end of 2010, in the whole country only 29 villages had prevalence >3% and none had more than 10%.

  19. Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt IMPRSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealed sources are usually in capsules made of stainless steel. They are the size of a pen or a finger and contain one of hundreds of radioactive elements (e.g., Iridium, Radium) or their isotopes. They are air-tight and very durable, contain the radioactive material but not radiation. They are used in the health sector, industry, military, and universities. Incidents occurred in Met Halfa, Egypt, 2000 (Iridium-192); Goiania, Brazil, 1987 (Cesium-137); Mexico and Southwest U.S., 1977 -1984 (Cobalt-60); Peru, 1999 (Iridium-1992); Poland 2001 (Cobalt-60). The IMPRSS Mission is based on a joined partnership between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency and others. The IMPRSS Mission protects human health and the environment in Egypt from mismanaged sealed sources, is developed jointly with MOH and EAEA, provides capabilities for managing radioactive sealed sources in Egypt, increases public awareness, provides education and training, improves emergency response capabilities, develops a permanent disposal facility, ensures the program is self-sustaining and ensures close coordination with the IAEA. Infrastructure how to manage sealed sources is discussed. It includes awareness, tracking and inventory control, security, recovery, conditioning and storage, recycling and disposal. Emergency response, regulatory reform, education and training and its targets are provided. The government of Egypt can protect the people of Egypt and is ready for emergencies. Prevention is the first line of defence and detection is the second line of defence. Adequate Emergency Response saves lives and adequate control reduces risk of mismanaged uses or deliberate misuses of sources. A Cradle-to-Grave approach is built on existing capabilities at EAEA and MOH

  20. Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

    2014-05-01

    The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from Lake Manzala (Nile Delta) suggests this period was one of declining discharge (Stanley et al. 2003). Amenhotep III's temple floor lies 2m above the calcareous palaeosol and its construction lies within the broad dating of the ancient surface. It is possible that low discharge levels enabled him to build his temple high and dry of the Nile floods. Future seasons should allow us to clarify this using 14C and OSL dating, and in time we hope to shed more light on the fluvial history of the Nile and how this affected the decision making of the ancient Egyptians. References Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Emery, V.L., Jones, S., Barker. D.B. 2013. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2013, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 99, 35-52. Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Hunter, M.A., Jones, S., Masson, A., Millet, M., Pennington, B.T. 2012. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2012, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 98, 27-42. Stanley, D.J., Krom, M.D., Cliff, R.A. and Woodward, J.C. 2003. Nile flow failure at the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic and petrologic evidence, Geoarchaeology 18(3), 395-402.

  1. Use of mass balance and statistical correlation for geochemical and isotopic investigation of the groundwater in the quaternary aquifer of the nile delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrochemical and environmental isotopic studies were conducted in the nile delta region, to investigate the sources of salinity and replenishment for the groundwater reservoir which are of importance for land reclamation projects and the establishment of new communities on the west and east side of the nile delta. The hydrogeological properties of the main exploitable aquifer (quaternary) was described. The chemistry of the collected surface and ground-waters was outlined through the analysis of major cations (Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++) and major anions (Ci-, SO4-, HCO3-). The variation in chemical composition of examined waters is attributed to the use of fertilizers, leaching of terrestrial salts and ion exchange between soil's minerals and water, in addition to, sea water intrusion in some isolated areas near by saline bodies (mediterranean sea, manzala lake, suez canal). Oxygen-18 and deuterium concentrations were used to identify the mechanism of recharge. The results show a mixing between different sources of water: recent Nile, old Nil water before construction of high Aswan dam, coastal precipitation as well as some contribution from both sea water toward north and palaeo-water at the eastern and western fringes of the nile delta. In some localities the recharge occurs indirectly after evaporation and/or vertical leakage of deep water due to over-pumping rates. This paper also demonstrates the implementation of statistical correlation and mass balance approaches to present the chemical and isotopic characterization of the nile delta quaternary aquifer. Recommendations are given for optimal use of water resources in the area of study

  2. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, while this one leaves no doubt to have its origin in Nisyros. (authors)

  3. Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumayya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were analyzed by using Student's 't' test. Lumbar canal starts growing in length significantly in group III foetuses onward. There was consistency in the growth of lumbar canal diameters with gestational age at all levels. Heights of vertebral bodies of Ist two lumbar vertebrae showed variability in some adjacent groups. The same in the next three grew constantly with the growth of foetuses. Sacral canal showed variable growth in lengths in different groups. Steady growth in the length and diameter of the lumbar canal may be used for approximate age of foetuses for medicolegal reasons.La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los defectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M. Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en

  4. Ecological implications of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of Burullus Lagoon of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongyuan; Salem, Alaa; Xu, Zhuang; Zhang, Weiguo

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Ni) from three short sediment cores collected from Burullus lagoon of the Nile delta, Egypt. 210Pb and 137Cs measurement is applied to understand sedimentation rate and related chronology. Remarkably low isotopic activities and intensive bioturbation in the lagoonal sediments rendered age determination difficult. Samples with detectable 137Cs in the upper core sediments together with sediment lithology could help infer a sedimentation rate of about 2.0 mm yr -1, thereby indicating post-dam (after 1964) sedimentation of the upper 10-cm core sediments. Our results demonstrate that most heavy metals in the surficial sediments after normalization to Al decrease seaward, showing a function of distance to the sewerage outlet on the inland lake coast. Also, there is an upwardly increasing trend of normalized heavy metals, especially in the upper 10-cm core sediments. Relevancy analysis has identified Mn, Pb and Cd as the diagnostic heavy metals in Burullus lagoon, most likely derived from Tanta and Kafrelsheihk, the major downtowns in the central Nile delta plain, from where wastewaters are directly discharging into the lake via canal networks. Although Burullus lagoon is presently least affected by pollution as compared to other major lagoons of the Nile delta, the increasing quantities of diagnostic metals, especially Mn, are extremely toxic, as they are potentially linked to the risks of digestive issues and pancreatic cancer reportedly. The situation calls for a rational planning for sewerage treatment in the protected Burullus coast.

  5. Evaluation of the Nutrient Status of Some Hydrophytes in the Water Courses of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal H. Shaltout

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive values of three dominant hydrophytes along the water courses in Nile Delta, Egypt (Echinochloa stagnina, Eichhornia crassipes, and Ceratophyllum demersum were evaluated in terms of estimating their phytomass, organic, and inorganic chemical compositions. Shoots were collected seasonally from 25 permanent stands representing the distribution of the three species along 15 canals and 10 drains distributed in 5 localities within the Nile Delta. Living and dead parts and total phytomass were estimated. Their inorganic (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Mn, and Pb and organic (carbohydrates, total nitrogen, total protein, ether extract, digestible nutrient, digestible energy, metabolized energy, and net energy contents were estimated. The vegetative phase of E. stagnina extended during winter, spring, and summer, while it is flowering and fruiting during autumn. On the other hand, E. crassipes and C. demersum attained their maximum flowering during spring and maximum fruiting during summer, while maximum vegetative phase during autumn and winter. E. stagnina had the highest mean annual phytomass, while C. demersum had the lowest. The living parts of C. demersum had the highest concentrations of Na, Ca, and Mg, while the living parts of E. crassipes had the highest of K and N. C. demersum had the ability to accumulate more concentrations of heavy metals than the other studied species. E. crassipes had the highest values of total carbohydrate and total proteins, while E. stagnina had the highest of crude fibers, and C. demersum had the highest of ether extract and ash contents. The living parts of E. crassipes and C. demersum were considered as excellent forages, while the dead parts of all species and the living parts of E. stagnina were evaluated as poor forage.

  6. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater in the reclaimed small basin of Abu Mina, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Atwia, Mohamed G.; El-Horiny, Mohamed M.

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural reclamation activities during the last few decades in the Western Nile Delta have led to great changes in the groundwater levels and quality. In Egypt, changing the desert land into agricultural land has been done using transferred Nile water (through irrigation canal systems) or/and groundwater. This research investigates the hydrogeochemical changes accompanying the reclamation processes in the small basin of Abu Mina, which is part of the Western Nile Delta region. In summer 2008, 23 groundwater samples were collected and groundwater levels were measured in 40 observation wells. Comparing the groundwater data of the pre-reclamation (1974) and the post-reclamation (2008) periods, groundwater seems to have been subjected to many changes: rise in water level, modification of the flow system, improvement of water quality, and addition of new salts through dissolution processes. Generally, Abu Mina basin is subdivided into two areas, recharge and discharge. The dissolution and mixing were recognized in the recharge areas, while the groundwater of the discharge region carries the signature of the diluted pre-reclamation groundwater. The salts of soil and aquifer deposits play an important role in the salt content of the post and pre-reclamation groundwater. NaCl was the predominant water type in the pre-reclamation groundwater, while CaSO4, NaCl and MgSO4 are the common chemical facies in the post-reclamation groundwater. The post-reclamation groundwater mostly indicates mixing between the pre-reclamation groundwater and the infiltrated freshwater with addition of some ions due to interaction with soil and sediments.

  7. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  8. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater in the reclaimed small basin of Abu Mina, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Atwia, Mohamed G.; El-Horiny, Mohamed M.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural reclamation activities during the last few decades in the Western Nile Delta have led to great changes in the groundwater levels and quality. In Egypt, changing the desert land into agricultural land has been done using transferred Nile water (through irrigation canal systems) or/and groundwater. This research investigates the hydrogeochemical changes accompanying the reclamation processes in the small basin of Abu Mina, which is part of the Western Nile Delta region. In summer 2008, 23 groundwater samples were collected and groundwater levels were measured in 40 observation wells. Comparing the groundwater data of the pre-reclamation (1974) and the post-reclamation (2008) periods, groundwater seems to have been subjected to many changes: rise in water level, modification of the flow system, improvement of water quality, and addition of new salts through dissolution processes. Generally, Abu Mina basin is subdivided into two areas, recharge and discharge. The dissolution and mixing were recognized in the recharge areas, while the groundwater of the discharge region carries the signature of the diluted pre-reclamation groundwater. The salts of soil and aquifer deposits play an important role in the salt content of the post and pre-reclamation groundwater. NaCl was the predominant water type in the pre-reclamation groundwater, while CaSO4, NaCl and MgSO4 are the common chemical facies in the post-reclamation groundwater. The post-reclamation groundwater mostly indicates mixing between the pre-reclamation groundwater and the infiltrated freshwater with addition of some ions due to interaction with soil and sediments.

  9. Communication dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt, concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt, attaching the text of a Press Statement dated 25 January 2005. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the Press Statement, are reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  10. Assessment of canal walls after biomechanical preparation of root canals instrumented with protaper universalTM rotary system

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Menezes Aguiar; Daniela de Andrade Mendes; Andréa Cruz Câmara; Antonio Poli de Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the instrumented walls of root canals prepared with the ProTaper UniversalTM rotary system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty mesiobuccal canals of human first mandibular molars were divided into 2 groups of 10 specimens each and embedded in a muffle system. The root canals were transversely sectioned 3 mm short of the apex before preparation and remounted in their molds. All root canals were prepared with ProTaper UniversalTM rotary system or with N...

  11. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  12. Effectiveness of a silicon-based root canal sealer for filling of simulated lateral canals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Vicente Baroni, Barbizam; Matheus, Souza; Doglas, Cecchin; Jakob, Dabbel.

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo in vitro foi avaliar a capacidade de um cimento a base de silicone, em obturar canais laterais simulados, em comparação a um cimento à base de oxido de zinco e eugenol e um cimento resinoso. Trinta dentes humanos unirradiculares extraídos foram selecionados, a abertura coroná [...] ria foi feita e o comprimento de trabalho foi determinado 1 mm aquém do forame apical. Foram confeccionados três canais laterais, um em cada terço radicular, em ambas as faces mesial e distal da raiz, usando um alargador 15 acoplado a um contra-ângulo em baixa rotação. Os canais foram instrumentados com sistema Protaper até a lima F3, sob irrigação com hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5%, seguido de EDTA. Os dentes foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=10) e obturados com o cimento de Grossman, RoekoSeal ou Sealer 26, pela técnica da condensação lateral da gutta-percha. Foram feitas tomadas radiografias pós-operatórias, projetadas em aumentos de 20X para avaliação da qualidade das obturações. Os dados foram analisados estaticamente pelo teste de Kruskal Wallis com nível de significância de 5%. Os resultados mostraram que o cimento de Grossman obturou um numero maior de canais laterais que o cimento RoekoSeal (p Abstract in english The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the ability of a silicon-based root canal sealer, compared to zinc oxide and eugenol and an epoxy resin-based sealers, for filling of simulated lateral canals. Thirty extracted single-rooted human teeth were selected, conventional access was made an [...] d the working length was established 1 mm from the apical foramen. Three simulated lateral canals, one in each root third (coronal, middle and apical) were prepared in both the mesial and distal surfaces of each tooth using a size 15 reamer adapted to a low-speed handpiece. Each root canal was instrumented using ProTaper rotary files up to file F3 at the working length, and then irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl followed by EDTA. The teeth were assigned to 3 groups (n=10), according to the root canal sealer: Roeko Seal (Group 1), Sealer 26 (group 2) and Grossman's sealer (Group 3). Gutta-percha cold lateral condensation technique was performed in all groups. Postoperative radiographs were taken and the images were projected for evaluation of the quality of lateral canal filling. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Kruskal Wallis test at 5% significance level. The results showed that Grossman's sealer filled a larger number of lateral canals than Roeko Seal (p

  13. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000 years were obtained. As a key national cultural relic, candidate of the world cultural heritage, and route of the South-to-North Water Diversion, the China Great Canal is a worthy subject of a study. Results presented in this paper therefore have high realistic significance.

  14. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CB?CT) was used first. After the CB?CT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CB?CT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  15. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  16. No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

  17. Mandibular Second Molar with a Single Root and a Single Canal: Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Anna; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Suresh, Nandhini

    2013-01-01

    The variability of root canal system morphology of multirooted teeth represents a continuous challenge to endodontic diagnosis and therapeutics. This report extends the range of known possible anatomical variations to include teeth with lesser number of root and root canals. Variations of root canal systems need not always be in the form of extra canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of existence of fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anat...

  18. View of the Columbia's aft section while over Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This southerly looking view photographed from the orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia shows a small portion of the vehichle's aft section. The 50-ft Canadian built remote manipulator system (RMS) is in a resting posture (lower right corner) stretched out along the 60-ft. long cargo bay. Many of the components of the OSS-1 payload package are in the bottom center. The Mediterranean Sea is at right foreground. Parts of the Sinai peninsula, Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon can be located in the photo. The Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, Suez Canal are near the photo's horizon.

  19. Assessment of coronary heart diseases in diabetics in al-Madinah al-Munawarah

    OpenAIRE

    al-Nozha O; Mojadadi M; Mosaad M; El-Bab MF

    2012-01-01

    Omar al-Nozha1, Moaz Mojadadi2, Mohamed Mosaad1,3, Mohamed F El-Bab2,41Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, al-Madinah al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Coronary heart disease is highly prevalent and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the major risk f...

  20. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  1. Lipochoristoma of the Internal Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scangas, George; Remenschneider, Aaron; Santos, Felipe

    2015-07-01

    Objective?Lipochoristomas comprise 0.1% of all cerebellopontine angle tumors and may be misdiagnosed as vestibular schwannomas. We describe a lipochoristoma of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and present the salient features of the evaluation, diagnosis, and management. Study Design and Methods?Retrospective case review. Results (Case Report)?A 51-year-old woman presented with left-sided severe hearing loss, tinnitus, mild episodic vertigo, and facial paresthesias progressive over 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small (5?×?4 mm) T1 hyperintense lobulated lesion in the distal internal auditory canal. With fat-suppressed images, there was no enhancement of the lesion. A diagnosis of IAC lipochoristoma was made. Conservative management was recommended, and on 17-month follow-up there was no interval growth. The patient remains symptomatically stable with improved equilibrium but persistent left-sided hearing loss. Conclusions?Differential diagnosis of an enhancing lesion in the IAC includes acoustic neuroma, meningioma, epidermoid and arachnoid cysts, lipochoristoma, and metastatic tumors. Fat-suppressed MRI sequences aid in a definitive diagnosis of lipochoristomas. Because lipochoristomas may have a tendency for more indolent growth and intimate involvement of the auditory nerve, conservative management with interval imaging is recommended. Surgical treatment is reserved for growing lesions or those with disabling vestibular symptoms. PMID:26251810

  2. GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benea Ciprian Beniamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

  3. RCRA closure of the Building 3001 Storage Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3001 Storage Canal is located under portions of Buildings 3001 and 3019 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and has a capacity of approximately 62,000 gallons of water. The term canal has historically been used to identify this structure, however, the canal is an in-ground reinforced concrete structure satisfying the regulatory definition of a tank. From 1943 through 1963, the canal in Building 3001 was designed to be an integral part of the system for handling irradiated fuel from the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor. Because one of the main initial purposes of the reactor was to produce plutonium for the chemical processing pilot plant in Building 3019, the canal was designed to be the connecting link between the reactor and the pilot plant. During the war years, natural uranium slugs were irradiated in the reactor and then pushed out of the graphite matrix into the system of diversion plates and chutes which directed the fuel into the deep pit of the canal. After shutdown of the reactor, the canal was no longer needed for its designed purpose. Since 1964, the canal has only been used to store radioisotopes and irradiated samples under a water pool for radiation protection. This report describes closure alternatives

  4. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of...

  5. A large schwannoma of external auditory canal: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Satvinder Singh; Shankar, Kiruba; Parida, Pradipta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 49-year-old female patient presented with mass occluding her external auditory meatus. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass eroded the bony canal wall and biopsy reported the mass as a schwannoma. Schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue swelling arising from the external auditory canal. PMID:26211864

  6. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw...

  7. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of...

  8. 77 FR 12514 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA AGENCY... drawbridge operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This...

  9. 77 FR 28767 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... (77 FR 12514). We received 17 comments on the proposed ] rule. No public meeting was requested, and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA AGENCY... regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This modification will relieve heavy...

  10. Status of the interoceanic canal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Sea-Level Canal Study Commission are are not as yet completed, although there is no reason at this time to doubt that the 1 December 1970 deadline for the Commission's final report will be met. Since it has not been published, I am unable to pass on to you any of its conclusions; they simply do not exist today. And it would be improper for me to reveal the substance of the Commission's deliberations to date or to speculate upon what their outcome may be. But many elements of the work being conducted under my supervision - The Engineering Feasibility Study - are already in the public domain. It is to them that my remarks here are addressed. Of the six basic routes we have considered in our studies for possible sea-level canal alinements, four could involve nuclear excavating techniques. The so-called nuclear alternatives are Route 8 along the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border, Route 17 across the Darien Isthmus of Panama, Route 23 crossing the Panama-Colombia border and Route 25 across the western tip of Colombia. The conventionally excavated routes are Route 10 west of the Panama Canal Zone and Route 14 along the alinement of the present canal. The engineering studies examine from a technical standpoint the feasibility of constructing these routes and estimate their costs. To accomplish this we have made conceptual designs for canals capable of transiting at least 40,000 vessels annually (and possibly several times that many) and of accommodating ships of up to 250,000 dwt in size. Thus, in terms of basic requirements, all alternatives - conventional and nuclear - have been made comparable. Beginning with the northernmost route, let us now consider the four nuclear alternatives. Route 8 is 137 miles in length. Its maximum elevations are slightly less than 800 feet in the Continental Divide and about 400 feet through the so-called Eastern Divide. The rock to be excavated is primarily volcanic tuff. It is readily apparent that this route is not competitive with other nuclear alternatives because of its location in a relatively well developed, built-up region. Its construction would require the evacuation of more than one-quarter million people from the exclusion area for the duration of nuclear operations and for about a year thereafter. This would almost certainly be politically unacceptable. There would be an additional requirement on shot days for the temporary evacuation of an estimated 30,000 people from high rise buildings in Managua and San Jose to avoid casualties from possible structural collapse caused by ground shock. The magnitude of these problems can be expressed to some degree in terms of the estimated cost of their resolution. In this case, they constitute a major part - $1.7 billion - of the Route 8 construction costs which we estimate to be $3.5 billion

  11. Implementation, barriers and challenges of smoke-free policies in hospitals in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Radwan Ghada; Loffredo Christopher A; Aziz Rasha; Abdel-Aziz Nagah; Labib Nargis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco use is a serious public health challenge in North Africa, and health professionals play a vital role in tobacco control. In Egypt, limited data are available on the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers regarding tobacco control policies. Such data are especially relevant due to Egypt’s tobacco control laws, adopted in 2007, prohibiting smoking in hospitals and other public places. This study surveyed 49 senior administrative staff, 267 physicians, 254 n...

  12. Contribution of geoelectrical resistivity sounding for paleoenvironment assessment at Saft El-Henna and Tell El-Dab'a archaeological sites, eastern Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kenawy, Abeer 1Metwaly, Mohamed 2345Gemail, Khalid 1El-Raouf, Amr Abd

    2013-09-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), a resistivity sounding technique, has been applied at two important archaeological sites in the eastern part of the Nile Delta to trace the paleoenvironment, particularly the defunct canals. Like many other archaeological sites in the Nile Delta of Egypt, these two sites have been subjected to urbanisation and agricultural invasion from the local farmers. Therefore, studying the paleoenvironment is an important task for guiding the excavation process and highlighting the importance of these two archaeological sites. The VES stations were arranged to cover the two sites, in the form of traverse profiles for tracing the subsurface sand and gravel facies that intercalated with clay deposits. The acquired VES data were processed based on the available borehole lithological information for the purpose of establishing the resistivity-depth models. Both 1D and 2D processing schemes were applied to the VES data sets to increase the confidence of the obtained results. The clay and silt deposits are characterised by low resistivity values, whereas the sand facies has a relatively high resistivity character. From the constructed cross-sections at the two sites, it was possible to define a consistent character for the clay deposits, which can be inferred as the defunct canals that supplied water to the two sites.

  13. Semi-Circular Canals Anomalies//Idiopathic Scoliosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rousie, D L; Joly, O; Salvetti, P; Vasseur, J; Berthoz, A

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to a novel modelling programme to detect anomalies in the membranous semi circular canals (SSC) of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) we found severe anomalies mainly located in lateral SCC devoted to trunk rotation and lateral deviations. We also found a specific communication between the lateral and posterior canal involving the utricular chamber which is also highly suspected in scoliosis. Key points: - Membranous semi circular canals (SCC) modelling based on MRI revealed significant anomalies in IS patients compared to normal subjects. - Frequent aplasias located in the lateral canal were found in IS. - We also discovered a, never described, abnormal communication between lateral and posterior canal. - Lateral SCC is involved in trunk rotation and lateral deviation: these movements are frequently abnormal in IS. Supports: Fondation Yves Cotrel pour la recherche en pathologie rachidienne. Institut de France, Paris. SHFJ/CEA Orsay in the frame of the cooperation through IFR 49 INSERM/CNRS France.

  14. Canalization and symmetry in Boolean models for genetic regulatory networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canalization of genetic regulatory networks has been argued to be favoured by evolutionary processes due to the stability that it can confer to phenotype expression. We explore whether a significant amount of canalization and partial canalization can arise in purely random networks in the absence of evolutionary pressures. We use a mapping of the Boolean functions in the Kauffman N-K model for genetic regulatory networks onto a k-dimensional Ising hypercube (where k = K) to show that the functions can be divided into different classes strictly due to geometrical constraints. The classes can be counted and their properties determined using results from group theory and isomer chemistry. We demonstrate that partially canalizing functions completely dominate all possible Boolean functions, particularly for higher k. This indicates that partial canalization is extremely common, even in randomly chosen networks, and has implications for how much information can be obtained in experiments on native state genetic regulatory networks

  15. Two cases of female hydrocele of the canal of nuck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Choi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The processus vaginalis within the inguinal canal forms the canal of Nuck, which is a homolog of the processus vaginalis in women. Incomplete obliteration of the processus vaginalis causes indirect inguinal hernia or hydrocele of the canal of Nuck, a very rare condition in women. Here, we report 2 cases of hydrocele of the canal of Nuck that were diagnosed with ultrasonography in both cases and magnetic resonance imaging in 1 case to confirm the sonographic diagnosis. High ligation and hydrocelectomy were conducted in both patients. In 1 patient, 14 months later, the occurrence of contralateral inguinal hernia was suspected, but did not require surgery. The other patient had a history of surgery for left inguinal hernia 11 months before the occurrence of right hydrocele of the canal of Nuck. In both cases, the occurrence of an inguinal hernia on the contralateral side was noted.

  16. Direct solutions for normal depths in curved irrigation canals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, X Y

    2013-01-01

    The normal depth is an important hydraulic element for canal design, operation and management. Curved irrigation canals including parabola, U-shaped and catenary canals have excellent hydraulic performance and strong ability of anti-frost heave, while the normal depths in the governing equations of the current common methods have no explicit analytical solution. They are only indirect methods by using trial procedures, numerical methods, and graphical tools. This study presents new direct formulas for normal depth in curved irrigation canals by applying for Marquardt method. The maximum relative error of the proposed formulas is less than 1% within the practice range by comparative analysis, and they are simple and convenient for manual calculations. The results may provide the reliable theoretical basis and useful reference for the design and operation management of irrigation canals.

  17. Estresse crônico melhora a função miocárdica sem alterar a atividade do canal-L para Ca+2 em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O estresse crônico está associado à remodelação cardíaca; entretanto, os mecanismos permanecem a ser descobertos. OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi testar a hipótese de que o estresse crônico promove disfunção cardíaca associada a depressão da atividade do canal-L para Ca2+. M MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos com 30 dias de idade (70 - 100 g foram distribuídos dentro de dois grupos: controle (C e estresse crônico (St. O estresse consistiu na imobilização durante 15 semanas, cinco vezes por semana, 1 h por dia. A função cardíaca foi avaliada pela performance do ventrículo esquerdo por meio do ecocardiograma e pelo músculo papilar ventricular isolado. A função do músculo papilar foi avaliada em condição basal e com manobras inotrópicas, como: pós-pausa e elevação na concentração extracelular de Ca2+, na presença ou ausência de um bloqueador específico de canal-L para Ca2+. RESULTADOS: O estresse ficou caracterizado por hipertrofia das glândulas adrenais, aumento nos níveis de corticosterona circulante e por hipertensão arterial. Ainda, o estresse crônico gerou hipertrofia ventricular esquerda. O estresse crônico foi capaz de melhorar a resposta no músculo papilar para manobras inotrópicas positivas. A melhora de função não esteve associada com o canal-L para Ca2+. CONCLUSÃO: O estresse produziu hipertrofia cardíaca; entretanto, nos estudos de músculo papilar isolado, as manobras inotrópicas positivas potencializaram a função cardíaca em ratos estressados, sem o envolvimento do canal-L para Ca2+. Assim os mecanismos responsáveis permanecem incertos para alterações no influxo de Ca2+.

  18. [Limit of root canal obturation by gutta percha compaction technique in single rooted teeth. Clinical data apropos of 168 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye, F; Mbaye, M; Toure, B; Dieng, O; Diallo, B

    2002-03-01

    After the introduction of the lateral compactage of gutta percha in endodontic clinic of OdontoStomatology Institute of Dakar in 1995; the immediate evaluation of the quality and the limit of the canal obturation due to a prospective study on 157 monoradicular teeth so be 168 canals (11 supplementary canals) has shown that 75% of canals are of type I of Vertucci and that the apical limit of security is reached within 80.25% of cases. The manual step back canal preparation (79.17%) and the technique of canal obturation by lateral compactage of gutta percha [(64.88%); Apical limit of security: 59.52%] permit to obtain a densities (95.83%) and homogeneous (79.57%) canal obturation. The indication of gutta percha compactage on monoradicular teeth (hermetic and tridimensional root canal filling) must avail to apical curved roots of lateral incisive, the use of adapted instruments in case of canines (31 mm) and apical stop cone on necrotic pulp teeth. PMID:12061241

  19. Regional and national radiation protection activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection activities in Egypt go back to 1957 where the Egyptian Atomic Energy Commission (EAEC) Law was issued. Radiation protection and civil defense department was one of EAEC eighth departments. Ionizing radiation law was issued in 1960 and its executive regulation in 1962. The main aim of the present work is to through some light on the current radiation protection activities in Egypt. This includes not only the role of governmental organizations but also to the non governmental organizations. Currently a new Nuclear Safety law is understudy. Regional activities such as holding the second all African IRPA regional radiation protection congress which was held in April 2007 and national training and workshops are held regularly through EAEA, AAEA and MERRCAC. (author)

  20. Implementation of the Regulatory Authority Information System in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the implementation of a bar-code-based system to track radioactive sealed sources (RSS) in Egypt, the Regulatory Authority Information System Personal Digital Assistant (RAIS PDA) Application was developed to extend the functionality of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) RAIS database by allowing users to download RSS data from the database to a portable PDA equipped with a bar-code scanner. [1, 4] The system allows users in the field to verify radioactive sealed source data, gather radioactive sealed source audit information, and upload that data to the RAIS database. This paper describes the development of the RAIS PDA Application, its features, and how it will be implemented in Egypt. (authors)