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Sample records for suez canal egypt

  1. An optimization planning technique for Suez Canal Network in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou El-Ela, A.A.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.; Allam, S.M.; Atta, Gasir M. [Electrical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Eng., Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

    2010-02-15

    This paper introduces a proposed optimization technique POT for predicting the peak load demand and planning of transmission line systems. Many of traditional methods have been presented for long-term load forecasting of electrical power systems. But, the results of these methods are approximated. Therefore, the artificial neural network (ANN) technique for long-term peak load forecasting is modified and discussed as a modern technique in long-term load forecasting. The modified technique is applied on the Egyptian electrical network dependent on its historical data to predict the electrical peak load demand forecasting up to year 2017. This technique is compared with extrapolation of trend curves as a traditional method. The POT is applied also to obtain the optimal planning of transmission lines for the 220 kV of Suez Canal Network (SCN) using the ANN technique. The minimization of the transmission network costs are considered as an objective function, while the transmission lines (TL) planning constraints are satisfied. Zafarana site on the Red Sea coast is considered as an optimal site for installing big wind farm (WF) units in Egypt. So, the POT is applied to plan both the peak load and the electrical transmission of SCN with and without considering WF to develop the impact of WF units on the electrical transmission system of Egypt, considering the reliability constraints which were taken as a separate model in the previous techniques. The application on SCN shows the capability and the efficiently of the proposed techniques to obtain the predicting peak load demand and the optimal planning of transmission lines of SCN up to year 2017. (author)

  2. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Mohammed Kishk; Mohamed Fouad Mandour; Rasha Mohamed Farghaly; Ahmed Ibrahim; Nader Attia Nemr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI) is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Meth...

  3. ASTER Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  4. Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal beaches, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal

  5. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  6. Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Analyses Techniques For Optimum Land Use Planning, West of Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study aims at using remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for optimum landuse planning of the area located north Ismaillia - south Port Said Governorates on the western side of Suez Canal. It is bounded by longitudes 32 degree 10 and 32 degree 20 E and latitudes 300 4 rand 31 0 00' N. Great part of this area is under reclamation and suffering from improper landuse. Ten geomorphologic units were recognized i.e. clay flats, decantation basins, overflow basins, sand sheets, gypsiferous flats, old river terraces, sand flats, turtle backs, lake beds, and recent river terraces. Using US Soil Taxonomy, two soil orders could be identified; Entisols and Aridisols which are represented by ten great groups: Typic Haplosalids, Typic Haplogypsids, Typic Toriorthents, Vertic Argigypsids, Vertic Torrijluvents, Vertic Natrargids ,Typic Torripsamments, Typic Torrifluvens, Aquic Torriorthents and Typic Psammaquents. Surface and ground water with respect to salinity and alkalinity hazards were investigated ,where surface water of the main canals was classified as C2-S 1, C3-S 1 ,C4-S2 and C4-S4, meanwhile the ground water was classified as C3-S 1, C3 -S 1 ,C4-S2 ,C4-SI and C4-S4 .Optimum landuse planning of the studied area includes three approaches i.e., physical planning, optimum cropping pattern and other uses. Physical planning includes designing of three geospatial models. I-treatment plant site selection model. 2-c-treatment plant site selection model. 2-central village site selection model and 3- shortest path for new Canal model. Current cropping pattern was obtained by matching the crop requirements with soil characteristics, where soils of high sand flats and low gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, alfalfa and cotton, soils of low sand flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for olive, citrus and melon, soils of low recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, cotton, corn and rice ,soils of moderately recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, potato and rice, soils of high recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, rice and cotton, soils of high gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for corn, cotton, and citrus, soils of decantation basins are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, rice, corn, cotton, soils of turtle bake are currently highly suitable (S2) for melon, potato, cotton, soils of overflow basins are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus, peach, soils of sand sheets and old river terraces are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus

  7. Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the Suez Canal Bank is going to be highlighted. (author)

  8. Heavy metals and hydrocarbon concentrations in water, sediments and tissue of Cyclope neritea from two sites in Suez Canal, Egypt and histopathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Hesham M; Shehata, Abdalla M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals and hydrocarbons are of the most common marine pollutants around the world. The present study aimed to assess the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in tissues of the snail cyclope neritea, water and sediments from two sites of the study area (Temsah lake and Suez canal) represent polluted and unpolluted sites respectively. The results showed that, the levels of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Mg and Zn) in the polluted area have reached harmful limits recorded globally. Lead in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached to 0.95 ppm, 4.54 ppm and 7.93 ppm respectively. Cadmium reached 0.31 ppm, 1.15 ppm and 3.08 ppm in the corresponding samples. Cobalt was not detected in water, but it reached 1.42 ppm and 10.36 ppm in the sediment and snails tissue respectively. Magnesium in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached 3.73 ppm, 9.44 ppm and12.6 ppm respectively. Zinc reached 0.11 ppm, 3.89 ppm and 12.60ppm in the corresponding samples. Meanwhile, hydrocarbons in the polluted area (site1) reached 110.10 ?g/L, 980.15 ?g/g and 228.00 ?g/g in water sediment and digestive gland tissues of the snails respectively. Whereas, hydrocarbons in the unpolluted area (site2) were estimated as 14.20 ?g/L, 55.60 ?g/g and 22.66 ?g/g in water, sediment and tissue of the snails respectively. The combination of histopathological image with monitoring of the metal level in the digestive gland of the present snail provides an important tool for early detection of impending environmental problems and potential public health issues. Petroleum hydrocarbons are toxic to the marine fauna when present above certain limit in the marine water. The major detoxification organ in molluscs is the digestive gland, which has been used as a bioindicator organ for toxicity assessment. The effect of high crude oil on the digestive gland tubules of exposed snails when examined microscopically reveals a series of histological changes which indicates that the cellular compensatory mechanism is activated by hydrocarbons. These changes include vacuolation and presence of pyknotic nuclei. PMID:25878794

  9. Assessment of the impact from transporting radioactive materials in the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study in Egypt, carried out as the subject of an IAEA research contract, has used the INTERTRAN Code to provide an assessment of doses to handlers and the collective dose to the population, due to transport of radioactive material through the Suez Canal. Calculations were carried out using the data appropriate to the Canal, based on actual statistics and observations and default data built into the Code. The average collective dose per year was calculated to be 4.5 man rem and doses to handlers under normal transport conditions represented 97% of the total. Use of built-in default data gave results 106 times higher. 11 refs, 16 tabs

  10. Risk assessment during transport of radioactive materials through the Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabek, M. G.; El-Shinawy, R. M. K.; Gomaa, M.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper a study for risk assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials, during the period 1986-1992, through the Suez Canal of Egypt is given. The code RADTRAN-IV was used for this study. The results of the code, for a normal case, show that the transportation of low activity materials such as uranium (U 3O 8) represent the main items that contribute significantly to the collective dose within the Suez Canal area (Port-Said, Ismailia and Suez). The values of the annual collective dose due to transportation of all radionuclide materials was found to be at a maximum in Suez town and is equal to 5.04 × 10 -8 Man-Sv for the whole populations. If we only consider the workder at the harbour (estimated to be 50 persons), the value of the annual collective dose is about 3.33 × 10 -4 Man-Sv. These values are less than the exemption value of 1 Man-Sv recommended by the IAEA. For the accident case, the following pathways are considered by the code: ground-shine, direct inhalation, inhalation of resuspended material and cloud-shine. The total values of the estimated risks for each radionuclide material are presented in table form and, in addition, health effects (genetic effects, GE, and latent cancer fatality), LCF) are discussed. The calculated values of the radiological risks are very low for the three towns, showing that no radiation-induced early deaths are to be expected.

  11. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7 Section 69...General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of...

  12. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF{sub 6}) packages tracking Suez Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF{sub 6}) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF{sub 6}) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF{sub 6}) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested.

  13. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF6) packages tracking Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF6) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF6) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF6) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested

  14. Slim-hole drilling in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the economical, operational and environmental aspects of the reduced hole size drilling now used in offshore operations in Gupco and other major petroleum companies operating in the Gulf of Suez Area Egypt. The results demonstrate that reduced hole size drilling saves cost: use of slim hole reduces time related intangible savings, fixed tangible savings, and tangible equipment savings. The advantages of small hole size and the reduction in the volume and size of oil wet drilling cuttings help minimize the environmental impact associated with the use of oil base mud. The reduction in drilling fluid volume and treatment cost, higher rates of penetration, better hole cleaning capabilities, savings in consumables (such as bits, mud, cement and diesel oil), less tangible cost, and easier equipment mobilization are interacted to produce significant operational gains. This results in savings to 40 to 50 percent of well costs versus the cost of conventional wells drilled in the same area. Although substantial savings were realized, there are elevated risks with the major one being the lack of a good contingency in the event unexpected hole condition or geological condition require an extra casing to be run prior to reaching the total depth. Effective preplanning between the drilling, exploration, and engineering to accurately define possible geologic targets and their potential drilling problems can minimize these risks associated with drilling slim holes risks associated with drilling slim holes and provide higher levels of success in meeting objectives

  15. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy G. Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  16. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Magdy G

    2014-03-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated. PMID:25685482

  17. Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.

  18. Corridor X: The challenge for Serbia's strategy toward the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duji? Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author points to a great significance of the Corridor X and the Danube-Morava-Vardar-Thessalonica bay projects. It would create conditions for connecting not only Serbia and the surrounding countries but the whole Europe with the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal. The author is of the opinion that there are good opportunities for cooperation on these projects between Serbia and the interested countries, and between the national and the world capital. These two projects, as well as the 'Južni tok' pipeline, should be one of the priority aims in the development strategy of the country.

  19. Optimal site matching of wind turbine generator: Case study of the Gulf of Suez region in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Shimy, M. [Electric Power and Machines Department, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Engineering, 1 EL-Sarayat St., Abassia, 11517 Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    During the last few years, Egypt has emerged as the leader of wind power in the Middle East and Africa. In the Gulf of Suez region, a continuously expanding large-scale grid-connected wind farm is available at Zafarana site. The Gulf of EL-Zayt site in the Gulf of Suez region is now under extensive studies related to wind power projects such as feasibility and bird migration studies. Therefore, the Gulf of Suez region is considered in this paper for optimal site matching of wind turbine generator (WTG). This paper treats the problem of site matching of WTG through improved formulation of the capacity factor. Such factor is estimated based on Weibull PDF and an accurate model for the WTG output-power-curve. Ornithological, martial, and other limitations placed on WTG hub heights in the Gulf of Suez region in Egypt are taken into account. In addition, a MATLAB based program is created to implement the presented technique of optimal site matching of WTG. Based on turbine-performance-index (TPI) maximization, optimal output-power-curve and optimal commercial WTG are determined for each candidate site in the Gulf of Suez region. Long-term performance measurements at Zafarana wind farms in comparison with the results are used to validate the presented technique and the optimality of the results. (author)

  20. Facies and sequence stratigraphy of some Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Mowafi, Ahmed; Al-Malky, Mazen

    2015-01-01

    The shallow-water siliciclastics and carbonates of the Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt represent an epiric ramp. The facies are characterized by stacked high-frequency cycles with restricted ramp to shoal margin sequences. Based on an extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, six lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. A sequence-stratigraphic analysis was carried out by integrating lithostratigraphic marker beds, facies relationships, stratigraphic cycles, and biostratigraphy. The investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. S1, is interpreted to correspond to the Late Burdigalian stage (18-16.38 My), S2 corresponds to the Late Burdigalian-Early Langhian stage (16.38-14.78 My), and S3 represents the Late Langhain-Early Serravallian stage (14.78-13.66 My). Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles.

  1. Boundary layer structure observed by Shipborne Doppler Sodar in the Suez Canal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of the boundary layer with a monostatic Sodar and other instrumentation were carried out in the Suez canal zone in January and March 1979, from the Italian m.v. Salernum on its way to and from a GARP assignment. The Sodar was operated almost continuously throughout the passages. In addition to the intensity records, an off-line Doppler analysis involving the use of the fast Fourier transform of the digitized Sodar echoes has provided the vertical component w of the velocity. In general, because of efficient filtering and of the good quality of the data, a vertical profile of w has been determined for each transmitted pulse. During a prolonged stay in the Bitter lakes vertical profiles of temperature and humidity were also obtained by deploying a tethered balloon. Large temporal and spatial temperature contrasts exist in the canal zone due to the presence of the desert and of large and small bodies of water. The ensuring phenomenology during the time of observation was quite varied. (author)

  2. Do Suez ao Canal do Panamá e além: A influência de Gamal Abdel Nasser na América Latina / From the Suez to the Panama Canal and Beyond: Gamal Abdel Nasser's influence in Latin America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Federico, Vélez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo explora a influência do líder egípcio Gamal Abdel Nasser na América Latina. Na década de 1950, uma geração de intelectuais e políticos latino-americanos viram, no sucesso do emergente nacionalismo árabe, simbolizado por Nasser, um exemplo a im [...] itar. No Panamá, a nacionalização egípcia do Canal de Suez, em 1956, desencadeou nova onda de demandas contra o controle e a posse do canal interoceânico pelos Estados Unidos. Em toda a região, frente ao aparecimento de regimes reacionários, intelectuais de esquerda enfatizaram a necessidade de um Nasser latino-americano; um caudilho moderno, que emergiria do interior das Forças Armadas imbuído de potente nacionalismo sem concessões e compromisso inegociável com o progresso social. Abstract in english This article explores the influence of the Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser in Latin America. In the 1950's, a generation of Latin American intellectuals and politicians saw in the success of the emergent Arab Nationalism, epitomized by Nasser, an examp [...] le to emulate. In Panama, the 1956 Egyptian nationalization of the Suez Canal would trigger a new wave of demands against the control and ownership of the interoceanic canal by the United States. Across the region, confronted with the onset of reactionary regimes, intellectuals from the left would call for the need of a Latin American Nasser; a modern day caudillo, that would come from the Armed Forces donned with the force of an uncompromised nationalism and a unnegotiable commitment to social progress.

  3. GC estimation of organic hydrocarbons that threaten shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawrah, M F; Ebiad, M A; Rashad, A M; El-Sayed, E; Snousy, Moustafa Gamal; Tantawy, M A

    2014-11-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination is one of the important environmental problems at petroleum-related sites, which causes critical environmental and health defects. Severe petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from coastal refinery plant was detected in a shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer is bordered by Gulf in the Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The overall objective of this investigation is to estimate the organic hydrocarbons in shallow sandy aquifers, released from continuous major point-source of pollution over a long period of time (91 years ago). This oil refinery contamination resulted mainly in the improper disposal of hydrocarbons and produced water releases caused by equipment failures, vandalism, and accidents that caused direct groundwater pollution or discharge into the gulf. In order to determine the fate of hydrocarbons, detailed field investigations were made to provide intensive deep profile information. Eight composite randomly sediment samples from a test plot were selected for demonstration. The tested plot was 50 m long?×?50 m wide?×?70 cm deep. Sediment samples were collected using an American auger around the point 29° 57' 33? N and 32° 30' 40? E in 2012 and covered an area of 2,500 m(2) which represents nearly 1/15 of total plant area (the total area of the plant is approximately 3.250 km(2)). The detected total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were 2.44, 2.62, 4.54, 4.78, 2.83, 3.22, 2.56, and 3.13 wt%, respectively. TPH was calculated by differences in weight and subjected to gas chromatography (GC). Hydrocarbons were analyzed on Hewlett-Packard (HP-7890 plus) gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). The percentage of paraffine of the investigated TPH samples was 7.33, 7.24, 7.58, 8.25, 10.25, 9.89, 14.77, and 17.53 wt%, respectively. PMID:25052330

  4. Petroleum biomarkers as environment and maturity indicators for crude oils from the Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Moharrem Bek, Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ (Egypt); Hegazi, A.H. [Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster Univ. (Germany); El-Gayar, M.S. [Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Andersson, J.T. [Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Depositional environment and maturation assessments of source rocks from the central Gulf of Suez, Egypt were evaluated utilizing the biomarker distributions in nine crude oils derived from a syn-rift tectonic sequence of the central Gulf of Suez province. No obvious variations were observed amongst the studied crude oils, suggesting that these oils are all of the same genetic type. These oils feature a predominance of oleanane, reaching 24%, and a relatively low gammacerane concentration of 10%, suggesting that these oils were derived from a terrigenous organofacies source rock with a significant angiosperm higher land plants input deposited within the marginally mature syn-rift shale of Lower Miocene Nukhul, Rudeis and Kareem formations of mixed kerogen types II-III. Maturity parameters based on various sterane isomerisation distributions, i.e. C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}). C{sub 29}{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}20S/(S+R) and TAS/(TAS+MAS) and aromatic sulfur compounds such as 4-MDBT/ 1-MDBT, 4,6/-1,4-DMBT, 2,4/-1,4-DMDBT and the DBT/phenanthrene indicate a low thermal maturation level for the generated hydrocarbons within the syn-rift lithostratigraphic succession. These similarities in geologic occurrences and biomarker characteristics suggest the possibility that the hydrocarbon expulsion could have been initiated from deeply buried Miocene source rocks and trapped within the syn-rift structures throughout the extensional faults of the central Gulf of Suez province. (orig.)

  5. Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama

    2003-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations; a secondary purpose has been to evaluate the applicability of current wind resource estimation and siting tools – in particular the European Wind Atlas methodology – to this region where the meso-scale effects are pronounced and the climatic conditions (e.g. atmospheric stability) somewhat extreme. The wind data are analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Meso-scale Model (KAMM) has been used to model the wind flow as well as to establish the magnitude and spatial variation of the wind resource in the Gulf of Suez – based on the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data set. Results are compared to long-term measurements of wind speed and direction at 13 meteorological stations along a 250-km stretch of the Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea. The simulations of the wind climate in the Gulf of Suez with the KAMM meso-scale model capture the main features of the complicated flow patterns and of the observed wind climates; however, the mean wind speeds and power densities are somewhat underestimated. The wind resource is found to be very high in the Gulf of Suez – with capacity factors of up to about 70% – at the same time the horizontal gradients of wind speed and power density are quite steep. The combination of meso- and micro-scale flow models – here the KAMM/WAsP methodology or the Numerical Wind Atlas – seem necessary in order to make reliable wind resource assessments in all parts of the Gulf of Suez.

  6. Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric parameters, the frequency of occurrence, abundance and density analyses, the seaweed C. prolifera is more frequent, abundant and dense in Suez Canal than the seagrass H. stipulacea, which is very rare. Instead C. prolifera forming extended dense meadows with percentage cover nearly 100% m–2 at many sites. This mainly happened; due to the competitive success of C. prolifera which seems to be related to its big size, high density, rapid growth, high efficiency in dim light conditions, high tolerance to severe nutrient limitation and salinity and temperature fluctuations and to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. The presence of these toxic secondary metabolites explains why C. prolifera is avoided by many of macro invertebrates as a habitat or feeding grounds.

  7. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

  8. Oligocene lacustrine tuff facies, Abu Treifeya, Cairo-Suez Road, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Motelib, Ali; Kabesh, Mona; El Manawi, Abdel Hamid; Said, Amir

    2015-02-01

    Field investigations in the Abu Treifeya area, Cairo-Suez District, revealed the presence of Oligocene lacustrine volcaniclastic deposits of lacustrine sequences associated with an Oligocene rift regime. The present study represents a new record of lacustrine zeolite deposits associated with saponite clay minerals contained within reworked clastic vitric tuffs. The different lithofacies associations of these clastic sequences are identified and described: volcaniclastic sedimentary facies represent episodic volcaniclastic reworking, redistribution and redeposition in a lacustrine environment and these deposits are subdivided into proximal and medial facies. Zeolite and smectite minerals are mainly found as authigenic crystals formed in vugs or crusts due to the reaction of volcanic glasses with saline-alkaline water or as alteration products of feldspars. The presence of abundant smectite (saponite) may be attributed to a warm climate, with alternating humid and dry conditions characterised by the existence of kaolinite. Reddish iron-rich paleosols record periods of non-deposition intercalated with the volcaniclastic tuff sequence.

  9. Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil and Beach Samples of the Western Coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two soil samples from six main coastal regions, Ain Sokhina, Al Zafrana, Ras Gharib, Ras Shokeir, Gebel El Zeit and Hurghada (all lie along the Western Coast of the Gulf of Suez ) were collected and investigated. The specific activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K as well as the anthropogenic radionuclide of 137 Cs in the samples were determined using HPGe ? - ray spectrometry. The average specific activities (range) of natural radionuclides in all samples are 9.9±0.8 ( 2.25-30.58 ) Bq kg-1 for 226 Ra, 6.6±0.9 (1.18-24.37) Bq kg-1 for 232 Th and 172.15±5.4 (5.4-587.3) Bq kg-1 for 40 K. For 137 Cs, the specific activity concentration results in most of the soil samples were below detection limits. Moreover, the radiation hazard parameters such as, absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index are also calculated

  10. Modeling petroleum generation and geochemistry of crude oils in Ras Budran field, northern gulf of Suez, Egypt: implications for prospectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)

    2005-12-01

    Petroleum generation modeling of the pre-rift succession in Ras Budran Field, which is located in the northern Gulf of Suez province in Egypt, showed that the best oil prone source rocks identified are the carbonate dominated one in the Upper Cretaceous and the Middle Eocene. These source rocks contain type-II kerogen (liptinitic materials) and progressively increase in their peak of oil generation from 0.63 and 0.83 vitrinite reflectance at a depth of about 3000 meters during the early of middle Miocene age and could have charged traps during the intra Rudeis tectonic phase. Crude oil and source rock extract interrelationships display a great similarity in their geologic occurrences and biological marker distributions. The biomarker characteristics indicate a low relative abundance of oleanane index around 5% pristane/phytane ratio<1, higher C{sub 35}/C{sub 34} homohopanes>1 and higher gammacerane indices >30%, suggesting a typical marine organic matter with source rock deposition under reducing conditions, Marginally mature stage of oil generation is indicated by the relatively low sterane isomerization of C{sub 29} {alpha}{alpha}{alpha} 20S/(S+R) and C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) of about 06 and relatively low aromatic sulfur compound rations. Crude oil geochemistry and related source rock potential define genetically related oils which ware generated from marginally mature and organic-rich carbonate source rocks, most probably from the pre-rift Duwi and Thebes formations. The best oil prone for future prospectivity would be oriented west of Ras Budran Field toward the deep marine of the Gulf, where the undiscovered reserves are expected to be accumulated within the pre-rift reservoirs in the footwalls of the normal faulted blocks. (orig.)

  11. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  12. Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Nile Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population of 57 million. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta in the middle of the scene. Across the river from Cairo can be seen the three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  13. Mapping Geological Structures In Wadi Ghoweibaarea, Northwest Gulf Of Suez, Egypt, Using Aster-Spot Data Fusion And Aster DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical and economical constraints prompt the need of obtaining lithological and structural information for development of desert areas with reduced field effort. The fusion of multi-sensor satellite data is an effective mean of exploiting the complimentary nature of different data types. This technique allows fusion of spectral-spectral information of multi-source data with high accuracy. In the present study, fusion of SPOT and ASTER data was applied to test the potentiality of this technique in mapping geological formations and structural lineaments in Wadi Ghoweiba area, to the west of the northwestern tip of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. ASTER data is characterized by a wide range of spectral bands (14 bands), while SPOT panchromatic data is characterized by high (10 meters) spatial resolution. Based on spectral characteristic analysis (SCA) of the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands of ASTER data, two false-color band-ratio images (1/3, 2/5, and 4/ 9) and (1/5, 8/9, and 4/6) in R, G, B were produced for better lithological discrimination. SPOT panchromatic image data was fused with ASTER band ratio images data using principal component (PC) and color normalization or Brovey transformation techniques. The fused images proved to be excellent for lithological discrimination. ASTER data includes bands 3N (Nadir) and 3B (Backward) that are acquired in the spectral range of near infrared region (from 0.78 to 0.86 microns) allowing extraction of digital elevation model (DEM). Thrtion of digital elevation model (DEM). Three-dimensional perspective views were generated by draping SPOT-ASTER ratio fused images over ASTER DEM. This technique was used to enhance morphologically-defined structures. The fused images and the 3D perspective views were interpreted to produce a photo geological-structural map that was verified using the available geological maps and subsequent field check. The produced photo geological map indicates that fusion of SPOT and ASTER ratio image's data is a reliable technique for geological mapping especially in remote and inaccessible areas

  14. Impact of the Human Activities on the Local Climate and Environment of the Suez City in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Fouad Kaiser

    2014-01-01

    Surface temperature and vegetation are the major land cover changes that significantly affect on the thermal environment. In the present study, remote sensing techniques were applied to identify the relationship between anthropogenic activities and the thermal environment in the North Gulf of Suez area. Results have indicated that the urbanization and agricultural expansion have been increased during the last 25 years. Although urban areas increased from 49 km2 in 1987 ...

  15. Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. ? 13C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the westher hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of time during the burial history, where the oil kitchens are deep and thermally high that are capable for generating highly mature oil. This could enhance segregation of light hydrocarbon from the heavier oil molecules prior oil expulsion and hydrocarbon generation. These constant differences in burial history and organic matter influx specifying each area are the reason of the restricted isotopic results for each one. The deviation of oil characteristics from one environmental condition to the other reflects a mixing of those cases. This clear evidence of 13C isotopic signature implies easier specification of oil origin that could be used in other locations

  16. Egypt & Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    MANSOUR, Tamer Abdel-Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

  17. A contrução do canal de Suez e a formação do conflito: a força de paz brasileira na Faixa de Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carla Santos Ferrer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ocorrerem ainda inúmeros conflitos, após 1945 as nações uniram-se em busca de paz. A ONU passou a intervir em conflitos armados sempre que achasse necessário para a manutenção da paz. Entretanto, o imperialismo havia deixado suas marcas em diversos países da África, que após a Segunda Guerra Mundial se lançaram na luta por independência. Este foi o caso de Suez. No presente artigo apresentamos nossa análise sobre a formação do conflito árabe-israelense na Faixa de Gaza e da efetiva participação brasileira, como força de paz enviada pela ONU, na Guerra dos Seis Dias.

  18. Kinematics of Plio-Pleistocene Oblique faults in the Gulf of Suez Rift, West Central Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh; Abdelmaksoud, Ashraf

    2015-04-01

    Detailed field mapping and structural studies on a segment of the Gulf of Suez rift in the west central part of Sinai Peninsula indicate the presents of a set of WNW-ESE striking dextral faults cutting another set of NNE-SSE striking sinistral fault. Both fault sets cut and obliterate an older fault set striking NW-SE. The NW-SE striking fault set is known to be of Oligo-Miocene time. The WNW-ESE and the NNE-SSW striking fault affect Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments. Therefore these two fault sets are younger. These angle between these two fault sets are in the range of 60-80 degrees and are believed to be a conjugate fault set that they are temporally associated. These observations indicate that the rifting is still active. This observation is confirmed by earthquake activity at the same area.

  19. Palynology, palynofacies and petroleum potential of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Abo Ghonaim, A. A.; Mostafa, A. R.; El Atfy, H.

    2014-07-01

    Palynological, palynofacies and organic geochemical results of 46 samples retrieved from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt are presented. The two latter formations are not dated palynologically as their lithology is not promising for palynological yield. However the Matulla Formation is dated as Turonian-Santonian age, based on the combined evidence of pollen and dinocysts. Palynofacies analysis carried out under both transmitted and fluorescent microscopy indicated that both the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations are deposited under a distal suboxic-anoxic environment. On the other hand, the Turonian-Santonian Matulla Formation supported the existence of a marginal marine deposition under dysoxic-anoxic basin to proximal suboxic-anoxic shelf environments. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and TOC results indicated that most of the studied formations are thermally immature to marginally mature and have a good petroleum potential. They are organically-rich in both oil- and gas-prone kerogen Type-II and II/III, deposited under marine reducing conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

  20. Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f0) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A0) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest

  1. Carbonate flow characteristics and log response for effective reservoir management of Miocene carbonates, the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamed, S.F. [General Petroleum Company, Rancho Dominguez, CA (United States); Ibrahim, M.; Attia, M.; Khttab, H.; Elhady, N.A. [Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    Carbonate reservoir systems are normally made up of different porosity types and lithologies. Each type of porosity has various elements that make up its pore system; pore geometry, size, size distribution and pore throat. One of the most difficult challenges is understanding the various pore and rock types through heterogeneous carbonate as there are no universal applicable techniques to recognize the different rock types and flow units through heterogeneous rock. Conventional log response and traditional log interpretation do not have the ability to discriminate the different rock types. As such, discriminating between rock types and flow units through heterogeneous carbonate, requires a compilation of all available data. This paper demonstrated how the conventional log interpretations lead to improper perforation selection and ineffective stimulation. Two cases in the same field and the same carbonate formation were presented to demonstrate how the traditional log interpretations are not adequate for proper reservoir management. A simple approach has been established to define the reservoir quality and the flow units through the Miocene carbonates located in the central part of the Gulf of Suez using a series of cross plots for the old wells logging and the production results. Moreover, the flow units from the recent cores, open hole and production logging, throughout Miocene carbonates confirm the discriminated flow units approach. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  2. The Procedures for Transit of Ships Carrying Radioactive Materials in Regional Waters and Sea Ports of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian Legislation related to the safe transport of radioactive materials, a license is required for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Egyptian territorial water and sea harbors of Egypt including Suez Canal. The License is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the license have been developed according to the International and Egyptian Legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive material in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive material in the Egyptian territorial water and its sea harbors including Suez Canal according to the national and international regulations

  3. Excavation of a Qattara Canal in Egypt: two-dimensional nuclear cratering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of single-charge nuclear cratering calculations were performed. Results from these calculations are being used in a study of the technical feasibility of the Qattara Project. The project would use nuclear explosives with yields ranging between about 200 and 1750 kilotons to excavate a canal about 73 km long connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the below sea-level Qattara Depression in northwestern Egypt. Computer simulations of explosive excavations were carried out at four locations near the proposed Qattara alignment. Holes were drilled in Egypt at these locations to depths of 372, 514, 632, and 701 m, respectively, to provide geophysical information needed to properly characterize each site for computer calculations. The calculated results for ground motion, particle velocity, and crater dimensions for these nuclear excavations are presented

  4. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    OpenAIRE

    El-gazzaz, Galal H.; El-elemi, Azza H.

    2010-01-01

    Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up w...

  5. Environmental studies on water quality of the Ismailia Canal/Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Ralph [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Ramadan, Abou Bakr [Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    The inorganic chemical water quality of the Ismailia Canal / Egypt was studies in 2003 and 2004 at seventeen different sites from the main canal between Cairo and Ismailia. Additional samples were taken from selected discharges and groundwater sources. As the Ismailia Canal is fed by water from the Nile some samples were taken from the Nile near Aswan for comparative reasons too. Water samples were analysed for sum parameters, salts, heavy metals and natural radioactivity. Especially in the Greater Cairo Area due to different uncontrolled discharges pH and conductivity changed significantly when proceeding from up to downstream sites. The water temperature increased significantly during the first 20 km. The main reason was the discharge of warm water used to cool machinery in the industrial suburb of Cairo. Iron, Zinc and Manganese were found in low concentrations. Because of dilution effects the amounts of dissolved salts were still below the German ''Trinkwasserverordnung''. A higher total organic carbon level indicated the presence of organic contaminants however. The natural radioactivity level was in the normal range. (orig.)

  6. Microcystin production in benthic mats of cyanobacteria in the Nile River and irrigation canals, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Zakaria A; el-Sharouny, Hassan M; Ali, Wafaa S M

    2006-04-01

    The present study describes for the first time the species composition and toxicity of benthic cyanobacteria forming mats on the Nile River and irrigation canal sediments in Egypt. A total of 19 species of cyanobacteria were isolated from these mats during this study. The toxicity of the extracts of these species was investigated using Artemia salina assay, mouse bioassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that all the 19 benthic species isolated from cyanobacterial mats, were toxic to A. salina. Two of these species, namely Calothrix parietina and Phormidium tenue, caused toxicity to mice with neurotoxic signs appeared within 12 h after injection. Whereas, five species showed hepatotoxic effects to mice within 6 h after injection. The results of ELISA showed that all the extracts which had hepatotoxic effects to mice, contained high levels of microcystins with concentrations ranging from 1.6 to 4.1 mg g(-1) dry weight. HPLC analysis for heptotoxic extracts revealed that these extracts contained two peaks corresponding to microcystin-YR and -LR with different proportions. This study suggests that benthic species should be considered along with planktonic species during monitoring of toxic cyanobacteria in water sources, particularly the Nile river which is the main source of drinking water in Egypt. PMID:16564062

  7. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

  8. Wind farm planning at the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, N.E.; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Clausager, I. [Hedeselskabet A/S, Viborg (Denmark); Pagh Jensen, F. [National Environmental Res., Copenhagen (Denmark); Georgy, L.; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt, (Egypt)

    2004-11-01

    The Wind Atlas for Egypt project is an element in a national effort to provide the best possible basis for planning of future environmentally sustainable development and utilization of wind energy resources and technology in Egypt. The present report compiles the data, information and recommendations available for planning of wind farm projects in the Gulf of Suez. (au)

  9. Habitat and Plant Communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt II. Irrigation and Drainage Canal Bank Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Mashaly, I. A.; El-habashy, I. E.; El-halawany, E. F.; Omar, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides quantitative analysis of the vegetation and spatial variations of environmental factors controlling the abundance and distribution of vegetation in canal and drain banks in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Five vegetation groups have been recognized: group A codominated by Arundo donax and Polygonum equisetiforme, group B codominated by Rumex dentatus and Polypogon monspeliensis, group C dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, group D codominated by Phragmites australis a...

  10. A new cascaded hydropower plants in El Sheikh Zayed Canal in the new valley in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosny Fahmy, Faten [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    With the streaks of the light looming in the horizon, heralding the dawn of the 21st century and the closing of the 20th century, the whole people of the world specially the sons of Egypt are full of hopes and dreams. The south Egypt development project is translation of this concept viewed from comprehensive strategic vision embracing a number of development fields covering activities in the field of agriculture, industry, transport, communication and roads as well as social aspects services such as health and education that would drive Egypt to the horizons of the 21st century. This new projects are: Toshka, New Valley or New Delta, Sheik Zayed which will feed more than a million feddans, transforming the desert into a green carpet, turning the wheels of industries and shedding off the stiffing nightmare of the choking narrow valley. This paper presents a new idea and application to know to use the water flow from the Nasser lake after raising and pumping with certain speed according to the ground slope. A series of hydro power plants are designed on certain interested points on El Sheikh Zayed Canal to generate electrical energy which will be required to feed several projects in this new valley. The results show the comparison between these eight hydro power plants w.r.t: it's generated electrical energy water release, water contents and the head of water inside each one. Also, the study contains the mathematical models of each hydropower station and the mathematical description of each reservoir, barrages and power stations. [Spanish] Con los rayos de luz asomandose en el horizonte, anunciando el amanecer del siglo XXI y el ocaso del siglo XX, todas las personas del mundo, especialmente los hijos de Egipto, estan llenos de suenos y esperanza. El proyecto de desarrollo del sur de Egipto traduce este concepto desde una vision estrategica integral que incluye un gran numero de areas de desarrollo que abarcan actividades en el campo de la agricultura, la industria, el transporte, las comunicaciones y los caminos, asi como servicios sociales salud y educacion, los cuales dirigiran a Egipto a los horizontes del siglo XXI. Estos nuevos proyectos son los de Toshka, Nuevo Valle o Nuevo Delta y Sheikh Zayed que alimentaran mas de un millon de almas, transformando el desierto en una alfombra verde, moviendo las ruedas de las industrias y despojandose de la pesadilla de muerte sobre un asfixiante valle estrecho. Este articulo presenta una nueva idea y aplicacion para saber utilizar el flujo del agua desde el lago Nasser despues de elevar y bombear a cierta velocidad de acuerdo al declive del suelo. Una serie de plantas hidroelectricas estan disenadas en ciertos puntos de interes en el Canal El Sheikh Zayed para generar energia electrica que se necesitara para alimentar varios proyectos en este nuevo valle. Los resultados muestran la comparacion entre estas ocho plantas hidroelectricas o sea: Su generacion electrica, su liberacion de agua por energia electrica generada, almacenamiento de agua y carga hidraulica de cada una. El estudio contiene tambien modelos matematicos de cada planta hidroelectrica y la descripcion matematica de cada embalse, represas y planta electrica.

  11. Morgan oilfield. [Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The Egyptian General Petroleum Corp. in partnership with the Pan American UAR Oil Co. (now Amoco Egypt Oil Co.) discovered a major offshore oil field, Morgan, in the Gulf of Suez Basin, in April 1965. The oil was found in Miocene sands in 2 reservoirs. The upper one is in the Hammam Faraun member of the Belayim Formation. This reservoir has limited reserves and has been put on production since Jan. 1972. The lower reservoir is the Kareem Formation and is more prolific than the upper one and has been on production since April 1967. The geology of the field is of special interest with respect to the S. Gharib Formation salt movements and the post-depositional erosion at the end of the Kareem Formation deposition, both of which are discussed. Over one billion barrels of stock tank reserves is estimated to exist in the present field area which is approx. 11,400 acres (46.2 sq km). (10 refs.)

  12. Characterization of Oligocene Sands and Gravels, Wad Ghoweiba, Northwest Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Using Spectral Signature and Principal Component Analysis of Terra Aster Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multi-spectral imager that was launched on board NASA's TERRA Spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER covers a wide spectral region with 14 bands from the visible to thermal infrared with high spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions. An additional backward looking near-infrared band provides stereo coverage. The spatial resolution varies with wavelength; 15 m in the visible and near infrared (VNIR, 3 bands), 30 m in the short wave infrared (SWIR, 6 bands), and 90 m in the thermal infrared (TIR, 5 bands). Each ASTER scene covers an area of 60 X60 km. In the present study the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands have been used to discriminate the Oligocene sands and gravels from the surrounding rock units that are exposed near the mouth of Wadi Ghoweiba, at the northwestern side of the Gulf of Suez. Spectral reflectance curves of 9 rock units were extracted from ASTER data and were subsequently examined. The spectral reflectance curve for the Oligocene sands and gravels shows a spectacular unique behavior compared to the spectral reflectance curves of the other 8 rock units. Based on the spectral reflectance behavior, ASTER bands 1, 2 and 5 are found to be the most suitable bands for discriminating the Oligocene sands and gravels from the surrounding 8 rock units. Therefore, the highest percentages of information of these bands were quantitatively extracted from the principal component (P extracted from the principal component (PC) analysis using Eigen matrix. The highest percentages of information contributed by bands 1,2 and 5 were found to be in PC2, PC6 and PC9, respectively. A principal component color image (PC2, PC6 and PC9 in B, G, R) showed the Oligocene sands and gravels in a characteristic orange color. This result was verified using the available geological maps followed by field check. The method used here is effective for exploring new sites of the Oligocene sands and gravels that are being extensively used as raw materials for concrete and other building purposes

  13. Vegetation Analysis along Irrigation and Drain Canals in Damietta Province, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Mashaly; E.F. El-Halawany; Omar, G. (Ghadeer)

    2001-01-01

    The present study provides an investigation of the vegetation analysis, a quantitative assessment of the main soil characteristics and an evaluation of the relationships between the major identified vegetation groups and environmental attributes along the canals and drains in Damietta Province. Vegetation and soil were sampled in 65 stands representing the net of canals, drains and the shoreline of Lake Manzala at the borderland of Damietta area. Relative values of cover and density were dete...

  14. Impact of human activities on Aluminum contamination in the drainage canals in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Alne-na-ei A. A.; Authman M.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is released into Sabal drainage canal through the emissions of recycled aluminum industries, the discharge of stations of water purification that contain huge amount of aluminum sulfate (alum) and the extensive use of clay in the industry of packed bricks. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of human activities on Al accumulation on water and fish consumption. The field and laboratory studies of water samples and different fish tissues (muscles, liver and ovary) revea...

  15. Habitat and Plant Communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt II. Irrigation and Drainage Canal Bank Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Mashaly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides quantitative analysis of the vegetation and spatial variations of environmental factors controlling the abundance and distribution of vegetation in canal and drain banks in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Five vegetation groups have been recognized: group A codominated by Arundo donax and Polygonum equisetiforme, group B codominated by Rumex dentatus and Polypogon monspeliensis, group C dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, group D codominated by Phragmites australis and Echinochloa stagnina and group E dominated by Typha domingensis. The total number of weeds recorded in the study area is 113 species belonging to 36 families. Therophytes (48.67% and geophytes (14.16% are the most frequent life-forms. The major chorotypes in the study area are Mediterranean (42.48%, Cosmpolitan (19.47%, Pantropical (13.27% and Palaeotropical (12.39%. The relationships between the vegetation gradients and edaphic factors showed that, potassium and sodium cations, potassium adsorption ratio, chlorides, sodium cation adsorption ratio, pH value and water-holding capacity are the main controlling edaphic factors.

  16. Habitat and plant communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt. II. Irrigation and drainage canal bank habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaly, I A; El-Habashy, I E; El-Halawany, E F; Botany, G Omar

    2009-06-15

    The present study provides quantitative analysis of the vegetation and spatial variations of environmental factors controlling the abundance and distribution of vegetation in canal and drain banks in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Five vegetation groups have been recognized: group A codominated by Arundo donax and Polygonum equisetiforme, group B codominated by Rumex dentatus and Polypogon monspeliensis, group C dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, group D codominated by Phragmites australis and Echinochloa stagnina and group E dominated by Typha domingensis. The total number of weeds recorded in the study area is 113 species belonging to 36 families. Therophytes (48.67%) and geophytes (14.16%) are the most frequent life-forms. The major chorotypes in the study area are Mediterranean (42.48%), Cosmpolitan (19.47%), Pantropical (13.27%) and Palaeotropical (12.39%). The relationships between the vegetation gradients and edaphic factors showed that, potassium and sodium cations, potassium adsorption ratio, chlorides, sodium cation adsorption ratio, pH value and water-holding capacity are the main controlling edaphic factors. PMID:19777781

  17. Impact of human activities on Aluminum contamination in the drainage canals in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alne-na-ei A. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is released into Sabal drainage canal through the emissions of recycled aluminum industries, the discharge of stations of water purification that contain huge amount of aluminum sulfate (alum and the extensive use of clay in the industry of packed bricks. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of human activities on Al accumulation on water and fish consumption. The field and laboratory studies of water samples and different fish tissues (muscles, liver and ovary revealed that water samples had higher levels of Aluminum if compared to those collected from other localities. Tissue samples of the fish, Tilapia zillii had higher levels of Al which exceeded the international permissible limits. From a public health standpoint, the increased concentrations of Al in water samples and the fish tissues in the are is a matter of concern. Therefore, the research suggests the elimination of illegal aluminum industries and replace the smaller and old stations of sewage treatment by another modern type capable of collecting and treating huge amount of sewage, with high efficiency of treatment and purification.

  18. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nmmon fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection agency on water quality criteria (W.Q.C.)

  19. Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (?3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

  20. Volcano-sedimentary characteristics in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez District, Egypt: Example of dynamics and fluidization over sedimentary and volcaniclastic beds by emplacement of syn-volcanic basaltic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, E. A.; Abdel Motelib, A.; Hammed, M. S.; El Manawi, A. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study reports on lava-sediment interaction focusing on the Neogene volcano-sedimentary sequence in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez district, as a detailed example. The dynamic lava-sediment interactions as peperites happen on a variety of scales from simple sediment interbeds with the extrusive and intrusive basaltic rocks and hydrothermal products at a large scale down to complex breccia horizons and bulbous lava-sediment contacts at small scales. They have been identified for the first time at the Abu Treifiya Basin and can only be used as widespread paleoenvironmental indicators with limitations to demonstrate magma and surface water non-explosive interaction. The study of peperite is important in establishing broad contemporaneity of magmatism and sedimentation along with explosive hydrovolcanic hazards and this finding is significant for the reconstruction of evolution in the study area. The basaltic lava peperites and sedimentary rocks are up to 350 m thick and form a continuous stratigraphic section that is distributed regionally in the study area over a distance of 100 km. Five types of peperites are described and interpreted as resulting from basaltic lava bulldozed into wet, unconsolidated sediments at their basal contacts. Evidence that the sediments were unconsolidated or poorly consolidated and wet when the lava flowed over them include vesiculated sediment, sediment in vesicles and fractures in lava flow and in juvenile clasts in the peperite and soft sediment deformation. All peperites in this study could be described as blocky or fluidal on the basis of juvenile clast, but other shapes occur and mixtures of different clast shapes are also found regardless of the host sediment. Blocky and fluidal clasts in the peperite display progressive disintegration, suggesting decreasing temperature and increasing viscosity during fragmentation. Abundance of blocky clasts with respect to fluidal clasts in the peperites indicates that the fluidal emplacement and low-volume sediment fluidization in the early stages were immediately followed by quench fragmentation due to the high viscosity of the magma. Sediment fluidization, formation of vapor films, magma-sediment density contrasts, and explosive fragmentation as well as magma properties such as composition, viscosity, and vesicularity are the main mechanisms invoked to generate the peperites. Variously combining these contrasting features to varying degrees may form diverse juvenile clast shapes in peperitic domains. During cooling, the larger fluidal shaped clasts settled to the base of the sequence, through the saturated sediment, producing the vertical (stratigraphic) grading now preserved. Grading occurred, essentially, in situ during peperite formation and cannot be attributed to remobilization or mass flow. Peperites occur in phreatomagmatic intra-crater/conduit or vent-filling deposits and along contacts between sediment and intrusions, extrusion, and hot volcaniclastic deposits in two environments. Carbonate-lava interactions occur in shallow marine which changes to subaerial fluvio-lacustrine environment through the mingling between lava flows and siliciclastic sediments during the onset of basaltic volcanism. This work suggests that the Abu Treifiya Basin may be an important local for the study of subvolcanic phreatomagmatic processes and associated phenomena.

  1. Occult HBV infection status among chronic hepatitis C and hemodialysis patients in Northeastern Egypt: regional and national overview

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohamed, Mandour; Nader, Nemr; Atef, Shehata; Rania, Kishk; Dahlia, Badran; Nashaat, Hawass.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is considered to be one of the major risks for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis (HD) and patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study compared the prevalence of OBI among these two [...] high-risk groups in the Suez Canal region, Northeastern Egypt, to obtain a better national overview of the magnitude of OBI in this region. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 165 HD patients and 210 chronic HCV-infected patients. Anti-HCV antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HCV RNA was detected using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and HBV was detected using a nested PCR. RESULTS: All patients were negative for HBsAg. A total of 49.1% and 25.2% of the patients in the HD and HCV groups, respectively, were anti-HBc-positive. In addition, more anti-HBs-positive patients were detected in the HD group compared to the HCV group (52.1% and 11.4%, respectively). Three cases were positive for HBV DNA in the HD group, while eighteen positive cases were detected in the HCV group. Both study groups showed significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level as well as anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV-DNA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was more prevalent among chronic HCV patients than HD patients in the Suez Canal region, Egypt, with rates of 8.5% and 1.8%, respectively. However, more precise assessment of this infection requires regular patient follow-up using HBV DNA detection methods.

  2. Tracing Recharge Sources and Salinization Processes of the Quaternary Aquifer Using Stable Isotopes and Hydrogeochemistry, South of the Ismailia Canal, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. M. A. M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2014-12-01

    The reclamation policy to alleviate overpopulation problem of the Nile Delta, Egypt, has created both quality and quantity problems for the Quaternary aquifer beneath the reclaimed areas. It is partly because of the less well managed way for land use planning and lack of the environmental impact assessment at least at the early stage of the development. A stable isotopic ( ? 18O and ? 2H) and hydrochemical investigation was carried out in the reclaimed area at the south of the Ismailia Canal to identify recharge sources, and mixing and salinization processes of the Quaternary aquifer. On the basis of the isotopic data, four end-members, i.e., the Quaternary aquifer, the Miocene aquifer, surface freshwater and wastewater ponds were found to be mixed in different degree in the study area. As a consequence of mixing with groundwater in the Miocene aquifer which shows highly saline and depleted isotopic signature, groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer was found to have a depleted isotopic trend towards south, i.e., toward structural highs. On the contrary, northward trends of the enriched isotopic values and lower EC values in the Quaternary aquifer indicated the mixing with surface water. Local abnormal EC values at an agricultural area and the vicinity of well field were considered to be related to the excessive pumping for irrigation and reclamation activities which in turn resulted in upconing of deeper saline groundwater. Mixing pattern also suggested local contribution of the wastewater ponds to the recharge process, which is consistent with the previously reported heavy metal contamination in the vicinity of these ponds, indicating the necessity to protect and remediate the subsurface water resources in the area.

  3. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step forward in the application of the wind atlas methodology in Egypt. Not only does it provide a coherent and consistent overview of the wind energy resource over the entire land (and sea) area of Egypt, the results of the mesoscale modelling are further available in a database (numerical wind atlas) which may be employed directly for detailed wind resource assessments and siting of wind turbines and wind farms. Utilising this database together with elevation maps derived from the Space Shuttle Topography Mission and land-use maps constructed from satellite imagery, the wind resource and likely power production of a given wind farm can be estimated in a matter of hours – anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published in a Wind Atlas for Egypt.

  4. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Dupont; Perrine Ferauge; Romina Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recruitm...

  5. 3D prestack depth migration in the Gulf of Suez; A case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western, P.G. (Unocal Thailand Ltd, Central Plaza Office Building, 1693 Phaholyothin Road, Bangkok (Thailand)); Ball, G.J. (Unocal Science and Technology Div., Brea, CA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Seismic reflection data in the southern Gulf of Suez, offshore Egypt, are commonly severely affected by shallow velocity inhomogeneities in the form of diapiric salt bodies, and depth migration techniques must be used in order to image the presalt structure correctly. Frequently the diapir and the underlying prospective structure are three dimensional rather tan two dimensional and thus require 3D techniques to resolve them. In addition, the severity of the problem is sometimes such that the common midpoint (CMP) stack assumptions are invalid and prestack depth migration is therefore required. In 1990, Unocal developed a practical 3D prestack depth-migration scheme, which was applied to a data set in the Gulf of Suez. The prospect was subsequently drilled and results proved the effectiveness of the technique. This paper describes the use of the technique in the form of a case history. It is expected that the technique will be routinely used to solve similar problems.

  6. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal H El-Gazzaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62 and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48; 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12; Hepatitis B (HBV-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54% developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

  7. Prevalence of female genital cutting among Egyptian girls / Prévalence des mutilations génitales féminines chez les filles en Egypte / Prevalencia de la mutilación genital femenina entre las niñas en Egipto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammed A, Tag-Eldin; Mohsen A, Gadallah; Mahmoud N, Al-Tayeb; Mostafa, Abdel-Aty; Esmat, Mansour; Mona, Sallem.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El concepto de mutilación genital femenina (MGF) abarca en general las prácticas tradicionales que entrañan la ablación parcial o total de los genitales externos femeninos por razones no terapéuticas, culturales o de otro tipo. En Egipto, el resultado de la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud r [...] ealizada en 2000 reveló que un 97% de las mujeres casadas participantes en la encuesta habían sufrido MGF. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó un método de muestreo aleatorizado polietápico para seleccionar los sitios. Primero, el país se dividió en cinco zonas geográficas: área metropolitana de El Cairo, Bajo Egipto, Alto Egipto, Sinaí y región del Canal de Suez. Segundo, en cada prefectura se seleccionaron al azar dos distritos educativos (excepto Luxor). En cada uno de los distritos seleccionados, las escuelas se clasificaron en primarias, preparatorias y secundarias. En cada nivel educativo, las escuelas se clasificaron en rurales, urbanas, públicas y privadas. El número total de mujeres entrevistadas fue de 38 816. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto era del 50,3%. El porcentaje era de un 46,2% en las escuelas públicas urbanas, 9,2% en las escuelas privadas urbanas, y 61,7% en las escuelas rurales. Los niveles educativos de la madre y el padre estaban inversamente relacionados con la MGF (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Female genital cutting (FGC) is the collective name given to traditional practices that involve partial or total cutting away of the female external genitalia whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. In Egypt, the result of the Demographic Health Survey in 2000 revealed that [...] 97% of married women included in the survey experienced FGC. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt. METHODS: Multistage random technique was applied for site selection. First, Egypt was divided into five geographical areas; Greater Cairo, Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Sinai and Suez Canal Region. Second, from each governorate, two educational districts were selected randomly (except Luxor). In each of the selected districts, the schools were divided into primary, preparatory and secondary schools. In each education stage, the schools were divided into rural, urban, government and private. The total number of females interviewed was 38 816. FINDINGS: The prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt was 50.3%. The prevalence of FGC was 46.2% in government urban schools, 9.2% in private urban schools and 61.7% in rural schools. Educational levels of mother and father were negatively associated with FGC (P

  8. Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A.M.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

  9. Assets and liabilities : refugees from Hungary and Egypt in France and in Britain, 1956-1960

    OpenAIRE

    De Aranjo, Alexandre G. A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the reception and treatment of the refugees from Hungary and Egypt who arrived in France and in Britain after the Hungarian revolution and the Suez crisis. The thesis argues that the reception of the refugees from Hungary and from Egypt was primarily linked to the French and British immigration policies and influenced by the Cold War context. The first part deals with the creation of the Hungarian refugees and their reception in France and Britain. Chapter two giv...

  10. Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m2, and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  11. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Dupont

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recruitment and employment access, training and career development, and well-being in the workplace. These HRM practices seem important to analyse given the context in which companies will have to evolve: ageing of the population, risks of labour shortage, or the war for talent. Our results imply that CSR has a positive influence on employees’ advocacy role (Ulrich & Brockbank, 2005 because the Group integrates concerns regarding equal treatment, health and safety, and diversity. We also believe that GDF SUEZ Group desires to develop its brand further by presenting itself as a responsible employer to harvest the benefits that flow from that label.

  12. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity-producing wind turbine installations. The regional wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The numerical wind atlas database, in combination with SRTM 3 elevation data and satellite imagery, provide the means for immediate WAsP wind resource assessments anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published in a Wind Atlas for Egypt.

  13. GdF Suez, the real energy champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During summer 2010, France discovered that she owned a second energy giant, GdF Suez, ranked number two as a power producer just behind EdF, but world number one in the energy domain thanks to the taking over of International Power (UK) in 2010. Until now, GdF Suez and EdF were confronting with each other in a fair game, keeping their respective seizure on their historical monopolies, gas for GdF Suez and electricity for EdF. From now onward the two giants have started an open fight on all markets, with the exception of nuclear energy for which the French government continues to favour EdF. This paper recalls the main steps of the last 15 years of GdF Suez progress, from the Suez investment bank in 1995 to the merger with GdF in 2008 and the acquisition of International Power in 2010. Then it makes a comparative portrait of both GdF Suez and EdF energy groups with their respective advantages and, finally, it ends with an interview of G. Mestrallet, president of GdF Suez who explains the strategy of his group. (J.S.)

  14. Root canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    A root canal is a dental procedure to remove dead or dying nerve tissue and bacteria from inside a tooth. ... A root canal is done if you have an infection that affects the nerve in the root of a tooth. ...

  15. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m3. According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m3, placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption syptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range of economic and political measures, are seeking to favour natural gas exports to restore the balance of payments in the hydrocarbons sector and to establish the position of Egypt as a gas supply hub for the Middle East. Hence, to guarantee a market for Egyptian gas, the main foreign operators present in Egypt have proposed the following export projects: Agip is promoting the idea of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Israel; BP Amoco has submitted a bid for the construction of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan; British Gas has recently been authorized to set up the Egypt LNG company, in partnership with an Egyptian company, to sell the gas produced on offshore fields discovered in early 1999 off the Western Delta, probably in the form of LNG; Shell intends to submit a similar request. (authors)

  16. Offensive strategy: Suez wants to hustle EdF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Electrabel, its new energy pole, the private company Suez is looking for multiple ways of entry to reinforce its positions in France in the gas and electric power sectors in the prospect of the complete opening of energy markets in 2004. This article analyzes the strategy of Suez to become the most credible challenger of EdF, the French historical national electric utility: reorganization of its industrial and commercial activities, gain of new clients and definition of a new strategy for the gas market. (J.S.)

  17. Realizm in the International Relations in the Example of French Invasion of Egypt //// M?s?r'?n Frans?zlar Taraf?ndan ??gali Örne?inde Uluslarras? ?li?kilerde Realizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erdemir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Osmanl? (Ottoman State struggled for its very existenceagainst the imperialist powers’ partition plans, particularly, in thenineteenth century. The imperialist competition of the Europeanpowers on Egypt influenced on the Osmanl? rulers’ internationalpolicies. Egypt was an important place in the region andinternational relations from the ancient to the modern periods. Theopening of the Suez Canal increased this geo-political significancefurther, which fuelled the confrontation among the Europeanpowers. The Osmanl? rulers’ policies regarding on Egypt wereadapted to the internal and external developments.Egypt’s proximity to the French colonies in the north andcentral African countries were important for France as well as forGreat Britain. Egypt shortened the way to India and South EastAsian colonies, which made Egypt a focal point for France, Russiaand Britain. European power struggles in Europe and other partsof the world were reflected in their Egyptian policies and itsimmediate region. The Osmanl? authorities were well aware of thefact that the Armed forces could not be able to deal with all theseimperialist powers at a time. Therefore, policies were finely tuned‘balanced policies’ one to another between the imperialist powers’expectations and confrontations. Egypt with its all specialities wasperfectly used for the policies of the Osmanl? State and others.This study discusses the confrontation and power strugglesof the imperialist powers for Egypt, and how the Osmanl? Stateresponded to such policies. What kinds of roles Egypt played in thecreation of the Osmanl? policies towards the European powers?What would be beneficial outcome of such policies for the Osmanl?State and Egypt? The study highlighted that how an internalmatter can be an international issue to determine the influential powers’ policies. How international interests creates internationalconflicts and alliances as in the examples at the beginning of thenineteenth century in Egypt. //// Osmanl? Devleti özellikle 19ncu yüzy?lda emperyalistgüçlerin bölme planlar?na kars? hayatta kalma mücadelesivermistir. Avrupal? Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerindeki yar?slar?Osmanl? yönetiminin uluslararas? politikalar?n? etkilemistir. M?s?r,Eskiça?’dan günümüze bölgede ve uluslararas? iliskilerde önemlibir yere sahiptir. Süveys kanal?n?n aç?lmas? M?s?r’?n jeopolitikönemini art?r?rken Avrupal? güçlerin aralar?ndaki mücadeleleri deateslemistir. Osmanl?’n?n M?s?r ile ilgili politikalar? da içte ved?sar?da meydana gelen yeni gelismelere göre sürekli uyarlanm?st?r.M?s?r’?n Kuzey ve Orta Afrika’daki Frans?z kolonilerine olanyak?nl??? Fransa için önemli oldu?u kadar Büyük Britanya için dehayatidir. M?s?r’?n Hindistan ve Güney Do?u Asya ülkelerindekisömürgelere giden yolu k?saltmas? Fransa, Rusya ve ?ngiltere içinönemli bir ilgi oda?? haline gelmesine sebep olmustur. Avrupal?güçlerin Avrupa ve dünyan?n di?er bölgelerindeki mücadeleleriM?s?r politikalar?nda yans?maktad?r. Osmanl? eskisi gibi silahl?kuvvetlerinin emperyalist güçlere kars? ayn? anda mukabeleedemeyece?i gerçe?inin fark?ndad?r. Bu yüzden oldukça hassasayarlar gerektiren “denge politikalar?” Emperyalist güçlerinbeklentileri ve çat?smalar? dikkate al?narak ayarlanm?st?r. BöyleceM?s?r kendine has bütün özellikleriyle Osmanl? Devleti’nin özel vegenel ç?karlar? için de?erlendirilmistir.Bu çal?sma, Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerinde güçmücadeleleri ve çat?smalar?n? ele al?rken Osmanl? Devleti’nin bupolitikalara nas?l cevap verdi?ini incelemektedir. Avrupal? güçlerekars? Osmanl? politikalar?nda M?s?r nas?l bir rol oynam?st?r? Bupolitikalar?n Osmanl? Devleti ve M?s?r için olumlu sonuçlar? nelerolmustur? Çal?smada, bir iç meselenin etkili güçlerinmüdahaleleriyle nas?l bir uluslararas? konu haline getirildi?i vepolitikalar? etkiledi?i gösterilmektedir. Uluslararas? ç?karlar

  18. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  19. Eternal Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available in English, French, and Arabic, Eternal Egypt is a website with a wealth of information on "the artifacts, characters, and places that together comprise the wonder that is Eternal Egypt." The website is organized so visitors can choose between a guided tour, begin with one of the cultural highlights (such as The Temple of Luxor or Part of a Wall of a Tomb), or simply explore and discover. A key feature of the website is the context provided in relation to various topics, so that a visitor can learn about the artifacts, but also how they connect to other people, places and artifacts, and where they fit in terms of an overall timeline and on a multimedia map of Egypt. Topics include: Arts and Crafts (Libraries, Architecture, Paintings and Relief, Sculpture, Humanities, Crafts), Science (Archaeology, Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine, Social Science, Engineering), Agriculture (Irrigation, Herding, Farming, Crops), Commerce and Trade (Transportation), Government (Leaders, Seats of Power, Theocracy, Military), and Society and Culture (Family, Food and Drinks, Clothing, Sports and Entertainment, Religion and Spirituality).

  20. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing on its superb collection of materials from archaeological excavations, the British Museum presents this extensive learning resource on Ancient Egypt. The site features texts, images, and interactive elements detailing Egyptian daily life, mythology, timekeeping, geography, architecture, governance, business, writing, and rituals of death. The material is clearly and simply written so that the site would be useful for primary school students, but it is informative and substantial enough to be of interest to college students and curious adults as well. Thoroughly hyperlinked and replete with images that can be enlarged for detailed perusal, the site goes beyond the typical teaser Websites so often posted by lesser museums.

  1. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  2. Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte

    OpenAIRE

    El Ayouti M. K.

    2006-01-01

    Accumulations of oil were first known in Egypt since 1968, some ten years after the famous Drake well in Pennsylvania in August 1859. These oil accumulation were found as seepages in tunnels dug for extracting sulphur in the area of Gemsa on the West coast of the Gulf of Suez. Since that time exploration activites were conducted on and off throughout a long history of operations which witnessed the use of the latest developments in exploration tools and techniques. So far, the main oil provin...

  3. Canal rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than fifty years the German physicist Eugen Goldstein was engaged in an obscure fringe field of physics, on which he has impressed like no other: Electrical gas discharges. Goldstein describes in this book his discovery of canal rays, which has given important impulses for modern atomic physics. For his research Goldstein received the Prix Hebert of the Parisienne Academie des sciences, the Hughes medal, and was repeatedly proposed for the Nobel prize. In Germany for the Jewish scientist the acknowledgement remained far-reachingly refused until after the war.

  4. Geodiversity assessment of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy; Farghaly, Enas

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a triangular plateau lies in NE corner of Egypt, its head in the south at Ras Mohammed and its other sides between the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez and the triangle base on the Mediterranean Sea. Sinai Peninsula is the most attractive region from the geological, geomorphological and environmental stand points of view because it displays a variety of simple and complex structural and landforms, (Abu Al-Izz,1971). In general, Sinai Peninsula reflects all geologic column of Egypt. Geomorphologically, Sinai Peninsula comprises many geomorphologic units such as mountains blocks, cliffs, isolated hills, wadies, hogbacks, questas, sand ridges, muddy and marshy lands, lakes and shorelines. This paper aims to define and measure geodiversity assessment index of the Sinai Peninsula as the quantitative variety of geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features. Some geodiversity indices maps for the above features produced for Sinai Peninsula were based on the methodology presented by (Pereira et al, 2012), it depends upon calculate of some geodiversity elements for overlay grid of the study area, which divided topographic, geological maps of the Sinai Peninsula with scale 1:500000 and satellite image (landsat 8, 27th October 2014, 12 bands, 30m). It divided into 743 squares (10x10 km), and some partial geodiversity indices such as geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil indices were calculated by counting the number of each element inside each square, then the overall geodiversity index map produced by calculate the total number of all indices inside each square, the geodiversity index map were classified into some gradual categories by using isolines: very low, low, medium, high and very high.

  5. Two offshore LNG terminals planned by Suez in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US LNG market represents today only 15 million tons per year but it is growing up rapidly and should reach 75 million tons per year in the next ten years. According to Cambridge Energy Research, LNG imports will represent 18% of the US gas resources in 2015 with respect to 3% today, and in 2010 LNG will represent 30% of the world natural gas trade. For these reasons, the Suez group has planned to acquire two offshore gas terminals, i.e. LNG tanker ships fitted with a gasification plant, to supply its Everett terminal on the US East coast and a future terminal in Florida. In both cases, the investment is the same as for an onshore terminal facility. Short paper. (J.S.)

  6. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Website, "dedicated to supplying information about the religious beliefs of ancient Egypt," offers internally linked essays and descriptions from scholarly sources detailing the relationship between the land and ancient beliefs; glossaries with healthy descriptions of the deities and symbols; and eighteen prominent mythological stories of Ancient Egypt. An annotated list of about a dozen other pertinent sites is also posted. A simple search engine is provided and can be accessed by going to the incongruously titled "Egypt" page, which offers users an opportunity to search the site, sign the guestbook, or email the author -- a college instructor -- questions about Egyptian mythology, but which offers no additional information on Egypt itself.

  7. Geography of Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr. Myers

    2010-09-30

    This activity focuses on the importance of geographic features and the abundance of natural resources that helped ancient Egypt become the world's first superpower. Students will learn about the geography and resources available to the ancient Egyptians. Read each question below carefully. Using the following maps: modern political map geographical features map natural resources map archaeological sites map And the following features on the Egypt's Golden Empire website: natural resources farming Answer each question below using as much detail as possible. What countries border modern-day Egypt? (modern political map) Name the major bodies of water that surround an are a part of Egypt. (modern political map) What ...

  8. Life in Egypt!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Pendleton

    2011-04-07

    What is the difference between life in the United States and life in Egypt? Use this fact chart to record your findings! Where is Egypt? Sightseeing in Egypt Use this time to record your findings in the "places" section of your fact chart and complete any other section you can with the information you have learned! Facts about Egypt Language (with audio) A Day in the Life Use this time to record your findings in the "people" section of your fact chart and complete ...

  9. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  10. More sustainable energy in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØnderberg Petersen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Last autumn, Risø completed eight years of work mapping out Egypt’s wind climate and wind resources. The result was a 260-page Wind Atlas for Egypt. Thanks to this, Egypt will be able to increase the share of renewable energy.

  11. Development of the Qattara Project, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Nile, as a huge source of cheap hydroelectric energy, was fully exploited in Egypt upstream of Aswan in 1968 by the construction of the famous Aswan and High Dam Hydroelectric Complex. The growth of demand for electrical power is such that an additional large source of energy is required. The Qattara Project would offer not only an ideal source of low cost power production, but a vital boost for Egypt's national economy. The fundamental idea of the scheme is to channel Mediterranean Sea water into the Qattara Depression, using the difference in levels to produce hydroelectric power. The rate of discharge of sea water into the depression should be equivalent to the rate of evaporation from the lake surface. This situation will arise ten years after starting to fill the lake, when the water has reached a level of 60 m below sea level. The possibility of using PNE to excavate a Mediterranean Sea - Qattara Depression canal was first postulated by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Establishment in 1971. In 1973 a pre-feasibility study was prepared, based on preliminary site investigations performed during the period 1964-1965, namely geological and cartographic surveys, as well as on comparative economic evaluation of various solutions. The study showed clearly that the project including both base-load and peak-load hydroelectric power stations and using nuclear excavation of a canal between the sea and the depression offers a competitive solution for cheap power producompetitive solution for cheap power production. A subsequent feasibility study, which was started in 1975, investigates alternative ways of constructing the canal/tunnel system, using conventional tunnelling and PNE. For the nuclear solution, two cases are considered, one using unlimited yields and another with 150 kt maximum yield. A preliminary assessment of the effects of the explosion and costs of the nuclear component of the project are given. (author)

  12. Optic Canal: Microanatomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Konstantin V; Dujovny, Manuel; Soeira, Gelson; Ausman, James I.

    1994-01-01

    The microsurgical anatomy of the optic canal was defined on 20 cadaveric specimens. Anatomic parameters of the optic canal, optic nerve, ophthalmic artery, and adjacent structures were measured, and relations of these structures were noted. Five variants of the course of the ophthalmic artery relative to the optic nerve in the optic canal were found. Various aspects of microsurgery of the optic canal are discussed in relation to anatomic findings.

  13. Iraqi refugees in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn Yoshikawa

    2007-01-01

    Egypt is host to an estimated 150,000 Iraqi refugees. Initiallyarriving with high hopes of resettlement, their resources arenow depleted, they are unable to work, their children are outof school and their community is fractured by divisions

  14. Childbirth in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Geoffrey

    2004-11-01

    Medicine in ancient Egypt was much more advanced than the rest of the Biblical world, especially in trauma surgery. Care at the time of childbirth was however virtually non-existent. There were no trained obstetricians or midwives but a galaxy of gods were at hand. This article traces what we can piece together about pregnancy of childbirth from the evidence we have in tombs and papyri of Egypt. PMID:15602999

  15. Irregular Migration in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    NASSAR, Heba

    2008-01-01

    Egypt’s capital Cairo hosts one of the five largest urban refugee populations in the world. For this reason, our paper concentrates on the legal aspect of irregular migration, discussing the characteristics of these migrants as asylum seekers and refugees while also examining transit migrants. First, the paper tackles associated concepts and data issues, with reference to the existing literature and international standards. In the second part, an overview of the Middle East and Northern A...

  16. GdF Suez sees himself as a prophet in his own country; GdF Suez se voit prophete en son pays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L

    2010-02-15

    The GdF Suez group is on the way to become a main actor of the French nuclear industry thanks to the imminent signature of an agreement with Areva. The group already exploits 7 reactors in Belgium representing 6000 MW, and nuclear energy represents 20.5% of its production. The group owns 33% of the building company of the second French EPR reactor, and owns 5% of the shares of the future George Besse II uranium enrichment plant of the Areva NC Tricastin site. GdF Suez is also active abroad, in particular in UK and Romania for the construction of new reactors and in Brazil where the group is the first private hydropower producer of the country. (J.S.)

  17. G.D.F. Suez view on the nuclear energy production;Vision de GDF Suez sur la production d'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorive, P. [Electricite de France (EDF Suez), 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    G.D.F. Suez was a pioneer of nuclear energy in Europe. It masters competencies internationally recognized on any part of this sector of energy production ( engineering, services, exploitation, maintenance, nuclear fuels, radioactive waste management, dismantling). it has and exploits 7 units in Belgium, and have capabilities in French nuclear power plants of Chooz and Tricastin. G.D.F. Suez has today ambitious goals in terms of nuclear projects development: to own and operate nuclear power plants of third generation in 2020, to maintain in Europe the share of nuclear in a balanced energy mix and to develop out of Europe a significant capability on several key-markets. To reach these objectives, the group develops an active policy of human resources, research and development and communication in matter of nuclear energy. (N.C.)

  18. Energy - threat on the nuclear future of GDF-Suez; Energie - menace sur l'avenir nucleaire de GDF SUEZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.

    2011-11-10

    The Belgian decision to phase out nuclear, and the Fukushima accident put the nuclear strategy of GDF-Suez into question again. The company is still involved in nuclear programs in Brazil, and in the United Kingdom, but is kept out of nuclear developments in France. This means that the group will have to rely on hydroelectricity, wind energy and gas, notably by building gas power station

  19. Structural set-up of Southern Sinai and Gulf of Suez areas indicated by geophysical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rabeh

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the evaluation of the structural set-up of the southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez and western part of Gulf of Suez from magnetic, gravity, and seismic data. The utilised techniques including the Least Squares separation method suggest NW, NE, and E-W trends. The trend analysis shows north 35°-45° west, north 15°-25° east and E-W which may be related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea stresses.The Euler deconvolution illustrates that the area is highly affected by these trends. Depths range from 1 km to more than 3 km below sea level and its magnetic susceptibility ranges between 1 to 3 SI units. The 2.5D magnetic modelling and analytical signal techniques confirm the depths to the magnetic sources deduced by the Euler method, whereas the depth to the basement rocks ranges between 0 km to about 3 km indicating that it is subjected to strong tectonic activities. In addition, two seismic sections (EG-31 and MP-70, compiled by the Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation (EGPC, were interpreted together with a geologic cross section. The studied area may be divided into several major blocks along the Gulf of Suez area. It can be concluded that the sedimentary was affected by basement tectonics as revealed by the two seismic sections.

  20. Sustainable development assessment tools dedicated to territorial collectivities. GDF SUEZ Research and Innovation division expertise.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonard, Amélie; Lafragette, Amélie; Dridi-Dastrevigne, Emilie

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents in a first part GDF SUEZ Research and Innovation Division works on different sustainable development assessment tools (especially Material and Energy Flow Analysis (MEFA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Carbon Balance and Ecological Footprint). The following part is focused on a Material and Energy Flow Analysis Project on the scale of a city : the example of Lille.

  1. Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ayouti M. K.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of oil were first known in Egypt since 1968, some ten years after the famous Drake well in Pennsylvania in August 1859. These oil accumulation were found as seepages in tunnels dug for extracting sulphur in the area of Gemsa on the West coast of the Gulf of Suez. Since that time exploration activites were conducted on and off throughout a long history of operations which witnessed the use of the latest developments in exploration tools and techniques. So far, the main oil province in Egypt is the Gulf of Suez Basin, where the bulk of oil reserve have been found. Other hydrocarbon provinces are the Nile Delta Basin, the Abu Gharadig Basin and the Alamein ridge, both in the Western Desert. Three important gas discoveries were made in the Nile Delta Basin two of which are offshore, in addition to other so for non commercial gas finds. In addition to the known oil and gas discoveries the exploration activities throughout that long period contributed volumenous geological and geophysical material and data which added appreciably to the geology of Egypt at large, and in particular to the petroleum geology of the country. The Gulf of Suez oil province displayed very favourable conditions for the generation and trapping of hydrocarbons in Miocene and Pre-Miocene pools though at the same time it displayed very complicated geological setting which renders the exploration work a difficult task. The Nile Delta Basin, on the otherhand, is a relatively very recently explored area. Accordingly, extensive exploration work is still needed in order to evaluate the hydrocarbon possibilities of that basin. So for, gas has been discovered at a number of locations in lower Pliocene-Miocene pools. Whether future work would prove that oil generation took place remains to be seen. The Western Desert did not yet display the required response with regards to the exploration work conducted till now. To date, only few small discoveries have been made with oil and gas pools mainly vvithin the Upper and Lower Cretaceous. Recent advances in seismic techniques are helping in locating deeper structures, which might prove instrumental in the upgrading of the oil possibilites of the region. At present, the exploration activities are going on in the different oil and gas provinces in Egypt. These activilles are expected to increase and are also expected to expand to new areas in the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez Basin, offshore and onland, in Northern Sinai and in the Offshore Mediterranean. These new areas are believed to house very good prospects which will be tested not before long. It is also hoped that progress in seismic tools and techniques will add to the possibilities of finding more oil and gas. On connaît des accumulations d'huiles depuis 1868, quelque 10 ans après le célèbre puits de Drake en Pennsylvanie (août 1859. Ces accumulations ont été trouvées comme des suintements dans des tunnels forés pour l'extraction du soufre dans la région de Gemsa sur la côte ouest du golfe de Suez. Depuis cette époque, les activités d'exploration se sont poursuivies à travers une longue histoire d'opérations qui témoignaient des derniers développement dans les outils et les techniques. Jusqu'à maintenant, la principale province à huile d'Egypte est le bassin du golfe de Suez où la majorité des réserves ont été trouvées. D'autres provinces à hydrocarbures sont le bassin du delta du Nil, celui d'Abu Garadig et la ride d'El Alamein, les deux derniers situés dans le désert occidental. Il y a eu trois importantes découvertes de gaz dans le delta du Nil, dont deux en mer, en plus de quelques indices de gaz encore non commerciaux. Outre les découvertes mentionnées, les activités d'exploration au cours de cette longue période ont apporté une masse d'informations géologiques et géophysiques qui ont contribué largement à la connaissance géologique de l'Egypte, et en particulier à la géologie pétrolière. La province du golfe de Suez réunissait des conditions très favorables à la formation et

  2. Egypt Daily.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of the World News network, Egypt Daily.com provides a wealth of links to frequently updated news stories dealing primarily with Egypt. From the homepage, users can click on any number of recent items gathered from a variety of different sources, including the BBC, ABC News, Arabic News, and CNN. The archive of news items stretches back several weeks, and news items are also arranged thematically into sections dealing with the economy, tourism, and technology on the site's main page. The site also features a number of helpful links, such as those leading to English-language news resources for the Arabic-speaking world and to online newspapers in Arabic. The site is rounded out by a list of online travel guides for those seeking to plan a trip to Egypt or other parts of North Africa.

  3. Role of the Egyptian National Seismological Network to mitigate the seismic hazard in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Egypt is located close to one of the continental fracture system (Hellenic arc) at the convergence boundary of two big lithospheric plates (Eurasia and Africa). Also, Egypt is affected by the open of the Red Sea (Mid Oceanic System) and its two branches (the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform system). Thus the seismicity is due to the interaction between the three plates of Eurasia, Africa and Arabian plates. Thus it could be concluded that although the damaging earthquakes occurred infrequently, its risky consequences could not be ignored. Egypt witnessed a numerous of damaged event, for instance, 1992 Cairo earthquake with magnitude (5.9 mb) caught the Egyptian people. This earthquake caused 600 deaths, 10000 injured and left a damage of more than 40 million US. As a result of this damage. As well as 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake with Mw 7.2. The Egyptian Government supports the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) to install the Egyptian National Seismic Network ENSN and the strong motion network. The main objectives of the network are: Monitoring local and regional activity including artificial events, assessment seismic hazard, estimating the expected future earthquake effects and protecting strategic buildings, high dam and archeological sites.

  4. Calculating the main canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mikhalev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed method hydraulic design of the main canal is combined with the selection of optimal solution. As a goal function it was accepted the dependence, minimizing the amount of excavation and concrete works on the establishing the canal. The optimization parameter is a slope of the canal bottom with a uniform motion of the water in it. The paper considers canals, lined within the wetted perimeter by concrete and by coarse-grained non-cohesive soils, and unlined canals without facing. In the process of calculation all hydraulic parameters of the canal are changing, except for the relative width of the canal along the bottom and ratio of slope gradient above and below the shore line. The dependence of the optimal amount of works in non-cohesive soils on the defined parameters of the canal was analyzed. The effect of the limiting the flow rate of water in the canal by the noneroding velocity value on the optimal technical decision was investigated.

  5. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. - Highlights: ? The positive DRAD values indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. ? Thorium normalization was applied to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities. ? The conventional well logs are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in wells. ? Determining hydrocarbon potentialities zones using spectrometric gamma-ray logs

  6. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act...

  7. Role of Lithology and Subsurface structures detected by potential field data in controlling the radioactive mineral accumulation at Natash area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shadia, Elkhodary; Taha, Rabeh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La zona de Wadi Natash se encuentra en la parte sur del desierto del este de Egipto. Tiene una gran importancia, ya que cuenta con gran acumulación de minerales radiactivos, como uranio, torio y potasio. En esta zona se llevó a cabo un estudio de potencial integrado, con el objetivo de localizar a p [...] rofundidades factibles cuerpos con susceptibilidad magnética suficiente para representar intrusiones magmáticas relacionadas con la radiactividad del lugar y delinear las estructuras del subsuelo que afectan la zona. Tanto los datos magnéticos y de Bouguer como los datos radiométricos se interpretaron rápidamente por la posición de la fuente y las profundidades. Lo anterior fue factible al utilizar la deconvolución de Euler y de Werner, además de técnicas de modelado en 3D. Los resultados deducidos del análisis de tendencias muestran que la tendencia de la falla principal que afecta a la zona tiene una dirección de NNW-SSE (Mar Rojo-Golfo hacia Suez) y atraviesa por el menos predominante NNE-SSW (El Golfo de Aqaba-dirección Mar Muerto) y por WnW-ese (sistema de falla Najd). Los organismos causantes fueron fotografiados a profundidades que van de 0,3 kilómetros hasta 1,5 km. Las profundidades a lo largo de las discontinuidades se deben a la presencia de la falla NNW-SSE y actúan como canales de paso para las soluciones hidrotermales. Puede afirmarse que las acumulaciones de minerales radiactivos fueron causadas por las soluciones hidrotermales ricas en minerales radiactivos como resultado de la intrusión volcánica Natash a las rocas graníticas. Los clásticos Qouseir y la piedra de la arena Nudian se vieron afectados por estas soluciones y muestran una respuesta positiva de los minerales radiactivos. Abstract in english Wadi Natash area is located in the southern part of the Eastern desert of Egypt. It has a great importance for containing accumulations from the radioactive minerals of Uranium, Thorium and Potassium. An integrated potential study was carried out on the study area with the aim of locating depths to [...] causative bodies with sufficient magnetic susceptibility that may represent magmatic intrusions with relation to the radioactivity location and delineate the subsurface structures affecting the area. Both magnetic and Bouguer data as well as radiometric data were interpreted rapidly for source positions and depths using Euler deconvolution, Werner deconvolution and 3D modeling techniques. The results deduced from the trend analyses show that the major fault trend affecting the area have NNW-SSE (Red Sea-Gulf of Suez trend) direction intersected by the less predominant NNE-SSW(The Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea trend) and WNW-ESE (Najd Fault System) fault trends. The causative bodies were imaged at depths ranging from 0.3 km to about 1.5 km. The depths along the interpreted profiles display discontinuities in potential field markers due to presence of the NNW-SSE fault trends act as pass channels for the hydrothermal solutions. It can be stated that the radioactive mineral accumulations were caused by the hydrothermal solutions rich with radioactive minerals as a result of intruding Natash volcanic to the granitic rocks. The Qouseir clastics and the Nudian sand stone were affected by these solutions and show a positive response for the radioactive minerals.

  8. Language Treatment in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.; Garrison, Gary L.

    This is a collection of eight essays dealing with various aspects of language treatment in Egypt. The first essay attempts a tentative typology characterizing the role of the Arabic language as a unifying or divisive force within and among the countries in which it is spoken as a native language. This essay also makes some initial reflections on…

  9. Egypt's National Education Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bradley James

    2000-01-01

    Examines the vigorous dialectic occurring among intellectuals, religious leaders, and politicians trying to define the appropriate role of Islam in Egyptian education. Discusses the call for the Islamization of education in contemporary Egypt, aspects of Islamic law, the position of the state on religious education, and the influence of a small…

  10. Some aspects in relation to the efficient use of soils, water and fertilizers in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only 3% of the land area of Egypt is cultivated. Efforts have been directed to the irrigation and cultivation of new lands and the reclaimation of saline and sodic lands to meet the demands of a rapidly increasing population. Isotopic techniques can play a major role in reclaimation schemes by allowing the direct measurement of Na exchange and leaching, and of water storage and utilization. Mutation breeding could be important in developing stress tolerant plants. Water is the main limiting resource in Egypt. Water conservation measures have included the liming of irrigation canals, improved irrigation efficiency, drainage water and ground water utilization and nuclear desalinization. (author)

  11. Interpretation Of Three Dimensional Seismic Data In Delineating The Structural Elements At Ras Budran Oil Field, Gulf Of Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sakr, M. M. E.

    1989-01-01

    Structural evaluation in Ras Budran oil field was achieved by using the state of art geophysical technology, represented by the 3-D seismic data. Integrated together with the borehole geological and geophysical data. The time contour maps of five reflectors starting with deeper top Kareem formation up to the shallowest top Zeit formation were constructed. These mappable horizons illustrate generally a half plunging NE - SW anticline which bisected by 'several fault systems at different levels...

  12. The Panama Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among all the engineering feats of the 20th century, the Panama Canal was certainly one of the greatest. The Panama Canal Authority (PCA) provides this home page, which contains a vast amount of information regarding the canal's origins and current affairs. Most visitors to the Web site will be mainly interested in the complete history of the canal. This begins with early plans by the Spanish in the 1500s, and documents all progress until the final completion in 1914. An impressive photo gallery includes historical pictures and panoramic views of four main locations, and a live camera shows the boat traffic in the canal at ten second intervals. Other resources such as maritime operations and news articles are also available.

  13. Fracture types detected in eastern Mediterranean reservoirs (Turkey and Egypt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, R.; Taha, M. (Schlumberger, Dubai (United Arab Emirates )

    1988-08-01

    Most of Turkey's reservoirs are in the fractured Cretaceous Mardin Formation; however, new possibilities in fractured Paleozoic sandstones are being sought. The dominant fractures are fold related and are found on the northern flanks of the asymmetrical anticlines. The strike of these fractures is perpendicular to bedding planes and parallel to dip. There are fewer tear-fault-related and crestal-position fractures, but these may have a greater vertical extent. Fractures are present in all the producing areas of Egypt except the Nile delta. Basement fractures associated with shear zones in the southern Gulf of Suez have become an important exploration target. Fracture orientations are related to the major shear orientations except where later folding and faulting have caused structural rotation. The development of Zeit Bay field has shown that fractured basement rock can constitute a significant reservoir. The fracture reservoirs in northern Sinai and the Western Desert are in Cretaceous and Jurassic limestones and/or dolomitic limestones. The major shear fractures are parallel to the northwest-north-northwest compressive stresses that formed the reservoir structures; however, local fold- and fault-related fractures are also present.

  14. ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    Biney–Amissah, Araba

    2013-01-01

    Project Title: ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT) Abstract: The Copts have been discriminated - under Mubarak’s regime and now under Mursi’s - without any certain law to assure them of their basic rights and freedom of speech. The Muslims have the dominant privilege in Egypt (and in Middle Eastern countries in general), however, Christians should also have rights in a democratic Egypt. There is no common understanding of divisions between the legal structure of societies and the differ...

  15. Transient deformations in the Suez-Sinai area from GPS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Riguzzi, F; Pietrantonio, G; Mahmoud, S M

    2005-01-01

    We analyze data from four GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2002 on a network of 11 sites in the Suez-Sinai, the area of collision between the African and the Arabian plates. This is the key area to understand how and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played between seismic and geodetic (long term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion (in terms of ITRF00 velocities) matches African plate motion (NNR-NUVEL-1A model). However, the baseline length variations show transient deformations in Sinai and across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of about 1.5 cm in five years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we worked under the hypothesis that a contribute may be due to post-seismic relaxation. Under this hypothesis, we compared the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occ...

  16. Distribution of Different Organotin and Organolead Compounds in Sediment of Suez Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Shreadah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organotin and organolead compounds were determined in sediments of the Suez Gulf The concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT ranged from 0.27 to 2.77 with an average value of 1.37 µgg-1; dry wt. However, the concentrations of dibutyltin (DBT ranged from 0.07 to 2.27 with an average value of 0.58 µgg-1; dry wt. A significant correlation was found between TBT and DBT with r = 0.82, (p = 0.05 indicating that the occurrence of DBT is mainly related to the degradation of TBT. Generally, the high concentration of TBT was attributed to shipping activity in harbours. In addition, Diphenyltin (DPhT concentrations ranged from not detected to 2.09 with an average of 1.10 µgg-1 dry wt. Antifouling agents, industrial discharge and the influence of sewage discharge are the main sources of pollution by DPhT compounds in Suez Gulf. On the other side, organolead (OLC concentrations ranged from 10.88 - 440.2 with an average of 168.7 ngg-1; dry wt. A significant setting of OLC recorded in sediments of Suez Gulf was mainly attributed to cars exhaust and/or spelling and direct evaporation of fuels.

  17. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  18. Metals in water from the River Nile tributaries in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhat, Farag Mahmoud; Nasr, Islam

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe and Cd metals in water samples collected from different tributaries of the Nile River in Egypt. Samples were taken from El-Sarsawia, El-Bagoria, Bahr Shebin canals, in addition to three drainage canal sites El-Embaby, El-Menofi and Miet-Rabiha drain. According to the data, Fe has the highest concentration, followed by Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu. The mean Pb concentration ranged from 8.678 to 21.948 ?g/L, in water samples collected from El-Sarsawia canal and El-Embaby drain, respectively. The Cu and Cd mean concentrations ranged from 0.67 and 0.500 to 4.908 and 5.650 ?g/L, respectively, in water samples collected from Bahr-Shebin canal and El-Embaby drain, respectively. The water samples from all location sites are polluted by Pb according to EPA. Fe and Cu values are within the allowable limits. PMID:22349286

  19. Mental health in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances. PMID:16342608

  20. Unilateral thoracic canal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar M

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Two unusual cases of thoracic spinal canal stenosis are reported. The cord compression was a result of unilateral hypertrophy of the lamina and facet joint. Bony decompression resulted in rapid neurological recovery.

  1. Moving towards implementation of a clinical ethics consultation program in Egyptian liver transplant units

    OpenAIRE

    El-elemi, A. H.; El-gazzaz, G. H.

    2010-01-01

    A H El-Elemi1, G H El-Gazzaz21Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, 2Hepatobiliary and General Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAbstract: The high prevalence of chronic liver disease in Egypt has led to increasing numbers of patients with end-stage liver disease in need of liver transplantation. To date, cadaveric liver transplantation is not legal in Egypt. However, introducing living-donor liver transplantation seems appropriate for patients who need...

  2. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Bahig, A. E.; Aly, E. A.; Khaled, A. A.; Amel, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A) and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B). This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these ...

  3. Iraqi Refugees in Egypt: Legal Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    BADAWY, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the legal situation of Iraqi refugees and asylum-seekers in Egypt. Despite Egypt’s obligation to integrate refugees, several obstacles make such a process exceptionally difficult as far as Iraqi refugees are concerned. As the paper will reveal, while some of these obstacles are particular to the Egyptian legal system, others impediments concern the Iraqi community alone. The paper will also demonstrate that although Iraqis initially benefitted from Egypt’s hosp...

  4. Gastroenterology in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T S; Chen, P S

    1991-04-01

    Physicians in ancient Egypt devoted their care to disorders of individual organs. Notable among the specialties was gastroenterology, a subject matter that occupied a major portion of the surviving medical papyri. Although they did not name diseases as we know them, Pharaonic physicians described a host of gastroenterological symptoms for which an extensive array of therapeutics was prescribed. Their clinical accounts indicated an impressive knowledge of gastric and anorectal conditions. In their thinking on disease mechanism, the circulating materia peccans absorbed from feces represented a major cause of medical symptoms and disorders. This served as the rationale for the popular practice of self-purgation with enemas. PMID:2033225

  5. Canals, Payne Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Payne Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  6. Responding t o the Challenges of Breast Cancer in Egypt and Other Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt.

  7. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

  8. Panama and the Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Florida's George A. Smathers Libraries and the Panama Canal Museum have worked together to create this engaging digital collection that tells the story of Panama and the Canal Zone. The collection contains 158 items, including newspaper clippings, illustrations, stock shares, and more. The Leonard Carpenter Panama Canal Collection contains a mix of photos of dredging work, military personnel, and a U.S. Navy dirigible. Another smaller collection contains items from the Government Documents Department, such as annual reports, maps, and Congressional hearing transcripts. Visitors can search the entire collection by keyword, and they shouldn't miss the 1754 maps of Panama and the surrounding region by Jacques Nicolas Bellin.

  9. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the pra...

  10. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... superior semiciruclar canal (which is located within the lumen—tubular cavity—of the bony canal) can be ... this third window. The mean age at the time of diagnosis is around 45 years. Unilateral SSCD ...

  11. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Nidhi; Tushar Suneja

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal prepa...

  12. Spinal canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.)

  13. American Experience: Panama Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Panama Canal was quite an undertaking of labor and engineering, and by the time it was completed on August 15th, 1914 the project had been underway (in some form) for well over two decades. Along the way, over 55,000 workers had been involved, 5,000 people had died during the project's duration, and over 350 million dollars had been spent. This riveting documentary looks at the history of this project, and visitors can watch the entire program here. The extra features provided here are real treats, and they can be found on the left-hand side of the page. Here visitors will find an interactive map of the Panama Canal region, along with a timeline, and an interview with the program's producer, Amanda Pollak. Also, the site includes articles on yellow fever, the workers, and the chief engineers of the Canal. Primary resources such as part of the canal record of 1907, suggestions for further reading, and teacher resources round out the site.

  14. Exploration and assessment of the geothermal resources in the Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Abdel; Saibi, Hakim; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Mesbah, Hany; Ehara, Sachio

    2012-02-01

    The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of the African continent suggests that it may possess significant geothermal resources, especially along its eastern margin. The most promising areas for geothermal development in the northwest Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift system are located where the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations, including a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures. Magnetotelluric and gravity-reconnaissance surveys were carried out over the geothermal region of Hammam Faraun to determine the subsurface electric resistivity and the densities that are related to rock units. These surveys were conducted along profiles. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) inversion model techniques were applied on the MT data, integrating the 2D inversion of gravity data. The objectives of these surveys were to determine and parameterize the subsurface source of the Hammam Faraun hot spring and to determine the origin of this spring. Based on this data, a conceptual model and numerical simulation were made of the geothermal area of Hammam Faraun. The numerical simulation succeeded in determining the characteristics of the heat sources beneath the Hammam Faraun hot spring and showed that the hot spring originates from a high heat flow and deep ground water circulation in the subsurface reservoir that are controlled by faults. These studies were followed by an assessment of the geothermal potential for electric generation from the Hammam Faraun hot spring. The value of the estimated potential is 28.34 MW, as the reservoir is assumed to be only 500 m thick. This value would be enough for the desalination of water for both human and agricultural consumption.

  15. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  16. Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sebaity DM; Soliman W; Soliman AMA; Fathalla AM

    2011-01-01

    Dalia M El-Sebaity1, Wael Soliman1, Asmaa MA Soliman2, Ahmed M Fathalla11Department of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, EgyptPurpose: To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt).Methods: All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalm...

  17. Effect of Instruction in Story Grammar on the Narrative Writing of EFL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

    A study investigated the effects of explicit versus implicit instruction in story grammar on the narrative writing skills of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students at the university level. Subjects were 83 freshmen enrolled in English at the Faculty of Education at Suez Canal University (Egypt). The subjects were randomly assigned to…

  18. Effects of Three Questioning Strategies on EFL Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

    This study investigated the effects of three classroom questioning strategies on the reading comprehension of learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Subjects were 86 first-year EFL students in the school of education of Suez Canal University (Egypt), randomly assigned to three treatment groups. The same instructor taught the three groups…

  19. The Factors Affecting Egypt’s Exports: Evidence from the Gravity Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Elshehawy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the factors that affect Egypt’s bilateral export flows to its main trading partners. Based on the panel data, the gravity model approach has been used to estimate Egypt’s exports through annual data covering the period 2000 to 2013 for 42 main trading partners. The gravity model in its fixed effects panel data explained 84 percent of the fluctuations in Egypt’s exports. The results show that Egypt’s GDP, importer’s GDP, importer’s population, regional trade agreements (RTA and the border between Egypt and its trading partner are the main factors affecting Egypt’s exports to its main trading partners. All these factors affect Egypt’s exports positively. Transportation costs (distance variable are found to have negative but insignificant effect on Egypt’s exports. All these results can help the government and policy makers to undertake appropriate measures to improve the performance of the Egyptian foreign trade sector.

  20. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  1. Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4?g/g and 0.032-0.17 ?g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. MAJOR PROJECTS THAT INFLUENCE WORLD TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1869, with the opening of the Suez Canal, world trade entered a new era of development. The commercial routes linking the Far East to the western countries were shortened considerably as compared to the maritime corridor around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal sealed the new deal in world trade, opening for business the shortest commercial routes around the world. After 145 years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal, world trade is on the eve of a new expansion. Two major projects: the expansion of both the Suez and Panama canals, planned to be completed in the next two years, will double their transit capacity. This paper does a comparative analysis of these two strategic projects, underlining the main benefits for Egypt, Panama and world trade, based on the available statistical data, reports and literature in the field.

  3. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  4. Distributed control at Love canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

    1994-09-01

    Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

  5. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  6. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine. PMID:15081501

  7. Maxillary second premolar with three canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case report of a maxillary second premolar with three canals is presented. The tooth had three roots, mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal, each containing a canal. Root canal therapy was performed under aseptic conditions. (author)

  8. Egypt’s Exchange Rate Regime Policy after the Float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Attia Massoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this paper is to analyze the actual exchange rate policies followed by Egypt since the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE announced its adoption of a floating ER regime in January 2003. Based on our analytical and empirical approaches to analyzing the actual degree of flexibility of exchange rate policies we concluded the following. First, the de jure “Free Floating” ER Regime that the CBE announced in January, 2003 was not preserved during the period of the study. Second, the changes in the IMF’s de facto classifications of Egypt’s actual exchange rate policies were broadly accurate. Third, the move from light to heavy exchange market management in 2011 leads to what has been called a one way speculative option. Fourth, too much attention has been paid to the US dollar in setting exchange rate policies. Since the dollar exchange rate sometimes moves substantially against some of these other currencies such as the Euro, it is important that such fluctuations should also be taken into account. 

  9. [Theoretic medicine in Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györy, Hedvig

    2002-01-01

    Egyptian medical writings - especially those surviving on papyri - provide a rich material for historical research. They did not only serve the memory of old healing methods and practices, but that of contemporary medical theories and views as well. On the one hand, Egyptians knew illnesses caused by factors physicians could easily identify by mere empirism, or by their anatomical or physiological knowledge. (Their main physiological theory was probably based on the idea of specific materials circulating through a system of canals (mtw) in the body. It produced illness, either by the system being blocked, or by its original materials changed into the pathogenic material (wxdw). On the other hand however, they supposed the existence of illnesses, caused by the activity of supernatural forces or demons. The two different but parallel etiologies demanded different therapies. Consequently, besides physical also magical therapies were used, and in the healing process the healer him/herself played a double role. Egyptian thinking regarded both ways of healing - the physical and the magical - as equally useful and rational. This richly documented article gives an overview of the Egyptian medical heritage, as illustrated by the original texts and objects. PMID:12800853

  10. Team Egypt! Integrating the Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Amanda Welsh

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on Egypt used in an interdisciplinary curriculum that involves activities in social studies, art, science, language (Latin), and computers. Explains that each discipline is assessed separately in order to reward students' strengths. Highlights the benefits of interdisciplinary curricula. (CMK)

  11. Aquaculture business opportunities in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rothuis, A.J.; Duijn, A.P., van; Roem, A.J.; Ouwehand, A.; Pijl, W., van der; Rurangwa, E.

    2013-01-01

    Egyptian fish farming has witnessed a spectacular development resulting in an industry that is number 7 worldwide and number 2 in tilapia production. As such the industry is an important contributor to Egypt's economy as well as a major provider of cheap fish protein. However there are a number of developments that potentially could result in a stagnation or even collapse of the industry.

  12. Electricity and energy: Egypt case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the evolution of the pattern of the energy consumption in Egypt for the last three decades and indicates that the growth rate of energy consumption will continue with lower growth rates but the trend indicates substantial rate of electric energy consumption. Statistical data on power generation are also given. 6 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Suez-Gaz de France merger, E.ON's public takeover bid on Endesa... The new energy fight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy sector is in fever. In less than a week (February 21 to 26, 2006), the Europe of energy has fallen into a frenzy of mergers and acquisitions: the German E.ON offered 29.1 billion euros to get the Spanish Endesa, Electricite de France (EdF), who already got the Italian Edison in 2005, is ready for more major acquisitions, the Italian Enel is candidate for the repurchasing of Suez, while Gaz de France (GdF) and Suez have started a surprise merger. The stake of this match between giants is their growing up and the penetration of foreign markets before their complete liberalization in July 2007. The potential victims of these actions are the competition and the clients, the industrial ones first. (J.S.)

  14. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  15. Remote sensing, planform, and facies analysis of the Plain of Tineh, Egypt for the remains of the defunct Pelusiac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, Jessica; Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Zalat, Abdel-Fattah A.

    2013-11-01

    The Pelusiac Branch was a distributary river in the Nile Delta that splits off from the main trunk of the Nile River as it flowed toward the Mediterranean. At approximately 25 A.D., it was chocked by sand and silt deposits from prograding beach accretion processes. The lower course of the river and its bifurcation point from the trunk of the Nile have been hypothesized based on ancient texts and maps, as well as previous research, but results have been inconsistent. Previous studies partly mapped the lower course of the Pelusiac River in the Plain of Tineh, east of the Suez Canal, but rapid urbanization related to the inauguration of the Peace Canal mega-irrigation project has covered any trace of the linear feature reported by these previous studies. The present study used multispectral remote sensing data of GeoEYE-1 and Landsat-TM to locate and accurately map the course of the defunct Pelusiac River within the Plain of Tineh. Remote sensing analysis identified a linear feature that is 135 m wide at its maximum and approximately 13 km long. It extends from the Pelusium ruins to the Suez Canal, just north of the Peace Canal. This remotely located linear feature corresponds to the path of the Pelusiac River during Roman times. Planform geomorphology was applied to determine the hydrological regime and paleodischarge of the river prior to becoming defunct. Planform analysis derived a bankfull paleodischarge value of ~ 5700 m3 s- 1 and an average discharge of 650 m3 s- 1, using the reach average for the interpreted Pelusiac River. The derived values show a river distributary similar in discharge to the modern dammed Damietta river. Field work completed in April of 2012 derived four sedimentary lithofacies of the upper formation on the plain that included pro-delta, delta-front and delta-plain depositional environments. Diatom and fossil mollusk samples were also identified that support coastal beach and lagoonal environments of deposition. Measured section columns and a shoreline parallel transect were also constructed to portray the paleogeography of the Mediterranean coastline in the Plain of Tineh at ~ 25 A.D. and indicate that the sampled study area is the downdrift margin of an asymmetric delta with barrier lagoon systems.

  16. Root Canal Therapy of a Mandibular First Molar with Five Root Canals: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Reyhani, Mohammad Frough; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar

    2007-01-01

    A mandibular first molar requiring root canal therapy was found with five canals, three mesial canals, and two distal canals. Initially, four canals (mesiobuccal, mesiolingual, distobuccal, and distolingual) were identified. The mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals were found in their normal locations, and a fifth canal was noted between these two. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and supplements previous reports of the existence of such configurations in mandibular first...

  17. Hazards influencing coastal plains management along the Eastern stretch of the Gulf of Suez, using remote sensing and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M H; Abdel-Kader, O.H.; M. F. Kaiser

    2007-01-01

    This research aims at to assess the impact of natural hazards on the human activities and development planning held along the eastern coastal stretch of the Gulf of Suez. Change detection technique was used in combined with geologic and topographic maps, GIS and field investigations to specify and categorize environmental hazards along the concerned area. This site is characterized by enormous natural resources, including hot vents in Hammam Faroun and Ayun Mousa, oil exploration and mineral ...

  18. Chephren's Quarry, Upper Egypt:Archaeological registration and mappingof ancient quarry sites

    OpenAIRE

    Heldal, Tom; Storemyr, Per

    2003-01-01

    Chephren's Quarry is one of the world's oldest hard-stone quarries. It is situated in the easternmost part of Sahara - covering nearly 100k2 of flat, hyper-arid desert, some 60 km west of Lake Nasser ( River Nile) and the famous Abu Simbel temple in the extreme south of Egypt. Lately, it has been discovered that this unregistered, archaeological site of great importance, is seriously threatened by modern development - the canal and irrigation work related to the South Valley Development Proje...

  19. The potential of electricity generation on the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Shata, A.S.; Hanitsch, R. [Institute of Energy and Automation Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Technical University Berlin, Einsteinufer 11, EM4, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Wind characteristics have been analyzed based on long-term measured data of monthly mean wind speed of seven meteorological stations along the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt. It was found that the windiest stations (Region A) namely (Zafarana, Abu Darag, Hurghada and Ras Benas) have annual mean wind speeds (7.3, 7.2, 6.4 and 5.5m/s) at 10m height, respectively. Numerical estimations using measured wind speeds and frequencies to calculate the two Weibull parameters were carried out and two methods were applied. The methodical analysis for the corrected monthly wind power density at a height of 10m above ground level, over roughness class 0 (water), for each station was done. The recommended correlation equation was also stated for Red Sea zone in Egypt. Also the corrected annual wind power density at the heights (50-70)m was obtained for all stations. Moreover, calculations show that the four stations in (Region A) have a huge energy potential available (430-1000W/m{sup 2}) at 70m height, while Quseir and Suez stations (Region B) have good wind power density (170-190W/m{sup 2}) at 50m height. A technical and economic assessment has been made of electricity generation from two turbines machines having capacity of (1000 and 600kW) considered in Regions A and B, respectively, using WASP program. The yearly energy output, capacity factor and the electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the two different turbines in each region were estimated. The production costs of four stations in Region A was found to be less than 2|cent/kWh and compared with retail tariff. (author)

  20. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  1. The Economics of Autism in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Lee Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This was the first study ever done on the cost consequences of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Egypt or any other developing/industrializing country. The following questions were empirically investigated: What are the economic costs of ASD in Egypt and how do they compare with developed/industrialized countries? Why are cost consequences important in formulating ASD policy in Egypt and comparable countries? Approach: A statistical sample of 185 households, with at least 1...

  2. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rosalie David

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are currently being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptia...

  3. Mandibular first molar with three distal canals

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Shweta

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of middle distal canal in distal root of mandibular first molar is rare. This case report describes root canal treatment of two rooted mandibular first molar with five root canals (three in distal and two in mesial root), and Sert and Bayirli ...

  4. Canal complexity of a mandibular first molar

    OpenAIRE

    Poorni S; Kumar R; Indira R

    2009-01-01

    The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and technically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canals, of which three were located in the mesial root. A third canal was found between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual root canals. The morphological pattern of separate apical terminations of three mesial root canals with separate orifices, as manifested in this case, is a rare ...

  5. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-03-01

    Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources. PMID:24485861

  6. The Tem Plagues of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Roger S. Wotton

    2007-01-01

    The ten Plagues of Egypt described in the Bible were central to the liberation of the Jewish people from the oppression of the Egyptians. The succession of disasters demoralised the Egyptians and were seen as a victory for Jewish monotheistic beliefs. In this essay, natural explanations for most of the Plagues are proposed and a chronology of events is provided. Could the mythological explanation of these arguably natural phenomena still have a profound influence on the modern world?

  7. Rheumatic Heart Disease in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Kotit, Susy Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatic Heart Disease remains one of the most neglected cardiac conditions in children and young adults around the world. The pathogenesis is complex and remains elusive, and the clinical characteristics vary around the world. This thesis concentrates on different aspects of the disease in Egypt, where it is known to have a high incidence. The methodology included epidemiological studies in school children in Aswan and investigation of RHD in a population with history of RF, using newly ...

  8. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  9. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  10. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  11. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  12. The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

  13. The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

  14. The most common insect pollinator species on sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L. in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of insect pollinators associated with sesame, Sesamun indicum L. (Pedaliaceae was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. All different insect pollinators which found on the experimental site were collected for identification. Sampling was done once a week and three times a day. Three methods were used to collect and identify insects from the sesame plants (a sweep net, pitfall traps, digital camera and eye observation. A total of 29 insect species were collected and properly identified during the survey. Insect pollinators which recorded on the plants were divided into four groups, 18 belonged to Hymenoptera, 7 to Diptera, 3 to Lepidoptera and one to Coleoptera. Results revealed that Honybee, Apis mellifera was the most dominant species in the 2011 season and the second one in the 2012 season. Whereas small carpenter bee, Ceratina tarsata was the most dominant species in the 2012 season and the second one in the 2011 season. The percentage of Hymenoptera was higher in the two studied seasons by 90.94% and 89.59%, followed by Diptera by 3.93% and 5.38%, then Lepidoptera by 3.58% and 3.62, and in the last Coleoptera by 1.53% and 1.39%, respectively.

  15. Application of thorium-normalized airborne radio-spectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt

  16. Egypt Post Success Story: Distinguished Services Made Possible with ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Amr Badr-El-Din

    2013-01-01

    Without exaggeration, Egypt Post (EP) is the oldest and most honored governmental institute in Egypt. Its headquarters, located in Ataba Square in downtown Cairo, is considered a central and prominent place in Cairo and Egypt. Khedive Ismail unveiled the inauguration of the headquarters officially.However, sometime within its lifespan until 2005, Egypt Post (EP) was considered one of the worst governmental institutes in Egypt from a quality of service point of view. In addition, EP had not be...

  17. [Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskind, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied. PMID:19617021

  18. The Kamil Crater in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, Luigi; Di Martino, Mario; El Barkooky, Ahmed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lethy, Ahmed; Urbini, Stefano; Nicolosi, Iacopo; Hafez, Mahfooz; Cordier, Carole; van Ginneken, Matthias; Zeoli, Antonio; Radwan, Ali M; El Khrepy, Sami; El Gabry, Mohamed; Gomaa, Mahomoud; Barakat, Aly A; Serra, Romano; El Sharkawi, Mohamed

    2010-08-13

    We report on the detection in southern Egypt of an impact crater 45 meters in diameter with a pristine rayed structure. Such pristine structures are typically observed on atmosphereless rocky or icy planetary bodies in the solar system. This feature and the association with an iron meteorite impactor and shock metamorphism provides a unique picture of small-scale hypervelocity impacts on Earth's crust. Contrary to current geophysical models, ground data indicate that iron meteorites with masses of the order of tens of tons can penetrate the atmosphere without substantial fragmentation. PMID:20651117

  19. Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms in the southern Gulf of Suez: August 1994 through December 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H. M.; Marzouk, I.; Moustafa, A. R.; Hurukawa, N.

    2006-05-01

    This paper shows an evaluation of the seismic activity in the entrance of the Gulf of Suez using the data recorded by Hurghada Seismological Network (HSN), in the period between August 1994 and December 1997 and represents an extension for the work published by the previous investigators. Hypocentral locations were determined for 180 earthquakes (duration magnitude ranged between 1.6 and 4.3) selected from 300 recorded events. All these events are located with epicentral error and depth error of less than 2 km. The spatial distribution of these earthquakes indicates the presence of three active areas. These are Shadwan Island, Gubal Island and the area adjacent to the southern tip of Sinai Peninsula. Such pattern of activity implies a localization of stress below these areas. The concentration of the stress field in these areas may have been strongly controlled by ductile necking and or intrusion. Composite fault plane solutions were also constructed for each of the three active areas. The data for each area was divided into groups, according to geographical position and uniformity of polarity data. In Shadwan Island, the composite fault plane solution of 15 events shows almost pure dip-slip motion. The composite fault plane solutions in Gubal Island and the area adjacent to the southern tip of Sinai Peninsula indicate a mixed regime of both strike-slip and extensional faulting mechanisms. The stress regime obtained from the fault plane solutions in this study is predominantly NNE-SSW tensional stress field. This result is consistent with the present day stress field, which has a 010° ± 18° orientation. The overall results are correlated with the structural setting of the area known from other sources.

  20. Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Mohamed A.; Emara, Ahmed M.

    2006-05-01

    Levels of the heavy metals Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) were determined in coastal water, sediments and soft tissues of the gastropod limpet, Patella caerulea, and the bivalve, Barbatus barbatus, from seven different stations in the western coast of the Gulf of Suez. The concentrations of heavy metals in water ranged between 3.37-4.78, 18.83-21.46, 2.75-3.17, 0.22-0.27, 0.99-1.21, 2.69-3.65, 3.75-4.56 ?g L - 1 and 23.82-32.78 mg g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The corresponding concentration values in the sediments were 8.65-12.16, 51.78-58.06, 36.52-42.15, 3.23-3.98, 9.03-12.75, 34.31-49.63, 3.28-4.56 and 64.20-70.22 ?g g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The highest accumulated metals were Fe, Zn and Mn in both P. caerulea and B. barbatus, while the lowest one was Cd. The accumulation of metals was more pronounced in P. caerulea than B. barbatus. The highest concentrations of all metals in water, sediments and mollusca were recorded at Adabiya harbour north of the Gulf, while the lowest concentrations were recorded at Gabal El-Zeit and Hurghada. Land based activities and ships awaiting berth are the main source of metal pollution in the northern part of the Gulf.

  1. Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2013-07-15

    Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE-SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa-Hurghada coastal zone. PMID:23688834

  2. Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Source Rock Evaluation of the Lower Miocene Rocks Based on Well Logs: October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Aref Lashin; Saad Mogren

    2012-01-01

    October oil field is one of the largest hydrocarbon-bearing fields which produces oil from the sand section of the Lower Miocene Asl Formation. Two marl (Asl Marl) and shale (Hawara Formation) sections of possible source enrichment are detected above and below this oil sand section, respectively. This study aims to identify the content of the total organic carbon based on the density log and a combination technique of the resistivity and porosity logs (?log R Technique). The available geoche...

  3. Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Source Rock Evaluation of the Lower Miocene Rocks Based on Well Logs: October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Lashin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available October oil field is one of the largest hydrocarbon-bearing fields which produces oil from the sand section of the Lower Miocene Asl Formation. Two marl (Asl Marl and shale (Hawara Formation sections of possible source enrichment are detected above and below this oil sand section, respectively. This study aims to identify the content of the total organic carbon based on the density log and a combination technique of the resistivity and porosity logs (?log R Technique. The available geochemical analyses are used to calibrate the constants of the TOC and the level of maturity (LOM used in the (?log R Technique. The geochemical-based LOM is found as 9.0 and the calibrated constants of the Asl Marl and Hawara Formation are found as 11.68, 3.88 and 8.77, 2.80, respectively. Fair to good TOC% content values (0.88 to 1.85 were recorded for Asl Marl section in the majority of the studied wells, while less than 0.5% is recorded for the Hawara Formation. The lateral distribution maps show that most of the TOC% enrichments are concentrated at central and eastern parts of the study area, providing a good source for the hydrocarbons encountered in the underlying Asl Sand section.

  4. Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oil spills detection. • Image enhancement techniques. • Aeromagnetic data processing and interpretation. -- Abstract: Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE–SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa–Hurghada coastal zone

  5. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodontic complexity 1 . The need for some manner of root canal preparation pri or to root canal filling has long been recognized as an essential step in endodontic t reatment. Concepts concerning the role and purpose of this canal preparation, however, have differ ed remarkably at different times in the development of endodontics and in the hands of diffe rent practitioners 2

  6. Physical properties of root canal filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root canal filling materials are used to obturate the root canal space. Several studies have been made in order to investigate their physical properties. A general review of these properties are discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 9, 2005

  8. Maxillary second molar with three mesiobuccal canals

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Kumar V; Kavitha A

    2011-01-01

    Understanding root canal morphology is one of the most important steps in successful root canal treatment. Thus, during the diagnosis and treatment phases of the maxillary molars, a clinician must be aware that anatomical variations exist. A number of studies, especially in vitro, have investigated various root canal morphologies, including aberrations of maxillary molars. This clinical case report highlights an unusual variant of a maxillary second molar with a third mesiobuccal canal.

  9. Acoustic hypochlorite activation in simulated curved canals

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jadaa, A; Paqué, F; Attin, T; Zehnder, M

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It was the goal of this study to compare different NaOCl activation schemes regarding a desired and an untoward outcome. Ultrasonic tips and a currently marketed sonic system were used in conjunction with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Necrotic pulp tissue dissolution in simulated accessory canals and transportation of the main canal were assessed. METHODS: Epoxy resin models (10 per group) with a curved simulated main root canal and two simulated accessory canals filled w...

  10. Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery. PMID:24665522

  11. Gender and Migration: The case of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    KANDIEL, Abdeen

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a hosting and sending state for migrant women. This paper will examine the laws governing the personal status of women in Egypt, and explore the problems that Egyptian migrant women face as a result of these laws. It will also examine Egyptian nationality law and how it creates difficulties in the integration of immigrant women into Egyptian society. / L’Egypte est un pays d’accueil et un pays d’envoi de femmes migrantes. Ce papier examine les lois régissant le statut personnel des f...

  12. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  13. Root canal treatment of a mandibular second premolar with atypical canal pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Kararia, Nitin; Kararia, Vandana

    2012-01-01

    To present a unique case of mandibular second premolar with an atypical canal pattern. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology, appropriate assessment of the pulp chamber floor, and critical interpretation of radiographs are a prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. Mandibular premolars frequently exhibit variable and complex root canal morphology and are one of the most difficult cases to treat endodontically. These teeth may require skillful and special root canal preparation ...

  14. Paraganglioma of external auditory canal

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Indranath; Goswami, Saileswar; Barman, Debasis; Biswas, Saumitra

    2001-01-01

    In the ear, paragangliomas are commonly found in the tympanic cavity or in juglar bulb. We, here, present a case of paraganglioma originating from the external auditory canal as it has not been reported in the world literature. The clinico-pathologic features of such a case has been described.

  15. Monitoring of some heavy metal in egypt using different spectroscopic technique ICP-AES and AAS-GF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals include both toxic and/or non toxic elements egyptian aquatic environment were monitored using inductivly coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy; ICP-AES and graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy; GF-AAS. Water and aquatic weeds (waterhyathins) are of different categories specified for such monitoring form the canals. The locations of sampling sites the river nile in egypt. These sites were chosen based on the industrial activity comparing to the cleansite and the other cultivated one. Bioavailability and related effects were defined so as to specify actually the higher concentration more contaminated areas

  16. Organophosphorus pesticides residues in fish samples from the River Nile tributaries in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhat, Farag; Nasr, Islam

    2011-12-01

    The concentration of organophosphorus pesticides in fish samples from different tributaries of the Nile River in Egypt was monitored. Fish samples were collected from El Menofiya, canal water supplies (El-Sarsawia, El-Bagoria and Bahr Shebin), in addition to El-Embaby, El-Menofi and Miet Rabiha drainage canals each 2 month during periods of 16 month, June 2007-Septemper 2008. Chloropyrifos, cadusafos, diazinon, prothiphos and malathion were detected in fish tissues samples at level below the maximum residue limit. The highest average amount of chlorpyrifos (9.38 ng g(-1)) and malathion (8.31 ng g(-1)) were detected in El-Embaby drain. Prothiphos were found in tissues collected from El-Sarsawia canal and Miet-Rabiha drain at mean concentration of 4.91 and 6.55 ng g(-1), respectively. Diazinon was only found in one fish sample that collected from El-Menofi drain at the level of 9.23 ng g(-1). PMID:21953307

  17. Paleozoic Igneous Activity In Egypt By

    OpenAIRE

    Meneisy, M. Y. [???? ???? ?????

    1989-01-01

    Based on available isotopic age data, including a few K/Ar ages obtained by the writer, a geochronological sequence of the main phases of igneous activity in Egypt during the Paleozoic is presented. Five main phases at around 550-500 Ma, 400 Ma, 350 Ma, 290 Ma and 230 Ma are identified. An attempt is made to relate these phases with tectonic events. It appears that Paleozoic igneous activity in Egypt was more widespread than has previously been recognised.

  18. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    OpenAIRE

    Adriansen, Hanne Kristine

    2007-01-01

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment. Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert ...

  19. Breast cancer in Egypt: a fact sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Zawilla N

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor among women. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women; 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people.

  20. Radiocarbon-based chronology for dynastic Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Bronk Ramsey, C.; Dee, MW; Rowland, JM; Higham, TF; Harris, SA; Brock, F.; Quiles, A; Wild, EM; Marcus, ES; Shortland, AJ

    2010-01-01

    The historical chronologies for dynastic Egypt are based on reign lengths inferred from written and archaeological evidence. These floating chronologies are linked to the absolute calendar by a few ancient astronomical observations, which remain a source of debate. We used 211 radiocarbon measurements made on samples from short-lived plants, together with a Bayesian model incorporating historical information on reign lengths, to produce a chronology for dynastic Egypt. A small offset (19 radi...

  1. Globalization Impact on Education in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    DIANA, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    The Education affair in Egypt is a Janus-faced case considered both as ‘local’ and ‘global’. There are local factors specific to this country - the Islamization of the Egyptian society’s moeurs - as well as elements of global and international nature, that insert the Egyptian education case in the larger analytical framework of Globalization. After highlighting how Egypt got involved in the global system by the application of new economic and neoliberal policies, the paper will...

  2. Approaches to healing in Roman Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Draycott, Jane Louise

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the healing strategies utilised by the inhabitants of Egypt during the Roman period (from the late first century BC to the fourth century AD) in order to investigate how Egyptian, Greek and Roman customs and traditions interacted within the province. It explores the symbiotic relationship between 'professional' and 'amateur' medical practice within Egypt, and examines the ways in which three particularly well-attested health problems - eye complaints, febrile conditions a...

  3. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoono...

  4. Report on Highly Skilled Migration in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    BADAWY, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the relevant laws that cover the migration of highly skilled persons who originate from, or settle in, Egypt. Highly skilled foreign nationals with unique professional skills are given advantages (in investment, property ownership for investors and taxation) that make their settlement in Egypt relatively easy when compared to the treatment given to non-skilled foreign workers. Non-skilled workers usually do not obtain work permits, they are employed in the i...

  5. Egypt : Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often viewed as insular disciplines, with their own special history and set of material remains. The kinds of theoretically informed approaches and analyses with which the wider archaeological discipline has engaged over the past decades has often been viewed with scepticism, in terms of what it has to offer to a discipline whose historical materials seem to be so rich and varied. The reason for this study is to challenge such insularity and to demonstrate the utility of integrating theoretical ideas with specific studies of ancient Egyptian material. The chapters in this volume explore a variety of ancient and modern Egyptian material and practices, from a wide range of prehistoric and historical periods, entwining interpretation of source material with explicitly theoretical approaches to provide new perspectives and interpretations of aspects of the Ancient Egyptian past. This volume is one of the first to demonstrate the emerging interdisciplinary nature in Ancient Egyptian studies and the first to suggest new avenues of approach whilst seeking to open a discussion about how the Egyptian past can be known and understood. The book engages with wider trends from the humanities, which have found currency in archaeological studies, such as materiality, performativity, corporeality, embodiment, identity, and popular culture studies. Egyptian material is explored via these themes, to create nuanced and contextual interpretations of particular sites, events, artefacts and practices. Egypt: Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies makes an important contribution to furthering the fields of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology, as well as in the wider context of archaeological theory.

  6. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...companies seeking to do business in the region. Egypt...2010. According to Business Monitor International's forecasts, Egypt's...through June). Egyptian law requires that foreign...language, law and general business practices. Based...

  7. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an aggressive growth pattern with early, local paraspinal recurrence and, eventually, intradural metastatic spread. This type of growth pattern has not been described previously. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal are more common than previously thought and can be located anywhere along the spine, although the lumbosacral level is the most common. Their appearance on MRI can not disinguish them from other tumours in the spinal canal. Even though paragangliomas in general are benign and slowly growing their growth pattern can vary and be more aggressive, to the point of metastatic spread. (orig.)

  8. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  9. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)

  10. Management of six root canals in mandibular first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglia-Ferreira, Claudio; Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

  11. The Role of USAID in Development in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Sayed Moawad

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuses the role of USAID in the development process in Egypt. It discusses the USAID role in Egypt in some sectors with more focus on USAID/Egypt economic growth, more specifically the Technical Assistance for policy Reform II (TAPRII). I will discuss the items of the program that made the environment conducive to trade and investment.

  12. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the N...

  13. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

  14. Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Adeyeye, John O; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks governed by Boolean nested canalizing functions, which previously required extensive simulations. Recently, the concept of nested canalizing functions has been generalized to include multistate functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper contains a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. In addition, the concept of nested canalization is further generalized and closed formulas for the number of such generalized fun...

  15. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-01-01

    Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital) lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spon...

  16. Connecting canals: exercises in recombinant ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Victoria; Whatmore, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Canals have created grooves through the landscape of England and Wales for over 250 years, but they were dismissed by modernity, and narratives of disenchantment linger. Whilst visitor numbers grow as canals experience a ‘Second Golden Age’ and attempts are made to promote these waterways as ecological resources, they remain overlooked within conservation and their futures are precarious. The linearity of canals generates ecological connection and safe passage, whilst these environments a...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers

    OpenAIRE

    Vujaškovi? Mirjana; Radosavljevi? Branka

    2006-01-01

    All root canal sealers should have antimicrobial activity so that they could act against any remaining bacteria after root canal obturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five root canal sealers: AH26, a resin based paste; Apexit, calcium hydroxide based paste; Endomethasone and Tubliseal, zinc oxide eugenol based materials and Ketac Endo Aplicap, glass ionomer based sealer. Matherials And Methods: Antimicrobial activity was tested against S. mutans 70C a...

  18. Anatomic variations of the human semicircular canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anatomic variations of the semicircular canals were investigated in a series of 95 plastic temporal bone preparations. The results showed a wider range of variability than has been assumed previously. An intraindividual correlation was found between the sizes of the superior and lateral semicircular canals. Observations indicate why a semicircular canal is not invariably delineated on one tomographic plane despite correct positioning for its optimum reproduction. (orig.)

  19. Mechanized instrumentation of root canals oscillating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Puente, Carlos Garcia; Jaime, Alejandro; Jent, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Cleaning and shaping are important steps in the root canal treatment. Despite the technological advances in endodontics, K and Hedstroen files are still widely used. In an attempt to be more effective in preparing the root canals, faster and more cutting efficient kinematic, alloys and design alternatives utilizing mechanically oscillating or rotary files are proposed. Even with all these technological innovating alternatives, the preparation of root canals remains a challenge. PMID:23579914

  20. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment System, which...

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals production activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the field of nuclear medicine in Egypt have increased so rapidly in the last few years. At present, a large number of hospitals are utilizing these radioisotopic techniques for both diagnosis and treatment. The following production activities are taking place in the Egyptian Radioisotope Production laboratories. By utilizing the research reactor a large number of radioisotopes which find wide applications in nuclear medicine were produced, such as iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-24, potassium-42 and molybdenum-99 / technetium-99m generators. Gallium-67, indium-111 and iodine-123 will be produced locally after installation of the cyclotron at the end of 1998. A large number of Tc-99m based kits for diagnostic medical applications have been produced. Also, many radiopharmaceuticals labelled with iodine-131 were produced. The radioisotope production laboratory is able to supply many hospitals with the radioimmunoassay kits of the thyroid related hormones (T4, T3 and TSH). Research and development activities are taking place in the field of monoclonal antibodies and tumor markers with special consideration of AFP, CEA, PSA and ?hCG. (author)

  2. Comparison of the effect of five root canal preparation techniques on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheykhrezaee MS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many methods and techniques of canal preparation work well in large and relatively straight canals. However, in severely curved canals, the complexity increases markedly, and techniques rendering good results in usual cases may be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five root canal preparation techniques on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 100 simulated canal blocks with similar hardness were made from polyester. The degree of curvature was 45º with a radius of 2.55 mm and a straight part of 8mm. The blocks were prepared with five different techniques (20 canals in each group as follows: 1-Stepback 2- Passive step back 3- Balanced force using flex-R files 4- Balanced force using Ni-Ti hand instruments 5- Hybrid using a rotary Ni-Ti system (XtremRace. Digital photographs were taken from pre- and post instrumentation colored canals. Then images were superimposed and analyzed by an image editing software. The amount of removed material from the inner and outer canal walls was measured at five levels: 1-The canal orifice (O 2-The halfway between the orifice and the beginning of the curve (HO 3-The beginning of the curve (BC 4-The apex of the curve (AC and 5-The endpoint of preparation (EP. Additionally, the time of instrumentation, instrument failure and changes in working length were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Mean transportation was towards the outer aspect of the curve at the EP in all canals but there were no significant differences between the studied groups. At the BC point, all of the canals were transported towards the inner aspect of the curve and there were significant differences for both transportation values & direction among different groups. The highest amount of transportation was in step back and the lowest, in hybrid group. The highest transportation value was in step back and the lowest in balanced force group. Fractured and deformed instruments were observed in Flex-R files. The shortest canal preparation time was seen in XtremRace and the slowest, in Passive step back groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, changes in canal curvature were less with techniques using nickel titanium instruments and the fastest technique with least transportation was XtremRace.

  3. Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt / Monitoramento de cistos parasitarios no cerebro de um rebanho de ovinos no Egito

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shehata, Anwar; Emad, Mahdy; Khalid Ali, El-Nesr; Khaled Mohamed, El-Dakhly; Adel, Shalaby; Tokuma, Yanai.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cistos cerebrais parasitários constituem um grande problema para o gado. Entre estes, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são predominantes. Aqui, um número total de 60 ovelhas obtidas em uma fazenda particular na província Suez, Egito, foram examinadas post-mortem para a detecção de cistos parasitários visív [...] eis e microscopicamente para detectar cistos de pequenas dimensões. A necropsia revelou cistos medindo entre 0,5-6,5 cm de diâmetro, preenchidos com um fluido transparente, contendo um grande número de protoscolices. Por conseguinte, os cistos foram identificados como o metacestóide Coenurus cerebralis. Entre as ovelhas examinadas, 11 animais (7 machos e 4 fêmeas) (18,3%) estavam infectados. A maior parte dos cistos estavam localizados nos hemisférios cerebrais, com números variando de um a três em ovinos infectados. O efeito da presença de cistos no tecido do cérebro foi avaliado. Histopatologicamente, pseudocistos de Toxoplasma gondii foram encontrados em dois animais sem reações inflamatórias detectáveis. Em conclusão, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são graves problemas parasitários que desempenham um papel significativo no manejo de ovelhas no Egito, como resultado do contacto íntimo dos animais com os cães e gatos, que desempenham um papel crítico no ciclo de vida desses parasitas. Abstract in english Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to dete [...] ct small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscolices. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites.

  4. Earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams and nuclear power plants. Setting of nuclear power plants becomes of increasing important in northern Egypt with the commitment towards promoting nuclear electric generation. Therefore, the annual seismic hazard maps with non-exceedence probability of 80%, 85% and 90% are given. These maps show that northern Egypt is severely affects by earthquakes from potential sources around Sinai peninsula. Three sites (Nile Delta, Cairo, and Ismailia region) have been chosen to estimated the earthquake hazard in more detailes to serve as a basic parameter to the safety factor of different projects in these regions. A seismic safety factor of intensity 8.5 should be considered in designing the vital projects in northern Egypt. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

  6. Iraqi Refugees in Egypt: Socio-Political Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ROMAN, Howaida

    2009-01-01

    (En) In the last two decades, Egypt has become host to many different kinds of migrants from both North and South. In the 1990s, Egypt witnessed a massive inflow from Africa, while the Iraqi migration began after the American-led invasion in 2003. This paper looks at the situation of Iraqi refugees in Egypt, and tackles; first, the causes of Iraqi migration in Egypt and trends within that migration; second, the living conditions of Iraqis in Egypt including the question of access to servic...

  7. Nanomedicine for drug targeting: strategies beyond the enhanced permeability and retention effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nehoff H; Nn, Parayath; Domnanovich L; Taurin S; Greish K

    2014-01-01

    Hayley Nehoff,1 Neha N Parayath,1 Laura Domanovitch,1 Sebastien Taurin,1 Khaled Greish1,2 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt Abstract: The growing research interest in nanomedicine for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory-related pathologies is yielding encouraging results. Unfortunately, enthusiasm is tempered by the limited specificity of the enhanced permeabi...

  8. Comparison of minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy and conventional thyroidectomy: a single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gouda Mohamed El-labban

    2010-01-01

    Gouda Mohamed El-labbanDepartment of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAim: We aimed to test the hypothesis that minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) affords comparable safety and efficacy as open conventional surgery in patients with unilateral thyroid nodules or follicular lesions in terms of cosmetic results, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative pain, and hospital stay.Methods: A single-blinded randomized...

  9. Triangular model integrating clinical teaching and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz A; Koshak E

    2014-01-01

    Adel Abdelaziz,1,2 Emad Koshak3 1Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt; 3Dean and Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indi...

  10. Tooth anatomy risk factors influencing root canal working length accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Huang, Ding-ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these an...

  11. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  12. Solar-wind energy generation over Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, solar radiation and wind data obtained from the egyptian meteorological authority are used to calculate monthly and annual solar and wind energy. The study is based on data from five anemometer meteorological stations, distribututed over egypt and covering a period ranging from 1973to 1993. This analysis showed that along mediteranean coast and upper egypt stations, the annual solar and wind energy fluxes are found to be high, which indicates that these energy utilization. Also the two weibull distribution parmeters have been calculated from wind data for some meteorological stations

  13. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mousa; Ebtehal Rashad; Gamal Ezz El Arab

    2009-01-01

    Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  14. Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Asnaashari,; Nassimeh Safavi

    2012-01-01

    Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the ...

  15. Coupled effects of canal lining and multi-layered soil structure on canal seepage and soil water dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Liqiang; Feng, Shaoyuan; Mao, Xiaomin; Huo, Zailin; Kang, Shaozhong; Barry, David Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Ponding tests were conducted in the Shiyang River Basin in Northwest China to assess canal leakage characteristics. Four anti-seepage constructions (concrete lining, pebble lining, clay lining plus compacted canal bed, compacted canal bed only) were performed on four canal sections, which were situated in multi-layered soils. The canal sections were tested using a two-stage approach; first a stable water level was maintained followed by a stage where the water level in the canal section was p...

  16. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  17. Microsurgical Study of the Dorello's Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitsopoulos, Philip D.; Tsonidis, Christos A.; Petsas, George P.; Hadjiioannou, Pantelis N.; Njau, Samuel Ndungu; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis V.

    1996-01-01

    The microsurgical anatomy of Dorello's canal was examined in 20 cadaver specimens. The study included dissections of this anatomic structure, under operative microscope and using microsurgical instruments. The detailed microanatomy of the canal was defined, as well as its relation to the sixth nerve, the clivus, the petrous apex, and the adjacent neurovascular elements.

  18. 33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge,...

  19. Características de los Canales Radiculares de Molares Temporales / Characteristics of Roots Canals of Deciduous Teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esther, Vaillard Jiménez; Enrique, Huitzil Muñoz; Loida, Castillo Domínguez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigacion fue identificar en los canales radiculares de la dentición temporal las variantes anatómicas de la cavidad dentaria pulpar. Se realizó un estudio clínico, descriptivo, transversal ex vivo, que analizó una muestra de 60 dientes temporales pertenecientes a niños mexic [...] anos aparentemente sanos, cuya extracción se indicó por motivos terapéuticos. Los dientes fueron almacenados en agua destilada y posteriormente diafanizados. La identificación de canales radiculares se realizó por un solo observador durante dos ocasiones (k= 0,7947). Los dientes unirradiculares presentaron 50% de canales simples y laterales, 25% secundarios y 25% deltas. Los molares maxilares presentaron un 8% de canales simples en cada raíz, mientras que los molares mandibulares un 29%. Canales secundarios, paralelos y recurrentes se observaron en el 33% de los molares. El 100% de las raíces distales de molares mandibulares presentaron canales reticulares. Las fusiones radiculares se presentan en el 88% de las molares mandibulares. La anatomía de los canales radiculares de la dentición temporal es altamente compleja. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify in roots canals of deciduous teeth anatomical variants in pulpar cavity. In a clinical, descriptive, cross sectional ex vivo study was analyzed a sample of 60 deciduous teeth of healthy Mexican children. Each tooth was conserved in distillated water and were tra [...] nsparency with a technic modified for deciduous teeth. Identifications of root canals was made twice by a lonely observant (k= 0.7947). Simple root teeth show 50% simple and lateral root canal, 25% secondary, 25% delta. Upper molars show 8% simple canal in each root. Lower molars 29%. Secondary root canals, parallel and recurrent were identified in 33% of cases. 100% of distal roots of lower molars have reticular canals. Root fusions are presents in 88% of lower molars. In conclusion, root canals anatomy of deciduous teeth is high complex.

  20. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  1. Investigating ancient Memphis, Pharaonic Egypt's northern capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jeffreys

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1981 the London-based Egypt Exploration Society has been conducting an archaeological survey of the site of Memphis and its surrounding area. The present field director of the project describes some of the aims and results of the most recent phases of the survey.

  2. English for Police Officers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallem, Elsayed Abo

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the use of English as a second language on the job by officers in several departments of the national police force in Egypt as determined by a survey of 150 officers. Suggests a syllabus for a common core course for all police officers, regardless of their specialization. (SED)

  3. Experience with the INES scale in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty years experience with Egypt first Research Reactor (ET-RR-1) operation, was introduced focusing on the famous events that were initiated and the procedures that were taken for their recovery or mitigation is given. Four out of seven events can be attributed to human errors, the events if classified using the INES

  4. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  5. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  6. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  7. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2007-01-01

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment. Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social relationships. Not only do the children grow up in a different physical context, they are also exposed to new norms, values and behaviour that influences their everyday life and shape their identity. Especially the change from living in large, extended families to living in nuclear families as well as women’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed’ countries

  8. Multicenter Study of Brucellosis in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Samaha, Hassan; Al-Rowaily, Meshref; Khoudair, Ramadan M.; Ashour, Hossam M

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes.

  9. Review of parasitic zoonoses in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed I; Uga, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  10. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  11. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions and independent experts. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture and a full understanding of the energy industry and market in Egypt, the way they operate and their long-term perspectives

  12. [Postural stabilization after otolithic repositioning for posterior semicircular canal canalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, M; Giacomini, P; Sorace, F; Bruno, E

    1998-12-01

    Today the canal/cupulolithiasic pathogenesis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) appears well defined; what is less clear is the origin of the postural "instability" often associated with rotatory vertigo. This form is less marked but still resists all know treatments. The purpose of the present study was to determine the actual postural arrangement of subjects suffering from canalolithiasis (CL) of the posterior semicircular canal (PSC) both before and after the positioning maneuver. In this case a personal method of spectral frequency analysis was used in an attempt to clarify the origin of the residual "instability" following otolithic repositioning. Static posturographic testing was performed on 20 patients with CL of the PSC and another 20 normal subjects of comparable age. In the present study the repositioning maneuver leads to a reduction in latero-lateral oscillation without any anterior-posterior variation. Such stabilization covers all the frequencies if a visual input is also present while it is limited to the lower frequencies when the visual content is lacking. In fact, in the latter case the subject maintains his posture using only vestibular and proprioceptive input. On the other hand, the anterior-posterior oscillations increase in all frequency ranges and this increase remains essentially unchanged after the repositioning maneuver. The authors feel that the anterior-posterior destabilization seen in CL of the PSC may stem from a proprioceptive-macular alteration linked to otolitic detachment rather than abnormal ampullar stimulation. The persistence and residual postural alterations found could, therefore, explain the persistent sense of instability that CL patients often complain of, even after the maneuvers which have encountered such success in controlling BPPV. PMID:10388149

  13. 78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ...Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...pertaining to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The referenced notice is corrected...included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for...

  14. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  15. Using ArcGIS to Study the New Lakes in the Toshka Basin in Egypt and Evaluate Egypt's New Valley Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb Tewksbury

    In 1978, the Egyptians constructed a canal known as the Toshka Spillway from Lake Nasser into a low area to the west to allow spillover of Lake Nasser water. Despite the fact that the spillway was created in 1978, it wasn't until the late 1990s that Lake Nasser actually filled up to the level of the spillway canal and the overflow lakes began to form. In November of 1998, US astronauts orbiting in the Space Shuttle noticed the lakes filling for the first time, and they have had water in them ever since. Egypt has embarked on a long-term and far-reaching irrigation plan to create habitable land away from the Nile River Valley. The Toshka Lakes are not, however, a formal part of the project. One of the main points of the exercise is to have students use both their knowledge of Saharan hydrogeology and GIS analyses to evaluate whether the Egyptians are wise not to use the lakes as part of the proposed system of water distribution. In this exercise, students download and prepare their own SRTM DEMs and learn how to determine areas and volumes using ArcGIS. They can then ask questions and use ArcGIS to determine the answers. How much water is in the Toshka Lakes? What happens if Lake Nasser rises and more water flows down the canal? Will more lakes form, or will the lakes that are there just get bigger? How much water might be evaporating from the lake surfaces? How much water has to flow down the canal to keep the lakes at a particular level? What might happen as the annual Nile flood fluctuates from year to year? The document posted for downloading contains two homework assignments, two in-class activities, and a wrap-up assignment. You can also download a GIS Primer (Acrobat (PDF) 1.2MB Mar30 10) that we have written, which is a simple GIS "how-to" manual for tasks including those used in this exercise.

  16. Correlation of Aerogravity and BHT Data to Develop a Geothermal Gradient Map of the Northern Western Desert of Egypt using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Haby S.; Abdel Zaher, Mohamed; Senosy, Mahmoud M.; Saibi, Hakim; El Nouby, Mohamed; Fairhead, J. Derek

    2015-06-01

    The northern part of the Western Desert of Egypt represents the second most promising area of hydrocarbon potential after the Gulf of Suez province. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to develop a new predictive model for calculation of the geothermal gradients in this region based on gravity and corrected bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data. The best training data set was obtained with an ANN architecture composed of seven neurons in the hidden layer, which made it possible to predict the geothermal gradient with satisfactory efficiency. The BHT records of 116 deep oil wells (2,000-4,500 m) were used to evaluate the geothermal resources in the northern Western Desert. Corrections were applied to the BHT data to obtain the true formation equilibrium temperatures, which can provide useful constraints on the subsurface thermal regime. On the basis of these corrected data, the thermal gradient was computed for the linear sections of the temperature-versus-depth data at each well. The calculated geothermal gradient using temperature log data was generally 30 °C/km, with a few local high geothermal gradients in the northwestern parts of the study area explained by potential local geothermal fields. The Bouguer gravity values from the study area ranged from -60 mGal in the southern parts to 120 mGal in the northern areas, and exhibited NE-SW and E-W trends associated with geological structures. Although the northern Western Desert of Egypt has low regional temperature gradients (30 °C/km), several potential local geothermal fields were found (>40 °C/km). The heat flow at each well was also computed by combining sets of temperature gradients and thermal conductivity data. Aerogravity data were used to delineate the subsurface structures and tectonic framework of the region. The result of this study is a new geothermal gradient map of the northern Western Desert developed from gravity and BHT log data.

  17. Endodontic therapy in a three canal mandibular second premolar

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a clinical case of mandibular second premolar with three separated canals in apical third of the root that are diagnosed and endodontically treated. Sound knowledge of root canal anatomy and morphology, tactile examination of canal walls, critical interpretation of radiographs and high magnification examination are essential elements of success in complicated root canal therapy.

  18. Brief communication: Y-chromosome haplotypes in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucotte, G; Mercier, G

    2003-05-01

    We analyzed Y-chromosome haplotypes in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism. These individuals were born in three regions along the river: in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt), in Upper Egypt, and in Lower Nubia. Fifteen different p49a,f TaqI haplotypes are present in Egypt, the three most common being haplotype V (39.4%), haplotype XI (18.9%), and haplotype IV (13.9%). Haplotype V is a characteristic Arab haplotype, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley. Haplotype IV, characteristic of sub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in Egypt. PMID:12687584

  19. Organic tracers in sediments from the coastal zone of Ras Abu el-Darag, Gulf of Suez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Kassim, Tarek A. T. A.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2009-10-01

    Sediment samples from the coastal zone of the Gulf of Suez contain a variety of organic compounds from anthropogenic and natural sources. A total of 12 surface samples of bottom sediments were collected with an Ekman grab sampler along an off-shore transect south of Ras Abu el-Darag. The samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1 v/v) after drying and sieving through 250 ?m mesh. The extracts were derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the chemical composition and sources of the organic components. Marine with minor terrestrial biota were the major natural sources of organic tracers and included n-alkanoic acids, sterols and saccharides (5.7-76.7%). Anthropogenic sources, from petroleum related activities, detergent usage for spill cleaning and littering, are indicated by the presence of n-alkanes with carbon preference index ?1.0, hopanes, steranes, unresolved complex mixture of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons, alkyl nitriles, alkamides and plasticizers. Their total relative concentrations ranged from 23.3 to 97.3% of the total extracts. Petroleum residues from natural seepage may also be part of these hydrocarbons. The levels of anthropogenic inputs decrease from about 94% in coastal zone sediments to about 20% in sediments from the reef front.

  20. Environmental and Irradiation Effect on the Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Some Local Bacterial Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty eight bacterial isolates were isolated from The Suez Gulf sea water from the coast of the El-Nasr Petroleum Company on Suez Canal and formation water from overhead of an oil well in western desert of Egypt named (M68). Sixteen bacterial isolates were obtained from The Suez Gulf sea water. Twelve bacterial isolates were obtained from formation water (M68). The bacterial isolates were screened for bio surfactant production by using emulsification activity and haemolytic activity. The most potent two isolates N8 and S8 were selected according to three parameters; the ability of isolate to grow and produce surfactant on wide range of ph, temperature and salinity. The most promising bacterial isolates were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve their abilities for bio surfactant production which resulted in a passive effect on bio surfactant production

  1. New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschkind, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

    El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como estas prácticas lingüisticas guardan una similitud visual y oral con las grabaciones de vídeo, de baja resolución, que se hacen con teléfonos móviles y que aparecen después en los blogs políticos. Todas estas nuevas prácticas revelan formas emergentes de acción política y de disidencia en el Egipto actual.

  2. Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames; Carlos Andrés Morales Herrera; Mario Gonzalo Cantín López; Daniela Alejandra Zavando Matamala

    2007-01-01

    El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la implantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 5...

  3. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živkovi? Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  4. Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia Adel Nakhla; Mohamed Galal Hassan; Salah El Haggar

    2013-01-01

    Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to the expected detrimental impacts on coastal zones, agriculture, water security as well as indirect social and health impacts. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although Egypt is a non-annex I country not requiring any specific emission reduction or limitation targets under the Kyoto protocol, its National plans have included mitigation measures to reduce its greenhouse gases. The...

  5. Labor law reforms and labor market performance in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelgouad, Ahmed Fayez

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a review of the institutional framework in the Egyptian labor market to show how it is regulated by discussing extensively the most recent labor law regulations in Egypt and the main reasons behind enacting this law. The paper guides also to different data sources that can be used and highlights a number of empirical studies about the labor market in Egypt. Finally, it concludes that further reforms are still required to improve labor market efficiency in Egypt.

  6. Semicircular Canal Geometry, Afferent Sensitivity And Animal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hullar, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    The geometry of the semicircular canals has been used in evolutionary studies to predict the behaviors of extinct animals. These predictions have relied on an assumption that the responses of the canals can be determined from their dimensions, and that an organism’s behavior can be determined from these responses. However, the relationship between a canal’s sensitivity and its size is not well known. An intraspecies comparison among canal responses in each of three species (cat, squirrel ...

  7. Effect of Profile and Race rotary systems on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recent advances in technology have permitted manufacturers to produce endodontic files from NiTi alloy and rotary systems. According to manufacturers, these files maintain original canal shape better than hand files and reduce treatment time. The aim of this study was to compare a new rotary system (Race with an older one (Profile in maintaining the original shape of curved canal and the working length as well as the procedural accidents rate. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 polyester blocks with curved canals (45 , were fabricated and divided into 2 groups. After primary working length determination and staining with methylene blue, photographs were taken. Canal preparation was done with Profile and Race rotary systems according to manufacturers and working length was measured again. Canal staining by eosin was performed and photographs were taken for the second time. The two images were superimposed and changes in canals anatomy in 5 sections were recorded. Data were analyzed by t test with p 0.05. Changes in working lengths and procedural accidents were similar in the studied groups (P> 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, changes in canal anatomy and working length of simulated severely curved canals as well as procedural accidents rate are similar in two rotary systems and both are suitable for canal preparation.

  8. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)rcular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  9. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department...States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

  10. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  11. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  12. SMES and enjoying Economic Human Rights in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Alasrag, Hussien

    2007-01-01

    Economic Human Rights are considered one of the basic human rights. In spite of many reforms have been taken to increase enjoying Economic Human Rights in Egypt, It still compare poorly with other developing countries. Nearly 43.9% of the Egypt’s population lives on less than $2a day, and 16.7% barely survive on less than $1 a day. Improving the climate for SMES in Egypt is essential to enjoying economic human rights and to provide jobs and opportunities for young people and to build a m...

  13. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

  14. Root Canal Treatment from Start to Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the crown of the tooth to the pulp chamber. 3. Removing the Infected/Inflamed Tissue Special ... are used to clean the infection and unhealthy pulp out of the canals. Then they shape the ...

  15. Model equations for Calculating Rn-gas Concentrations in Air of Uranium Exploratory Tunnels, Allouga, West-Central Sinai , Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Allouga area is located some 40 km due east from Abu Zenima town on the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, West-Central Sinai, Egypt. A network of exploratory tunnels totaling 670m in length and approximately 2x2 m in cross section, were excavated within a paleosol clayey bed. They host (Fe, Mn)-, Cu-, and U-mineralizations. Portions of the tunnels are naturally ventilated and others portions are non-ventilated and show ground water seepage through fractures. Model equations were developed for calculating the Rn-gas concentrations in the air of the tunnels under dry conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by air flow through porous media as well as for wet conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by ground water flow into the tunnels. Under dry conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations(15.2-60.6 PCi/1) are consistent with measured values by active techniques (3.26-22.85 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (19-69.1 pCi/1) when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha= 0.05-0.2), the emanating rock thickness (X=10 cm) and U-concentration averages 30 ppm. Under wet and non-ventilated conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations (159-1248 pCi/1) are consistent with the measured values by active techniques (231-1348 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (144-999pCi/1), when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha=0.1-0.25), the ground water flow (F=0.04-0.10 ml/s-1cm-2) and U-concertrations (100-250ppm)pm)

  16. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R G; Mahrose, K M A; El-Shafei, M; Marai, I F M

    2008-06-01

    This review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in Egypt. In the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. Pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. Of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: Alexandria, Al-Behera, Al-Dakahlia, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid, Aswan, Cairo, El-Sharkia, Geiza, Ismailia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Matrouh and Nubaria. Abattoirs and tanneries specialising in ostrich handling are limited to two. Egypt has numerous strengths and opportunities to develop its ostrich sector. Rising meat prices suggest that fresh ostrich meat is unaffordable to many locals. Funds may be allocated to local advertising campaigns to promote ostrich meat; provision of incentives to farmers; and improving the capacity of abattoirs. PMID:18509943

  17. Anthropogenic enhancement of Egypt's Mediterranean fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Nixon, Scott W; Granger, Stephen L; El-Sayed, Abdel-Fattah M; McKinney, Richard A

    2009-02-01

    The highly productive coastal Mediterranean fishery off the Nile River delta collapsed after the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1965. But the fishery has been recovering dramatically since the mid-1980s, coincident with large increases in fertilizer application and sewage discharge in Egypt. We use stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) to demonstrate that 60%-100% of the current fishery production may be from primary production stimulated by nutrients from fertilizer and sewage runoff. Although the establishment of the dam put Egypt in an ideal position to observe the impact of rapid increases in nutrient loading on coastal productivity in an extremely oligotrophic sea, the Egyptian situation is not unique. Such anthropogenically enhanced fisheries also may occur along the northern rim of the Mediterranean and offshore of some rapidly developing tropical countries, where nutrient concentrations in the coastal waters were previously very low. PMID:19164510

  18. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  19. Cervical and lumbar spinal canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo André Brandt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis is a degenerative disease of the spine specifi callyrelated to human ageing as its cause. This is a degenerative diseaseof intervertebral discs and arthrosis of the spinal posterior articularfacets with subsequent stenosis of the spinal canal. As peopleare getting old health-related problems are increasing, includingdegenerative diseases of the spinal column. Physicians have to beable to deal with those problems, including clinical features, diagnosisand treatment and this is the goal of this review.

  20. Cervical and lumbar spinal canal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo André Brandt; Marcelo Wajchenberg

    2008-01-01

    Spinal canal stenosis is a degenerative disease of the spine specifi callyrelated to human ageing as its cause. This is a degenerative diseaseof intervertebral discs and arthrosis of the spinal posterior articularfacets with subsequent stenosis of the spinal canal. As peopleare getting old health-related problems are increasing, includingdegenerative diseases of the spinal column. Physicians have to beable to deal with those problems, including clinical features, diagnosisand treatment and th...

  1. Mechanics of the Panama Canal slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, George F.

    1917-01-01

    Dr. Becker visited the Canal Zone in 1913 as a geologist of the United States Geological Survey and since that time has given the problem the benefit of his study. His appointment as a member of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences has made it appropriate for his conclusions, based upon his personal observations and already reported in part to the Canal Commission, to be stated for the benefit of his associates and other American scientists and engineers.

  2. MERS Coronaviruses in Dromedary Camels, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Daniel K. W.; Poon, Leo L.M.; Gomaa, Mokhtar M.; Shehata, Mahmoud M.; Perera, Ranawaka A.P.M.; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S.; Siu, Lewis Y.; Guan, Yi; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A; Peiris, Malik; Kayali, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    We identified the near-full-genome sequence (29,908 nt, >99%) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a nasal swab specimen from a dromedary camel in Egypt. We found that viruses genetically very similar to human MERS-CoV are infecting dromedaries beyond the Arabian Peninsula, where human MERS-CoV infections have not yet been detected.

  3. Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

  4. Egypt: Socio-political dimensions of migration

    OpenAIRE

    SIKA, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    This study argues that the Egyptian government both prior to and after the January 25th revolution encourages the migration of Egyptians abroad, in order to lower unemployment, and to increase remittances. Bilateral agreements on temporary and irregular migration have been signed with different governments, of which the Egyptian-Italian agreement on migration remains the most important. Moreover, the Egyptian government applies stricter rules concerning foreign workers in Egypt. Finally, the ...

  5. THE REVERSAL OF POLITICAL LIBERALIZATION IN EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    ?rem A?KAR KARAKIR; Müge AKNUR

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine conceptual and analytical issuesbehind the political deliberalization process in Egypt. In order to do that, thearticle will first study the approaches such as international context, civil society,political culture, and political economy, which are considered as significantfactors that shape Arab countries’ political liberalization process. In thisanalysis, the article will concentrate on the most important component of theEgyptian domestic context, “...

  6. Report on Circular Migration in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    BADAWY, Tarek

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows that the different migration policies reflect the national concern with alleviating the burden the increasing population imposes on national resources. On the one hand, Egyptian laws favor temporary labor migration as a labor distress mechanism and seek to create new opportunities via bilateral agreements. On the other hand, Egyptian laws reject the integration of non-nationals in Egypt and impose strict conditions regarding work and residency permits and naturali...

  7. Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nagwa R.A. Hussein; Sohir T. Hamed; Muhammed A. Zaki; Osman, Ahmed K.

    2012-01-01

    The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the ide...

  8. Schistosomiasis and Cancer in Egypt: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled, Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory ...

  9. School effects on educational attainment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Menshawy

    2012-01-01

    Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data for Egypt in 2007, this paper examines the determinants and gender inequality of educational attainment (test scores in Mathematics and Science). The complicated structure of the data is carefully addressed during all stages of the analysis by employing plausible values and jackknife standard error technique to accommodate the measurement error of the dependant variable and the clustering of students in classes and schoo...

  10. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Forcada, A.; Sánchez Lizaso, J.L.; Samy, M

    2011-01-01

    Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc.), ...

  11. Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which European and other Western powers have played a role. Occidentalisms are additionally found to be influenced by the ideological background from which the images are crafted. This is shown by a threef...

  12. Fillery's End-Users in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Morsi, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    The need of end-users’ complete knowledge has risen to become an essential feature of a successful business. Especially, when the business depends directly on exports to some distant countries with almost no similarities in cultures, business behaviors, handling of goods and goods usage. As uncertainty has become the main feature of business in Egypt and Arab countries, after the Arab spring. Such a research had to be conducted directly in the field of sawmill products in Alexandria and ...

  13. Corruption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Ghalwash

    2014-01-01

    Based on a theoretical consideration of economic growth model, this study empirically investigates the direct and indirect impact of corruption on economic growth by incorporating the corruption index in the growth model in the case of Egypt. The model provides a simple theoretical framework in which the level of corruption as well as the effects of corruption on output variables; forging direct investments, government expenditure, openness and political instability are iden...

  14. Hezbollah’s Man in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Levitt

    2014-01-01

    In November 2008, Egyptian authorities broke up what they said was a Hezbollah network plotting attacks in Egypt. While some of the charges appear to have been exaggerated, and it is clear that not all those arrested were in fact Hezbollah operatives, a careful examination reveals that a Hezbollah network was, in fact, operating on Egyptian soil. That it was originally tasked with carrying out neither surveillance nor attacks makes the case all the more intriguing, especially when compared wi...

  15. Anthropogenic enhancement of Egypt's Mediterranean fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Oczkowski, Autumn J.; Nixon, Scott W.; Granger, Stephen L.; El-Sayed, Abdel-Fattah M.; Richard A. McKinney

    2009-01-01

    The highly productive coastal Mediterranean fishery off the Nile River delta collapsed after the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1965. But the fishery has been recovering dramatically since the mid-1980s, coincident with large increases in fertilizer application and sewage discharge in Egypt. We use stable isotopes of nitrogen (?15N) to demonstrate that 60%–100% of the current fishery production may be from primary production stimulated by nutrients from fertilizer and sewage runoff. Alth...

  16. Models of Mathematics Curriculum Development in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mina, Fayez M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for developing mathematics curricula was clarified. Models of mathematics curriculum development in Egypt were identified as: \\"Temporary Committees\\" (TC), center of developing curriculum and educational materials (CDCEM), \\"National conferences\\" (NC) and \\"Educational standards\\" (ES). The advantages and disadvantages of each one of these models were evaluated. Then a new model was suggested covering the whole advantages of these models and avoiding their disadvantages.

  17. Ophthalmic medicolegal cases in Upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Wasfy Ismail A; Wasfy Ehab IA; Aly Tarek A; Abd-Elsayed Alaa A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To describe the pattern of ophthalmic medicolegal cases with emphasis on cases of assault, and to acquaint ophthalmologists with rules pertaining to expert testimony and medical reports. Methods A retrospective study was carried out to review files of 247 medicolegal cases from Upper Egypt seen by the senior author in 8 years. These were classified categorically and were analyzed from various characteristics and aspects. The scheme for examination of subjects and for formulat...

  18. Refugee status determination in Kenya and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Wachira, George Mukundi

    2003-01-01

    "The plight of refugees is becoming more prevalent in Africa with the intensification of conflicts in most countries in Africa especially the Great Lakes region. This means that there are more people fleeing from the conflicts. How refugees are identified and accorded status is very crucial to the protection of their rights. There have been serious complaints and cries from refugees and human rights organizations on the treatment of refugees by the state in Kenya and the UNHCR in Egypt. ...

  19. MERS Coronaviruses in Dromedary Camels, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Daniel K.W.; Poon, Leo L.M.; Gomaa, Mokhtar M.; Shehata, Mahmoud M.; Perera, Ranawaka A.P.M.; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S.; Siu, Lewis Y.; Guan, Yi; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    We identified the near-full-genome sequence (29,908 nt, >99%) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a nasal swab specimen from a dromedary camel in Egypt. We found that viruses genetically very similar to human MERS-CoV are infecting dromedaries beyond the Arabian Peninsula, where human MERS-CoV infections have not yet been detected. PMID:24856660

  20. Murder or Not and other Egypt Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Niebergall

    2007-11-06

    The students will discover information about Egypt and decide if the, boy king, Tutankhamun, was murdered or died of natural causes. The first two sites will lead the students to discover all about: *Geography *Egyptian People and their Life Styles *Death and Burial *Egyptian Mythology *Pyramids *Temples and the Pharaohs *Egyptian Writing On the third site the students will learn all about King Tut and write a persuasive essay; taking a stand on if he was murdered or not. The ...

  1. Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asnaashari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the aforementioned articles indicate that this laser is effective in combination with a rinsing solution such as sodium hypochlorite.Results from studies including several types of the different Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in disinfecting canals showed that all wavelengths used in disinfection for different thicknesses of dentin were efficacious without damaging thermal effect. Considering that use of different lasers in canals can be accompanied with temperature increase which can sometimes lead to damages to teeth and surrounding tissues, thus the use of photochemical phenomenon for elimination of microorganisms have attracted attention of many researchers. Studies in this field imply the efficacy of this method in reducing canal bacterial count and recommend its use as an adjunctive after biomechanical preparation of canals. Results from performed studies show removal of intra canal debris and smear layer by different lasers and particularly the Erbium laser family. Furthermore various laser wavelengths, particularly of Diode and Nd:YAG lasers can be effective in reducing intra canal microbial count. Maximum effect is obtained when laser light is used in canals in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating substance in appropriate concentration. Therefore use of laser energy can improve success rate of root canal treatments.

  2. Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the aforementioned articles indicate that this laser is effective in combination with a rinsing solution such as sodium hypochlorite. Results from studies including several types of the different Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in disinfecting canals showed that all wavelengths used in disinfection for different thicknesses of dentin were efficacious without damaging thermal effect. Considering that use of different lasers in canals can be accompanied with temperature increase which can sometimes lead to damages to teeth and surrounding tissues, thus the use of photochemical phenomenon for elimination of microorganisms have attracted attention of many researchers. Studies in this field imply the efficacy of this method in reducing canal bacterial count and recommend its use as an adjunctive after biomechanical preparation of canals. Results from performed studies show removal of intra canal debris and smear layer by different lasers and particularly the Erbium laser family. Furthermore various laser wavelengths, particularly of Diode and Nd:YAG lasers can be effective in reducing intra canal microbial count. Maximum effect is obtained when laser light is used in canals in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating substance in appropriate concentration. Therefore use of laser energy can improve success rate of root canal treatments. PMID:25606301

  3. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosalie David

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are currently being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseasesComprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que actualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades

  4. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. Rosalie, David.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que ac [...] tualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades Abstract in english The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are current [...] ly being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseases

  5. Rinderpest surveillance in Egypt 1992/1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest control in Egypt has focussed for many years on the annual vaccination of all animals. In 1992 it was decided to vaccinate adult animals only twice and to cease vaccination of animals under the age of one year in an attempt to detect any circulating rinderpest virus. A national serological survey was undertaken to determine the level of immunity of cattle to rinderpest, linked with a serological and clinical survey of cattle and buffaloes under one year of age to determine if rinderpest virus was circulating in this population. At the same time a survey was undertaken of sheep and goats to determine if any serological evidence could be found of rinderpest virus in this group. The results show that levels of immunity in cattle are around 70% and in buffaloes around 50%. No substantive evidence could be found indicating the presence of rinderpest virus in cattle, buffalo, sheep or goats in Egypt. Based on the above it is appropriate that Egypt cease rinderpest vaccination and make the OIE declaration of provisional freedom from rinderpest. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  6. Endodontic management of middle mesial canal of the mandibular molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresh, K J; Srinivasan, Raghu; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Rajalbandi, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for successful endodontic treatment. Although the most common configuration is two roots and three root canals, mandibular molars might have many different combinations. In the literature, it is less described about three mesial canals and two distal canals in mandibular second molars, indicating a rare anatomical configuration. A case of unusual root canal morphology is presented to demonstrate anatomical variations in mandibular molars. Endodontic therapy was performed in a mandibular second molar with five separate canals, three mesial and two distal. This report points out the importance of looking for additional canals and unusual canal morphology, because knowledge of their existence might occasionally enable clinicians to treat a case successfully that otherwise might have ended in failure. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth. PMID:23349182

  7. Endodontic retreatment in large and small straight canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, L R; Van Surksum, R

    1991-03-01

    The change in original canal size and location after canal preparation and after reinstrumentation using a step-back technique was studied in small and large canals with less than 20-degree curvature. Teeth were mounted in jigs and then sectioned. The jig permitted the sectioned teeth to be repositioned exactly. Slides were made of the canal in the coronal, middle, and apical at the following intervals: before instrumentation, after instrumentation, and after reinstrumentation. The increase in canal area and the direction of movement was measured. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test. The results showed: (a) All canal areas increased after retreatment. The retreated apical canal increased in area significantly more (25.4%) than middle (4.0%) or coronal (3.0%) regardless of whether the canal was large or small. (b) The retreated canals tended to move in the same direction they moved after first instrumentation. PMID:1940725

  8. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid agitation using a closely fitting instrument or by sonic or ultrasonic activation. This review highlights a way forward by understanding the physical processes involved through physical models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. (topical review)

  9. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid agitation using a closely fitting instrument or by sonic or ultrasonic activation. This review highlights a way forward by understanding the physical processes involved through physical models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. PMID:21071831

  10. In vitro evaluation of root canal preparation using oscillatory and rotary systems in flattened root canals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Cardoso, Rasquin; Fabíola Bastos de, Carvalho; Regina Karla de Pontes, Lima.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation of flattened root canals using the following systems: Endo-Eze AET stainless steel oscillatory instruments (Ultradent) and RaCe rotary NiTi instruments (FKG Dentaire). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human mandibul [...] ar incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 - Instrumentation with oscillatory Endo-Eze AET files (oscillatory technique); Group 2 - Instrumentation with rotary NiTi RaCe files (rotary technique). The teeth were decoronated, had their apices and coronal openings sealed with sticky wax and were embedded in crystal-clear orthophtalic polyester resin. The roots were sectioned transversally with diamond discs at 10 mm (middle third) and 5 mm (apical third) from the apex and the segments were reassembled for instrumentation. The sections were photographed before and after root canal instrumentation and evaluated with respect to whether the original root canal shape was modified by instrumentation. To evaluate the differences in the root canal shape before and after biomechanical preparation, scores were given regarding the instruments touch on the intracanal walls. RESULTS: In middle third of the root canals instrumented with the rotary system, there was a change in the original canal anatomy (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Under the tested conditions, Endo-Eze oscillatory system yielded the instrumentation of all flattened root canal walls, maintaining the canal original shape throughout the biomechanical preparation, and was more effective than RaCe rotary system.

  11. In vitro evaluation of root canal preparation using oscillatory and rotary systems in flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cardoso Rasquin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation of flattened root canals using the following systems: Endo-Eze AET stainless steel oscillatory instruments (Ultradent and RaCe rotary NiTi instruments (FKG Dentaire. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 - Instrumentation with oscillatory Endo-Eze AET files (oscillatory technique; Group 2 - Instrumentation with rotary NiTi RaCe files (rotary technique. The teeth were decoronated, had their apices and coronal openings sealed with sticky wax and were embedded in crystal-clear orthophtalic polyester resin. The roots were sectioned transversally with diamond discs at 10 mm (middle third and 5 mm (apical third from the apex and the segments were reassembled for instrumentation. The sections were photographed before and after root canal instrumentation and evaluated with respect to whether the original root canal shape was modified by instrumentation. To evaluate the differences in the root canal shape before and after biomechanical preparation, scores were given regarding the instruments touch on the intracanal walls. RESULTS: In middle third of the root canals instrumented with the rotary system, there was a change in the original canal anatomy (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Under the tested conditions, Endo-Eze oscillatory system yielded the instrumentation of all flattened root canal walls, maintaining the canal original shape throughout the biomechanical preparation, and was more effective than RaCe rotary system.

  12. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  13. A Root Canal Therapy on the Maxillary First Molar Tooth with Five Canals: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Erhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary first molar usually exhibits a radicular anatomy of three roots and three or four canals. However, different anatomic variations like extra number of roots and canals are possible. For a successful treatment, clinicians must have well equipment and a thorough knowledge of the external and internal anatomy of teeth and its variation. Using of CBCT may help to locate extra canals by giving a chance to clinicians to see the root canal anatomy in 3-D view. The aim of this study was to present a case report about a diagnosis and treatment in maxillary first molar with three roots and five canals. It is concluded that the diagnosing and the treatment of unusual cases are key factors for successful endodontic treatment of these teeth.

  14. A radiographic study of mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

  15. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  16. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, W.H.A.M., van den; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the improvement of food security in Egypt in general and the reduction of post-harvest losses in particular.

  17. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  18. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  19. Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Adel Nakhla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to the expected detrimental impacts on coastal zones, agriculture, water security as well as indirect social and health impacts. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Although Egypt is a non-annex I country not requiring any specific emission reduction or limitation targets under the Kyoto protocol, its National plans have included mitigation measures to reduce its greenhouse gases. The main sectors contributing to climate change in Egypt are energy, industry, agriculture and waste. Waste, on the other hand, has been accumulating in the streets of Egypt and along its water banks causing considerable air, soil and water pollution and indirect detrimental health impacts. However, this waste which is composed of organic municipal waste, agricultural residues, agro-industrial waste, animal manure and sewage sludge are valuable biomass resources. Utilizing the waste resources of Egypt especially the biomass or the organic component of this waste will not only solve some of the pressing economic needs of Egypt such as animal fodder, fertilizer and fuel but will also alleviate environmental burdens through decreasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in the sector of waste as well as those of energy, industry and agriculture. This paper quantifies the biomass resources in Egypt generated from different waste resources. Then it demonstrates the efforts that Egypt made to contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions reductions through the Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism (CDM. The projects in the waste sector already established in Egypt and approved as CDM projects are listed, which are related to waste management facilities and those which are waste to energy projects. Finally, a list of mitigation projects as proposed by the Egyptian government to decrease GHGs as related to the waste sector are enumerated.

  20. Prenatal morphogenesis of the human incisive canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlanski, R J; Emmerich, S; Renz, H

    2004-07-01

    The literature describing the formation of the incisive canal is very bizarre. The fusion of the primary and secondary palatal processes leads to formation of a triangular seam, which erroneously has been taken for the future incisive canal. If so, the nasopalatine (incisive) nerve and its accompanying vessels were to run through the primary oronasal cavity, which is not compatible with our biological experience. This study was undertaken to shed light on this region of fusion. We focus on the formation of the incisive canal; the neighboring nasopalatine ducts, which are a transient formation, are mentioned where present. A series of seven horizontal cross-sections of human embryos and fetuses from the 7th to the 24th week of pregnancy (between 25 and 225 mm CRL, crown-rump-length) were examined histologically and partly reconstructed in 3D applying the software analySIS (Soft Imaging Systems, Münster, Germany). The incisive canal did not develop at the junction of the primary and the secondary palate, but within the primary palate rostral to that location. The nasopalatine nerve and the nasopalatine artery are structures that exist before ossification starts in the area of the future incisive canal. The neighboring nasopalatine ducts were found in regions laterally and anterolaterally of the nasopalatine nerve, and it was mostly separated from it by bone. In advanced stages of development, the nasopalatine duct only existed as single epithelial remnants and was prone to obliteration. PMID:15293047

  1. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth – MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 × Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 × Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  2. Isotope techniques in the study of groundwater in the eastern Nile Delta and the transport of pollution from drainage water into Lake Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-two water samples were collected from eastern Nile Delta groundwater, Lake Manzala, surface water and main drainage stations during 1993-1995. The water samples were analysed for major, minor and tracer elements and for oxygen-18 and deuterium. The hydrochemical studies indicate that the groundwater of the eastern Delta can be classified into three groups of low, medium and high salinity. The fresh water is mostly encountered near the Nile and near irrigation canals in the south. The brackish and saline water occurs near the Bitter Lakes, the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea. The salinity is attributed to the leaching of terrestrial salts and to seawater intrusion. Nitrate concentration was found to be relatively high because of extensive fertilizer use. In general, the stable isotope contents of groundwater differ widely depending upon the contribution of each recharging source (present Nile, old Nile, precipitation, seawater intrusion and possibly palaeowater contribution in some localized areas). Investigation of Lake Manzala revealed that the water salinity is rather inhomogeneous, and high concentrations of trace elements were detected, which could be attributed to drainage water discharging into the lake. A stable isotope balance was developed to estimate seepage and evaporation from the lake. (author)

  3. Interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patond K

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Opinion is still divided over a standard surgical procedure to decompress lumbar canal stenosis. Both, laminectomy with or without facetectomy and foraminotomy and interlaminar fenestration have been advocated. In the present communication interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis has been discussed. Sixteen consecutive patients (7 males and 9 females with clinical, neurological and radiological features of lumbar canal stenosis were treated by interlaminar (fenestration decompression. The age of onset of symptoms ranged between 22-57 years. Adjoining lamina around interlaminar space of involved segment along with ligamentum flavum and part of facet joint (undercutting facetectomy, extending laterally (foraminotomy were removed at single or multiple levels. Follow-up response (93.7% over a period of two and half years showed the results as good in 73.3% and fair in 26.7% of cases, with uniformly uneventful post-operative period.

  4. Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Eric

    2008-01-01

    in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

  5. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and ? Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  6. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The pharmacy study results indicated that FOF medical representatives are very effective, and there are no major complaints about overloaded inventories or neglect on the part of FOF representatives. Andreasen recommends that "commercial orientation be allowed to dominate in the future..." An audit planned in Egypt for late summer 1983 will focus on results and activities of geographic expansion, preparations to introduce an oral contraceptive, and implementation of new management techniques. PMID:12279587

  7. A novel approach in assessment of root canal curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Shiva; Poryousef, Vahideh

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to introduce a new method to describe root canal curvatures and to assess the degree of curvature of human permanent mandibular teeth with curved root canals.

  8. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  9. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das soluções introduzidas no espaço peridural.

  10. Locomotor head movements and semicircular canal morphology in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Malinzak, Michael D.; Kay, Richard F.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Animal locomotion causes head rotations, which are detected by the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Morphologic features of the canals influence rotational sensitivity, and so it is hypothesized that locomotion and canal morphology are functionally related. Most prior research has compared subjective assessments of animal “agility” with a single determinant of rotational sensitivity: the mean canal radius of curvature (R). In fact, the paired variables of R and body mass are correlat...

  11. CANALES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN Y COMPETITIVIDAD EN ARTESANÍAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 de la Paz Hern\\u00E1ndez Gir\\u00F3n

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se explica cómo la relación entre canales de distribución y competitividad se ve influenciada por variables contextuales como el tipo de negocio, su ubicación, su antigüedad y el tipo de producto, en un ambiente de negocio que vive la artesanía en tres estados de la República Mexicana: Oaxaca, Jalisco y Guanajuato. La teoría central se enmarca en la mercadotecnia y sus estrategias. Los canales de distribución, dentro de la mezcla de mercadotecnia, sobresalen porque la creciente competencia global hace más difícil entrar, controlar y mantenerse en cualquier mercado.

  12. Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. Tassie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest. It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.

  13. Evaluation of sunshine duration from cloud data in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaa, S.M. [Astronomy and Meteorology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, P.O. Box 12613, Giza (Egypt)

    2008-05-15

    In this study, three empirical formulae have been deduced to estimate relative sunshine duration, n/N, using readily available observed data of cloud amount, C, in Egypt. The monthly mean values of n/N and C recorded at 34 stations during the period (1990-2005) have been used in the present study. The three deduced formulae have been verified for any locality in Egypt which lies above (zone 1) and below latitude 30 (zone 2) and for the whole country of Egypt. The agreement between measured and estimated values of the three deduced formulae were remarkable. It was found that the maximum possible error of estimated values, e (%), of the three deduced empirical formulae have not exceeded {+-}7.27% with mean percentage error (MPE) values range from -0.62% to +0.81%; meanwhile the values of statistical tests of main bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are very close to zero. It has been concluded that Egypt's deduced formula gives precise estimations for n/N and was recommended for use at any location in Egypt. The sunshine distribution and its percentage frequency over Egypt were also studied. The results revealed that latitudinal dependent of n/N. Egypt has minimum value of n/N (0.48) during January at the northern part of the country and maximum value (0.92) during June at the southern part. (author)

  14. In vitro evaluation of root canals obturated with four different techniques. Part 3 : Obturation of lateral canals

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, Francien Susanna; Merwe, Carel; Vyver, Petrus Jacobus; Wet, Francois A.

    2012-01-01

    According to Schilder,1,2,3 the main objective of endodontic treatment procedures should be the cleaning and filling of the root canal in its entire extent, including all lateral canals and apical ramifications.

  15. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714...GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

  16. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant P. Jaju; Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  17. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present.

  18. Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, George K; Steinberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role. PMID:19892106

  19. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  20. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ahmed A. S.; Mohamed Abou Elmagd Salem; Hamza Abbass

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital dur...

  1. Avian influenza vaccination in Egypt: Limitations of the current strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Peyre, Marisa; Samaha, Hamid; Makonnen, Yilma Jobre; Saad, Ahmed; Abd-Elnabi, Amira; Galal, Saber; Ettel, Toni; DAUPHIN, Gwenaelle; Lubroth, Juan; Roger, François; Domenech, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination of domestic poultry against avian influenza (AI) has been used on a large-scale in South East Asia since 2003 and in Egypt since 2006 to fight H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics. The decision to use mass vaccination against HPAI in Egypt was taken as an emergency measure based on positive impact of such control measures in Vietnam and the People's Republic of China. However, three years on, the impact on disease control of AI vaccination in Egypt has been very...

  2. Revisão sistemática de Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae) / Systematics revision of Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyuleptidae, Pachylinae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Pinto-da-Rocha; Helia Eller Monteiro, Soares.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Ogloblinia Canals, 1933 is revised and Quitete Mello-Leitão, 1936 is considered its synomym. The following new synonyms are here established: Ogloblinia calcarata H. Soares & Bauab, 1970, O. dentei Soares, 1945 and O. intermedia Soares, 1944 = O. loretoensis Canals, 1933; Quitete marginata Mello-Lei [...] lão, 1936 = O. argenteopilosa (Mello-Leitão, 1935). Ogloblinia pulchra, sp.n. (type-localily Brazil, Paraná: Guaratuba) is described.

  3. The Panama Canal and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

    The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

  4. LOVE CANAL MONITORING PROGRAM. VOLUME 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the prime contractor activities during the monitoring phase of the Love Canal project. Since GCA Corporation was only responsible for data collection, no analytical results appear in this report. The program involved a multifaceted sampling and analytical e...

  5. QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  8. Struggles of Distinction: Young Women Constructing Their Class Identity in Egypt’s Americanized Milieu

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Birkholz

    2014-01-01

    In urban Egypt, class is omnipresent in in structuring people's lives and the social sphere, and it matters for self-description. For understanding an individual's position, however, the usual distinction of three classes needs to be refined. Based on biographical interviews, I show how those belonging to “the Americanized Society”, a social space marked by its “Westernization”, construct their identity as upper middle class. The norms of their social world are at odds with the values...

  9. Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses / Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    , Sumayya; Nafis A, Faruqi; Mohd Salahuddin, Ansari; Farah, Ghaus.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los def [...] ectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V) sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M)). Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en todos los niveles. Las alturas de los primeros dos cuerpos vertebrales lumbares mostraron variabilidad en los grupos adyacentes. Lo mismo se observó en los tres siguientes, que crecieron constantemente con el crecimiento de los fetos. El canal sacro mostró un crecimiento variable en longitud en los diferentes grupos. El crecimiento constante en la longitud y el diámetro del canal lumbar pueden ser utilizados para determinar la edad aproximada de los fetos por razones médico-legales. Abstract in english Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an [...] accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V) based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were analyzed by using Student's 't' test. Lumbar canal starts

  10. Anthropometry of external auditory canal by non-contactable measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Wang, Ren-Hung; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Fan, Chun-Chieh; Peng, Ying-Chin; Tu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ching-I; Lin, Kuei-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Human ear canals cannot be measured directly with existing general measurement tools. Furthermore, general non-contact optical methods can only conduct simple peripheral measurements of the auricle and cannot obtain the internal ear canal shape-related measurement data. Therefore, this study uses the computed tomography (CT) technology to measure the geometric shape of the ear canal and the shape of the ear canal using a non-invasive method, and to complete the anthropometry of external auditory canal. The results of the study show that the average height and width of ear canal openings, and the average depth of the first bend for men are generally longer, wider and deeper than those for women. In addition, the difference between the height and width of the ear canal opening is about 40% (p manufacturing for better fitting. PMID:25959317

  11. Mandibular First and Second Molars with Three Mesial Canals: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminsobhani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canal system are mandatory for successful root canal treatment. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for the practitioner. The occurrence and location of the third mesial canal (Middle Mesial Canal in mandibular first and second molars in relation to other two mesial canals that were treated in private practice were studied. In 27 clinical cases, the presence of a middle mesial canal was demonstrated. The third canal was located in the middle of the distance between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals. This canal configuration was found in six second lower molars and twenty one first molars. Middle mesial canal in all of our cases joined to mesiobuccal or mesiolingual canals. None of the teeth consisted of three independent canals with three apical foramina. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth.

  12. Policy aspects of electricity and the environment in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is facing many challenges, most of which stem from the high population growth rate. Efforts to improve the standard of living require substantive development of Egypt's economic, technical, community, electricity and energy infrastructures. Over the past three decades, the electric energy demand has increased more than 15 fold, requiring development of sound national electric energy policies based on rational use of indigenous resources which are, unfortunately, limited. Realization of such policies faces a number of economic and social constraints, all of which need great efforts to overcome. Environmental considerations within Egypt's electric energy policies are focusing more attention on the degradation in environmental conditions, which is in line with growing public concern about this issue, both locally and internationally. An alarming increase in pollution levels in the urban areas of Egypt has necessitated the creation of new laws to curb pollution of the air and the environment, in addition to adhering to strict standards for effluents from thermal power stations. (author)

  13. U.S. in the World: Arizona/Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Reference Bureau

    Residents of Arizona and Egypt face a daily challenge: living in increasing numbers and concentrations in desert ecosystems. Read about how both face surprisingly similar conflicts and issues over water, land and industry.

  14. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  15. Wind atlas for Egypt. Measurements and modelling 1991-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, N.G. (ed.); Hansen, Jens Carsten; Badger, J. (and others)

    2005-12-01

    The Wind Atlas for Egypt is the result of an investigation of the climatic wind conditions over the entire land area of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The investigation was conducted from 1998-2005 by the New and Renewable Energy Authority, the Egyptian Meteorological Authority and Riso National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the governments of Egypt and Denmark. The Atlas is an attempt to provide an updated overview of the wind-climatological conditions over Egypt, based on reliable wind data and employing contemporary meso- and micro-scale meteorological models. It further seeks to provide an up-to-date methodology for applying the wind statistics and model results for the purpose of wind resource assessment and siting of wind turbines and wind farms. (au)

  16. The Middle Paleolithic of Southern Baharyia Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Ji?í

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 42, - (2004), s. 227-241. ISSN 0323-1119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8001916 Keywords : Middle Paleolithic cummulative settlements * lithic workshop, episodic sites * Egypt Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Economic evaluation of radiation inhibition of potato sprouting in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reviews the status of potato cultivation in Egypt, annual production, local consumption and export volume during the period 1976-1978. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual crop loss due to sprouting, fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of potatoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of potatoes harvested in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of potatoes for sprouting inhibition has always been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Extensive studies have been carried out in Egypt since the 1960s to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated potatoes. Nevertheless, not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. This is the objective of the paper. (author)

  18. Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular / Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iván Claudio, Suazo Galdames; Carlos Andrés, Morales Herrera; Mario Gonzalo, Cantín López; Daniela Alejandra, Zavando Matamala.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la im [...] plantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C). Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegrados Abstract in english The mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the pr [...] esent study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtained of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C). The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

  19. Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la implantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C. Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegradosThe mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the present study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtained of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C. The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

  20. Evaluation and Analysis of Oil Shale in Quseir-Safaga and Abu-Tartur Western Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abbas Moustafa; Ahmed Noah; Adel Salem

    2014-01-01

    Seeking ways to diminish Egypt’s dependency on foreign oil imports, we had to look for the obvious resources to exploit. Oil shale is one of Egypt’s resources that are left abandoned and not used. This project is aiming at introducing both experimental analysis for oil shale in Egypt and the best production technique for it. This study is about experimentally analyzing different samples of potential oil shale fields in Egypt. Samples that are analyzed in this projec...

  1. Influences of Ancient Egypt on architecture and ornament in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, John Aidan

    2012-01-01

    This work seeks to identify the forms and origins of Ancient Egyptian architecture and the complex historical progress which brought these to Scotland, identifying the affinities shared by both countries and their evolving role from their first arrival to the present day. The thesis follows Egypt’s first appearance in Scottish legend and its later influence, at the close of the 16th century, in the practices of organised Freemasonry, to be followed, from the second quarter of ...

  2. Geophysical Reservoir Evaluation of Obaiyed Field, Western Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdel-Fattah Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The Obaiyed Gas Field is located in the Western Desert of Egypt, some 50 km south of the Mediterranean coast. It produces gas from the Upper Safa member of Khatatba Formation (Middle Jurassic). The Upper Safa reservoir has become an important exploration target in the Obaiyed field and has helped to revitalize exploration in the northwestern part of the Western Desert in Egypt. Therefore, the main purpose of this thesis is the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential of the Upper Safa reservoir th...

  3. Universities, Industrial Clusters, and Economic Development in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hoda Abd El Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of industrial clusters in the development of the Egyptian universities & research institutes (URIs), and economic performance. The study hypothesizes that the large industrial clusters in Egypt are old and traditional, and have weak impact on URIs, and economic performance. To this end, we examine Egypt regions where that contain long-existing and traditional industrial clusters are compared to all other regions. The analysis is conducted separately for seven indu...

  4. Is Egypt Ready to Apply Inflation Targeting Regime?

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, Ibrahim L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to answer the question ‘Is Egypt ready to apply IT regime? The researcher presumed that; a country is ready to apply IT regime once the prerequisites for IT regime are available. Comparing the current position of Egypt with some emerging market economies, the conclusions point to the following: (i) the CBE is not factually independent. Although the CBE has been granted legal independent instrument, the existence of the government representatives as voting member...

  5. Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid; Abdel-Aziz M. Khalid

    2011-01-01

    This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies...

  6. An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Khaled M.; Abdel-aziz, M.; Nazmy, Taymour T.; Salem, Abdel-badeeh M.

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and pat...

  7. Development of practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, A. M. A.; Allam, Mohd. F.; Habil, E. S.; Metwally, A. M.; Ibrahiem, N. A.; Radwan, M.; El-Gaafary, M. M.; Afifi, A; Gadallah, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Although hemodialysis is the main modaility of treatment of end-stage renal disease, no practice guidelines are available in Egypt. Applying international guidelines for hemodialysis would not be suitable or feasible, because of different health system and lack of resources. The aim of this project was the development of evidence- and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt. The Egyptian guidelines were adopted from the standards developed by The College of Phys...

  8. The present-day stress field in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    A. Badawy

    2001-01-01

    The present-day stress field has been investigated by the analysis of the directions of maximum horizontal stress (ó 1 ) inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts in Egypt. The results indicate that strike-slip and normal faulting movements characterize the majority of the earthquake focal mechanisms; only a few events are of reverse faulting type. The analysis of 35 mechanisms suggests that the present-day stress field in Southern Egypt is dominated by a strike-slip st...

  9. Perceived stress among tomorrow’s attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Amr; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Few data are available on the level and sources of stress among law students in the Middle East generally and in Egypt specifically. We conducted this study to identify the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among law students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study covered 426 law students selected through a stratified cluster sampling method. The questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items on sources of...

  10. Images of Egypt in United Kingdom Tour Operators' Brochures

    OpenAIRE

    Sabreen J. Abd El Jalil

    2009-01-01

    Tour operators and travel agents play a double role as distribution channels and image creators with tourist brochures playing an important role in the image creation process. This paper assesses tourist images of Egypt in the United Kingdom through content analysis of the brochures of United Kingdom tour operators using 35 image attributes which are rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Most of the brochures in the United Kingdom market present Egypt and its physical attractions - beaches, histo...

  11. Leaving Egypt : Greeks and their strategies, 1937-1967

    OpenAIRE

    NTALACHANIS, Angelos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is an examination of the departure of the Greek population from Egypt from 1937 to 1967 and the various, often contradictory, strategies they adopted concerning not only their departure but also their continued residence in the Nile Valley. To date, the historical literature has discussed the departure of the Greeks from Egypt as a result of factors external or internal to the paroikia, as the Greek entity was called. This study takes a critical, historical perspective on th...

  12. Royal sculpture in Egypt 300 BC - AD 220

    OpenAIRE

    Brophy, Elizabeth Mary; Smith, R.R.R.; Baines, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to approach Ptolemaic and Imperial royal sculpture in Egypt dating between 300 BC and AD 220 (the reigns of Ptolemy I and Caracalla) from a contextual point of view. To collect together the statuary items (recognised as statues, statue heads and fragments, and inscribed bases and plinths) that are identifiably royal and have a secure archaeological context, that is a secure find spot or a recoverable provenance, within Egypt. I then used this material, alongside othe...

  13. Observations on rift valley fever virus and vaccines in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Kamal Samia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV, genus: Phlebovirus, family: Bunyaviridae), is an arbovirus which causes significant morbidity and mortality in animals and humans. RVFV was introduced for the first time in Egypt in 1977. In endemic areas, the insect vector control and vaccination is considering appropriate measures if applied properly and the used vaccine is completely safe and the vaccination programs cover all the susceptible animals. Egypt is importing livestock and camels from the ...

  14. Mandibular First and Second Molars with Three Mesial Canals: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Aminsobhani; Behnam Bolhari; Noushin Shokouhinejad; Abdollah Ghorbanzadeh; Sholeh Ghabraei; Mohamad Bagher Rahmani

    2010-01-01

    Adequate cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canal system are mandatory for successful root canal treatment. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for the practitioner. The occurrence and location of the third mesial canal (Middle Mesial Canal) in mandibular first and second molars in relation to other two mesial canals that were treated in private practice were studied. In 27 clinical cases, the presence of a middle mesial canal was de...

  15. Economic study of rice irradiation in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the economics of rice irradiation and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The result of the analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit in Egypt would be economically feasible

  16. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective. PMID:24970660

  17. Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    While ancient Egyptian civilization has captured the public interest and imagination in recent decades, this well-designed site from the National Geographic Society places its focus on the pyramids created several millennia ago. In the site's most compelling feature, titled Explore the Pyramids, visitors can scroll across the different pyramids, revealing their interior organization and a number of facts about their construction and so on. A brief timeline also gives some information about each of the different Egyptian dynasties. Educators will find much to enjoy here, as the site provides different lesson plans for students, complete with critical questions for discussion and lesson objectives. Finally, there is an online journal written by National Geographic reporter Nancy Gupton that documents her own personal experiences traveling around the pyramids of Egypt.

  18. Math Around the World (Part 1): Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr. Hoskins

    2005-11-20

    Throughout the week, we will be studying Math in different cultures around the world incuding African, Indian, Babylonian, Mayan and others. Our first area of study will be Egypt, home to some of the greatest mathematical-based structures in the world. Any guesses to what those might be? _ _ R _ _ _ D S Today\\'s lesson will focus on several aspects of Egyptian Math. First, let\\'s learn where Math came from. After reading the information from the link below, please write down your opinion and reasoning on a separate sheet of paper. Was Mathematics Invented or Discovered? Now let\\'s read about the History of Egyptian Math: History of Egyptian Math Overview of Egyptian Math For the rest of today\\'s ...

  19. Current Radiation Protection Practices in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to report in going activities in Egypt during 2010-2011. Such activities are controlled by Egyptian Law no 59 (1960). Where activities controlled by ministry of Health are x-rays machines accelerators and sealed sources. While activities controlled by Atomic Energy Authority are unsealed sources and reactors. Radiation protection practices include radiation monitoring at sites external and internal personnel dosimetry of radiation workers. It covers sites such as Hospitals companies, research reactors and research institutes and others. Detailed summary of the radiation protection practices shall be covered in the present study. Attention shall be paid to the new Ionizing radiation law I which was issued in 2011. The new law shall be implemented as soon as its executive regulation is issued. Upon its implementation. The duties of the controlling authorities shall be redistributed between ministry of health and a new controlling authority. The new authority shall control nuclear and radiological activities

  20. Bronze Age Acrobats : Denmark, Egypt, Crete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    2014-01-01

    A Danish eighteenth-century find of some bronze figurines tells the story of the practising of similar ritual performances across Bronze Age Europe from Egypt to Scandinavia. The Danish figurines, as well as Swedish rock carvings, show backwards-bending female acrobats doing backward handsprings. The exact same appearance is found on Egyptian depictions related to ceremonies and festivals.OnMinoan Crete backwards-bent acrobats are related to bull leaping and bull ceremonies. Despite local variations, backwards-bent acrobatic performances carried out by topless female actorswere part of the immaterial, ritual and cosmological exchange that characterized the second and early firstmillennium BC.Beliefs and ritual practices went hand in hand with the adoption of a series of elite items and an aristocratic lifestyle, thereby creating a unique and fascinating European Bronze Age.

  1. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  2. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  3. Comment on the Egypt’s New Social Insurance System: An NDC Reform in an Emerging Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The chapter summarizes the financial, economic, social, and demographic conditions that motivated proposals to reform the Arab Republic of Egypt’s social insurance system. It elaborates on the appropriateness of a nonfinancial (notional) defined contribution (NDC) scheme—a key element in the structure of the new pension system—in a middle-to-low-income country and discusses the main options and constraints that have been taken into account in implementing the new system, including...

  4. Variaciones Anatómicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales / Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo H, Oporto V; Ramón E, Fuentes F; Camila C, Soto P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interacción entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimático subyacente durante la Odontogénesis. La interacción anormal de estos tejidos podría resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupción de un diente anómalo, ectópico o con variación anatómica. El prese [...] nte reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatómicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnóstico en los tres casos se efectuó por medio del análisis de radiografías. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos raíces y dos canales, el premolar maxilar presentó tres raíces y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este último, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitación. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatómicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologías que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicación de exámenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatómicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento. Abstract in english Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report [...] shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was performed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  6. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  7. Joint inversion of VES and TEM data for investigation of geothermal resources and sea water intrusion at Hammam Mousa hot spring, Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Geoelectrical methods are pioneer in geothermal resources exploration. With the advent of computing technology, it has become convenient to apply sophisticated data analysis and joint inversion to different field data sets. Numerous studies have shown that, the joint interpretation of galvanic and inductive data, where a single model satisfies both data sets, will generally enhance the resolution of the subsurface resistivity structure. Thus, the inclusion of inductive data in the VES data set is expected to reduce problems with layer suppression, reduce the low and high resistivity equivalences that may be encountered with this method. In this work, DC resistivity and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at Hammam Mousa area, Sinai, Egypt to explore the geothermal resources, groundwater aquifer and the effect of sea water invasion on this aquifer. The field survey comprises 19 DC resistivity soundings (VESes) with AB/2 up to 1000m and 27 transient electromagnetic (TEM) stations using a square loop of 25 m side length. Both data sets were firstly inverted in 1-D scheme using a nonlinear least-squares method and gave a layered-earth resistivity model. Besides, the joint interpretation of both VES and TEM data, using the available geological information as a constraining factor, could successfully enhance the inversion results. The geoelectrical cross section resulted from the inversion process shows the effect of the Suversion process shows the effect of the Suez Gulf water intrusion in the western part of the study area. Meanwhile, hot water reduces the resistivity values drastically near the hot spring.

  8. Comparison of Bacterial Leakage between 3 Different Root Canal Obturation Techniques in Oval Shaped Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh-ali Saberi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of 3 obturation techniques in oval-shaped canals by bacterial leakage assessment. Methods: Sixty mandibular incisors with oval canals were selected after providing buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs. The teeth were sectioned at a 10 mm distance from the apex. After instrumentation, the teeth were divided into 3 groups and the canals in the three groups were obturated with lateral condensation (G1, warm vertical condensation (G2 and thermoplasticized injectable gutta percha (G3. The teeth were exposed to human saliva. Observing the turbidity of the BHI broth for a period of 63 days the number of days required for the complete contamination of root canals was recorded. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and Kruskal-Wallis test with SPSS statistical software. Results: Warm vertical condensation (G2 needed a significantly greater average time for leakage than the two other methods. No significant differences were found between lateral condensations and thermoplasticized injectable G.P techniques. Conclusion: warm vertical condensation provides a better seal against bacterial leakage than lateral condensation and obtura II method in obturating oval-canals.

  9. Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

  10. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  11. Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayaraghavan, Rangasamy; Mathian, Veerabathran Mahesh; Sundaram, Alagappan Meenakshi; Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Vinodh, Selvaraj

    2012-01-01

    The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the...

  12. Anal canal plasmacytoma - An uncommon presentation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are rare plasma cell tumors that arise outside the bone marrow. They are most often located in the head and neck region, but may also occur in the other locations. The lower gastrointestinal EMP represents less than 5% of all cases, and location in the anal canal is exceedingly rare. Aim: We present an exceedingly rare case of anal canal plasmacytoma, aiming to achieve a better understanding of this rare entity. Methods: We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a bulky mass in the anal canal. The lesion measured about 6 cm and invaded in all layers of the anal canal wall. The biopsy was performed and revealed a round and plasmocitoid cell population with a solid growth pattern and necrosis. The tumoral cells have express CD79a and CD138 with lambda chains. There was no evidence of disease in other locations and these features were consistent with the diagnosis of an extra-osseous plasmacytoma. The patient was submitted to conformal radiotherapy 50.4 Gy total dose, 1.8 Gy per fraction. After 24 months, the patient is asymptomatic and the lesion has completely disappeared. Conclusions: EMP accounts for approximately 3% of plasma cell malignancies. The median age is about 60 years, and the majority of patients are male. The treatment of choice for extramedullary plasmacytoma is radiation therapy in a dosage of about 50 Gy. Patients should be followed-up for life with repeated bone marrow aspiration and protein studies to dmarrow aspiration and protein studies to detect the development of multiple myeloma. (authors)

  13. Meningioma of the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, P; Canani, F Berni; Cunsolo, E

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive literature search identified only 14 well-documented cases of intracanalicular meningioma. A case is presented of meningioma confined to the internal auditory canal which was excised using a sub-occipital retrosigmoid approach. Preoperative MRI and CT scans were suggestive of intracanalicular vestibular schwannoma. Only the intraoperative findings, which were confirmed by the histological data, revealed that the tumor was a meningioma. We review the literature and discuss the diagnostic and therapeuticissues relating to these tumors. PMID:15768824

  14. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  16. CSF Hydrodynamics in the spinal canal.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaczmarská, A.; Van?k, P.; Maršík, František; P?evorovská, Sv?tlana; Otáhal, S.; Otáhal, J.

    Brno : Brno University of Technology, 2006 - (Burša, J.; Fuis, V.), s. 116-117 ISBN 80-214-3232-2. [Human Biomechanics 2006. Hrotovice (CZ), 13.11.2006-16.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : spinal canal * cerebrospinal flluid * hydrodynamics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  17. Antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaškovi? Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All root canal sealers should have antimicrobial activity so that they could act against any remaining bacteria after root canal obturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five root canal sealers: AH26, a resin based paste; Apexit, calcium hydroxide based paste; Endomethasone and Tubliseal, zinc oxide eugenol based materials and Ketac Endo Aplicap, glass ionomer based sealer. Matherials And Methods: Antimicrobial activity was tested against S. mutans 70C and L.casei ATCC 27773 using ADT (agar diffusion inhibitory test on TYC SB, blood and MRS agars. Freshly prepared paste or cement was placed in grooves of 4 mm in diameter in agar plates. Prepared agar plates were incubated at 37ºC in GAS PAC system for 24hours. The antimicrobial effect was determined according to the diameter of growth inhibition zone around tested materials. Three measurements were done for each material and values were recorded in millimeters. Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney test. The results confirmed that epoxy resin and zinc oxide eugenol based sealers had the greatest antimicrobial effect. Calcium hydroxide and glass ionomer based sealers showed significantly lower antimicrobial activity compared to AH26, Endomethasone and Tubliseal. Conclusion: The greatest antimicrobial activity was found for epoxy resin based sealer (AH26 for both tested microorganisms.

  18. Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal

    OpenAIRE

    Reuben Joseph; Velmurugan Natanasabapathy; Vasanthi Santhanam; Priya; Vijaylakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the ?S? shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an ?S? shaped root canal.

  19. A Case of Unusual Anatomy in Second Mandibular Molar with Four Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Maniglia-ferreira, C.; Almeida-gomes, Fa?bio; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho; Dos Santos Acioli Lins, Carla Cabral; Dos Santos, Roberto Alves

    2008-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thought cleaning and shaping followed by the complete obturation of root canal system. Such treatment may be performed in root canal systems that do not comply with the normal anatomical features described in standard textbooks. This article describes the conventional root canal treatment on an unusual mandibular second molar with four root-canals.

  20. Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Joseph; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Vasanthi, Santhanam; Priya; Vijayalakshmi

    2008-10-01

    Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the 'S' shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an 'S' shaped root canal. PMID:20351976

  1. Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the ?S? shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an ?S? shaped root canal.

  2. 76 FR 73759 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Egypt-Art and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures From the Foundation Gandur...that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures from the Foundation...

  3. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ...Egypt were approved to be imported into the United States in 1969, subject to cold treatment for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata); however, imports of oranges from Egypt were suspended in July 2002 due to the establishment of peach...

  4. 78 FR 20372 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...objects to be included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  5. 77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1)(C) of the Department...with respect to the provision of Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

  6. Egypt v literatu?e p?ed polovinou 19. století.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ba?urová, Anežka

    -, ?. 4 (2013). ISSN 1805-2800 Keywords : egypt ian literature * literature * Week of science and technology 2013 http://www.lib.cas.cz/casopis-informace/ egypt -v-literature-pred-polovinou-19-stoleti/

  7. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul Il “Crazy Project” - Canale di Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Ba?ar Bayp?nar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign. The proposed project consisted of construction of an entirely new city, an airport, a seaport and recreational areas. But the most important and striking element was a new maritime transportation canal which is to be constructed as an alternative to the Bosphorus Strait. Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it has been initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, and no scientific or technical study about the feasibility and environmental impacts of such a project has been presented, the “crazy” project immediately set a large number of debates among scholars and professionals. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to technological and legal possibilities for construction, feasibility of the canal in operational terms, potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment, international relations and urban life. Since the only information about the project was a digital animation, presented in the election speech of the Prime Minister, there is little information about the scope of the project. Such large scale investments in Istanbul have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector on one hand and social and economic shifts on the other. The “crazy” project initiated by the ruling party which is known to be ambitious in real estate projects has therefore raised hot debates across scholars and professionals. A variety of articles were produced in response, discussing the scope of the project and its potential impacts on the environment, the city of Istanbul, Turkey’s international relations and the economy of Turkey. However, these articles often focused only on the fictional “Canal”, and neglected the full scope of the project. Since the project is ambitious, large, but little is known about its exact location and land use pattern, it deserves an evaluation with a wider perspective than current articles that may be found in popular science magazines or daily newspapers. In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated mostly according to the speech of the PM, which provides basic motivations and claims for the project. The second group of sources is the past ideas and projects of an artificial canal initiated almost 500 years ago. The third group of sources consists of scientific and journal articles published in the Turkish media after the speech. We try to describe challenges and limitations which the project is likely to face by implying a multi-perspective view. Then we speculate on the implementation approach, basing on the current planning experience and the recently approved Master Plan of Istanbul. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  8. Structural influence on the evolution of the pre-Eonile drainage system of southern Egypt: Insights from magnetotelluric and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Jeff; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella; El-Qady, Gad; Tarabees, Elhamy Aly

    2011-12-01

    The Wadi Kubbaniya in the Western Desert of Egypt north of the City of Aswan has been interpreted as the downstream continuation of the Wadi Abu Subeira, comprising an ancient W- and NW-flowing river system originating from the Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Red Sea Hills which were uplifted during the Miocene in association with the opening of the Red Sea. This drainage system is thought to have been active before the onset of the N-flowing Egyptian Nile which started ˜6 Ma with the Eonile phase; an event that resulted in carving of ˜1000 km long canyon (the Eonile canyon) extending from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Aswan in the south due to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This study utilizes geophysical data to examine the role of regional tectonics and local structures in controlling the evolution of the pre-Eonile drainage system. Magnetotelluric (MT) and gravity surveys were conducted along two ˜5 km-long profiles across the NW-trending Wadi Kubbaniya. Two-dimensional (2D) inversion of MT data and gravity models indicate the Wadi Kubbaniya is filled with loosely-consolidated sandstone and conglomerate that extend to a depth of ˜150-200 m into Cretaceous sandstone formations which overlie Precambrian crystalline rocks. These results were evaluated in terms of two end-member models; an incision model in which the 150-200 m thick sedimentary rocks were considered as being deposited within an incised valley that was carved into bedrock, or a structural model in which the sedimentary rocks are considered as filling a NW-trending graben controlled by normal faults that deform the Cretaceous sandstone formations and the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks. Geological observations as well as supporting seismic data favor the interpretation that the Wadi Kubbaniya is a NW-trending graben similar to other extensional structures found 400 km northwest along-strike of Wadi Kubbaniya. These structures are impressively parallel to the western shorelines of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez suggesting a regional tectonic link between them. Strain localization of these grabens (which are likely Miocene in age) might have been facilitated by inherited Precambrian and Jurassic - Early Cretaceous structures, such as the NW-trending Najd fault system, the most dominant regional structural grain in the Red Sea Hills of Egypt as well as the NW-trending grabens, such as the Kom Ombo graben located ˜25 km to the northeast of Wadi Kubbaniya.

  9. The role of judiciary in Egypt´s failed transition to democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    This essay illustrates the inter-institutional dynamics and the fundamental role a constitutional court can play in a transition, the challenges when the court is heavily involved or alternatively when it plays a more reserved role. The essay deals with the role that judges and more precisely the Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) of Egypt played in the transitional moment, i.e. from the aftermath of authoritarian regime of Hosni Mubarak to the current judicial activity under the mandate of Abdelfatah al Sisi. The first section is an analysis of the conceptualization of transitions and transitology, the time interlude between two different political regimes. The section also provides a definition of post-revolutionary transitional moments as “constitutional moments” and the legal and political implications that this characterisation implies in terms of political governance and stability. The distinct nature of a transitional period is characterized by a legal and political uncertainty that places judges as guardians of constitutionalism and human rights in an uncharacteristic position. Because of this concrete casuistry, the dilemma between judicial activism and judicial restraint and the repercussion of judicial activity in transitional periods seem to be more transcendent. The second section explores the specific nature of the judiciary in Egypt in three different stages, based on a limited independence under Mubarak, an open conflict against Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood and connivance and co-participation with Sisi´s legal and political repression. The third section explores the political role and activism that the SCC has been playing in Egypt since its creation in 1979, even though constitutional control was established since 1969 by the Supreme Court. In the conclusion, the essay advocates for judicial restraint in transitional periods as a way to safeguard the transition and preserve some legal certainty and stability. A temporal restraint that as the period of transition has a term of expiration, oncethe transition is over the judiciary may be an active guardian of constitutionalism and human rights.

  10. Backfilling canals to mitigate Wetland dredging in Louisiana coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Turner, R. Eugene

    1987-11-01

    Returning canal spoil banks into canals, or backfilling, is used in Louisiana marshes to mitigate damage caused by dredging for oil and gas extraction. We evaluated 33 canals backfilled through July 1984 to assess the success of habitat restoration. We determined restoration success by examining canal depth, vegetation recolonization, and regraded spoil bank soils after backfilling. Restoration success depended on: marsh type, canal location, canal age, marsh soil characteristics, the presence or absence of a plug at the canal mouth, whether mitigation was on- or off-site, and dredge operator performance. Backfilling reduced median canal depth from 2.4 to 1.1 m, restored marsh vegetation on the backfilled spoil bank, but did not restore emergent marsh vegetation in the canal because of the lack of sufficient spoil material to fill the canal and time. Median percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on the canal spoil banks was 51.6%. Median percentage of cover in the canal was 0.7%. The organic matter and water content of spoil bank soils were restored to values intermediate between spoil bank levels and predredging marsh conditions. The average percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on backfilled spoil banks was highest in intermediate marshes (68.6%) and lowest in fresh (34.7%) and salt marshes (33.9%). Average canal depth was greatest in intermediate marshes (1.50 m) and least in fresh marshes (0.85 m). Canals backfilled in the Chenier Plain of western Louisiana were shallower (average depth = 0.61 m) than in the eastern Deltaic Plain (mean depth range = 1.08 to 1.30 m), probably because of differences in sediment type, lower subsidence rate, and lower tidal exchange in the Chenier Plain. Canals backfilled in marshes with more organic soils were deeper, probably as a result of greater loss of spoil volume caused by oxidation of soil organic matter. Canals ten or more years old at the time of backfilling had shallower depths after backfilling. Depths varied widely among canals backfilled within ten years of dredging. Canal size showed no relationship to canal depth or amount of vegetation reestablished. Plugged canals contained more marsh reestablished in the canal and much greater chance of colonization by submerged aquatic vegetation compared with unplugged canals. Dredge operator skill was important in leveling spoil banks to allow vegetation reestablishment. Wide variation in dredge performance led to differing success of vegetation restoration. Complete reestablishment of the vegetation was not a necessary condition for successful restoration. In addition to providing vegetation reestablishment, backfilling canals resulted in shallow water areas with higher habitat value for benthos, fish, and waterfowl than unfilled canals. Spoil bank removal also may help restore water flow patterns over the marsh surface. Increased backfilling for wetland mitigation and restoration is recommended.

  11. Lines of Principal Curvature on Canal Surfaces in R^3

    CERN Document Server

    García, R; Sotomayor, J; Garcia, Ronaldo; Llibre, Jaume; Sotomayor, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    In this paper are determined the principal curvatures and principal curvature lines on canal surfaces which are the envelopes of families of spheres with variable radius and centers moving along a closed regular curve in R^3. By means of a connection of the differential equations for these curvature lines and real Riccati equations, it is established that canal surfaces have at most two isolated periodic principal lines. Examples of canal surfaces with two simple and one double periodic principal lines are given.

  12. Mandibular premolars with aberrant canal morphology: An endodontic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

    2014-01-01

    Complete cleaning and shaping is the key to successful endodontic treatment. A thorough understanding of the internal anatomy and morphology of the root canal system is an important consideration when performing cleaning and shaping procedures. Mandibular premolars are one of the most difficult teeth to treat endodontically because of aberrant root canal anatomy. This article describes case series of mandibular premolars with variations in root canal anatomy treated successfully by convention...

  13. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  14. Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

  15. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, R.G. de

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditional endodontic therapy cannot make the root canal system completely free of bacteria. Moreover, it may not always result in complete healing of apical periodontitis, highlighting the need of optimizi...

  16. Design and implementation of an irrigation canal SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Rijo, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    In Portugal all of the upstream controlled canal systems work with flexible water delivery schedules and therefore canal operational losses can be significant. Real-time technologies can allow the canal managers to continuously compare the real operation with its optimal or target value and to take appropriate corrective steps as required and minimize the water operational losses. The paper presents the design, field solutions and tuning of an implemented SCADA system on a Portuguese upstrea...

  17. SCADA system with predictive controller applied to irrigation canals

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Joa?o; Botto, Miguel; Rijo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies a model predictive controller (MPC) to an automatic water canal with sensors and actuators controlled by a network (programmable logic controller), and supervised by a SCADA system (supervisory control and a data acquisition). This canal is composed by a set of distributed sub-systems that control the water level in each canal pool, constrained by discharge gates (control variables) and water off-takes (disturbances). All local controllers are available through an industria...

  18. Computerized analysis of the instrumentation of the root canal system.

    OpenAIRE

    Berutti, Elio

    1993-01-01

    A method is proposed for a three-dimensional visualization of the root canal system before and after the cleaning and shaping procedure to analyze the relationships of the root canal walls. The first part of the study provided cross-sections of the root perpendicular to the root canal. A system for remounting the sections of the root before and after instrumentation was set up. Micrographs of the sections were transferred to a graphics computer which rebuilt and elaborated the sections, provi...

  19. Cigarette Smoking Increases the Risk of Root Canal Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Krall, E.A.; Sosa, C. Abreu; Garcia, C.; Nunn, M.E.; Caplan, D.J.; Garcia, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated smoking as a risk factor for root canal treatment. We studied the effect of smoking on the incidence of root canal treatment, controlling for recognized risk factors, in 811 dentate male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study. Participants were not VA patients. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 28 years. Root canal treatment was verified on radiographs and evaluated with proportional hazards regression models. Compared with never-smokers, current cigarette smo...

  20. C-shaped canals in mandibular second molars

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandra; Harikumar

    2010-01-01

    Aims: This clinical report presents the endodontic treatment of two mandibular second molars with a C-shaped canal systems. Summary: According to the endodontic literature a C-shaped root canal is most frequently seen in mandibular second molar. Once recognised, the C-shaped canal is a challenge with respect to debridement and obturation. We observed this configuration in two of our cases and successfully treated them in the department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Kamineni Insti...

  1. [Microbial decontamination of the root canals of devitalized teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ková?, Ján; Ková?, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of endodontic therapy is the reduction or elimination of microorganisms and their by-products from the root canal system. Although a number of instrumentation and irrigation techniques exist, debris is often left behind in the root canal system and proper canal cleaning, shaping, and irrigation are needed to reduce significantly or sometimes even eliminate microorganisms from the canals. Residual microbes in the root canal system are the primary cause of post-treatment apical periodontitis that may persist in both poorly and properly treated cases. Apical periodontitis is a sequel to endodontic infection and manifests itself as the host defense response to microbial challenge emanating from the root canal system to the periapical tissue. It results in local inflammation, resorption of hard tissues, destruction of other periapical tissues, and eventual formation of various histopathological categories of apical periodontitis, commonly referred to as periapical lesions. When the root canal treatment is carried out properly, healing of the periapical lesion usually follows, with bone regeneration. In certain cases, post-treatment apical periodontitis still persists, the condition being commonly referred to as endodontic failure. It is widely acknowledged that such post-treatment apical periodontitis occurs when root canal treatment has not adequately controlled and eliminated the infection. However, complete elimination of microorganisms is not always achieved in clinical practice due to the anatomical complexities of root canals and consequent limitations in access by instruments and irrigants. The use of antimicrobial medication has been advocated to disinfect the root canal system. The recovery of Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis is common after failed root canal treatment. Therefore, when testing different antimicrobial agents for efficacy in endodontic treatment, 100% inhibition of the growth of the two microorganisms is required. The purpose of this article is to assess the antimicrobial action of intracanal medicaments and relevance of the root canal irrigation in endodontic therapy of devitalized teeth. PMID:23301623

  2. A review on fascioliasis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Ahmad N; el-Shazly, Atef M; Arafa, Magdy A S; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2002-04-01

    Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola species, is a disease of herbivorous animals. It has a worldwide distribution in a large variety of grass-grazing animals as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, horses and rabbits. In Egypt, donkeys and camels as well, are hosts for F. gigantica. Fascioliasis may occasionally affect man. Human infection causes serious hepatic pathological sequences that add to the already known threats to the liver of the Egyptian population. Two clinical stages are recognized in human fascioliasis. An acute stage coincides with the larval migration and worm maturation in the hepatic tissue, and a chronic stage coincides with the persistence of Fasciola worms in the bile ducts. Human infection with fascioliasis was very sporadic until the last three decades where clinical cases and outbreaks were reported. The estimated the number of people currently having fascioliasis to be 360,000 in Bolivia, 20,000 in Ecuador, 830,000 in Egypt, 10,000 in Islamic Republic of Iran, 742,000 in Peru, and 37,000 in Yemen. The total estimated number of people infected is 2.4 million in 61 countries and that the number at risk is more than 180 million throughout the world. Human fascioliasis has to be differentially diagnosed from some diseases as acute hepatitis, infection with other liver flukes as schistosomiasis, visceral toxocariasis, biliary tract diseases and hepatic amoebiasis. The parasitological diagnosis is based on identification of eggs in stool, duodenal contents or bile, also by the recovery of adult worm during surgical exploration, after treatment or at autopsy. However, the eggs may be present in very small number at irregular intervals, hence difficult to be found. Besides, the eggs may be transiently present in stool after ingestion of raw or undercooked liver from infected animals. The direct methods of diagnosing the egg are usually unsatisfactory. The symptoms may be present for several weeks before eggs are recovered in stool. Thus, the serologic tests are the alternative method of confirming early and extrabiliary human fascioliasis. However, cross-reactions with other helminthic antigen may confuse the interpretation of the results. PMID:12049266

  3. Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shaalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration. They were important to insure the acceptance and success of the proposed project that takes Egypt to a new era of environmental protection. (author)

  4. Uranium resources and reserves in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resources and reserves of radioactive raw materials in Egypt include some conventional and nonconventional types discovered at some localities in the Eastern Desert, Sinai and the Western Desert. The conventional-type uranium and/or thorium include replacements in granitic rocks, and in alkaline dikes and sills. The nonconventional-types comprise marine phosphorites and black sand concentrations along the Mediterranean. Latent resource include some anomalous areas in carbonaceous shales, clays and phosphatized sandstones in the Western Desert. Some target areas are by now under development. In one locality some 3,000 tons of ore assayed at 0.108% U are proved through drilling and drifting. Marine phosphorites represent potential resources for uranium. The total estimated reserve and potential reserve of phosphatic rocks in Egypt amounts approximately to 2.5 billion tons. Assuming an average of 100 gm U3O8/ton, the above reserve contains as much as 250,000 tons U3O8. The economic potentiality of black sands with respect to uranium and thorium content must be viewed in terms of industrialization of the whole products coming out from black sands. Nevertheless, the estimated reserve of heavy minerals amounts to over 30 million tons in the top meter and over 600 million tons with 27% heavy minerals to a depth of 20 meters in the area of Damietta East, Rosetta East and West. Some other 42.6 million tons grading about 9% heavy mine6 million tons grading about 9% heavy minerals are proved to a depth of 20 meters east and west of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. Assuming an annual production of 12,000 tons monazite (this amount yields 54 tons U3O8, 720 tons Th O2 7,500 tons RE and 3,360 tons P2O5) and marketing of the other products coming out of black sands, it is estimated that the production cost of one pound. U3O8 amounts to $15 to $30. 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Radioactivity level of the gamma emitters in Ismailia Canal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity level of the ?-emitting radionuclides was measured in the different component of Ismalia Canal (bottom sediment, biota and water) by ?-spectrometry. The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq/kg for the detected natural radionuclides. The annual external ?-dose to the living organisms in the canal, close to the sediment beds, was found to be in the range of 1.21±0.24 mSv/y and does not present any significant hazards when compared with the natural ?-ray background around the Ismalia Canal(IC) environment which ranges from 0.80 to 1.73 mSv/y. (orig.)

  6. 100 years of ion beams: Willy Wien's canal rays

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karl, Wien.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available When Goldstein's report on the "positive light" (or what is known as "Kanalstrahlen", canal rays) in gas discharge tubes first appeared in 1886, Willy Wien had just finished his thesis at the Helmholtz Institute in Berlin. Eleven years later he performed his first experiments on canal rays and found [...] that they consisted of inert, charged and neutral particles. The charged component in canal rays could be de ected using electric and magnetic fields, enabling Wien to roughly determine their mass-to-charge ratio. Improving vacuum conditions and detection efficiency, Thomson finally resolved the lightest constituents of canal rays: the hydrogen ions H+ and H2+. This marked the beginning of mass spectrometry. The first mass spectrographs were parabola-image instruments being used by Thomson to discover isotopes. Until about 1923, canal rays became the most common ion source. Also Aston used canal rays as an ion source for the first double focussing mass spectrometer. - Wien continued his work on canal rays up to the end of his life (he died in 1928). He investigated their interaction with matter, i.e. the mean free path of canal rays in gases with respect to charge exchange and atomic excitation. His particular interest was addressed to the physics of light emission by canal rays, such as the line spectrum and the splitting of these lines in magnetic and electric fields, the Doppler effect and lifetimes.

  7. Endodontic treatment of lower anterior teeth with multiple canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaškovi? Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowledge of root canal morphology is one of the main prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. We present the case of a patient with multiple canals in lower anterior teeth which were treated endodontically. Case Report. To a 45-year-old patient endodontic treatment was applied on lower left lateral incisor, lower right central and lateral incisor and lower right canine. These teeth were previously prepared for prosthetic crowns. All involved teeth had two canals which were not visible on the primary radiographs. Gracility of remaining tooth structure and canals and the presence of two canals in each tooth required additional radiographs for verification of multiple canals. Careful biomechanical instrumentation and irrigation with use of lubrication due to narrow canals was performed. The canals were obturated with gutta-percha using lateral compaction technique and Acroseal (Septodont paste. On the control checkup after eight months, the patient was asymptomatic, while clinical finding was normal. Conclusion. Complexity of presented case was even more significant because these teeth were prepared to support prosthetic superstructure and crowns, and every “forgotten” canal is an iatrogenic error.

  8. Aproximación a la definición de Canal Infantil Politemático de televisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene MELGAREJO MORENO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La digitalización ha propiciado una nueva forma de concebir los canales de televisión; son diversos los autores que han tratado esta temática –Cebrián (2004, Alcolea (2003, Bustamante (1999, etc.-, sin embargo, las aproximaciones que se han hecho en materia de canales temáticos infantiles resultan un tanto superfluas. Se realiza una revisión de las teorías existentes sobre televisión, infancia y canales temáticos que nos lleva a poder aportar una nueva terminología y a formular una aproximación a la definición de Canal Infantil Politemático, fiel reflejo de la realidad televisiva del siglo XXI.

  9. Efficient and effective root canal retreatment without chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariasen, K L; Brayton, S M; Collinson, D M

    1990-06-01

    A root canal retreatment technique is described which eliminates the need for chloroform as a gutta percha solvent. This technique utilizes the gutta percha softening actions of both a self-heating instrument and the heat-potentiated solvent action of eucalyptol. In addition, sonics/ultrasonics and/or Gates-Glidden drills are suggested as useful adjuncts to canal debridement during re-preparation of the canal system. Given the controversy regarding the toxicity of chloroform, both for dental patients and dental personnel, practitioners may wish to consider using this retreatment technique to eliminate chloroform from endodontic retreatment procedures, while still achieving effective, efficient root canal retreatment. PMID:2369702

  10. Assessment of Urban Sprawl on El Minya Archeological Sites, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. El-Bayomi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, thousands of known and unknown archaeological sites are at risk of destruction from urban sprawl and expanding development. Population growth is the main factor driven urban sprawl, Egypt’s population has witnessed a remarkable increase over the previous decades. The population rose from 35.3 million in 1970 to around 90 million today, doubling in less than 40 years. Hence, population issues are of the highest priority to the Government of Egypt. El Minya Governorate have a high population growth (i.e., 3.1% per year and hence the urban sprawl over the archeological sites in the desert fringes of the Nile valley is expected. Remote sensing and GIS are now providing new tools for advanced ecosystem management. The collection of remotely sensed data facilitates the synoptic analysis of earth’s system function patterning and change at local, regional and global scales. Overtime such data also provide an important link between intensive localized ecological research and regional, conservation and management of archeological areas. The basic premise in using remote sensing data and GIS for change detection is that the process can identify change between two or more dates that is uncharacteristic of normal variation. This research aims to assess the extent of urban sprawl and its impact on archeological sites in El Minya Governorate, Egypt.

  11. Egypt's Policy Concerning Food Irradiation Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypt's policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  12. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  13. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity. PMID:18943166

  14. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  15. Mine detection in Egypt: Evaluation of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the central geographical location between Africa, Asia and Europe, Egypt was location for many battles. As a result of these battles, Egypt often cites a figure of twenty three million landmines and UXO emplaced in the country as a result of many wars since the World War II. The presence of such active mines caused many problems to Egypt. First, it obscures the development in the locations where it had been planted. Beside, many civilians and soldiers have been killed or maimed because of its unknown zones. Recently with the advances of geophysical techniques it becomes possible to use them in detecting landmines and UXO. Geoelectrical resistivity technique as a low cost, simple technique was used successfully to model the buried landmines and UXO objects in 2D. The technique was tested in Egypt using a newly adopted array of electrodes proposed by Kyushu University Mine Action Group (QMAG). The results are promising for future application using this tool in Egypt. Moreover, a new Advanced Landmine Imaging System (ALIS) developed at Tohoku University was also successfully evaluated at the Egyptian environment. The results show high efficiency for detecting both AP and AT mines. Accordingly, a new proposal for adopting both systems with robotic facility, to be applicable for wide area survey that can meet the Egyptian demand to solve the landmines problem there, is considered. (author)

  16. The electrical power equipment and services market in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a market overview of the electrical power equipment and services in Egypt and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Between 1997 and 2001, energy consumption in Egypt increased by 17 per cent. Electricity demand is expected to rise rapidly due to population and economic growth. Plans are underway to add 8,000 MW of installed energy capacity to Egypt's current 15,200 MW by 2010. Priority will be on providing universal access to electricity and reliability in rural areas. Egypt is also taking part in many international projects to link its electricity grid with nearby countries. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Recent legislation exempts foreign companies from corporation tax and from tax on income from movable capital for 5 to 10 years. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve electric power generation and transmission projects. Considerations for market-entry in Egypt were outlined. 29 refs., 3 tabsabs

  17. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

  18. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3 ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and...States from vessels which have transited the Panama Canal are subject to Customs...

  19. 75 FR 9790 - National Priorities List, Final Rule-Gowanus Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...Priorities List, Final Rule--Gowanus Canal AGENCY: Environmental Protection...appropriate. This rule adds the Gowanus Canal, located in Brooklyn, New York...the NPL This final rule adds the Gowanus Canal, located in Brooklyn, NY,...

  20. NRIAG's Effort to Mitigate Earthquake Disasters in Egypt Using GPS and Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Salah

    It has been estimated that, during historical time more than 50 million people have lost their lives in earthquakes during ground shaking, such as soil amplification and/or liquefaction, landslides and tsunamis or its immediate aftereffects, as fires. The distribution of population takes generally no account of earthquake risk, at least on a large scale. An earthquake may be large but not destructive, on the other hand, an earthquake may be destructive but not large. The absence of correlation is due to the fact that, great number of other factors entering into consideration: first of all, the location of the earthquake in relation to populated areas, also soil conditions and building constructions. Soil liquefaction has been identified as the underlying phenomenon for many ground failures, settlements and lateral spreads, which are a major cause of damage to soil structures and building foundations in many events. Egypt is suffered a numerous of destructive earthquakes as well as Kalabsha earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near Aswan city and the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks at, Aswan, Hurghada, Aqaba, Abu Dabbab and Dabbaa. On the other hand the soil condition, soil amplification, soil structure interaction, liquefaction and seismic hazard are carried out in particular the urbanized areas and the region near the source zones. All these parameters are integrated to obtain the Egyptian building code which is valid to construct buildings resist damages and consequently mitigate the earthquake disasters. Since the year of 1994 till now, the geodetic observations by means of Global Positioning System (GPS) were applied instead of the terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. These regions include Sinai, Gulf of Suez, Greater Cairo, Aswan and the Middle part on the River Nile. Data adjustment and analysis of the repeated GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which may help in more understanding the geodynamics of these regions. In the meantime, GPS measurements of crustal motions for 189 sites extending east-west from the Caucasus Mountains to the Adriatic Sea and north-south from the southern edge of the Eurasian plate to the northern edge of the African plate were carried out for the period from 1988 till 2005. Estimate of plate motions at stations located at different plates were determined.

  1. The Nubian Aquifer in Southwest Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. A.; Werwer, A.; El-Baz, F.; El-Shazly, M.; Fritch, T.; Kusky, T.

    2007-02-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, and topographic and groundwater data are used to understand heterogeneities of the Nubian Aquifer between 20 24.5°N and 25 32°E in southwest Egypt. New fluvial and structural interpretations emphasize that the desert landscape was produced by fluvial action, including newly mapped alluvial fans. In central locations, braided channels are spatially aligned with a NE structural trend, suggesting preferential water flow paths that are consistent with the local direction of groundwater flow. The alluvial fans and structurally enclosed channels coincide with gentle slopes and optimal recharge conditions (1 5%) derived from the new Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) slope map, indicating that these areas have high groundwater potential. The SAR interpretations are correlated with anomalies observed in groundwater data from 383 wells. Results suggest a relationship between the spatial organization of fluvial and structural features and the occurrence of low-salinity groundwater. Low-salinity water exists adjacent to the alluvial fans and in SW reaches of the structurally enclosed channels. Wells in the vicinity of structures contain low-salinity water, emphasizing that knowledge of structural features is essential to understand groundwater flow paths. The new approach is cost effective and noninvasive and can be applied throughout the eastern Sahara to assist in resource management decisions and support the much needed agricultural expansion.

  2. Egypt partners focus on education. Youth initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) and other Egyptian partner organizations have begun a 5-year project that focuses on empowering women through expansion of educational access to girls and young women. "Partnership Projects for Girls and Young Women", which will cost $6.8 million, implements basic strategies that can be adapted at the community level by partnerships of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), local leaders, parents, and educators. Guidance regarding research, policy, and communications will be provided by a national advisory committee. The project agreement was signed at the opening ceremony of the Cairo population conference by Peggy Curlin, president of CEDPA, and Brian Atwood, of the US Agency for International Development. CEDPA has established a Cairo office that will manage the project; the project director is Julia Hanson Swanson. Training, advocacy, and development of pilot projects will be emphasized the first year. The Institute for Training and Research in Family Planning (ITRFP), which is directed by Salha Awad, in collaboration with the Governors' Councils of Women, will advocate for increased resources for girls. The Coptic Evangelical Organization for Social Services (CEOSS) will introduce pilot projects in 2 communities in Upper Egypt that are designed to increase enrollment of girls in primary schools. The Alliance for Arab Women will support advocacy by NGOs for girls and young women at the World Conference on Women in Beijing. PMID:12288430

  3. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Alaboudy, Alshimaa; El Moghazy, Walid; Elwassief, Ahmed; Alashker, Ahmed; Abdallah, Abdallah Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The emerging evidence of the potentially clinical importance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) increases the interest in this topic. OBI may impact in several clinical contexts, which include the possible transmission of the infection, the contribution to liver disease progression, the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and the risk of reactivation. There are several articles that have published on OBI in Egyptian populations. A review of MEDLINE database was undertaken for relevant articles to clarify the epidemiology of OBI in Egypt. HBV genotype D is the only detectable genotype among Egyptian OBI patients. Higher rates of OBI reported among Egyptian chronic HCV, hemodialysis, children with malignant disorders, and cryptogenic liver disease patients. There is an evidence of OBI reactivation after treatment with chemotherapy. The available data suggested that screening for OBI must be a routine practice in these groups of patients. Further studies needed for better understand of the epidemiology of OBI among Egyptian young generations after the era of hepatitis B vaccination.

  4. The national waste management system in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislative umbrella. The legal framework is well defined by both the Decree No. 288 (1957) which allowed the establishment of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Commission (now it is the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA)) and the Law 59 (1960) which assigned the full responsibilities for licensing, management and control of the use of radioactive materials and the waste arisings to the AEA. The operational capabilities are allocated to the Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Centre (HLWMC). These capabilities include, beside the operators, the facilities for treating and conditioning liquid and solid radioactive waste. The liquid radioactive waste facility has been completed under the IAEA Technical Assistance Project. The facility can treat 10 m3/day of low level liquid radioactive waste and 2 m3/ day of medium level liquid waste. The facility was commissioned in December 1993. It uses three methods for treating liquid radioactive waste: precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. Sludges and concentrates resulting from the treatment are conditioned by cementation in the cementation plant which is a part of the facility. The solid radioactive waste treatment includes compaction and incineration. The compacted waste will be conditioned by cementation in the cementation plant. 10 refs, 4 figsefs, 4 figs

  5. Flavonoids from Albizia chinensis of Egypt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neveen S., Ghaly; F. R., Melek; Nayera A. M., Abdelwahed.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevo a cabo el aislamiento de los flavonoides Kaemferol-3-O-?-L-ramnopirano-sida, quercetina-3-O-?-L-ramnopiranosida, luteolina, kaemferol y quercetina, del extracto metanolico de las hojas de Albizia chinensis colectada de Egipto. La identificación de los compuestos se llevo a cabo mediante el [...] análisis espectroscópico. Se valoro la actividad antimicrobiana de los tres primeros compuestos mostrando actividad moderada contra bacterias gram-positivas y gram-negativas. No se observo actividad antifungicida de estos compuestos. Abstract in english The flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside together with luteolin, kaempferol and quercetin, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Albizia chinensis collected from Egypt. Identification of the flavonoid constituents was carried by anal [...] ysing their spectroscopic data and/or by comparing these data with those reported in the literature. The first three isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity and the results revealed that the tested compounds exhibited moderate inhibiting activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria while no antifungal activity was observed.

  6. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Alaboudy, Alshimaa; El Moghazy, Walid; Elwassief, Ahmed; Alashker, Ahmed; Abdallah, Abdallah Mahmoud

    2015-06-28

    The emerging evidence of the potentially clinical importance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) increases the interest in this topic. OBI may impact in several clinical contexts, which include the possible transmission of the infection, the contribution to liver disease progression, the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and the risk of reactivation. There are several articles that have published on OBI in Egyptian populations. A review of MEDLINE database was undertaken for relevant articles to clarify the epidemiology of OBI in Egypt. HBV genotype D is the only detectable genotype among Egyptian OBI patients. Higher rates of OBI reported among Egyptian chronic HCV, hemodialysis, children with malignant disorders, and cryptogenic liver disease patients. There is an evidence of OBI reactivation after treatment with chemotherapy. The available data suggested that screening for OBI must be a routine practice in these groups of patients. Further studies needed for better understand of the epidemiology of OBI among Egyptian young generations after the era of hepatitis B vaccination. PMID:26140086

  7. No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance; N. 3017. Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete relative au projet de fusion entre Gaz de France et Suez, aux conditions de sa preparation et de son annonce et aux consequences de la privatisation de Gaz de France pour les usagers et l'equilibre du marche de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balligand, J.P.; Ayrault, J.M.; Hollande, F.; Besson, E.; Migaud, D.; Emmanuelli, H.; Brottes, F.; Bataille, Ch.; Ducout, P.; Gaubert, J.; Habib, D

    2006-04-15

    On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

  8. Mandibular Second Molar with a Single Root and a Single Canal: Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Anna; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Suresh, Nandhini

    2013-01-01

    The variability of root canal system morphology of multirooted teeth represents a continuous challenge to endodontic diagnosis and therapeutics. This report extends the range of known possible anatomical variations to include teeth with lesser number of root and root canals. Variations of root canal systems need not always be in the form of extra canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of existence of fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anat...

  9. Management of mandibular first molar with four canals in mesial root

    OpenAIRE

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Kumar, Krishnamurthy Sathish; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Prakash, Venkatachalam

    2013-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on adequate cleaning, shaping, and filling of the root canal system. The presence of middle mesial (MM) root canal of mandibular molars has been reported by various authors. But incidence of four canals in mesial root of mandibular molar is very rare. The aim of this case report is to present and describe the identification and management of a mandibular first molar with four canals in the mesial root and single canal in the distal root.

  10. Management of mandibular first molar with four canals in mesial root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Kumar, Krishnamurthy Sathish; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Prakash, Venkatachalam

    2013-09-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on adequate cleaning, shaping, and filling of the root canal system. The presence of middle mesial (MM) root canal of mandibular molars has been reported by various authors. But incidence of four canals in mesial root of mandibular molar is very rare. The aim of this case report is to present and describe the identification and management of a mandibular first molar with four canals in the mesial root and single canal in the distal root. PMID:24082581

  11. Canalers and Conservationists: The Projected Cross-Florida Canal. Instructional Activities Series IA/S-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Edward A.

    This activity is one of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. This activity investigates environmental quality employing the problem-solving technique. Using a map which shows the proposed route of the cross-Florida barge canal as a focal point, the teacher…

  12. Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumayya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were analyzed by using Student's 't' test. Lumbar canal starts growing in length significantly in group III foetuses onward. There was consistency in the growth of lumbar canal diameters with gestational age at all levels. Heights of vertebral bodies of Ist two lumbar vertebrae showed variability in some adjacent groups. The same in the next three grew constantly with the growth of foetuses. Sacral canal showed variable growth in lengths in different groups. Steady growth in the length and diameter of the lumbar canal may be used for approximate age of foetuses for medicolegal reasons.La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los defectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M. Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en

  13. Geochemical and hydrological processes controlling groundwater quality in Assiut Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, R. G.; Tempel, R.; Gomaa, M.; Korany, E.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater in Assiut area, Egypt, is an important source of fresh water for human consumption, agriculture, and domestic and industrial purposes. Due to a growing population and expansion of agricultural reclamation projects in the desert fringes of the Nile Valley, there is an increasing water demand in this arid region. This study has investigated the geochemical and hydrological processes that control groundwater quality within the Pleistocene, Plio-Pleistocene, and Eocene aquifers in Assiut, in addition to the hydraulic relationships between surface and groundwater systems and the relations among the defined groundwater aquifers. A total of 28 surface and 160 groundwater samples were collected for geochemical analysis (major and minor element chemistry, and stable isotope analyses). Total dissolved solids = 182 to 5657 mg/L, water-delta 18O = -7.5 to +6.5%, and water-delta D = -55 to +32%. Geochemical and stable isotope data indicate that the principal source of recharge to the Pleistocene and Plio-Pleistocene aquifers is the surface water system (irrigation canals), while the prevalence of Na-Cl type waters in the Eocene aquifer indicates recharge by upward leakage from the underlying Nubian sandstone aquifer which contains the same Na-Cl water type. Evaporation prior to infiltration, mixing, and mineral equilibria (dissolution and precipitation) are the main factors that affect water quality. Ion exchange plays a secondary role in controlling the water chemistry of the Pleistocene aquifer, but is more effective in controlling water quality within the Plio-Pleistocene and Eocene aquifers due to the prevalence of clay minerals within the matrices. The fresh water exploited from the Eocene aquifer may be of great importance for land reclamation projects not only at the western desert fringes, but also at the eastern desert fringes of Assiut and similar settings around the River Nile south of Assiut Governorate. Results of this study will be helpful for sustainable development, and raising the standard of living of people in the Assiut area, which is one of the poorest regions of Egypt.

  14. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaškovi? Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  15. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CB?CT) was used first. After the CB?CT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CB?CT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  16. Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

  17. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  18. Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsobki, M.; Sherif, Y. [Environics, Cairo (Egypt); Wooders, P. [International Inst. for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. Updating of the radiation protection regulations in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Radiation Protection Law was issued in Egypt in 1960 (Law 59/1960) to regulate the use of ionizing radiation and to protect people against its danger. This law emphasized mainly medical applications and was based on information available in the period from 1949 to 1952. During the past few decades, significant developments in radiation protection and nuclear safety have taken place. The use of ionizing radiation has considerably increased in Egypt and various nuclear activities have been and will be introduced. Under these circumstances, the existing legislation in Egypt has to be updated to provide the necessary legal and regulatory basis. The paper reviews the main developments in radiation protection policy and experience gained in various countries in updating their regulations. Finally, the shortcomings of the Radiation Protection Law are analysed and a basis for new legislation and regulations is proposed. (author). 9 refs

  20. Political challenges to biomedical universalism: kidney failure among Egypt's poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Sherine F

    2013-01-01

    Why do patients in need of kidney transplants in Egypt decline offers of kidney donation from their family members out of reluctance to cause them harm? Is it not universally the case that a living donor could live in complete health with a single remaining kidney? To address this conundrum, I discuss a case study from Egypt, in which patients reveal social, political, and environmental stresses on organ function that challenge the presumed universal efficacy and safety of kidney transplantation. I demonstrate that the biomedical position on the tolerable risks posed to the living donor is conditional and premised on particular social and historical contingencies that can be misaligned when applied in other contexts. Drawing on the work of Margaret Lock, I illustrate how analytical contributions of medical anthropologists can shed light on a political and public health impasse about how to legally regulate organ transplantation in Egypt. PMID:23768221

  1. Modeling the Spatial Spread of Rift Valley Fever in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daozhou; Cosner, Chris; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Beier, John C.; Ruan, Shigui

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that harms both human health and livestock production. It is believed that RVF in Egypt has been repeatedly introduced by the importation of infected animals from Sudan. In this paper, we propose a three-patch model for the process by which animals enter Egypt from Sudan, are moved up the Nile, and then consumed at population centers. The basic reproduction number for each patch is introduced and then the threshold dynamics of the model are established. We simulate an interesting scenario showing a possible explanation of the observed phenomenon of the geographic spread of RVF in Egypt. PMID:23377629

  2. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  3. Five-year follow-up of a root canal treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three root canals: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is a prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. Although the possibility of finding three root canals in the mandibular second premolar is relatively small, it should not be overlooked. The aim of this paper was to report a five-year follow-up of a root canal treatment performed on a mandibular premolar with two roots and three root canals. (author)

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  5. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter due to airborne particles washed out by rain events. Conversely, the AOD increases in summer because particle accumulation is favored by the absence of precipitation during this season. Moreover, in summer, photochemical processes in the atmosphere lead to slight increases in the values of aerosol optical characteristics, despite lower wind speeds [hence less wind-blown dust] relative to other seasons. This study has been conducted under the PEER 2-239 research project titled "the Impact of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Aerosols to Climate in Egypt". Project website: CleanAirEgypt.org

  6. Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    El-Tallawy H; Farghaly W; Metwally N; Rageh T; Shehata GA; Badry R; El Moselhy E; Hassan M; Sayed MM; Abdelwarith AA; Hamed Y; Shaaban I; Mohamed T; Abd El Hamed M; Kandil, MR

    2013-01-01

    Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch), Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag ...

  7. Modeling the Spatial Spread of Rift Valley Fever in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Daozhou; Cosner, Chris; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Beier, John C.; Ruan, Shigui

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that harms both human health and livestock production. It is believed that RVF in Egypt has been repeatedly introduced by the importation of infected animals from Sudan. In this paper, we propose a three-patch model for the process by which animals enter Egypt from Sudan, are moved up the Nile, and then consumed at population centers. The basic reproduction number for each patch is introduced and then the thresho...

  8. Safe transit of radioactive cargoes through the Panama Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 12,000 ocean-going vessels transit the Panama Canal annually. About 30% carry dangerous goods, including radioactive material. A high level of safety has been achieved. There is a demonstrated effort to maintain and improve this by requiring compliance with the relevant regulations, exercising strict control of transit operations, inspecting transiting vessels, and by continuously making improvements to the Canal. (author)

  9. Measurements of the normal adult lumbar spinal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, M Z; Muhammad, F

    1989-10-01

    To assess the normal dimensions of the lumbar spinal canal, 100 normal healthy subjects of either sex between 25 and 45 years age were x-rayed for lumber vertebral column in both posteroanterior and lateral views and the canal was measured by Jones and Thomson method. The lumbar spinal canal showed constant dimensions in both sexes in all age groups when studied separately in the male and female subjects. However, no change in relative dimensions was observed between 25 and 45 years. The canal showed gradual decrease in measurement from L1 to L5 vertebral levels in both sexes but relative width of the canal was more in the females than in the males of the same age group. The normal values of the canal to vertebral body ratio (C/B) varies between 1:2.0 and 1:5.0. The ratio 1:2.0 indicates a wider canal whereas any ratio beyond 1:5.0 would be conclusive of stenosis of the lumbar vertebral canal. PMID:2513423

  10. GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benea Ciprian Beniamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

  11. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the external auditory canal - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ran?i? Dejan; Mihailovi? Dragan S.; Mijovi? Žaklina Ž.

    2003-01-01

    A very rare case of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the external auditory canal in an 80-years-old man is presented. Two years ago the tumor of the left external auditory canal appeared, involving facial nerve. Metastatic lesions, composed of squamous cells only, appeared in the ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes. One year after surgical treatment the patient is alive and well.

  12. [Treatment of curved canals: from stainless steel to nickel titanium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliau, G; Turco, S; Guida, A; Gallottini, L

    2004-06-01

    Endodontic treatment of curved canals is always more difficult than straight canals, especially for the apical zone preparation: root canals may present several curvatures in different space directions. From an anatomical point of view root canals with accentuated curvatures are a very frequent event (more than we might think); radiological exams, in fact, give us only a 2D image, and we can observe mesial or distal curvatures but not those in the oral or buccal direction. However, all root canals have curvatures of some degrees; even those that appear straight. Because of this, endodontitis have made many attempts to overcome these problems and manage to have a good preparation in curve canal. The authors analyse all endodontic techniques (step back, step down, crown down, balanced forces) codified in the course of the years, to prepare curved canals; they both in shape or in materials. It's fundamental for the endodontist to have a specific technique to treat curved canals to allow a good, wide preparation; in this way it's possible to make a better and tridimensional filling of the endodontic space above all in the tipical zone. PMID:15266287

  13. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements California § 117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the Alameda County...

  14. Use of mass balance and statistical correlation for geochemical and isotopic investigation of the groundwater in the quaternary aquifer of the nile delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrochemical and environmental isotopic studies were conducted in the nile delta region, to investigate the sources of salinity and replenishment for the groundwater reservoir which are of importance for land reclamation projects and the establishment of new communities on the west and east side of the nile delta. The hydrogeological properties of the main exploitable aquifer (quaternary) was described. The chemistry of the collected surface and ground-waters was outlined through the analysis of major cations (Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++) and major anions (Ci-, SO4-, HCO3-). The variation in chemical composition of examined waters is attributed to the use of fertilizers, leaching of terrestrial salts and ion exchange between soil's minerals and water, in addition to, sea water intrusion in some isolated areas near by saline bodies (mediterranean sea, manzala lake, suez canal). Oxygen-18 and deuterium concentrations were used to identify the mechanism of recharge. The results show a mixing between different sources of water: recent Nile, old Nil water before construction of high Aswan dam, coastal precipitation as well as some contribution from both sea water toward north and palaeo-water at the eastern and western fringes of the nile delta. In some localities the recharge occurs indirectly after evaporation and/or vertical leakage of deep water due to over-pumping rates. Thisdeep water due to over-pumping rates. This paper also demonstrates the implementation of statistical correlation and mass balance approaches to present the chemical and isotopic characterization of the nile delta quaternary aquifer. Recommendations are given for optimal use of water resources in the area of study

  15. Semi-Circular Canals Anomalies//Idiopathic Scoliosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rousie, D L; Joly, O; Salvetti, P; Vasseur, J; Berthoz, A

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to a novel modelling programme to detect anomalies in the membranous semi circular canals (SSC) of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) we found severe anomalies mainly located in lateral SCC devoted to trunk rotation and lateral deviations. We also found a specific communication between the lateral and posterior canal involving the utricular chamber which is also highly suspected in scoliosis. Key points: - Membranous semi circular canals (SCC) modelling based on MRI revealed significant anomalies in IS patients compared to normal subjects. - Frequent aplasias located in the lateral canal were found in IS. - We also discovered a, never described, abnormal communication between lateral and posterior canal. - Lateral SCC is involved in trunk rotation and lateral deviation: these movements are frequently abnormal in IS. Supports: Fondation Yves Cotrel pour la recherche en pathologie rachidienne. Institut de France, Paris. SHFJ/CEA Orsay in the frame of the cooperation through IFR 49 INSERM/CNRS France.

  16. Direct solutions for normal depths in curved irrigation canals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, X Y

    2013-01-01

    The normal depth is an important hydraulic element for canal design, operation and management. Curved irrigation canals including parabola, U-shaped and catenary canals have excellent hydraulic performance and strong ability of anti-frost heave, while the normal depths in the governing equations of the current common methods have no explicit analytical solution. They are only indirect methods by using trial procedures, numerical methods, and graphical tools. This study presents new direct formulas for normal depth in curved irrigation canals by applying for Marquardt method. The maximum relative error of the proposed formulas is less than 1% within the practice range by comparative analysis, and they are simple and convenient for manual calculations. The results may provide the reliable theoretical basis and useful reference for the design and operation management of irrigation canals.

  17. Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deif, A.; Hamed, H.; Ibrahim, H. A.; Abou Elenean, K.; El-Amin, E.

    2011-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s-2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults.

  18. Lateral canal paroxysmal positional vertigo revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Daniele; Mandalà, Marco; Salerni, Lorenzo

    2009-05-01

    The first reports of an involvement of the lateral canal (LC) in paroxysmal positional vertigo (PPV), were published in 1985, by Luciano Cipparrone et al., from Italy and Joseph McClure from Canada. The increasing interest of otolaryngologists and neurologists has led to a progressive advance in the knowledge of this labyrinthine disorder regarding its epidemiological, physiopathological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects. According to the most recent data, LC-benign PPV accounts for 17% of all PPV patients, regardless of gender and between the two labyrinths. The LC-PPV syndrome is characterized by intense positional vertigo and direction-changing geotropic horizontal nystagmus, both caused by rotation of the head in the supine position. Less frequently, it presents with apogeotropic nystagmus. In some patients nystagmus is also detectable in the sitting position, mimicking a spontaneous nystagmus. In most cases nystagmus is caused by displaced otoconia floating in the semicircular canal. The pathological side, which must be identified for successful treatment, is usually indicated by nystagmus intensity: the more intense positional nystagmus beats toward the affected ear. In a few cases, where there is no difference in nystgmus intensity, other indicators are necessary to determine the pathological side. Vestibular neuritis and posterior fossa lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Treatment of LC-PPV relies on some physical maneuvers, the objective of which is to allow the otoconial debris to exit from the LC by centrifugal inertia and/or by gravitation. PMID:19645918

  19. Trumpet laminectomy microdecompression for lumbal canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henky, Jefri; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

  20. Sistema de máquinas para revestir canales magistrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli\\u00E1n Remberto S\\u00E1nchez Alonso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en la concepción, diseño, construcción y prueba de un sistema de máquinas para el revestimiento mecanizado de taludes de canales magistrales del tipo "Bio - La Rioja", su importancia está basada en la necesidad de acelerar las obras de la voluntad hidráulica y el programa alimentario. El método mecanizado de revestimiento incrementa el rendimiento respecto al tradicional, además contribuye al ahorro de materiales, mano de obra y uso de equipos, en particular de combustible. Para el logro de los objetivos propuestos se realizó una revisión del estado actual sobre los sistemas de máquinas revestidoras con hormigón existentes en el extranjero y la experiencia acumulada en el país. Posteriormente se realizó un análisis de variantes para la concepción de la máquina y cada conjunto, de esta forma se seleccionó los sistemas a diseñar. La utilización de métodos avanzados de cálculos y valoración nos permitió determinar las formas y dimensiones de las máquinas, conjuntos y piezas, obteniéndose un diseño ligero y una tecnología sencilla de fabricación. Las valoraciones experimentales en condiciones de explotación en el canal "Bio - La Rioja" permitieron realizar un análisis técnico-económico sobre la introducción del sistema de máquinas en un proceso mecanizado de revestimiento "in situ".

  1. The radiological hazards of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus Lakes, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariout and Brullus were considered two of the highly fish productive lakes in Egypt as well as they widely used to drain huge quantities of industrial wastewater, sewage and agriculture drainage. Thousands of peoples inhabited the areas around the lakes and depend on them completely in their lives. The activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured in the upper most part of the surface sediments of the two lakes using gamma ray spectrophotometery. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher 238U and 232Th and lower 40K (17.22±2.49 Bq/kg, 10.0 ±56 Bq/kg and 299.7±17.78 Bq/kg) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53 Bq/kg, 7.24±0.76 Bq/kg and 518.75±46.24 Bq/kg respectively). Inversely, the mean average of absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose rate (mSvy-1), radium equivalent (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex) and the representative level index (I?r) were; 32.01 nGy/h, 0.04 mSv/y, 62.95 Bq/kg, 0.17 and 0.50 at Mariout Lake higher than those in Brullus lake (26.42 nGy/h, 0.03 mSv/y, 54.25 Bq/kg, 0.15 and 0.41) respectively. The recorded and calculated values were lower than the acceptable limits published in the different localities around the world. The activity distributions of the radiological hazards show the highest intensities in the western part of Mariout Lake and decreasing gradually eastward and north eastward affecting by the drainage agriculture water from Kabary Drain, Umum Drain, S.W. Basin and Nubaria Canal. At Brullus Lake, the radiological hazard intensities were concentrated in the west and southwest influenced by Zaglul Drain, Rosetta Drain, Brembal canal, Drain 11, Drain 9, Drain 8 and partially by Drain 1 while the lowest intensities were in the north and northeast affecting by the interaction with the Mediterranean Sea. K-40 recorded positive correlations and significant linear regression relationships with radiological hazard parameters at Mariout Like meaning that 40K is the main gamma emitter in the lake, while the different radioelements are participating gamma emitters at Brullus Lake.

  2. Status of the interoceanic canal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Sea-Level Canal Study Commission are are not as yet completed, although there is no reason at this time to doubt that the 1 December 1970 deadline for the Commission's final report will be met. Since it has not been published, I am unable to pass on to you any of its conclusions; they simply do not exist today. And it would be improper for me to reveal the substance of the Commission's deliberations to date or to speculate upon what their outcome may be. But many elements of the work being conducted under my supervision - The Engineering Feasibility Study - are already in the public domain. It is to them that my remarks here are addressed. Of the six basic routes we have considered in our studies for possible sea-level canal alinements, four could involve nuclear excavating techniques. The so-called nuclear alternatives are Route 8 along the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border, Route 17 across the Darien Isthmus of Panama, Route 23 crossing the Panama-Colombia border and Route 25 across the western tip of Colombia. The conventionally excavated routes are Route 10 west of the Panama Canal Zone and Route 14 along the alinement of the present canal. The engineering studies examine from a technical standpoint the feasibility of constructing these routes and estimate their costs. To accomplish this we have made conceptual designs for canals capable of transiting at least 40,000 vessels annually (and possibly several times that many) and of accommodating ships of up to 250,000 dwt in size. Thus, in terms of basic requirements, all alternatives - conventional and nuclear - have been made comparable. Beginning with the northernmost route, let us now consider the four nuclear alternatives. Route 8 is 137 miles in length. Its maximum elevations are slightly less than 800 feet in the Continental Divide and about 400 feet through the so-called Eastern Divide. The rock to be excavated is primarily volcanic tuff. It is readily apparent that this route is not competitive with other nuclear alternatives because of its location in a relatively well developed, built-up region. Its construction would require the evacuation of more than one-quarter million people from the exclusion area for the duration of nuclear operations and for about a year thereafter. This would almost certainly be politically unacceptable. There would be an additional requirement on shot days for the temporary evacuation of an estimated 30,000 people from high rise buildings in Managua and San Jose to avoid casualties from possible structural collapse caused by ground shock. The magnitude of these problems can be expressed to some degree in terms of the estimated cost of their resolution. In this case, they constitute a major part - $1.7 billion - of the Route 8 construction costs which we estimate to be $3.5 billion

  3. Relationship between lower third molar and mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mandibular canal is often closely related to the lower third molars. During the surgical removal of the third molar, the inferior alveolar nerve in the canal is sometimes damaged leading to impaired sensation in the lower lip. This is one of the most unpleasant postoperative complications. The buccolingual relationship between the lower third molar and the mandibular canal cannot be diagnosed by ortho-pantomography although preoperative evaluation must be carried out radiologically. In present study, the relationship was determined by using CT scan. Forty-seven lower third molars of 35 patients were evaluated preoperatively by CT scan. The mandibular canal of all cases overlapped with the third molar on ortho-pantomography. CT scan was taken in two ways. The first was the Tragion-Menton plane which was nearly parallel to the canal at the apex of the third molar. The second was the plane of the axis of the third molar. Axial CT scan was taken when the third molar erupted horizontally, and coronal CT scan was done when the molar erupted vertically. CT scan examination exactly revealed the position of the mandibular canal in relation to the root of the third molar. The canal was located buccally to the roots in 55 percent of cases, apicobuccally in 6 percent, apically in 23 percent, apicolingually in 6 percent, lingually in 2 percent, and between roots in 6 percent. The results of the present study were consistent with previous reports. In 12 cases, the inferior alveus reports. In 12 cases, the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle was visible during operation. It was visible in only 2 of 22 cases when the canal was located buccally. It was visible, on the other hand, in all cases in which the canal was located apicolingually, lingually, and between roots. It also tended to be visible when the canal overlapped more strongly with the third molar on preoperative ortho-pantomography. (author)

  4. [Limit of root canal obturation by gutta percha compaction technique in single rooted teeth. Clinical data apropos of 168 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye, F; Mbaye, M; Toure, B; Dieng, O; Diallo, B

    2002-03-01

    After the introduction of the lateral compactage of gutta percha in endodontic clinic of OdontoStomatology Institute of Dakar in 1995; the immediate evaluation of the quality and the limit of the canal obturation due to a prospective study on 157 monoradicular teeth so be 168 canals (11 supplementary canals) has shown that 75% of canals are of type I of Vertucci and that the apical limit of security is reached within 80.25% of cases. The manual step back canal preparation (79.17%) and the technique of canal obturation by lateral compactage of gutta percha [(64.88%); Apical limit of security: 59.52%] permit to obtain a densities (95.83%) and homogeneous (79.57%) canal obturation. The indication of gutta percha compactage on monoradicular teeth (hermetic and tridimensional root canal filling) must avail to apical curved roots of lateral incisive, the use of adapted instruments in case of canines (31 mm) and apical stop cone on necrotic pulp teeth. PMID:12061241

  5. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  6. Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

    2014-05-01

    The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from Lake Manzala (Nile Delta) suggests this period was one of declining discharge (Stanley et al. 2003). Amenhotep III's temple floor lies 2m above the calcareous palaeosol and its construction lies within the broad dating of the ancient surface. It is possible that low discharge levels enabled him to build his temple high and dry of the Nile floods. Future seasons should allow us to clarify this using 14C and OSL dating, and in time we hope to shed more light on the fluvial history of the Nile and how this affected the decision making of the ancient Egyptians. References Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Emery, V.L., Jones, S., Barker. D.B. 2013. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2013, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 99, 35-52. Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Hunter, M.A., Jones, S., Masson, A., Millet, M., Pennington, B.T. 2012. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2012, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 98, 27-42. Stanley, D.J., Krom, M.D., Cliff, R.A. and Woodward, J.C. 2003. Nile flow failure at the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic and petrologic evidence, Geoarchaeology 18(3), 395-402.

  7. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  8. Discursive Legitimation and De-legitimation in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsberg, Linn

    2008-01-01

    Between 100 and 140 million girls and woman have undergone the practice of female circumcision. This thesis study legitimation and de-legitimation of this practice in the language used by six informants with a special knowledge of the public Egypt discourse of female circumcision. The analysis is conducted within a discourse analytical framework.

  9. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  10. La Fuite en Egypte - la fuite de toutes les fuites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kone?ný, Lubomír

    Prague : The UN Refugee Agency, 2002 - (Raimanová, I.; Concolato, J.), s. 10-14 ISBN 80-238-8860-9 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK9056118 Keywords : Flight to Egypt * iconography * literary sources Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  11. Islamic versus Western Conceptions of Education: Reflections on Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bradley J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the contradictions between Islamic education theory and the Western-based education systems found in most Islamically oriented countries. Uses Egypt as a case study to illustrate the complex and delicate balance policy makers must achieve in meeting the needs of economic development while also affirming their countries' Islamic cultural…

  12. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  13. MULTIPLE WATER REUSE IN POULTRY PROCESSING: CASE STUDY IN EGYPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An industrial-scale multiple water reuse system was under investigation for a period of four years at a modern poultry processing plant in Alexandria, Egypt. The system involved: chlorination of cooling water from the compressor; reuse of this water in the chiller; successive tra...

  14. El-Dab'a ground water aquifer assessment, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    elhamy Tarabees

    El-Dabaa area is an area located in the norther part of the western desert, Egypt and planed to be nuclear power point. Some vertical electrical sounding have been done there to evaluate the ground water aquifer there to monitor the effect of sea water intrusion and its effect on the fresh water aquifer

  15. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  16. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  17. Molecular Detection of Some Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry plants exhibiting distinct virus-like symptoms (stunting, mottling, yellowing, vein clearing, vein necrosis and vein banding) were collected from strawberry production fields and nurseries in Qalubia Governorate, Egypt (about 20 km north of Cairo). Plants of 'Festival' and 'Sweet Charlie'...

  18. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  19. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  20. Ichnology in the archaeological context of Abusir, ancient Egypt.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Cílek, Václav

    Colunga : Museo del Jurásico de Asturias, 2011 - (Rodríguez-Tovar, F.; García-Ramos, J.). s. 63-66 ISBN 978-84-694-4066-7. [International Ichnofabric Workshop /11./. 01.07.2011-05.07.2011, Colunga] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : ichnology * archaeology * ancient Egypt * Abusir Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy