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1

Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI) is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3%) developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value neonates were 38.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a significant difference. Klebsiella spp. were the most common pathogen (27.8%) followed by Pseudomonas (21.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4%). Conclusion. The rate of BSIs in NICU at Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%).

Kishk, Rania Mohammed; Mandour, Mohamed Fouad; Farghaly, Rasha Mohamed; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Nemr, Nader Attia

2014-01-01

2

ASTER Suez Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

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Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

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Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Analyses Techniques For Optimum Land Use Planning, West of Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current study aims at using remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for optimum landuse planning of the area located north Ismaillia - south Port Said Governorates on the western side of Suez Canal. It is bounded by longitudes 32 degree 10 and 32 degree 20 E and latitudes 300 4 rand 31 0 00' N. Great part of this area is under reclamation and suffering from improper landuse. Ten geomorphologic units were recognized i.e. clay flats, decantation basins, overflow basins, sand sheets, gypsiferous flats, old river terraces, sand flats, turtle backs, lake beds, and recent river terraces. Using US Soil Taxonomy, two soil orders could be identified; Entisols and Aridisols which are represented by ten great groups: Typic Haplosalids, Typic Haplogypsids, Typic Toriorthents, Vertic Argigypsids, Vertic Torrijluvents, Vertic Natrargids ,Typic Torripsamments, Typic Torrifluvens, Aquic Torriorthents and Typic Psammaquents. Surface and ground water with respect to salinity and alkalinity hazards were investigated ,where surface water of the main canals was classified as C2-S 1, C3-S 1 ,C4-S2 and C4-S4, meanwhile the ground water was classified as C3-S 1, C3 -S 1 ,C4-S2 ,C4-SI and C4-S4 .Optimum landuse planning of the studied area includes three approaches i.e., physical planning, optimum cropping pattern and other uses. Physical planning includes designing of three geospatial models. I-treatment plant site selection model. 2-c-treatment plant site selection model. 2-central village site selection model and 3- shortest path for new Canal model. Current cropping pattern was obtained by matching the crop requirements with soil characteristics, where soils of high sand flats and low gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, alfalfa and cotton, soils of low sand flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for olive, citrus and melon, soils of low recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, cotton, corn and rice ,soils of moderately recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, potato and rice, soils of high recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, rice and cotton, soils of high gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for corn, cotton, and citrus, soils of decantation basins are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, rice, corn, cotton, soils of turtle bake are currently highly suitable (S2) for melon, potato, cotton, soils of overflow basins are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus, peach, soils of sand sheets and old river terraces are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus

5

Assessment of the impact from transporting radioactive materials in the Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study in Egypt, carried out as the subject of an IAEA research contract, has used the INTERTRAN Code to provide an assessment of doses to handlers and the collective dose to the population, due to transport of radioactive material through the Suez Canal. Calculations were carried out using the data appropriate to the Canal, based on actual statistics and observations and default data built into the Code. The average collective dose per year was calculated to be 4.5 man rem and doses to handlers under normal transport conditions represented 97% of the total. Use of built-in default data gave results 106 times higher. 11 refs, 16 tabs

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Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF6 packages traversing the Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF6 shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF6 on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resultinhe toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

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Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF{sub 6} packages traversing the Suez Canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF{sub 6} shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF{sub 6} on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

Salama, M

2004-07-01

8

Risk assessment during transport of radioactive materials through the Suez Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper a study for risk assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials, during the period 1986-1992, through the Suez Canal of Egypt is given. The code RADTRAN-IV was used for this study. The results of the code, for a normal case, show that the transportation of low activity materials such as uranium (U 3O 8) represent the main items that contribute significantly to the collective dose within the Suez Canal area (Port-Said, Ismailia and Suez). The values of the annual collective dose due to transportation of all radionuclide materials was found to be at a maximum in Suez town and is equal to 5.04 × 10 -8 Man-Sv for the whole populations. If we only consider the workder at the harbour (estimated to be 50 persons), the value of the annual collective dose is about 3.33 × 10 -4 Man-Sv. These values are less than the exemption value of 1 Man-Sv recommended by the IAEA. For the accident case, the following pathways are considered by the code: ground-shine, direct inhalation, inhalation of resuspended material and cloud-shine. The total values of the estimated risks for each radionuclide material are presented in table form and, in addition, health effects (genetic effects, GE, and latent cancer fatality), LCF) are discussed. The calculated values of the radiological risks are very low for the three towns, showing that no radiation-induced early deaths are to be expected.

Sabek, M. G.; El-Shinawy, R. M. K.; Gomaa, M.

1997-03-01

9

Egypt's first subsea completion: A Gulf of Suez case history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.'s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt's first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations

10

Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF{sub 6}) packages tracking Suez Canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF{sub 6}) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF{sub 6}) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF{sub 6}) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested.

Salama, M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

2004-07-01

11

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7 Section 69...General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of...

2010-10-01

12

Marine radioactivity studies in the Suez Canal: Modelling hydrodynamics and dispersion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper comprises the work carried out under the IAEA Technical Co-operation Project EGY/07/002. The main goal was to develop a modelling study on the dispersion of radioactive pollution in the Suez Canal

13

Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.

Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER

2013-03-01

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Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Egyptian Mango (Mangifera indica L. Cultivers Grown in Suez Canal and Sinai Region Using RAPD Markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes.

Mohammed A. Hussein

2014-01-01

15

Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among Egyptian mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivers grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region using RAPD markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions) mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes. PMID:24783778

Mansour, Hassan; Mekki, Laila E; Hussein, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

16

Use of the INTERTRAN code for risk assessment of radioactive materials being transported through the Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The INTERTRAN computer code developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency was used to predict the radiological risks resulting from the transport of radioactive materials through the Suez Canal under both normal and accident conditions. Large amounts of input data were used, including the actual statistical accident rates, standard shipment data for the period 1980-1985, population density data, and meteorological dispersion parameters based on analysis of actual data from the Ismailia region during the year 1986. The results indicate that there has been a considerable increase in the transport of radioactive materials through the canal since 1980. The increase in 1984 and 1985 was 7 and 11 times that of 1980, respectively. The average collective dose per year was found to be 4.5 man·rem, which is negligible value if the high population density within the Suez Canal zone is considered. Low specific activity materials such as uranium and thorium make the most significant contribution to the total collective dose to the public. In general, of the different population subgroups involved, handlers receive more than 97% of the total dose. The radiological risks calculated from actual input data were found to be lower by a factor of 106 than those calculated from default input data. This can be attributed to the low accident probability in the Suez Canal compared with that in the open sea. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs

17

La crisis del Canal de Suez en 1956: el fin de una época en el Medio Oriente y el comienzo de otra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La crisis del Canal de Suez (o Campaña de Suez, Guerra de Suez u Operación Kadesh fue una guerra que estalla en 1956 en territorio egipcio. El conflicto que opone a Egipto a una alianza formada por Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel se produce a consecuencia de la nacionalización del Canal de Suez por el dirigente egipcio Gamal Abdel Nasser. Esta alianza entre dos estados europeos e Israel respondió a intereses comunes: económicos, comerciales y políticos. Durante el curso del mes que siguió a la nacionalización del Canal, un acuerdo secreto fue firmado en Sèvres, en las afueras de Paris, en el cual se selló la cooperación militar de Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel contra Egipto.

Efraim Davidi

2006-06-01

18

GC estimation of organic hydrocarbons that threaten shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil and groundwater contamination is one of the important environmental problems at petroleum-related sites, which causes critical environmental and health defects. Severe petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from coastal refinery plant was detected in a shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer is bordered by Gulf in the Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The overall objective of this investigation is to estimate the organic hydrocarbons in shallow sandy aquifers, released from continuous major point-source of pollution over a long period of time (91 years ago). This oil refinery contamination resulted mainly in the improper disposal of hydrocarbons and produced water releases caused by equipment failures, vandalism, and accidents that caused direct groundwater pollution or discharge into the gulf. In order to determine the fate of hydrocarbons, detailed field investigations were made to provide intensive deep profile information. Eight composite randomly sediment samples from a test plot were selected for demonstration. The tested plot was 50 m long?×?50 m wide?×?70 cm deep. Sediment samples were collected using an American auger around the point 29° 57' 33? N and 32° 30' 40? E in 2012 and covered an area of 2,500 m(2) which represents nearly 1/15 of total plant area (the total area of the plant is approximately 3.250 km(2)). The detected total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were 2.44, 2.62, 4.54, 4.78, 2.83, 3.22, 2.56, and 3.13 wt%, respectively. TPH was calculated by differences in weight and subjected to gas chromatography (GC). Hydrocarbons were analyzed on Hewlett-Packard (HP-7890 plus) gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). The percentage of paraffine of the investigated TPH samples was 7.33, 7.24, 7.58, 8.25, 10.25, 9.89, 14.77, and 17.53 wt%, respectively. PMID:25052330

Zawrah, M F; Ebiad, M A; Rashad, A M; El-Sayed, E; Snousy, Moustafa Gamal; Tantawy, M A

2014-11-01

19

Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations; a secondary purpose has been to evaluate the applicability of current wind resource estimation and siting tools – in particular the European Wind Atlas methodology – to this region where the meso-scale effects are pronounced and the climatic conditions (e.g. atmospheric stability) somewhat extreme. The wind data are analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Meso-scale Model (KAMM) has been used to model the wind flow as well as to establish the magnitude and spatial variation of the wind resource in the Gulf of Suez – based on the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data set. Results are compared to long-term measurements of wind speed and direction at 13 meteorological stations along a 250-km stretch of the Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea. The simulations of the wind climate in the Gulf of Suez with the KAMM meso-scale model capture the main features of the complicated flow patterns and of the observed wind climates; however, the mean wind speeds and power densities are somewhat underestimated. The wind resource is found to be very high in the Gulf of Suez – with capacity factors of up to about 70% – at the same time the horizontal gradients of wind speed and power density are quite steep. The combination of meso- and micro-scale flow models – here the KAMM/WAsP methodology or the Numerical Wind Atlas – seem necessary in order to make reliable wind resource assessments in all parts of the Gulf of Suez.

Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Frank, Helmut Paul

2003-01-01

20

Multiphase flowmeter successfully measures three-phase flow at extremely high gas-volume fractions -- Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) installed in offshore Egypt has accurately measured three-phase flow in extremely gassy flow conditions. The meter is completely nonintrusive, with no moving parts, requires no flow mixing before measurement, and has no bypass loop to remove gas before multiphase measurement. Flow regimes observed during the field test of this meter ranged from severe slugging to annular flow caused by the dynamics of gas-lift gas in the production stream. Average gas-volume fraction ranged from 93 to 98% during tests conducted on seven wells. The meter was installed in the Gulf of Suez on a well protector platform in the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co. (Gupco) October field, and was placed in series with a test separator located on a nearby production platform. Wells were individually tested with flow conditions ranging from 1,300 to 4,700 B/D fluid, 2.4 to 3.9 MMscf/D of gas, and water cuts from 1 to 52%. The meter is capable of measuring water cuts up to 100%. Production was routed through both the MPFM and the test separator simultaneously as wells flowed with the assistance of gas-lift gas. The MPFM measured gas and liquid rates to within {+-} 10% of test-separator reference measurement flow rates, and accomplished this at gas-volume fractions from 93 to 96%. At higher gas-volume fractions up to 98%, accuracy deteriorated but the meter continued to provide repeatable results.

Leggett, R.B.; Borling, D.C. [Amoco Egypt Oil Co., Cairo (Egypt); Powers, B.S. [Amoco Sharjah Oil Co. (United Arab Emirates); Shehata, K. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co. (Egypt); Halvorsen, M. [Fluenta A/S (Norway); AboElenain, A. [Cross-Countries (Egypt)

1998-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Application of well log analysis for source rock evaluation in the Duwi Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Several models were developed to use the conventional wireline logs for evaluating the thermal maturity of the source rock and calculating the total organic carbon (TOC) content. Application of these models for the Duwi Formation, southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt, is the main purpose of this paper. Gamma ray, density, sonic, resistivity and neutron are the commonly used wireline logs to identify and quantify source rock. The results, which compared with the results obtained from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis show that cautions must be taken into consideration when applied these models because most of the models are empirical and their validation takes place under certain conditions. It can be concluded that the Duwi Formation represents very good source rock capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbon of oil-prone type II. The kerogen is waxy sapropel related to marine plankton deposited under reduced condition.

El Sharawy, Mohamed S.; Gaafar, Gamal R.

2012-05-01

22

Geothermal studies in oilfield districts of Eastern Margin of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of geothermal studies carried out at 149 onshore oil wells have been used in evaluation of temperature gradient and heat flow values of the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez. The investigations included temperature logs in boreholes, calculation of amplitude temperature, geothermal gradients and heat flow. The results obtained indicate that geothermal gradient values are in the ranges of 0.02-0.044 °C/m and regionally averaged mean heat flow values are found to fall in the interval of 45-120 mW/m2. Temperature gradients and heat flow values change from low values eastward to high values toward the axial of Gulf of Suez rift. The result of this research work has been highly successful in identifying new geothermal resources eastward of the Gulf of Suez. Additionally, this study shows that the areas with relatively higher temperature gradients have lower oil window, mature earlier, than those with low gradient values. Thus, high temperature gradients cause to expedite the formation of oil at relatively shallow depths and narrow oil windows. On the other hand, low temperature gradient makes the oil window to be quite broad when locate at high depths.

Abdel Zaher, Mohamed; El Nuby, Mohamed; Ghamry, Essam; Mansour, Khamis; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Atef, Heba

2014-06-01

23

Petrology and geochemistry of the Tertiary Suez rift volcanism, Sinai, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tertiary basaltic rocks of Southwestern Sinai, situated along the Wadi Nukhul-Wadi Matullah-Wadi El Tayiba join, were selected to study the Gulf of Suez rift related-lavas and their geochemical and petrological relation with the rifting process. Whole rock samples were studied petrographically and analysed for major and trace elements. The samples from dykes, sills and flows from multiple magmatic events display a large variety in texture and in modal mineral compositions. They range from olivine dolerites and olivine-bearing basalts to vitrophyric, texturally heterogeneous basalts and crystal lithic tuffs. The transitional tholeiitic basalts display low compatible element concentrations and an enrichment of the whole spectrum of the incompatible elements. Major, trace and Rare Earth Element data suggest that the melts formed by 5% melting of mantle peridotite at the spinel-garnet transition zone (80-90 km depth), in the presence of 2-4% residual garnet. During the melt ascent, the fractionating phases were olivine, clinopyroxene and, to a lesser extent, plagioclase. Thermobarometric calculations indicate the presence of two crystallization levels beneath the Gulf of Suez rift: a shallower stage at 15-20 km and a deeper stage at depths of 25-30 km. The mantle source consists of streaks and blobs of enriched mantle, preserved in the geochemical signatures of these rocks. The enriched mantle sources melted preferentially compared to the surrounding ambient mantle and thus led to a preferential enrichment of the sources of the Gulf of Suez rift.

Shallaly, N. A.; Beier, C.; Haase, K. M.; Hammed, M. S.

2013-11-01

24

Structural evolution of the southern transfer zone of the Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a detailed study about the initiation and reactivations of Zeit-El Tor transfer zone, south Gulf of Suez rift, and its structural setting and tectonic evolution with respect to the Cretaceous-Cenozoic tectonic movements in North Egyptian margin. NE trending zone of opposed-dipping faults (22 km wide) has transferred the NE and SW rotations of the sub-basins in central and south Gulf of Suez rift, respectively. The evolution of this zone started by reactivation of the NE oriented late Neoproterozoic fractures that controlled the occurrence of Dokhan Volcanics in the rift shoulders. Later, the Syrian Arc contraction reactivated these fractures by a sinistral transpression during the Late Cretaceous-Eocene time. N64°E extension of the Oligo-Miocene rift reactivated the NE fractures by a sinistral transtension. During this rifting, the NE trending faults forming the transfer zone were more active than the rift-bounding faults; the Upper Cretaceous reverse faults in the blocks lying between these NE trending faults were rotated; and drape-related reverse faults and the positive flower structures were formed. Tectonic inversion from contraction to extension controlled the distribution and thickness of the Upper Cretaceous-Miocene rocks.

Abd-Allah, Ali M. A.; Abdel Aal, Mohamed H.; El-Said, Mohamed M.; Abd El-Naby, Ahmed

2014-08-01

25

Geology and habitat of oil in Ras Budran field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ras Budran structure at the deepest mappable seismic reflector, the top of the Kareem Formation (middle Miocene), is a broad northeast-southwest-trending anticlinal feature with an anomalous strike nearly at right angles to the main Gulf of Suez trend. Oil is produced from three units of Nubian Formation sandstone from a depth of 11,000-12,000 ft (3352-3657 m). The lower unit of Paleozoic age averages 10% porosity and has up to 200 md in-situ permeability. Wells completed in this unit produce up to 2000 BOPD. In contrast, the sands to the upper two units of the Early Cretaceous have 15-20% porosity and up to 700 md permeability. Wells completed in this unit produce 6000-8000 BOPD. The Ras Budran structure was formed primarily during an intra-Rudeis tectonic phase (lower Miocene). Oil migration for accumulation in the structure started in the late Miocene or Pliocene when the Santonian Brown Limestone and the Eocene Thebes Formation, the main source beds in the Gulf of Suez, reached the threshold of oil generation at a burial depth of approximately 10,000 ft (3048 m). At this depth, the organic matter in the source beds had a high transformation ratio (0.10 to 0.15), high yields of C/sub 15+/ soluble organic matter and C/sub 15+/ saturated hydrocarbons, vitrinite reflectance (R/sub 0/) of 0.62%, and a time-temperature index (TTI) value of 15. Oil migration from mature source beds in adjoining lows into low-potential Nubian reservoirs is easily explained by fault planes that acted as conduits for oil migration. 16 figures, 3 tables.

Chowdhary, L.R.; Taha, S.

1987-10-01

26

2001 August earthquake swarm at Shadwan Island, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthquake swarm that struck Shadwan Island at the entrance of the Gulf of Suez in 2001 August included 408 events. Almost all of these events (94 per cent) were microearthquakes and only 6 per cent had small measurable magnitudes (5.0 > ML >= 3.0). Most of the earthquakes were weak and followed each other so closely in time that they could not be identified at more distant stations. The fault plane solutions of the strongest events of the swarm show almost identical focal mechanisms, predominately normal faulting with a significant sinistral strike-slip component for nodal planes trending NW-SE. A comparison with the mechanisms of the 1969 and 1972 events which took place 20 km north of the swarm epicentral region shows similarities in faulting type and orientation of nodal planes. The azimuths of T-axes determined from focal mechanisms in this study are oriented in the NNE-SSW direction. This direction is consistent with the present-day stress field derived from borehole breakouts in the southern Gulf of Suez and the last phase of stress field changes in the Late Pleistocene, as well as with recent GPS results. The source parameters of the largest (ML >= 3.0) events of the 2001 August Shadwan swarm have been estimated from the P-wave spectra of the Egyptian National Seismograph Network (ENSN). Averaging of the values obtained at different stations shows relatively similar source parameters, including a fault length of 0.65 <= L <= 2 km, a seismic moment of 7.1 × 1012 <= Mo <= 3.0 × 1014 N m and a stress drop of 0.4 <= ?? <= 10 bar.

Badawy, Ahmed; Abdel-Fattah, Ali K.

2006-10-01

27

Geology and habitat of oil in Ras Budran field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deminex discovered the Ras Budran oil field in 1978. Discovery well EE 85-1 was drilled in about 140 ft of water, 4 km off the Sinai coast of the Gulf of Suez. Appraisal drilling (EE 85-2, 3, and 4 wells) confirmed the presence of a major field with an estimated 700 million bbl oil in place. The field, developed from three wellhead platforms, went on production in April 1983. To date, 20 development wells have been drilled. The Ras Budran structure at the deepest mappable seismic reflector, top Kareem (middle Miocene), is a broad northeast-southwest-trending anticlinal feature striking nearly at right angles to the main Gulf of Suez trend. At pre-Miocene producing horizons, the structure is complex and consists of a northeast-dipping flank (14-15) broken into several blocks by faults and limited to the south and west by major bounding faults. Oil is produced from three units of Nubian sandstone at a depth of 11,000 to 12,000 ft. The lower unit of Paleozoic age averages 10% porosity and up to 200 md in -situ permeability. The wells completed in this unit produce up to 2000 BOPD. In contrast, the sands of the upper two units of Lower Cretaceous age have a 15-20% porosity and up to 700 md permeability. The wells completed in these units produce 6000-8000 BOPD. The Ras Budran structure was primarily formed during the intra-Rudeis tectonic phase (lower Miocene). Migration of oil for accumulation in Ras Budran started late in the upper Miocene or Pliocene when the Santonian Brown Limestone and the Eocene Thebes Formation, the main source beds in the Gulf, reached the threshold of oil generation at a burial depth of about 10,000 ft (3000 m). At these depths, the organic matter in the source beds have a transformation ratio (0.10 to 0.15), increased yields of C15 + soluble organic matter and C15 + saturated hydrocarbons, a vitrinite reflectance of 0.62%, and a TTI value of 15.

Chowdhary, L.R.; Taha, S.

1987-05-01

28

Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biome...

Gab-alla, Ali A-f A.

2007-01-01

29

Modeling petroleum generation and geochemistry of crude oils in Ras Budran field, northern gulf of Suez, Egypt: implications for prospectivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petroleum generation modeling of the pre-rift succession in Ras Budran Field, which is located in the northern Gulf of Suez province in Egypt, showed that the best oil prone source rocks identified are the carbonate dominated one in the Upper Cretaceous and the Middle Eocene. These source rocks contain type-II kerogen (liptinitic materials) and progressively increase in their peak of oil generation from 0.63 and 0.83 vitrinite reflectance at a depth of about 3000 meters during the early of middle Miocene age and could have charged traps during the intra Rudeis tectonic phase. Crude oil and source rock extract interrelationships display a great similarity in their geologic occurrences and biological marker distributions. The biomarker characteristics indicate a low relative abundance of oleanane index around 5% pristane/phytane ratio<1, higher C{sub 35}/C{sub 34} homohopanes>1 and higher gammacerane indices >30%, suggesting a typical marine organic matter with source rock deposition under reducing conditions, Marginally mature stage of oil generation is indicated by the relatively low sterane isomerization of C{sub 29} {alpha}{alpha}{alpha} 20S/(S+R) and C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) of about 06 and relatively low aromatic sulfur compound rations. Crude oil geochemistry and related source rock potential define genetically related oils which ware generated from marginally mature and organic-rich carbonate source rocks, most probably from the pre-rift Duwi and Thebes formations. The best oil prone for future prospectivity would be oriented west of Ras Budran Field toward the deep marine of the Gulf, where the undiscovered reserves are expected to be accumulated within the pre-rift reservoirs in the footwalls of the normal faulted blocks. (orig.)

Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)

2005-12-01

30

Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Rudies sandstone (Lower Miocene), Warda Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Miocene Rudies sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southeastern part, Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their provenance and diagenesis and their impact in reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Warda field, representing the Lower and Middle Rudies, were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rudies sandstones have an average framework composition of Q85F7.2R7.8, and 83% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Middle Rudies sandstones are only slightly more quartzose with an average framework composition of Q90F7R3 and 86% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. Rudies sandstones are mostly quartz arenite with subordinate subarkose and sublithic arenites and their bulk-rock geochemistry support the petrographic results. The modal analysis data of studied samples suggest influence of granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks. The geochemical data interpretation on the basis of discriminate function diagrams reveal the source material was deposited on a passive margin. Textural attributes possibly suggest long-distance transport of grains from the source region and indicates a cratonic or a recycled source. Tectonic setting of Rudies Formation reveals that the lower Rudies sandstones are typically rift sandstone and their deposition constrained the beginning of the faulting, while the middle Rudies sandstones were transported from the far along the rift. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

Zaid, Samir M.

2012-05-01

31

Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and reservoir quality of the sandstones of the Kareem Formation, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Middle Miocene Kareem sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their diagenesis and provenance and their impact on reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Zeit Bay Oil Field, and the East Zeit Oil Field represent the Lower Kareem (Rahmi Member) and the Upper Kareem (Shagar Member), were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rahmi sandstones have an average framework composition of Q95F3.4R1.6, and 90% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Upper Shagar sandstones are only slightly less quartzose with an average framework composition of Q76F21R3 and 82% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. The Kareem sandstones are mostly quartzarenite with subordinate subarkose and arkose. Petrographical and geochemical data of sandstones indicate that they were derived from granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks and deposited in a passive continental margin of a syn rift basin. The sandstones of the Kareem Formation show upward decrease in maturity. Petrographic study revealed that dolomite is the dominant cement and generally occurs as fine to medium rhombs pore occluding phase and locally as a grain replacive phase. Authigenic quartz occurs as small euhedral crystals, locally as large pyramidal crystals in the primary pores. Authigenic anhydrites typically occur as poikilotopic rhombs or elongate laths infilling pores but also as vein filling cement. The kaolinite is a by-product of feldspar leaching in the presence of acidic fluid produced during the maturation of organic matter in the adjacent Miocene rocks. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

Zaid, Samir M.

2013-09-01

32

Sea transport of radioactive materials in Egypt (invited paper)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the experience gained. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the Canal from 1963 to 1996 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. (author)

33

Sea transport of radioactive materials in Egypt (invited paper)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the experience gained. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the Canal from 1963 to 1996 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. (author)

El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Gomaa, M.A

1998-07-01

34

Seasonal composition and population density of zooplankton in Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated seasonally at ten sites in Lake Timsah and the adjacent, connected western lagoon in relation to the physico-chemical conditions. A total of 42 taxa (including larval stages were identified, among them 21 species of copepods, 6 rotifers, 5 cladocerans, 1 chaetognath and 1 urochordate. Copepods represented the predominant component (77.7% of the total community, followed by rotifers, molluscs, cladocerans and (9.2, 4.7 and 3.9% respectively, while other groups collectively formed about 4.5% of the total zooplankton population. Summer was the most productive season with an average count of 40 864 individuals m-3. The dominant copepod species were Paracalanus crassirostris and Oithona nana representing 28.3 and 24.3% of the total zooplankton respectively. The total zooplankton count, including copepods, and its dominant species showed significant positive correlations with temperature, pH and total phytoplankton density. However, negative correlations were detected between densities of rotifers, and salinity and dissolved oxygen.

Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny

2011-09-01

35

Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. ? 13C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of time during the burial history, where the oil kitchens are deep and thermally high that are capable for generating highly mature oil. This could enhance segregation of light hydrocarbon from the heavier oil molecules prior oil expulsion and hydrocarbon generation. These constant differences in burial history and organic matter influx specifying each area are the reason of the restricted isotopic results for each one. The deviation of oil characteristics from one environmental condition to the other reflects a mixing of those cases. This clear evidence of 13C isotopic signature implies easier specification of oil origin that could be used in other locations

36

Egypt & Financial Crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

Mansour, Tamer Abdel-aziz

2011-01-01

37

Palynology, palynofacies and petroleum potential of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynological, palynofacies and organic geochemical results of 46 samples retrieved from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt are presented. The two latter formations are not dated palynologically as their lithology is not promising for palynological yield. However the Matulla Formation is dated as Turonian-Santonian age, based on the combined evidence of pollen and dinocysts. Palynofacies analysis carried out under both transmitted and fluorescent microscopy indicated that both the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations are deposited under a distal suboxic-anoxic environment. On the other hand, the Turonian-Santonian Matulla Formation supported the existence of a marginal marine deposition under dysoxic-anoxic basin to proximal suboxic-anoxic shelf environments. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and TOC results indicated that most of the studied formations are thermally immature to marginally mature and have a good petroleum potential. They are organically-rich in both oil- and gas-prone kerogen Type-II and II/III, deposited under marine reducing conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Abo Ghonaim, A. A.; Mostafa, A. R.; El Atfy, H.

2014-07-01

38

Maastrichtian-Early Eocene litho-biostratigraphy and palægeography of the northern Gulf of Suez region, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene sediments on both sides of the northern Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into eight formal formations (including one group) and one informal formation that are described in detail. These lithostratigraphic units reflect three different environmental regimes of deposition or non-deposition. The first regime is characterised by uplift and erosion or non-deposition resulting mostly from the uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba structure, a branch of the Syrian Arc Foldbelt. The shallow water carbonate platform and slope deposits of the Late Campanian-Maastrichtian St Anthony Formation and the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Southern Galala and Garra Formations represent the second regime and are found north and south of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba High. The third regime is represented by basinal chalks, marls and shales of the Maastrichtian Sudr Formation and of the Paleocene-Eocene Dakhla, Tarawan and Esna Formations, the Dakhla/Tarawan/Esna informal formation and the Thebes Group. The distribution and lateral interfingering of the above mentioned environmental regimes reflect different vertical movements, changing basin morphology, sea level changes and progradation of shallow water sediments and is illustrated on 11 palæogeographic maps.

Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.

2001-02-01

39

Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f0) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A0) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest

40

Kinematics of the oblique faults in the east central Gulf of Suez Rift, Wadi Araba, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Oligo-Miocene Gulf of Suez rift is characterized by four fault trends; a rift-parallel trend, two trends oblique to the rift trend and a cross trend. The rift-parallel trend strikes 310o to 340o and is referred to as the Clysmic trend. The two trends, which are oblique to the Clysmic trend, strike 350o to 030o and 280o to 310o; the first has been referred to as the north-oblique (N-oblique), and the second as the northwest-oblique (NW-oblique). The cross trend includes faults nearly orthogonal to the Clysmic trend i.e. they strike between 050o and 075o. Image interpretation and detailed field mapping and structural studies at a scale of 1: 20,000 of the Wadi Araba area in southwest Sinai Peninsula indicate e Clysmic faults are mostly normal showing major dip-slip movements. The oblique faults were found to be younger than the Clysmic faults and that the N-oblique faults are characterized by major sinistral strike-slip movement, while the NW-oblique faults are characterized by major dextral strike-slip movement. Cross cutting relationship, geometry and palaeostress analysis indicate that the oblique faults are conjugate Riedel shears originated due to NE to NNE extension related to the Aqaba-Levant transform that has been active since the Middle Miocene.

Abdeen, Mamdouh; Abdelmaksoud, Ashraf

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Geophysical Constraints on the Hydrogeologic and Structural Settings of the Gulf of Suez Rift-Related Basins: Case Study from the El Qaa Plain, Sinai, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater has been identified as one of the major freshwater sources that can potentially meet the growing demands of Egypt's population. Gravity data (from 381 ground gravity stations) were collected, processed, and analyzed together with the available aeromagnetic (800 line-km) data to investigate the hydrogeologic and structural settings, areal distribution, geometry, and water storage of the aquifers in El Qaa coastal plain in the southwest Sinai Peninsula, and to assess their longevity given projected extraction rates. Findings include (1) complete Bouguer anomaly and total magnetic intensity maps show two connected sub-basins separated by a narrow saddle with an average basin length of 43 km and an average width of 12 km; (2) two-dimensional modeling of both gravity and magnetic data indicates basin fill with a maximum thickness of 3.5 km; (3) using anomalous residual gravity, the volume of water in storage was estimated at 40-56 km3; and (4) progressive increases in extraction rates over time will deplete up to 40 % of the aquifers' volume in 200-230 years and will cause the water quality to deteriorate due to seawater intrusion in 45 years. Similar geophysical exploration campaigns, if conducted over the entire coastal plains of the Red Sea and the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, could assist in the development of sound and sustainable management schemes for the freshwater resources in these areas. The adopted techniques could pave the way toward the establishment of sustainable utilization schemes for a much larger suite of similar aquifers worldwide.

Ahmed, Mohamed; Sauck, William; Sultan, Mohamed; Yan, Eugene; Soliman, Farouk; Rashed, Mohamed

2013-11-01

42

The Procedures for Transit of Ships Carrying Radioactive Materials in Regional Waters and Sea Ports of Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Egyptian Legislation related to the safe transport of radioactive materials, a license is required for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Egyptian territorial water and sea harbors of Egypt including Suez Canal. The License is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the license have been developed according to the International and Egyptian Legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive material in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive material in the Egyptian territorial water and its sea harbors including Suez Canal according to the national and international regulations

43

Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author)

44

Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author).

El-Shinawy, R.M.K. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radiation Protection Dept.

1994-07-01

45

Environmental studies on water quality of the Ismailia Canal/Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inorganic chemical water quality of the Ismailia Canal / Egypt was studies in 2003 and 2004 at seventeen different sites from the main canal between Cairo and Ismailia. Additional samples were taken from selected discharges and groundwater sources. As the Ismailia Canal is fed by water from the Nile some samples were taken from the Nile near Aswan for comparative reasons too. Water samples were analysed for sum parameters, salts, heavy metals and natural radioactivity. Especially in the Greater Cairo Area due to different uncontrolled discharges pH and conductivity changed significantly when proceeding from up to downstream sites. The water temperature increased significantly during the first 20 km. The main reason was the discharge of warm water used to cool machinery in the industrial suburb of Cairo. Iron, Zinc and Manganese were found in low concentrations. Because of dilution effects the amounts of dissolved salts were still below the German ''Trinkwasserverordnung''. A higher total organic carbon level indicated the presence of organic contaminants however. The natural radioactivity level was in the normal range. (orig.)

Stahl, Ralph [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Ramadan, Abou Bakr [Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Cairo (Egypt)

2008-08-15

46

Microcystin production in benthic mats of cyanobacteria in the Nile River and irrigation canals, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study describes for the first time the species composition and toxicity of benthic cyanobacteria forming mats on the Nile River and irrigation canal sediments in Egypt. A total of 19 species of cyanobacteria were isolated from these mats during this study. The toxicity of the extracts of these species was investigated using Artemia salina assay, mouse bioassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that all the 19 benthic species isolated from cyanobacterial mats, were toxic to A. salina. Two of these species, namely Calothrix parietina and Phormidium tenue, caused toxicity to mice with neurotoxic signs appeared within 12 h after injection. Whereas, five species showed hepatotoxic effects to mice within 6 h after injection. The results of ELISA showed that all the extracts which had hepatotoxic effects to mice, contained high levels of microcystins with concentrations ranging from 1.6 to 4.1 mg g(-1) dry weight. HPLC analysis for heptotoxic extracts revealed that these extracts contained two peaks corresponding to microcystin-YR and -LR with different proportions. This study suggests that benthic species should be considered along with planktonic species during monitoring of toxic cyanobacteria in water sources, particularly the Nile river which is the main source of drinking water in Egypt. PMID:16564062

Mohamed, Zakaria A; el-Sharouny, Hassan M; Ali, Wafaa S M

2006-04-01

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Wind farm planning at the Gulf of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wind Atlas for Egypt project is an element in a national effort to provide the best possible basis for planning of future environmentally sustainable development and utilization of wind energy resources and technology in Egypt. The present report compiles the data, information and recommendations available for planning of wind farm projects in the Gulf of Suez. (au)

Clausen, N.E.; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Clausager, I. [Hedeselskabet A/S, Viborg (Denmark); Pagh Jensen, F. [National Environmental Res., Copenhagen (Denmark); Georgy, L.; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt, (Egypt)

2004-11-01

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Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

Ehab A. Elsayed

2014-08-01

49

A new cascaded hydropower plants in El Sheikh Zayed Canal in the new valley in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the streaks of the light looming in the horizon, heralding the dawn of the 21st century and the closing of the 20th century, the whole people of the world specially the sons of Egypt are full of hopes and dreams. The south Egypt development project is translation of this concept viewed from comprehensive strategic vision embracing a number of development fields covering activities in the field of agriculture, industry, transport, communication and roads as well as social aspects services such as health and education that would drive Egypt to the horizons of the 21st century. This new projects are: Toshka, New Valley or New Delta, Sheik Zayed which will feed more than a million feddans, transforming the desert into a green carpet, turning the wheels of industries and shedding off the stiffing nightmare of the choking narrow valley. This paper presents a new idea and application to know to use the water flow from the Nasser lake after raising and pumping with certain speed according to the ground slope. A series of hydro power plants are designed on certain interested points on El Sheikh Zayed Canal to generate electrical energy which will be required to feed several projects in this new valley. The results show the comparison between these eight hydro power plants w.r.t: it's generated electrical energy water release, water contents and the head of water inside each one. Also, the study contains the mathematical models of each hydropower station and the mathematical description of each reservoir, barrages and power stations. [Spanish] Con los rayos de luz asomandose en el horizonte, anunciando el amanecer del siglo XXI y el ocaso del siglo XX, todas las personas del mundo, especialmente los hijos de Egipto, estan llenos de suenos y esperanza. El proyecto de desarrollo del sur de Egipto traduce este concepto desde una vision estrategica integral que incluye un gran numero de areas de desarrollo que abarcan actividades en el campo de la agricultura, la industria, el transporte, las comunicaciones y los caminos, asi como servicios sociales salud y educacion, los cuales dirigiran a Egipto a los horizontes del siglo XXI. Estos nuevos proyectos son los de Toshka, Nuevo Valle o Nuevo Delta y Sheikh Zayed que alimentaran mas de un millon de almas, transformando el desierto en una alfombra verde, moviendo las ruedas de las industrias y despojandose de la pesadilla de muerte sobre un asfixiante valle estrecho. Este articulo presenta una nueva idea y aplicacion para saber utilizar el flujo del agua desde el lago Nasser despues de elevar y bombear a cierta velocidad de acuerdo al declive del suelo. Una serie de plantas hidroelectricas estan disenadas en ciertos puntos de interes en el Canal El Sheikh Zayed para generar energia electrica que se necesitara para alimentar varios proyectos en este nuevo valle. Los resultados muestran la comparacion entre estas ocho plantas hidroelectricas o sea: Su generacion electrica, su liberacion de agua por energia electrica generada, almacenamiento de agua y carga hidraulica de cada una. El estudio contiene tambien modelos matematicos de cada planta hidroelectrica y la descripcion matematica de cada embalse, represas y planta electrica.

Hosny Fahmy, Faten [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

2000-07-01

50

Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Burdigalian-Serravallian sediments in Wadi Sudr (Gulf of Suez, Egypt): comparison with the Central Paratethys evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Two main Miocene facies were recorded in the Gulf of Suez area: a deep marine and a coastal facies. The analysed sections in the Wadi Sudr area belong to the marine facies. The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) is represented by coastal, shallow marine sediments, rich in coral, algae, gastropods and large pectinids followed by Langhian open marine sediments and Serravallian lagoonal carbonates. The open marine sediments contain well preserved planktonic and benthic foraminifers and abundant ostracods. The parts of the sections containing foraminifers have been correlated with three planktonic foraminiferal zones (Praeorbulina glomerosa Zone, Orbulina Zone and Globorotalia praemenardii-Globorotalia peripheroronda Zone). Two benthic ecozones were defined (Heterolepa dutemplei-Laevidentalina elegans Zone and Bolivina compressa-Elphidium spp. Zone). Two cycles of sea-level changes can be distinguished and correlated with global sea-level cycles Bur5/Lan1 and Ser1. The first (Langhian) cycle culminated in open marine sublittoral to upper bathyal well aerated sediments. The second (Serravallian) cycle was shallower, littoral suboxic sediments were overlaid by euryhaline carbonates. The studied foraminifera-bearing sediments can be correlated with the lower and Middle Badenian of the Central Paratethys. Though the area of the Gulf of Suez and the Central Paratethys were situated in different climatic zones, and influenced by different tectonic events, the main paleoenvironmental events (sea-level changes, oxygen decrease, salinity changes) are comparable. This correspondence shows that the decisive factors triggering these events were global climatic events.

Ied, Ibrahim M.; Holcová, Katarína; Abd-Elshafy, Ezzat

2011-06-01

51

Failures in American Diplomacy: The Suez Crisis,1956/// Amerikan Diplomasisinde Ba?ar?s?zl?k: Süvey? Krizi ( 1956  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In October 1956 Great Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt over control of the Suez Canal. The allies believed Egypt’s actions violated the 1888 principles regarding control and use of the waterway. The United States played a role in the mediation of the parties. It is widely believed that the Eisenhower administration’s influence prevented more conflict and stood up to the Soviet intrusion into the area. The evidence shows that this was not the case. In fact, it was American failures in diplomacy which brought about the crisis in the first place, created the pathway for Soviet adventurism into this vital area, and inevitably caused a war between the nations involved. In effect America’s interest was dedicated to damage control of the situation rather than the peaceful resolution of the issue. This essay argues that American failures were the main cause of the Suez Crisis in 1956, and was the primer for more instability and war in the region long after the Eisenhower administration had ended.

Larry Hart

2011-10-01

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Aqaba-Levant transform-related faults in the Gulf of Suez rift: The Durba-Araba fault, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gulf of Suez rift is dominated by NNW- to NW-striking “Clysmic” faults trending parallel to the rift. In addition there are NNE- and WNW-striking (oblique) faults that trend at an angle to the rift. The Durba-Araba fault (DAF) in southwestern Sinai represents one of several NNE-striking faults. It separates the Durba fault block on its NW from the Araba fault block on its SE. Detailed (1:20,000 scale) field mapping and structural studies of the DAF and the onshore area to the east of Belayim Bay (eastern margin of the central Gulf of Suez rift), indicate that the exposed part of the DAF extends for 7.5 km NNE from the mouth of Wadi Araba, at which point it bends and splays into three N- to NNW striking faults, forming a horse tail structure. The fault shows 4 km of pure sinistral strike-slip displacement. Northerly plunging fault propagation folds in the Phanerozoic rocks adjacent to the DAF accommodated the sinistral displacement. These folds are cut and displaced by the splay faults. Near its northern end, the middle splay fault affects the Pliocene El Qa'a Formation. At Gebel Qabeliat a group of en echelon left-stepping NNE- to N-striking faults overlaps the DAF generating a pull-apart (rhomb) graben, in which Pliocene and Quaternary sediments are downthrown against the Upper Miocene rocks. Kinematic indicators on most of these faults show major sinistral strike-slip movement. Palaeostress analysis of slip striae indicates sub-horizontal ENE to NNE extension, comparable to the present day stress regime. Cross-cutting relationships indicate that the NNE- to N-striking oblique faults are younger than the NW-striking Clysmic faults. These faults are probably presently active since they affect Pliocene and Quaternary sediments. It is proposed that these faults are related to the Aqaba-Levant transform that has been active since the Middle Miocene.

Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Abdelmaksoud, Ashraf S.

2014-09-01

53

Depositional framework and sequence stratigraphic aspects of the Coniacian Santonian mixed siliciclastic/carbonate Matulla sediments in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Superb outcrops of mixed siliciclastic/carbonate rocks mark the Coniacian-Santonian Matulla Formation exposed in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks, west central Sinai. They are built up of various lithofacies that reflect minor fluctuations in relative sea-level from lower intertidal to slightly deep subtidal settings. Relying on the facies characteristics and stratal geometries, the siliciclastic rocks are divided into seven depositional facies, including beach foreshore laminated sands, upper shoreface cross-bedded sandstone, lower shoreface massive bioturbated and wave-rippled sandstones, shallow subtidal siltstone and deep subtidal shale/claystone. The carbonate rocks comprise lower intertidal lime-mudstone, floatstone and dolostone, shallow subtidal skeletal shoal of oyster rudstone/bioclastic grainstone, and shoal margin packstone. Oolitic grain-ironstone and ferribands are partially intervened the facies types. Deposition has taken place under varied conditions of restricted, partly open marine circulation, low to high wave energy and normal to raised salinity during alternating periods of abundant and ceased clastic supply. The facies types are arranged into asymmetric upward-shallowing cycles that record multiple small-scale transgressive-regressive events. Lime-mudstone and sandstone normally terminate the regressive events. Four sequence boundaries marking regional relative sea-level falls divide the Matulla Formation into three stratigraphic units. These boundaries are Turonian/Coniacian, intra-Coniacian, Coniacian/Santonian and Santonian/Campanian. They do not fit with those sequence boundaries proposed in Haq et al.'s global eustatic curves (1988) except for the sea-level fall associated with the intra-Coniacian boundary. Other sequence boundaries have resulted from regional tectonic impact of the Syrian Arc Fold System that has been initiated in north Egypt during the Latest Turonian-Coniacian. These boundaries enclose three well-defined 3rd order depositional sequences; their enclosing shallowing-upward cycles (i.e. parasequences) record the 4th order relative sea-level fluctuations. 34 and 20 parasequence sets, in the order of a few meters to tens of meters thick, mark the Matulla sequences in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks respectively. Each sequence shows an initial phase of rapid sea-level rise with retrogradational sets, followed by lowering sea-level and progradation/aggradation of the parasequence sets. The transgressive deposits display predominance of deep subtidal lagoonal facies, while highstand deposits show an increase in siliciclastic and carbonate facies with the progressive decrease of lagoonal facies. The sedimentary patterns and environments suggest that the regional, partly eustatic sea-level (i.e. intra-Coniacian) changes controlled the overall architecture of the sequence distribution, whereas changes in the clastic input controlled the variations in facies associations within each depositional sequence.

El-Azabi, M. H.; El-Araby, A.

2007-04-01

54

Habitat and Plant Communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt II. Irrigation and Drainage Canal Bank Habitat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study provides quantitative analysis of the vegetation and spatial variations of environmental factors controlling the abundance and distribution of vegetation in canal and drain banks in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Five vegetation groups have been recognized: group A codominated by Arundo donax and Polygonum equisetiforme, group B codominated by Rumex dentatus and Polypogon monspeliensis, group C dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, group D codominated by Phragmites australis and Echinochloa stagnina and group E dominated by Typha domingensis. The total number of weeds recorded in the study area is 113 species belonging to 36 families. Therophytes (48.67% and geophytes (14.16% are the most frequent life-forms. The major chorotypes in the study area are Mediterranean (42.48%, Cosmpolitan (19.47%, Pantropical (13.27% and Palaeotropical (12.39%. The relationships between the vegetation gradients and edaphic factors showed that, potassium and sodium cations, potassium adsorption ratio, chlorides, sodium cation adsorption ratio, pH value and water-holding capacity are the main controlling edaphic factors.

I.A. Mashaly

2009-01-01

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Impact of human activities on Aluminum contamination in the drainage canals in the Nile Delta, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aluminum is released into Sabal drainage canal through the emissions of recycled aluminum industries, the discharge of stations of water purification that contain huge amount of aluminum sulfate (alum and the extensive use of clay in the industry of packed bricks. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of human activities on Al accumulation on water and fish consumption. The field and laboratory studies of water samples and different fish tissues (muscles, liver and ovary revealed that water samples had higher levels of Aluminum if compared to those collected from other localities. Tissue samples of the fish, Tilapia zillii had higher levels of Al which exceeded the international permissible limits. From a public health standpoint, the increased concentrations of Al in water samples and the fish tissues in the are is a matter of concern. Therefore, the research suggests the elimination of illegal aluminum industries and replace the smaller and old stations of sewage treatment by another modern type capable of collecting and treating huge amount of sewage, with high efficiency of treatment and purification.

Alne-na-ei A. A.

2013-04-01

56

Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host-parasite relationship at a molecular level. PMID:23938396

Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

2013-09-01

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Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (?3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

58

Wind Atlas for Egypt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step forward in the application of the wind atlas methodology in Egypt. Not only does it provide a coherent and consistent overview of the wind energy resource over the entire land (and sea) area of Egypt, the results of the mesoscale modelling are further available in a database (numerical wind atlas) which may be employed directly for detailed wind resource assessments and siting of wind turbines and wind farms. Utilising this database together with elevation maps derived from the Space Shuttle Topography Mission and land-use maps constructed from satellite imagery, the wind resource and likely power production of a given wind farm can be estimated in a matter of hours – anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published in a Wind Atlas for Egypt.

Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Badger, Jake

2006-01-01

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The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recru...

Claire Dupont; Perrine Ferauge; Romina Giuliano

2013-01-01

60

Prevalence of female genital cutting among Egyptian girls / Prévalence des mutilations génitales féminines chez les filles en Egypte / Prevalencia de la mutilación genital femenina entre las niñas en Egipto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El concepto de mutilación genital femenina (MGF) abarca en general las prácticas tradicionales que entrañan la ablación parcial o total de los genitales externos femeninos por razones no terapéuticas, culturales o de otro tipo. En Egipto, el resultado de la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud r [...] ealizada en 2000 reveló que un 97% de las mujeres casadas participantes en la encuesta habían sufrido MGF. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó un método de muestreo aleatorizado polietápico para seleccionar los sitios. Primero, el país se dividió en cinco zonas geográficas: área metropolitana de El Cairo, Bajo Egipto, Alto Egipto, Sinaí y región del Canal de Suez. Segundo, en cada prefectura se seleccionaron al azar dos distritos educativos (excepto Luxor). En cada uno de los distritos seleccionados, las escuelas se clasificaron en primarias, preparatorias y secundarias. En cada nivel educativo, las escuelas se clasificaron en rurales, urbanas, públicas y privadas. El número total de mujeres entrevistadas fue de 38 816. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto era del 50,3%. El porcentaje era de un 46,2% en las escuelas públicas urbanas, 9,2% en las escuelas privadas urbanas, y 61,7% en las escuelas rurales. Los niveles educativos de la madre y el padre estaban inversamente relacionados con la MGF (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Female genital cutting (FGC) is the collective name given to traditional practices that involve partial or total cutting away of the female external genitalia whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. In Egypt, the result of the Demographic Health Survey in 2000 revealed that [...] 97% of married women included in the survey experienced FGC. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt. METHODS: Multistage random technique was applied for site selection. First, Egypt was divided into five geographical areas; Greater Cairo, Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Sinai and Suez Canal Region. Second, from each governorate, two educational districts were selected randomly (except Luxor). In each of the selected districts, the schools were divided into primary, preparatory and secondary schools. In each education stage, the schools were divided into rural, urban, government and private. The total number of females interviewed was 38 816. FINDINGS: The prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt was 50.3%. The prevalence of FGC was 46.2% in government urban schools, 9.2% in private urban schools and 61.7% in rural schools. Educational levels of mother and father were negatively associated with FGC (P

Mohammed A, Tag-Eldin; Mohsen A, Gadallah; Mahmoud N, Al-Tayeb; Mostafa, Abdel-Aty; Esmat, Mansour; Mona, Sallem.

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Prevalence of female genital cutting among Egyptian girls / Prévalence des mutilations génitales féminines chez les filles en Egypte / Prevalencia de la mutilación genital femenina entre las niñas en Egipto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El concepto de mutilación genital femenina (MGF) abarca en general las prácticas tradicionales que entrañan la ablación parcial o total de los genitales externos femeninos por razones no terapéuticas, culturales o de otro tipo. En Egipto, el resultado de la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud r [...] ealizada en 2000 reveló que un 97% de las mujeres casadas participantes en la encuesta habían sufrido MGF. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó un método de muestreo aleatorizado polietápico para seleccionar los sitios. Primero, el país se dividió en cinco zonas geográficas: área metropolitana de El Cairo, Bajo Egipto, Alto Egipto, Sinaí y región del Canal de Suez. Segundo, en cada prefectura se seleccionaron al azar dos distritos educativos (excepto Luxor). En cada uno de los distritos seleccionados, las escuelas se clasificaron en primarias, preparatorias y secundarias. En cada nivel educativo, las escuelas se clasificaron en rurales, urbanas, públicas y privadas. El número total de mujeres entrevistadas fue de 38 816. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto era del 50,3%. El porcentaje era de un 46,2% en las escuelas públicas urbanas, 9,2% en las escuelas privadas urbanas, y 61,7% en las escuelas rurales. Los niveles educativos de la madre y el padre estaban inversamente relacionados con la MGF (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Female genital cutting (FGC) is the collective name given to traditional practices that involve partial or total cutting away of the female external genitalia whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. In Egypt, the result of the Demographic Health Survey in 2000 revealed that [...] 97% of married women included in the survey experienced FGC. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt. METHODS: Multistage random technique was applied for site selection. First, Egypt was divided into five geographical areas; Greater Cairo, Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Sinai and Suez Canal Region. Second, from each governorate, two educational districts were selected randomly (except Luxor). In each of the selected districts, the schools were divided into primary, preparatory and secondary schools. In each education stage, the schools were divided into rural, urban, government and private. The total number of females interviewed was 38 816. FINDINGS: The prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt was 50.3%. The prevalence of FGC was 46.2% in government urban schools, 9.2% in private urban schools and 61.7% in rural schools. Educational levels of mother and father were negatively associated with FGC (P

Mohammed A, Tag-Eldin; Mohsen A, Gadallah; Mahmoud N, Al-Tayeb; Mostafa, Abdel-Aty; Esmat, Mansour; Mona, Sallem.

62

Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

1983-01-01

63

Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

Abbas, A.M.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

1997-12-01

64

Evaluation Of The Hydraulic Connection Between The Surface Water And The Groundwater Along El-Salam Canal, North Eastern Coast, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, the interconnection between the surface water of El-Salam Canal and the shallow groundwater in the adjacent aquifer has been discussed using both the environmental isotopes and the chemical analyses of the different water bodies along the canal trajectory from Faraskour in the west to Balousa in the east. The isotopic techniques were applied to investigate this relationship and to estimate the possible contribution from various sources such as groundwater, sea water and/or irrigation water, and finally to determine the extent of mixing between El-Salam Canal and the adjacent aquifers. Since the groundwater in the area is saline (more than 10000 ppm) while the mixed canal water is mainly fresh (less than 1000 ppm), the interconnection between the canal water and surrounding shallow groundwater leads to one of the following two hydrologic processes; seepage from the canal water to the shallow groundwater which means fresh water losses or leakage from the groundwater into the surface water which means water quality deterioration The present study aims to detect the hydraulic interconnection between the two water bodies by using environmental isotope techniques as well as detailed chemical analysis. For this purpose, 31 water samples from both surface water and groundwater were collected and analyzed for 18O and 2H contents as well as 44 representative water samples were collected and analyzed for the chemical components (anionsalyzed for the chemical components (anions and cations) as a major ions and minor constituents. The distribution of the analyzed samples on the 18O vs. D diagram indicated that the samples could be classified into three genetic groups representing different sources of water. The first group reflects a contribution from evaporated rain water prior to infiltration to the groundwater, the second group represents a mixing trend between both of El-Farma drain water and El-Manzala lake water with the groundwater which have enriched isotopic values as well as high salinity due to seawater intrusion. The third group reveals also mixing between surface water and groundwater where in this case, the isotopic concentration of surface water is subjected to evaporation processes and mixing with groundwater body

65

Impact of pollination and fertilization on sesame production in the reclaimed lands, Ismailia governorate, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the sesame growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. For the purpose of studying the impact of insect pollination and nitrogen fertilization on sesame production, the experiment was divided into 13 treatments of open pollination and non open pollination with three different levels of ammonium nitrate (N and one level of seryalin as bio-fertilizer. Non open pollination treatments were covered before the start of flowering period with a perforated net bag to allow the air to pass through and to prevent insects from approaching the plants. Quantitative and qualitative parameters were measured as follows: number of capsules per plant, capsule weight, number of seeds per capsule, weight of 1000 seeds, germination rate, seedling vigour and oil content. Results clearly demonstrate that qualitative and quantitative parameters of sesame crop significantly increased with open pollination and with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level up to 95 kg N/ha plus or minus seryalin in reclaimed sandy soils in Ismailia, Egypt.

Blal Abd Elfatah H.

2012-01-01

66

Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m2, and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

67

The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recruitment and employment access, training and career development, and well-being in the workplace. These HRM practices seem important to analyse given the context in which companies will have to evolve: ageing of the population, risks of labour shortage, or the war for talent. Our results imply that CSR has a positive influence on employees’ advocacy role (Ulrich & Brockbank, 2005 because the Group integrates concerns regarding equal treatment, health and safety, and diversity. We also believe that GDF SUEZ Group desires to develop its brand further by presenting itself as a responsible employer to harvest the benefits that flow from that label.

Claire Dupont

2013-11-01

68

Wind energy in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Early 1980's, the Egyptian Ministry of Electricity and Energy has formulated its national strategy in the field of New and Renewable Sources of Energy (NRSE) as an integral part of its global energy strategy. The strategy targeted to supply 5% of the country's total primary needs, from NRSE by the year 2005. The Priority has been given to Wind, Solar and Biomass. Wind Energy utilisation was promoted to occupy the top of NRSE priorities. This fact was a result of the national wind resource assessment programme based upon 65 measuring stations, which proved the abundant wind Energy potential at the western coast of the Gulf of Suez, the reaches 20000 MW. Moreover the north coast of Egypt, South Sinai enjoys appropriate resources, East Oweinat and Gelf Ridge enjoy a high potential that can reach 80000 MW. The Red Sea Coast at Zafarana was selected for establishment of large scale Wind farms. The ambitious Egyptian programme was set up and includes the establishment of a large scale wind farm in Zafarana of a capacity of 600 MW by year 2005, to be build in successive phases with each phase having 60 MW capacity. New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) planed that 300 MW shall be financed by the state budget, while the private sector, local and foreign investors, are encouraged to finance the other 300 MW based on Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) system. (orig.)

Ashour Abdel Salam Moussa [New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA), Cairo (Egypt)

2000-08-01

69

Spotlight: Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the second most populous country in Africa, with 65.5 million people living in a land area of 384,344 square miles as of mid-1998. There were 28 births and 6 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 63 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 2.2% annually. The average Egyptian woman has 3.6 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy is 65 years for men and 69 years for women. Egypt has major issues to address with regard to the management and use of its water resources, balancing the protection and use of rural lands, and expanding industry while protecting the air, water, and land. Much of Egypt's water is polluted and its soil damaged and depleted due to irrigation-related salinization. With Cairo and Alexandria already densely populated, the proportion of Egypt's population expected to live in urban areas should exceed 60% by 2025. Almost all of Egypt's population lives along the banks of the Nile and its delta, almost all of the country's agricultural production occurs on 5% of that land, and less than 1% of the land is protected. Population momentum will cause Egypt's population to grow a projected 51% by 2025 even though 47% of married women use some form of contraception. 51% of Egyptian adults are literate and tense relations with Israel influence Egypt's public expenditures and foreign assistance. PMID:12348893

1998-12-01

70

Gas industry development in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m3. According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m3, placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption syptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range of economic and political measures, are seeking to favour natural gas exports to restore the balance of payments in the hydrocarbons sector and to establish the position of Egypt as a gas supply hub for the Middle East. Hence, to guarantee a market for Egyptian gas, the main foreign operators present in Egypt have proposed the following export projects: Agip is promoting the idea of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Israel; BP Amoco has submitted a bid for the construction of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan; British Gas has recently been authorized to set up the Egypt LNG company, in partnership with an Egyptian company, to sell the gas produced on offshore fields discovered in early 1999 off the Western Delta, probably in the form of LNG; Shell intends to submit a similar request. (authors)

71

Tectonic model of Egypt based on magnetic analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The main target of this work was to study the dynamics of the Earth’s crust for Egypt based on the magnetic survey. High-resolution land magnetic data were analyzed, combined with the results of GPS and seismic stress analyses. The constructed tectonic map shows that the N35°-N45°W trend of the structure (related to the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez tectonics) predominates along the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, covering wide parts of the study area. The N45°-N65°E tectonic trend (related to the Syrian Arc tectonics), prevailing in the northern part of Egypt, is of the second rank. The Aqaba (N15°-25°E) and E-W trends prevail in the northern part and along the transition zone of stable/unstable shelves. The depth to the basement rocks ranges from the surface along the Red Sea and southern parts of Egypt to more than 4 km below sea level at the northern part of the study area. The results also show that the opening rate along the Red Sea was faster in the past than nowadays. Furthermore, a preliminary kinematics model is proposed.

Rabeh, Taha; Ernst, Tomasz

2009-09-01

72

Offensive strategy: Suez wants to hustle EdF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using Electrabel, its new energy pole, the private company Suez is looking for multiple ways of entry to reinforce its positions in France in the gas and electric power sectors in the prospect of the complete opening of energy markets in 2004. This article analyzes the strategy of Suez to become the most credible challenger of EdF, the French historical national electric utility: reorganization of its industrial and commercial activities, gain of new clients and definition of a new strategy for the gas market. (J.S.)

73

Threats and control of the brown necked ravens (Corvus ruficollis) in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Suez Canal region is a small fertile area in Egypt that is placed under enormous pressure of existing resources. In these areas, intensive agricultural practices are performed in combination with high population densities. The described problem is that together with agricultural practices and urbanization, Brown necked ravens (Corvus ruficollis) are in huge amounts attracted. The birds are very aggressive and showed to be a serious pest. They spread germs and diseases for human health and food production. Therefore, the birds need to be controlled. Our research focuses on identifying food preferences of raven and on the way raven control is most effective. Ravens are omnivorous birds. From our laboratory study it was seen that most preferable foods were, in descending order: fresh fishes, cow liver, crustacean, watermelons, tomatoes and yoghurt. Under field conditions where stomach content was dissected, animal matters showed to a more preferred food source than plant matters. Observations on olfactory sensitivity showed that ravens could easily locate their food. Biological observations in the field on reproduction of ravens showed that raven females lay two to six eggs. Average number of babies per nest was between one and four. Average number of raven flock before sun rise was more than 100, while it was less than 100 before sun set. The impact of mechanical, biological and chemical control was investigated. Without control, approximately flock numbers of more than 100 ravens were recorded. The average number of raven flock was 60 before mechanical control operation (nests destroyed and using net), while it was 40 after mechanical control. Results of the biological control showed that kestrel (Falco tinnunculus rupicolaeformes) predated raven babies more effective than barn owls (Tyto alba). Within the chemical control experiments, Brodifacoum (0.0005%) was most effective against ravens, followed by Zink phosphide (19%) and Methomyl (90%, carbamate compound). PMID:18399444

El-Bahrawy, Awad A F; Vijver, Martina G; De Snoo, Geert R

2007-01-01

74

Realizm in the International Relations in the Example of French Invasion of Egypt //// M?s?r'?n Frans?zlar Taraf?ndan ??gali Örne?inde Uluslarras? ?li?kilerde Realizm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Osmanl? (Ottoman State struggled for its very existenceagainst the imperialist powers’ partition plans, particularly, in thenineteenth century. The imperialist competition of the Europeanpowers on Egypt influenced on the Osmanl? rulers’ internationalpolicies. Egypt was an important place in the region andinternational relations from the ancient to the modern periods. Theopening of the Suez Canal increased this geo-political significancefurther, which fuelled the confrontation among the Europeanpowers. The Osmanl? rulers’ policies regarding on Egypt wereadapted to the internal and external developments.Egypt’s proximity to the French colonies in the north andcentral African countries were important for France as well as forGreat Britain. Egypt shortened the way to India and South EastAsian colonies, which made Egypt a focal point for France, Russiaand Britain. European power struggles in Europe and other partsof the world were reflected in their Egyptian policies and itsimmediate region. The Osmanl? authorities were well aware of thefact that the Armed forces could not be able to deal with all theseimperialist powers at a time. Therefore, policies were finely tuned‘balanced policies’ one to another between the imperialist powers’expectations and confrontations. Egypt with its all specialities wasperfectly used for the policies of the Osmanl? State and others.This study discusses the confrontation and power strugglesof the imperialist powers for Egypt, and how the Osmanl? Stateresponded to such policies. What kinds of roles Egypt played in thecreation of the Osmanl? policies towards the European powers?What would be beneficial outcome of such policies for the Osmanl?State and Egypt? The study highlighted that how an internalmatter can be an international issue to determine the influential powers’ policies. How international interests creates internationalconflicts and alliances as in the examples at the beginning of thenineteenth century in Egypt. //// Osmanl? Devleti özellikle 19ncu yüzy?lda emperyalistgüçlerin bölme planlar?na kars? hayatta kalma mücadelesivermistir. Avrupal? Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerindeki yar?slar?Osmanl? yönetiminin uluslararas? politikalar?n? etkilemistir. M?s?r,Eskiça?’dan günümüze bölgede ve uluslararas? iliskilerde önemlibir yere sahiptir. Süveys kanal?n?n aç?lmas? M?s?r’?n jeopolitikönemini art?r?rken Avrupal? güçlerin aralar?ndaki mücadeleleri deateslemistir. Osmanl?’n?n M?s?r ile ilgili politikalar? da içte ved?sar?da meydana gelen yeni gelismelere göre sürekli uyarlanm?st?r.M?s?r’?n Kuzey ve Orta Afrika’daki Frans?z kolonilerine olanyak?nl??? Fransa için önemli oldu?u kadar Büyük Britanya için dehayatidir. M?s?r’?n Hindistan ve Güney Do?u Asya ülkelerindekisömürgelere giden yolu k?saltmas? Fransa, Rusya ve ?ngiltere içinönemli bir ilgi oda?? haline gelmesine sebep olmustur. Avrupal?güçlerin Avrupa ve dünyan?n di?er bölgelerindeki mücadeleleriM?s?r politikalar?nda yans?maktad?r. Osmanl? eskisi gibi silahl?kuvvetlerinin emperyalist güçlere kars? ayn? anda mukabeleedemeyece?i gerçe?inin fark?ndad?r. Bu yüzden oldukça hassasayarlar gerektiren “denge politikalar?” Emperyalist güçlerinbeklentileri ve çat?smalar? dikkate al?narak ayarlanm?st?r. BöyleceM?s?r kendine has bütün özellikleriyle Osmanl? Devleti’nin özel vegenel ç?karlar? için de?erlendirilmistir.Bu çal?sma, Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerinde güçmücadeleleri ve çat?smalar?n? ele al?rken Osmanl? Devleti’nin bupolitikalara nas?l cevap verdi?ini incelemektedir. Avrupal? güçlerekars? Osmanl? politikalar?nda M?s?r nas?l bir rol oynam?st?r? Bupolitikalar?n Osmanl? Devleti ve M?s?r için olumlu sonuçlar? nelerolmustur? Çal?smada, bir iç meselenin etkili güçlerinmüdahaleleriyle nas?l bir uluslararas? konu haline getirildi?i vepolitikalar? etkiledi?i gösterilmektedir. Uluslararas? ç?karlar

Halil Erdemir

2009-12-01

75

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male and S. mucronata (both sexes. They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif

2009-01-01

76

Eternal Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Available in English, French, and Arabic, Eternal Egypt is a website with a wealth of information on "the artifacts, characters, and places that together comprise the wonder that is Eternal Egypt." The website is organized so visitors can choose between a guided tour, begin with one of the cultural highlights (such as The Temple of Luxor or Part of a Wall of a Tomb), or simply explore and discover. A key feature of the website is the context provided in relation to various topics, so that a visitor can learn about the artifacts, but also how they connect to other people, places and artifacts, and where they fit in terms of an overall timeline and on a multimedia map of Egypt. Topics include: Arts and Crafts (Libraries, Architecture, Paintings and Relief, Sculpture, Humanities, Crafts), Science (Archaeology, Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine, Social Science, Engineering), Agriculture (Irrigation, Herding, Farming, Crops), Commerce and Trade (Transportation), Government (Leaders, Seats of Power, Theocracy, Military), and Society and Culture (Family, Food and Drinks, Clothing, Sports and Entertainment, Religion and Spirituality).

77

Ancient Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on its superb collection of materials from archaeological excavations, the British Museum presents this extensive learning resource on Ancient Egypt. The site features texts, images, and interactive elements detailing Egyptian daily life, mythology, timekeeping, geography, architecture, governance, business, writing, and rituals of death. The material is clearly and simply written so that the site would be useful for primary school students, but it is informative and substantial enough to be of interest to college students and curious adults as well. Thoroughly hyperlinked and replete with images that can be enlarged for detailed perusal, the site goes beyond the typical teaser Websites so often posted by lesser museums.

78

The merging of Suez and 'Gaz de France'; Fusion de Suez et Gaz de France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The merging of 'Gaz de France' and Suez has been approved by the shareholders on the 16 july 2008, and the decree for the privatization of 'Gaz de France' has been published to the 'Journal Officiel'. The French state will hold 35.6% of the capital of the new group GDF-Suez. The board of directors will be composed of 24 members: 7 officials from the state, 1 representative of the share-holding staff, 3 representatives of the elected employees and 13 members named by the general assembly of the shareholders. This group, which is officially born on the 22. of july 2008, is the fourth bigger group worldwide in the domain of energy. (A.C.)

Anon

2008-07-15

79

The present-day stress field in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present-day stress field has been investigated by the analysis of the directions of maximum horizontal stress (ó 1 inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts in Egypt. The results indicate that strike-slip and normal faulting movements characterize the majority of the earthquake focal mechanisms; only a few events are of reverse faulting type. The analysis of 35 mechanisms suggests that the present-day stress field in Southern Egypt is dominated by a strike-slip stress regime (SS and it is mainly transtensional (NS: normal faulting with strike-slip component in Northern Egypt. The orientation of P-axes reflects that the maximum horizontal stress (ó 1 in Southern Egypt is uniform and aligned to nearly E-W direction while in Northern Egypt it is aligned with an even mix of NW-SE and nearly E-W compression. Along the Gulf of Aqaba, the southern part of the Dead Sea Fault (DSF, the focal mechanism solutions indicate that the maximum horizontal stress is presently oriented NW-SE, corresponding to a strike-slip mechanism in concert with geological evidence. More detailed investigations have been performed for the Gulf of Suez. We compare our results to the near-surface stress measurements from borehole breakouts to see if there is a change in orientations with depth. Shallow stress directions derived from borehole breakouts are not consistent with the deep stress directions derived from earthquakes focal mechanisms. About 73% of 30 borehole breakouts measurements indicate NW-SE alignment of the maximum horizontal stress and 27% are ENE-WSW. The direction of ó 1 inferred from the focal mechanism solutions is changing from NE-SW to ENE-WSW. Therefore, at least in this area, the stress direction is not constant throughout the crust.

A. Badawy

2001-06-01

80

Life in Egypt!  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the difference between life in the United States and life in Egypt? Use this fact chart to record your findings! Where is Egypt? Sightseeing in Egypt Use this time to record your findings in the "places" section of your fact chart and complete any other section you can with the information you have learned! Facts about Egypt Language (with audio) A Day in the Life Use this time to record your findings in the "people" section of your fact chart and complete ...

Pendleton, Ms.

2011-04-07

 
 
 
 
81

Gravity and magnetotelluric investigations to elicit the origin of Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a clear correlation between the principal areas of current geothermal development and the seismically active boundaries of the moving segments of lithosphere defined by the plate tectonic models of the Earth. The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of African continent suggests that the most important areas for geothermal exploration are in the region where a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures was located around the Gulf of Suez. Gravity and magnetotelluric surveys were made in the area of Hammam Faraun hot spring, which represents the most promising area for geothermal development in Egypt. These surveys were carried out for the purpose of eliciting the origin of Hammam Faraun hot spring. The results of the analyses and interpretations of these data show that the heat source of the hot spring is due to uplift of hot basement rock. This uplift may cause deep circulation and heating of the undergroundwater.

Abdelzaher, Mohamed; Nishijima, Jun; El-Qady, Gad; Aboud, Essam; Masoud, Osama; Soliman, Mamdoh; Ehara, Sachio

2011-06-01

82

75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.  

Science.gov (United States)

...EA-372] Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA...applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada...GSEMNA for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

2010-09-23

83

Development of the Qattara Project, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The River Nile, as a huge source of cheap hydroelectric energy, was fully exploited in Egypt upstream of Aswan in 1968 by the construction of the famous Aswan and High Dam Hydroelectric Complex. The growth of demand for electrical power is such that an additional large source of energy is required. The Qattara Project would offer not only an ideal source of low cost power production, but a vital boost for Egypt's national economy. The fundamental idea of the scheme is to channel Mediterranean Sea water into the Qattara Depression, using the difference in levels to produce hydroelectric power. The rate of discharge of sea water into the depression should be equivalent to the rate of evaporation from the lake surface. This situation will arise ten years after starting to fill the lake, when the water has reached a level of 60 m below sea level. The possibility of using PNE to excavate a Mediterranean Sea - Qattara Depression canal was first postulated by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Establishment in 1971. In 1973 a pre-feasibility study was prepared, based on preliminary site investigations performed during the period 1964-1965, namely geological and cartographic surveys, as well as on comparative economic evaluation of various solutions. The study showed clearly that the project including both base-load and peak-load hydroelectric power stations and using nuclear excavation of a canal between the sea and the depression offers a competitive solution for cheap power production. A subsequent feasibility study, which was started in 1975, investigates alternative ways of constructing the canal/tunnel system, using conventional tunnelling and PNE. For the nuclear solution, two cases are considered, one using unlimited yields and another with 150 kt maximum yield. A preliminary assessment of the effects of the explosion and costs of the nuclear component of the project are given. (author)

84

Tectonic Interpretation of Geomagnetic Data In Northern Sinai , Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed land magnetic survey was carried out across the northern part of the Sinai Peninsula in 1999 and 2000 as well aeromagnetic measurements from 1988 to 1990. Based on this data of magnetic total intensity, an intense study was done to identify the main tectonic trends and the basement depth in the area 3000S-3115S N lati- tude and 3300S-3433S E longitude. The main objective of the investigation was to obtain additional information on the tectonic conditions at the Sinai subplate bound- ary and to compare it with results obtained by other disciplines in that region. Several analysis techniques have been applied to the RTP magnetic data: Spectral analysis technique, Euler deconvolution method, Werner deconvolution method, 2-D magnetic modelling, Analytical signal method as well as the downward continuation technique. The analyses reveal that the most prevailing trend affecting the area is N35-45W, which reflects the orientation of the Gulf of Suez - and the Read Sea fault system. Secondly, a N45-65E trend is identified, which obviously represents the intraplate fold belt of the 'Syrian Arc' (Moustafa and Kalil, 1990), which extends from Syria in the North to the Western Desert of Egypt in the South, crossing the study area. An- other E-W orientation of magnetic anomaly pattern is observed as well. The basement depths range between 1.9 km 3.5 km, the bigger depth appearing in the northeastern part of the area under investigation, whereas the low depths belong to the W and S of the survey region. This may be due to the compressional forces originating from the opening of the Gulf of Suez. The depths of the intrusions range between 0.1 km and 0.4 km.

Rabeh, T. T.; Duma, G.

85

Gas industry development in Egypt; L'essor de l'industrie gaziere en Egypte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m{sup 3}. According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m{sup 3}, placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m{sup 3} per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m{sup 3} per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range of economic and political measures, are seeking to favour natural gas exports to restore the balance of payments in the hydrocarbons sector and to establish the position of Egypt as a gas supply hub for the Middle East. Hence, to guarantee a market for Egyptian gas, the main foreign operators present in Egypt have proposed the following export projects: Agip is promoting the idea of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Israel; BP Amoco has submitted a bid for the construction of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan; British Gas has recently been authorized to set up the Egypt LNG company, in partnership with an Egyptian company, to sell the gas produced on offshore fields discovered in early 1999 off the Western Delta, probably in the form of LNG; Shell intends to submit a similar request. (authors)

Roze, J.; Longueville, P. [Gaz de France (GDF), Dir. du Developpment Internationale, 75 - Paris (France)

2000-07-01

86

Five offshore wind farms by EDF, GDF Suez and Iberdrola. France; Vijf offshore windparken door EDF, GDF Suez en Iberdrola. Frankrijk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five offshore wind farms are planned to be built off the Northwest coast of France. On 11 January 2012, three international consortia, led by the French businesses EDF EN (Energie Nouvelles), GDF Suez and the Spanish business Iberdrola, submitted their project proposals to this end. The French government highly values the contribution that offshore wind farms can make to the development of a new industrial sector. This would bring highly needed benefits to the French economy [Dutch] Voor de Noordwest-kust van Frankrijk moeten vijf offshore windparken komen. Op 11 januari 2012 hebben drie internationale consortia onder leiding van de Franse bedrijven EDF EN (Energies Nouvelles), GDF Suez en het Spaanse Iberdrola hun projectvoorstellen hiervoor ingediend. De Franse regering hecht veel waarde aan de bijdrage die offshore windparken kunnen leveren aan de ontwikkeling van een nieuwe industriele sector. De Franse economie zou dit goed kunnen gebruiken.

Polo-Leemreis, J. [TWA Netwerk, Paris (France)

2012-02-15

87

Egypt Daily.com  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of the World News network, Egypt Daily.com provides a wealth of links to frequently updated news stories dealing primarily with Egypt. From the homepage, users can click on any number of recent items gathered from a variety of different sources, including the BBC, ABC News, Arabic News, and CNN. The archive of news items stretches back several weeks, and news items are also arranged thematically into sections dealing with the economy, tourism, and technology on the site's main page. The site also features a number of helpful links, such as those leading to English-language news resources for the Arabic-speaking world and to online newspapers in Arabic. The site is rounded out by a list of online travel guides for those seeking to plan a trip to Egypt or other parts of North Africa.

88

Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

Kozma, Chahira

2006-02-15

89

Energy - threat on the nuclear future of GDF-Suez; Energie - menace sur l'avenir nucleaire de GDF SUEZ  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Belgian decision to phase out nuclear, and the Fukushima accident put the nuclear strategy of GDF-Suez into question again. The company is still involved in nuclear programs in Brazil, and in the United Kingdom, but is kept out of nuclear developments in France. This means that the group will have to rely on hydroelectricity, wind energy and gas, notably by building gas power station

Dupin, L.

2011-11-10

90

Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accumulations of oil were first known in Egypt since 1968, some ten years after the famous Drake well in Pennsylvania in August 1859. These oil accumulation were found as seepages in tunnels dug for extracting sulphur in the area of Gemsa on the West coast of the Gulf of Suez. Since that time exploration activites were conducted on and off throughout a long history of operations which witnessed the use of the latest developments in exploration tools and techniques. So far, the main oil province in Egypt is the Gulf of Suez Basin, where the bulk of oil reserve have been found. Other hydrocarbon provinces are the Nile Delta Basin, the Abu Gharadig Basin and the Alamein ridge, both in the Western Desert. Three important gas discoveries were made in the Nile Delta Basin two of which are offshore, in addition to other so for non commercial gas finds. In addition to the known oil and gas discoveries the exploration activities throughout that long period contributed volumenous geological and geophysical material and data which added appreciably to the geology of Egypt at large, and in particular to the petroleum geology of the country. The Gulf of Suez oil province displayed very favourable conditions for the generation and trapping of hydrocarbons in Miocene and Pre-Miocene pools though at the same time it displayed very complicated geological setting which renders the exploration work a difficult task. The Nile Delta Basin, on the otherhand, is a relatively very recently explored area. Accordingly, extensive exploration work is still needed in order to evaluate the hydrocarbon possibilities of that basin. So for, gas has been discovered at a number of locations in lower Pliocene-Miocene pools. Whether future work would prove that oil generation took place remains to be seen. The Western Desert did not yet display the required response with regards to the exploration work conducted till now. To date, only few small discoveries have been made with oil and gas pools mainly vvithin the Upper and Lower Cretaceous. Recent advances in seismic techniques are helping in locating deeper structures, which might prove instrumental in the upgrading of the oil possibilites of the region. At present, the exploration activities are going on in the different oil and gas provinces in Egypt. These activilles are expected to increase and are also expected to expand to new areas in the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez Basin, offshore and onland, in Northern Sinai and in the Offshore Mediterranean. These new areas are believed to house very good prospects which will be tested not before long. It is also hoped that progress in seismic tools and techniques will add to the possibilities of finding more oil and gas. On connaît des accumulations d'huiles depuis 1868, quelque 10 ans après le célèbre puits de Drake en Pennsylvanie (août 1859. Ces accumulations ont été trouvées comme des suintements dans des tunnels forés pour l'extraction du soufre dans la région de Gemsa sur la côte ouest du golfe de Suez. Depuis cette époque, les activités d'exploration se sont poursuivies à travers une longue histoire d'opérations qui témoignaient des derniers développement dans les outils et les techniques. Jusqu'à maintenant, la principale province à huile d'Egypte est le bassin du golfe de Suez où la majorité des réserves ont été trouvées. D'autres provinces à hydrocarbures sont le bassin du delta du Nil, celui d'Abu Garadig et la ride d'El Alamein, les deux derniers situés dans le désert occidental. Il y a eu trois importantes découvertes de gaz dans le delta du Nil, dont deux en mer, en plus de quelques indices de gaz encore non commerciaux. Outre les découvertes mentionnées, les activités d'exploration au cours de cette longue période ont apporté une masse d'informations géologiques et géophysiques qui ont contribué largement à la connaissance géologique de l'Egypte, et en particulier à la géologie pétrolière. La province du golfe de Suez réunissait des conditions très favorables à la formation et

El Ayouti M. K.

2006-10-01

91

Structural set-up of Southern Sinai and Gulf of Suez areas indicated by geophysical data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work deals with the evaluation of the structural set-up of the southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez and western part of Gulf of Suez from magnetic, gravity, and seismic data. The utilised techniques including the Least Squares separation method suggest NW, NE, and E-W trends. The trend analysis shows north 35°-45° west, north 15°-25° east and E-W which may be related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea stresses.The Euler deconvolution illustrates that the area is highly affected by these trends. Depths range from 1 km to more than 3 km below sea level and its magnetic susceptibility ranges between 1 to 3 SI units. The 2.5D magnetic modelling and analytical signal techniques confirm the depths to the magnetic sources deduced by the Euler method, whereas the depth to the basement rocks ranges between 0 km to about 3 km indicating that it is subjected to strong tectonic activities. In addition, two seismic sections (EG-31 and MP-70, compiled by the Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation (EGPC, were interpreted together with a geologic cross section. The studied area may be divided into several major blocks along the Gulf of Suez area. It can be concluded that the sedimentary was affected by basement tectonics as revealed by the two seismic sections.

T. Rabeh

2003-06-01

92

Relative location and source mechanism of inland earthquakes in Northern Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

We have relocated 259 inland earthquakes in northern Egypt using the double-difference hypocenter technique. Among this dataset we are able to determine source mechanisms of 200 events using P-wave polarities and amplitude ratios as well. The studied earthquakes have been recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network from October 1997 to December 2006 with local magnitude (ML) varies between 1.5 and 5.0. Three earthquake dislocations have been defined namely: Dahshour, southeast Beni-Suef, and Cairo-Suez district. Earthquake activities tend to occur in clusters along the first dislocation (Dahshour) however, relatively scattered along the second (southeast Beni-Suef) and the third (Cairo-Suez district) dislocations. At Dahshour dislocation three distinct clusters have been distinguished. Source mechanism solutions of Dahshour earthquakes displayed normal faulting with a strike-slip component to strike-slip faulting with a minor normal dip-slip component. Most of earthquake focal mechanism orientations are varying from NE-SW to NW-SE. The fault plane solutions of Beni-Suef earthquakes represented normal faulting with a strike-slip component. If the NNW-SSE striking plane has been chosen to be the actual fault plane, some solutions would indicated normal faulting with a sinistral strike-slip motion and other reflect normal faulting with a dextral strike-slip component. The fault plane solutions of Cairo-Suez district earthquakes are compatible with E-W to ENE-WSW striking normal fault with a dextral strike-slip motion.

Badawy, Ahmed A.; AL-Werr, A.; Ali, Sh. M.

2014-04-01

93

77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.  

Science.gov (United States)

...EA-386] Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing...applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico...GSEMNA for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

2012-07-05

94

Interpretation Of Three Dimensional Seismic Data In Delineating The Structural Elements At Ras Budran Oil Field, Gulf Of Suez, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Structural evaluation in Ras Budran oil field was achieved by using the state of art geophysical technology, represented by the 3-D seismic data. Integrated together with the borehole geological and geophysical data. The time contour maps of five reflectors starting with deeper top Kareem formation up to the shallowest top Zeit formation were constructed. These mappable horizons illustrate generally a half plunging NE - SW anticline which bisected by 'several fault systems at different levels...

Sakr, M. M. E.

1989-01-01

95

Calculating the main canals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the proposed method hydraulic design of the main canal is combined with the selection of optimal solution. As a goal function it was accepted the dependence, minimizing the amount of excavation and concrete works on the establishing the canal. The optimization parameter is a slope of the canal bottom with a uniform motion of the water in it. The paper considers canals, lined within the wetted perimeter by concrete and by coarse-grained non-cohesive soils, and unlined canals without facing. In the process of calculation all hydraulic parameters of the canal are changing, except for the relative width of the canal along the bottom and ratio of slope gradient above and below the shore line. The dependence of the optimal amount of works in non-cohesive soils on the defined parameters of the canal was analyzed. The effect of the limiting the flow rate of water in the canal by the noneroding velocity value on the optimal technical decision was investigated.

M.A. Mikhalev

2013-06-01

96

Egypt:- Egypt can use ICTs to drive public sector reform - OECD  

... Egypt can use ICTs to drive public sector reform Egypt can use ICTs to drive public sector reform egypt, e-government, icts, ...MENA, information and communication technologies Egypt:- Egypt can use ICTs to drive public sector reform - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home ...About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › EgyptEgypt can use ICTs to drive public sector reform Egypt can use ICTs to drive public sector ...Send Print Tweet   ISBN number: 9789264178779 Publication date: 21 March 2013 The ongoing transition in Egypt has highlighted the strategic importance of new and empowering uses of ...

97

The Panama Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

Among all the engineering feats of the 20th century, the Panama Canal was certainly one of the greatest. The Panama Canal Authority (PCA) provides this home page, which contains a vast amount of information regarding the canal's origins and current affairs. Most visitors to the Web site will be mainly interested in the complete history of the canal. This begins with early plans by the Spanish in the 1500s, and documents all progress until the final completion in 1914. An impressive photo gallery includes historical pictures and panoramic views of four main locations, and a live camera shows the boat traffic in the canal at ten second intervals. Other resources such as maritime operations and news articles are also available.

98

Modern Egypt: A Development Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt is a culture which combines the traditional with the modern. This text aims to foster an appreciation of Egypt as a changing culture facing the challenges of development. Topics included are: (1) Village Life; (2) Urban Life; (3) Nile; (4) Government; (5) Agriculture; (6) Economy; (7) Health/Games; (8) Education; (9) Religion; (10)…

Scott, Rosalind; And Others

99

Distribution of Different Organotin and Organolead Compounds in Sediment of Suez Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organotin and organolead compounds were determined in sediments of the Suez Gulf The concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT ranged from 0.27 to 2.77 with an average value of 1.37 µgg-1; dry wt. However, the concentrations of dibutyltin (DBT ranged from 0.07 to 2.27 with an average value of 0.58 µgg-1; dry wt. A significant correlation was found between TBT and DBT with r = 0.82, (p = 0.05 indicating that the occurrence of DBT is mainly related to the degradation of TBT. Generally, the high concentration of TBT was attributed to shipping activity in harbours. In addition, Diphenyltin (DPhT concentrations ranged from not detected to 2.09 with an average of 1.10 µgg-1 dry wt. Antifouling agents, industrial discharge and the influence of sewage discharge are the main sources of pollution by DPhT compounds in Suez Gulf. On the other side, organolead (OLC concentrations ranged from 10.88 - 440.2 with an average of 168.7 ngg-1; dry wt. A significant setting of OLC recorded in sediments of Suez Gulf was mainly attributed to cars exhaust and/or spelling and direct evaporation of fuels.

Mohamed A. Shreadah

2011-07-01

100

Transient deformations in the Suez-Sinai area from GPS observations  

CERN Document Server

We analyze data from four GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2002 on a network of 11 sites in the Suez-Sinai, the area of collision between the African and the Arabian plates. This is the key area to understand how and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played between seismic and geodetic (long term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion (in terms of ITRF00 velocities) matches African plate motion (NNR-NUVEL-1A model). However, the baseline length variations show transient deformations in Sinai and across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of about 1.5 cm in five years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we worked under the hypothesis that a contribute may be due to post-seismic relaxation. Under this hypothesis, we compared the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occ...

Riguzzi, F; Pietrantonio, G; Mahmoud, S M

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic species of Suez Gulf water along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Egyptian Red Sea environment especially along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries (Suez) is severely contaminated with organic compounds, as well as overfishing. This may be well contributory to recent serious declines in fish stocks. Fish embryos are also particularly vulnerable to oil exposure, even at extremely low concentrations of less than one part per billion. Consequently, even traces of oil pollution at levels often considered safe for wildlife can cause severe damage to fish. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in ten fish species of aquatic species by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples were measured in order to use them as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollutants in the studied region. The total content of these16 PAHs ranged from 399.616 up to 67,631.779 ng/g wet weight. The data show that these values are considered to be alarmingly high enough to cause lethal toxicity effect by accumulation. All studied aquatic species samples are characterized by relatively high concentrations of the six-membered ring PAHs. The origin of PAHs in the collected samples is either petrogenic, biogenic, or mixed petrogenic and biogenic. PMID:24092254

Ali, Nabila A; Ahmed, Omayma E; Doheim, Mamdouh M

2014-02-01

102

Metals in water from the River Nile tributaries in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe and Cd metals in water samples collected from different tributaries of the Nile River in Egypt. Samples were taken from El-Sarsawia, El-Bagoria, Bahr Shebin canals, in addition to three drainage canal sites El-Embaby, El-Menofi and Miet-Rabiha drain. According to the data, Fe has the highest concentration, followed by Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu. The mean Pb concentration ranged from 8.678 to 21.948 ?g/L, in water samples collected from El-Sarsawia canal and El-Embaby drain, respectively. The Cu and Cd mean concentrations ranged from 0.67 and 0.500 to 4.908 and 5.650 ?g/L, respectively, in water samples collected from Bahr-Shebin canal and El-Embaby drain, respectively. The water samples from all location sites are polluted by Pb according to EPA. Fe and Cu values are within the allowable limits. PMID:22349286

Malhat, Farag Mahmoud; Nasr, Islam

2012-04-01

103

Some predicted peak ground motions for nuclear cratering explosions along the Qattara alignment in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some predicted peak free-field ground motions at shot depth for the nuclear explosive excavation of a canal in Egypt are summarized. Peak values of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and radial stress are presented as a function of slant range from the working point. Results from two-dimensional TENSOR cratering calculations are included. Fits to ground motion measurements in other media are also shown. This summary is intended to help specify engineering design requirements for detonating nuclear explosive salvos which are required to efficiently excavate the canal. It also should be useful in guiding estimates for gage response ranges in ground motion measurements

104

Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A) and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B). This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these ...

Bahig, A. E.; Aly, E. A.; Khaled, A. A.; Amel, K. A.

2008-01-01

105

Unilateral thoracic canal stenosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two unusual cases of thoracic spinal canal stenosis are reported. The cord compression was a result of unilateral hypertrophy of the lamina and facet joint. Bony decompression resulted in rapid neurological recovery.

Deogaonkar M

1999-10-01

106

Building the Erie Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students look at how the construction of the Erie Canal brought about major changes within United States, particularly in New York City, upstate New York, and the Midwest.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-12-28

107

Transect workshop held in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

A workshop on the progress of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project in the Middle East and Africa (see maps) was held January 15-17 in Cairo, Egypt. (Transect plans in the region have been described in Eos, 69, p. 124). It was jointly organized and funded by the Egyptian National Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Lithosphere Program coordinating Committee CC-7 of GGT. A. Ashour of Cairo University, Egypt, chaired the workshop; the general secretary was S. Riad of Assiut University, Egypt, who was responsible for most of the organization, scheduling and implementation of the workshop.

Barazangi, Muawia

108

Phanerozoic evolution of the basins of Northern Egypt and adjacent areas  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of integrating geological well data and geophysical information from the subsurface of northern Egypt are presented in terms of basin dynamics. Recent biostratigraphic data from wells and scarce outcrops are shown to be critical to an understanding of syndepositional tectonics. Six tectonostratigraphic phases of basin evolution are recognized to span the Phanerozoic. These phases initially record the development of intracratonic subsidence, controlled by deep crustal strike-slip tectonics, as Nubian continental and Tethyan marine influences competed across the northern margin of Gondwanaland. Evidence is also presented for the formation of the present day continental margin to northern Egypt. After a phase of crustal stretching, oceanic rifting focused on the western margin of the Arabian Platform, propagating progressively westwards during the Early-Mid-Jurassic. Thereafter, the effects of passive subsidence on the continental margin were disturbed by discrete phases of intracratonic strike-slip, associated ‘Syrian Arc’ folding, and the formation of deep basins in the opening Red Sea and Gulf of Suez. Three structural fabrics persisted throughout Phanerozoic basin evolution, the result of repeated extensional reactivation and inheritance from Pan-African basement.

Keeley, M. L.

1994-12-01

109

Responding t o the Challenges of Breast Cancer in Egypt and Other Arab Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt.

110

Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to detect small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscolices. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites. PMID:24142161

Anwar, Shehata; Mahdy, Emad; El-Nesr, Khalid Ali; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Shalaby, Adel; Yanai, Tokuma

2013-01-01

111

Reconnaissance electrical resistivity survey of geothermal reservoir at Hamam Faraun area, Sinai Peninsular, Egypt; Egypt{center{underscore}dot}Sinai hanto Faraun chiiki no chinetsu choryuso no denki tansa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High temperature hot spring and aquifers exist at Hamam Faraun area, Sinai Peninsular, Egypt. In this paper, the results of the vertical electrical prospecting (AB/2 = 1,000 m) using Schlumberger's method executed in Faraun area are described. The obtained apparent specific resistivity curve is analyzed using a non-linear least square method by presuming a horizontal multi-layer structure. As a result, it has been clarified that, in the Hamam Farun area facing the Suez Gulf, the low specific resistivity later shows a specific resistivity value of 10 ohm-m or less. However, this area has a complicated geological structure which can also be known from a contour map. Two-dimensional inversion and three-dimensional inversion will be executed in the future for clarifying the three-dimensional distribution of geothermal reservoirs. (translated by NEDO)

Gad, E.; Ushijima, Keisuke [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hassanen, G.

1999-02-01

112

[The wild boar of Egypt].  

Science.gov (United States)

The wild boar, Sus scrofa, is not a typical member of the Egyptian wild fauna, although it appears to have lived in the Nile Delta and other suitable regions in the north of the country. However, historic populations were probably of mixed origin, including feral domestic pigs. It is incorrect, as is sometimes still done, to include the wild boar in the iconographic bestiary of Ancient Egypt and assume that the domestic pigs of Ancient Egypt derive from local wild boars. PMID:10488431

Manlius, N; Gautier, A

1999-07-01

113

Ecology, biology and susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi to Leishmania experimental infection in Suez Governorate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in Sinai Peninsula. The sand fly and reservoirs were investigated in Suez G., since new settlements and land reclamation programs are ongoing. The results showed that Phlebotomus papatasi reached its highest density in September. The successfully colonized P. papatasi facilitated its biology and competence study. An autogenous trait was proven within P. papatasi population indicating its ability to survive and breed during adverse conditions. The vector competence was carried out under laboratory condition through feeding on lesion of a L. major experimentally infected hamster and by membrane feeding technique. Both hamsters and BALB-c mice inoculated with L. major developed ZCL lesions. PMID:16605106

El-Naggar, Mostafa H; Shoukry, Nahla M; Soliman, Belal A; Darwish, Ahmed B; El-Sawaf, Bahira M

2006-04-01

114

Current motion and short-term deformations in the Suez Sinai area from GPS observations  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze observations from eight GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2005 on a network of 13 sites in the Suez-Sinai area, where separation between the African and the Arabian plates takes place. This is the key area to understand if and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played by seismic and geodetic (long-term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion, in terms of ITRF00 velocities, matches the African plate motion defined by the NNR-NUVEL-1A model. The horizontal principal strain rate axes estimated separately in the Gulf of Suez area and in the northern Sinai vary from compression across the Gulf (-2.2 ± 1.2) × 10 -8 year -1 to NE extension (1.0 ± 1.5) × 10 -8 year -1 in the North, showing the presence of two distinct domains, so that in our opinion Sinai cannot be considered simply a unique rigid block. The analysis of GPS baseline length variations shows short-term deformations across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of more than 1 cm in 8 years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we work under the hypothesis that a contribute may be expected by post-seismic relaxation effects. Under this hypothesis, we compare the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occurred in the area, testing two different viscoelastic models. Our results show that the detected short-term deformations are better modeled for viscosity values of 10 18 Pa s in the lower crust and 10 20 Pa s in the asthenosphere. However, since the modeled post-seismic effect results modest and a certain amount of the detected deformation is not accounted for, we think that an improved modeling should take into account the lateral heterogeneities of crust and upper mantle structures.

Riguzzi, Federica; Pietrantonio, Grazia; Piersanti, Antonio; Mahmoud, Salah M.

2006-07-01

115

Vector snail control in Qalyub, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author describes a pilot study in vector snail control carried out in 1953-54 by the Bilharziasis Control Project in Qalyub, Egypt.After giving a brief description of the site chosen for the Project-an area of some 5000 acres (2000 hectares) under perennial irrigation-he presents a detailed account of the various snail surveys of the irrigation canals and drains and of the molluscicidal treatment of infested channels.He points out that despite the thoroughness of the surveying and treatment the snails were not completely eliminated from the area and stresses that the high cost of the molluscicide used (copper sulfate) would prohibit its widespread and continual use. He considers, however, that pending the perfection of such long-term bilharziasis control measures as improved sanitation, better treatment facilities, and health education of the public, snail control is of the first importance and determined efforts should be made to find more efficient and cheaper methods of effecting it. PMID:13585074

VAN DER SCHALIE, H

1958-01-01

116

Panama and the Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Florida's George A. Smathers Libraries and the Panama Canal Museum have worked together to create this engaging digital collection that tells the story of Panama and the Canal Zone. The collection contains 158 items, including newspaper clippings, illustrations, stock shares, and more. The Leonard Carpenter Panama Canal Collection contains a mix of photos of dredging work, military personnel, and a U.S. Navy dirigible. Another smaller collection contains items from the Government Documents Department, such as annual reports, maps, and Congressional hearing transcripts. Visitors can search the entire collection by keyword, and they shouldn't miss the 1754 maps of Panama and the surrounding region by Jacques Nicolas Bellin.

117

Tectonic evolution of the northeastern part of the African continental margin, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The area between Manzalah Lake and the southern Galala Plateau in northeast Egypt constitutes the Galalas, Cairo-Suez, southern Nile Delta and northern Nile Delta structural provinces. The northern Galala Fault separates the Galalas Province from the Cairo-Suez Province and is considered to be the westward extension of the Themed Fault in central Sinai. The pre-Eocene rocks are affected by northeast to east-northeast-orientated folds and reverse faults, as well as east-west-orientated oblique-slip faults with dextral and normal components. Some folds and reverse faults are interpreted to have been formed by northwest to north-northwest-orientated compression related to the Syrian Arc movement, whereas the others by the secondary northwest orientated shortening, which accompanied dextral strike-slip component along the planes of the east-west-orientated faults. The east-west-orientated faults were initially formed during the Late Triassic/Early Jurassic extension related to the drifting of the African/Arabian Plate away from the Eurasian Plate as a result of opening of the Neotethyan Sea. The Neotethyan began to close due to convergence between the two plates, leading to the Syrian Arc deformation. This deformation mildly started in Late Cenomanian and followed by a more intensive phase in Conacian/Santonian. It mildly continued in the Maastrichtian, Early Palæocene and Late Palæocene/Early Eocene. The southward thinning of the pre-Eocene rocks controlled the intensity and style of deformation. Two deformational mechanisms are proposed for the Nile Delta hinge zone. The first is related to Late Oligocene—Early Miocene north-northwest-orientated Alpine compression. The second is related to northward gravitational sliding of the post-Oligocene shale and sandstone over Cretaceous-Eocene carbonates.

Hussein, I. M.; Abd-Allah, A. M. A.

2001-07-01

118

Exploration and assessment of the geothermal resources in the Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of the African continent suggests that it may possess significant geothermal resources, especially along its eastern margin. The most promising areas for geothermal development in the northwest Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift system are located where the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations, including a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures. Magnetotelluric and gravity-reconnaissance surveys were carried out over the geothermal region of Hammam Faraun to determine the subsurface electric resistivity and the densities that are related to rock units. These surveys were conducted along profiles. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) inversion model techniques were applied on the MT data, integrating the 2D inversion of gravity data. The objectives of these surveys were to determine and parameterize the subsurface source of the Hammam Faraun hot spring and to determine the origin of this spring. Based on this data, a conceptual model and numerical simulation were made of the geothermal area of Hammam Faraun. The numerical simulation succeeded in determining the characteristics of the heat sources beneath the Hammam Faraun hot spring and showed that the hot spring originates from a high heat flow and deep ground water circulation in the subsurface reservoir that are controlled by faults. These studies were followed by an assessment of the geothermal potential for electric generation from the Hammam Faraun hot spring. The value of the estimated potential is 28.34 MW, as the reservoir is assumed to be only 500 m thick. This value would be enough for the desalination of water for both human and agricultural consumption.

Zaher, Mohamed Abdel; Saibi, Hakim; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Mesbah, Hany; Ehara, Sachio

2012-02-01

119

Geomorphology in a Rifting Environment. Can Channel Profiles from Arid Sinai, Egypt, Provide Constraints on Tectonics?  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant surface uplift along rift flanks results in the formation of rift-parallel mountain belts. The combination of uplift and erosion processes characterizes fluvial systems in the vicinity of the rift. Geometry of the drainage network and channel profiles may provide information on timing and geometry of rifting. However it is not clear if traditional approaches to fluvial erosion (e.g. the stream power approach) can be used to infer aspects of landscape evolution to areas, which show fluvial geomorphology, but are arid at present, like Sinai, Egypt. In this project we set out to test this and provide a description of channels as a database for our considerations. Sinai is located at a major rift system, the Red Sea, which branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba bordering Sinai from West and South to South East, respectively. Uplift associated with the rifting exposed bedrock in Southern Sinai and topography of up to more than 2.5km, which also acts as a drainage divide between East and West. Despite Sinai's present day aridity, the large scale geomorphology appears to be characterized by fluvial features. In contrast to channels along the northern Gulf of Aqaba, channels draining to the Gulf of Suez show a more classical profile with clear knickpoints that seem however not to have mirgrated significantly from the basin-mountain transition. As the change to arid climate may have preserved to some state a previous configuration, the knickpoints may not be used to put a time frame on the uplift, but could in combination with paleoclimate data indicate changes in the relative importance of uplift versus erosion.

Oswald, A.; Stüwe, K.

2012-04-01

120

Managing curved canals  

Science.gov (United States)

Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations. PMID:22919234

Ansari, Iram; Maria, Rahul

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

External ear canal cholesteatoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

External ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC) is a rare otologic entity. Erosion of the inferior canal wall and accumulation of keratin debris are consistent findings. In the past there had been confusion between EECC and keratosis obturans, and they were thought to represent the same disease process. Currently, based on clinical and pathologic findings, it is believed that they are two different entities. In this article we present our experience in treating eight patients with EECC. For limited lesions, local debridement and curettage of necrotic bone is effective management. For more extensive lesions, canalplasty or tympanomastoidectomy is indicated. PMID:3963157

Sismanis, A; Huang, C E; Abedi, E; Williams, G H

1986-03-01

122

The evolutionary genetics of canalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary genetics has recently made enormous progress in understanding how genetic variation maps into phenotypic variation. However why some traits are phenotypically invariant despite apparent genetic and environmental changes has remained a major puzzle. In the 1940s, Conrad Hal Waddington coined the concept and term "canalization" to describe the robustness of phenotypes to perturbation; a similar concept was proposed by Waddington's contemporary Ivan Ivanovich Schmalhausen. This paper reviews what has been learned about canalization since Waddington. Canalization implies that a genotype's phenotype remains relatively invariant when individuals of a particular genotype are exposed to different environments (environmental canalization) or when individuals of the same single- or multilocus genotype differ in their genetic background (genetic canalization). Consequently, genetic canalization can be viewed as a particular kind of epistasis, and environmental canalization and phenotypic plasticity are two aspects of the same phenomenon. Canalization results in the accumulation of phenotypically cryptic genetic variation, which can be released after a "decanalizing" event. Thus, canalized genotypes maintain a cryptic potential for expressing particular phenotypes, which are only uncovered under particular decanalizing environmental or genetic conditions. Selection may then act on this newly released genetic variation. The accumulation of cryptic genetic variation by canalization may therefore increase evolvability at the population level by leading to phenotypic diversification under decanalizing conditions. On the other hand, under canalizing conditions, a major part of the segregating genetic variation may remain phenotypically cryptic; canalization may therefore, at least temporarily, constrain phenotypic evolution. Mechanistically, canalization can be understood in terms of transmission patterns, such as epistasis, pleiotropy, and genotype by environment interactions, and in terms of genetic redundancy, modularity, and emergent properties of gene networks and biochemical pathways. While different forms of selection can favor canalization, the requirements for its evolution are typically rather restrictive. Although there are several methods to detect canalization, there are still serious problems with unambiguously demonstrating canalization, particularly its adaptive value. PMID:16250465

Flatt, Thomas

2005-09-01

123

Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

124

American Experience: Panama Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

The Panama Canal was quite an undertaking of labor and engineering, and by the time it was completed on August 15th, 1914 the project had been underway (in some form) for well over two decades. Along the way, over 55,000 workers had been involved, 5,000 people had died during the project's duration, and over 350 million dollars had been spent. This riveting documentary looks at the history of this project, and visitors can watch the entire program here. The extra features provided here are real treats, and they can be found on the left-hand side of the page. Here visitors will find an interactive map of the Panama Canal region, along with a timeline, and an interview with the program's producer, Amanda Pollak. Also, the site includes articles on yellow fever, the workers, and the chief engineers of the Canal. Primary resources such as part of the canal record of 1907, suggestions for further reading, and teacher resources round out the site.

125

External auditory canal osteoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Osteomas are a slow growing benign neoplasm of unknown etiology very rarely involving the temporal bone. They develop in the external auditory canal on squamous sections, in the mastoid, middle and inner ear. By bone composition they are divided into spongious (osteoma spongiosum and compact osteomas (osteoma eburnum; by growth direction, into outward-growing (exosteoma and in inwardgrowing (endosteoma; into unilateral and bilateral; by size, into small and gigantic; by surface structure, into smooth and multilobular; by number, into solitary and multiple; into symmetrical and asymmetrical. The symptoms of intracanalicular osteomas are the result of auditory canal obstruction. Diagnosis is made based on case history, clinical examination, audiological processing and radiography (temporal bone CT scan, and confirmed by histopathological examination of the bone. In terms of differential diagnosis, they must be distinguished from exostoses, bone tissue proliferation and osteoid osteomata. The progress of the disease is prolonged, as they are slow growing, asymptomatic and benign tumours. Therapy is surgical only. Case Outline. The report presents the case of a 70-year old patient with the osteoma of the right external auditory canal. In our patient, the osteoma arose in the auditory canal, the most frequent localization; it was unilateral, solitary, multilobular and compact. It was discovered accidentally, during otoscopic examination. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of the temporal bone. We applied surgical therapy by retroauricular approach. The removed bone change was about 12 mm high, 13-14 mm deep and about 8 mm wide. Histopathological findings confirmed osteoma. Conclusion. Due to their slow growth, the rate of auditory canal osteomas develop asymptomatically for a long time without the characteristic clinical features. In most cases, they are discovered accidentally during otoscopic or radiographic examination. The method of choice in diagnosis is temporal bone CT scan. Therapy is surgical.

Sente Marko

2009-01-01

126

Egypt receives computers from CERN  

CERN Multimedia

On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

Anaïs Schaeffer

2013-01-01

127

Solar Energy for Rural Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

128

FIELD TRIALS IN EGYPT WITH ACROLEIN HERBICIDE-MOLLUSCICIDE.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acrolein is a dual-purpose chemical effective against both submersed weeds and snails, and it may therefore be of significance in bilharziasis control. During trials in the Egypt-49-project area in 1962, it was effective in clearing heavy mats of the major submersed aquatic weed Potamogeton crispus from irrigation canals. The resurgence of snails to pretreatment levels was delayed by 8-12 months, and submersed weeds did not reappear until 8 months after treatment. In phytotoxicity tests on local crops, it was found that the concentration of acrolein required for destroying submersed weeds (20-25 ppm) had no adverse effect on the crops. The field tests showed that it is important to have complete control of the water during the period of application. PMID:14310913

UNRAU, G O; FAROOQ, M; DAWOOD, I K; MIGUEL, L C; DAZO, B C

1965-01-01

129

Field trials in Egypt with acrolein herbicide-molluscicide*  

Science.gov (United States)

Acrolein is a dual-purpose chemical effective against both submersed weeds and snails, and it may therefore be of significance in bilharziasis control. During trials in the Egypt-49-project area in 1962, it was effective in clearing heavy mats of the major submersed aquatic weed Potamogeton crispus from irrigation canals. The resurgence of snails to pretreatment levels was delayed by 8-12 months, and submersed weeds did not reappear until 8 months after treatment. In phytotoxicity tests on local crops, it was found that the concentration of acrolein required for destroying submersed weeds (20-25 ppm) had no adverse effect on the crops. The field tests showed that it is important to have complete control of the water during the period of application. PMID:14310913

Unrau, G. O.; Farooq, M.; Dawood, Ismail K.; Miguel, Luis C.; Dazo, B. C.

1965-01-01

130

Foci of Schistosoma mansoni in Assiut province in middle Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following detection of Schistosoma mansoni in a 12 years old boy who had both schistosomal polyposis and periportal fibrosis with hepatosplenomegaly, epidemiological studies to confirm local transmission were performed in his and 30 other villages in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. The index case's brother and 6 of 380 inhabitants of his village who provided stool specimens were infected with S. mansoni and a farmer with dysentery and hepatosplenomegaly had a positive rectal snip biopsy. All had hepatic abnormalities on ultrasound examination. Two of 221 schoolchildren in another village had mixed infections with S. mansoni and S. haematobium; 17 others had only S. haematobium. None of 419 inhabitants living near the infected boys had S. mansoni infection. Snails from canals and drains near both villages were netted, identified, counted and checked for infection: in the second village one of 1039 Bulinus truncatus was infected with Schistosoma sp. but none of 859 Biomphalaria alexandrina was infected. Schistosomiasis mansoni is being focally transmitted in 2 villages in Assiut Governorate and appears to be spreading from Lower to Middle and Upper Egypt. We believe B. alexandrina, which has been present in some of the waterways for at least 15 years, were infected recently by local inhabitants returning from Iraq or by cattle traders or military recruits from the Delta. PMID:8249064

Medhat, A; Abdel-Aty, M A; Nafeh, M; Hammam, H; Abdel-Samia, A; Strickland, G T

1993-01-01

131

Egypt air radioactive sources warehouse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I would like to give me this chance, of being here among famous scientists. I wish to thank the general director of cargo division, and the general manager of import for providing all facilities for me to be present at this scientific meeting. At this conference, I wish to explain the role played by egypt air (as public sector company) in the officiant of radiation physics. The atomic energy authority, ministry of health, and ministry of civil aviation; have provided instructions that were essentially required to complete the work of the national radioactive warehouse located in egypt air terminal in Cairo. Now the license for operating the store has been granted. Prior to constructing the warehouse, the radioactive sources were distributed among the foreign cargo terminals at Cairo airport, such as swiss air, air france, saudi arabia, the Ice stores, as well egypt Air. Cargo terminals. The control of radiation hazard was therefore difficult. The ministry of Civil aviation then issued a decree dictating the storage of all radioactive sources exclusively at the national store of egypt air. All foreign cargo terminals should transfer all imported radioactive sources to the national warehouse at Cairo air port. According to that decree. 6 figs, 2 tabs

132

The evolution of the Suez rift: a combination of stretching and secondary convection  

Science.gov (United States)

Different physical mechanisms have been put forward in order to explain the lithospheric evolution beneath a continental rift. Models of stretching of the lithosphere, though giving good values for the trough subsidence, could not satisfactorily account for other features of the rifts, such as the rapid uplift of the rift shoulders in some cases. However, the idea that the thinning of the lithosphere is also accomplished by secondary convection phenomena is now receiving growing attention. Using a thermomechanical model dealing with a non-Newtonian crust and mantle, Moretti and Froidevaux have suggested that the evolution of numerous continental rifts is the consequence of the combination of the upward propagation of an asthenospheric thermal anomaly and of an extensional regional stress. The Suez rift evolution, examined by tectonic subsidence studies, may be regarded as the result of an asthenospheric upwelling and of a short active initial lithospheric stretching phase.

Moretti, I.; Chénet, P. Y.

1987-02-01

133

Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4?g/g and 0.032-0.17 ?g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs

134

Analysis of sedimentation of canals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

Agunwamba, J.C.,

2013-03-01

135

Comparative Study of Canal Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India is basically an agrarian country and crop-water is supplied through the system of canals. In conventional design of canal system, canals seepage losses are a big concern for an engineer. An approximate estimation of seepage under the un-lined canal is 7 Cumec per Million Square Meter & that of Lined Canal is 2.5 Cumec per Million Square Meter. To address the problem, Prof. P K Swamee has suggested an alternate design philosophy based on minimum seepage loss. Swamee presented simplified algebraic equations for computation of seepage loss for various sectioned canals, which accurately replace the cumbersome evaluation of complex integrals. Swamee, concluded that using these seepage loss equations and the general uniform flow equation canal can be designed for minimum seepage under the canal system. But, in India so far, only conventional design is adopted all over the state. The calculation of seepage is based on the thumb rule or the field observations done in the past for similar structures ; and to reduce the seepage losses, canal lining is adopted which involves the heavy cost of construction & maintenance as well. This approach does not suits to the present environmental conditions where scarcity of water has become the concern and is being felt by the entire world. In such situation, adaptability of Swamee’s approach needs to be examined. This paper studies the comparison of the design philosophy suggested by Prof. P K Swamee with conventional design philosophy adopted by government agencies in tropical country like India.

Mahendra Umare

2014-04-01

136

Safsaf Oasis, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The radar image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/ X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The Landsat Program is managed jointly by NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the United States Geological Survey.Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

1998-01-01

137

Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable ability. PMID:23889531

Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

2014-04-01

138

Seroprevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia conorii infection among rodents and dogs in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological survey of 1813 rodent and 549 dog sera, collected from 1979 to 1986 from animals in 16 Egyptian Governorates were tested for antibody to Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia conorii by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Only three of 82 (4%) sera from Rattus rattus collected near Aswan had antibody to R. conorii. The prevalence of R. typhi antibody in dog sera was only 0.4% (n = 549) while 25% (n = 547) of Rattus norvegicus and 11% (n = 1138) of R. rattus had measurable antibodies. Among the other rodents, antibody was demonstrated in only 2% (n = 45) of Arvicanthis spp., and 1% (n = 83) of Acomys spp. Collectively, rodents captured in the Nile Delta had a higher prevalence (mean 24% (n = 787] than those captured in the Nile Valley (mean 4% (n = 650]. Antibody to R. typhi was detected in rodents collected in all port cities: ismailiya, 13%; Port Said, 9%; Suez, 9%; Safaga, 16%; Quseir, 32% and Alexandria, 34%. These data showed evidence of R. typhi infection among rodents in widespread geographic localities of Egypt and suggested that infected rodents may be a source of human infections. PMID:2509729

Soliman, A K; Botros, B A; Ksiazek, T G; Hoogstraal, H; Helmy, I; Morrill, J C

1989-10-01

139

Complete atrioventricular canal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

Limongelli Giuseppe

2006-04-01

140

Egypt’s Mursi sweeps away the old guard | EurActiv  

...Egypt’s Mursi sweeps away the old guard | EurActiv global-europe,Arab world,Egypt,President Mohamed Mursi EU news & policy debates- across languages - ...away the old guard [fr] -A + A Published 13 August 2012 Tags Arab world, Egypt, President Mohamed Mursi Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi yesterday (12 ...Forces (SCAF), actually consented to a move that reveals a reordering of Egypt's political forces as the country waits for a new constitution, ...may have been weakened by the border debacle last week in the Sinai desert, were appointed as advisors to the president. By ...

 
 
 
 
141

The Tem Plagues of Egypt  

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Full Text Available The ten Plagues of Egypt described in the Bible were central to the liberation of the Jewish people from the oppression of the Egyptians. The succession of disasters demoralised the Egyptians and were seen as a victory for Jewish monotheistic beliefs. In this essay, natural explanations for most of the Plagues are proposed and a chronology of events is provided. Could the mythological explanation of these arguably natural phenomena still have a profound influence on the modern world?

Roger S. Wotton

2007-09-01

142

3 FIELD SQUADRON, SAEC (PART 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1884 when Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal became a member of the French Academy, he was welcomed by Ernest Renan. In his speech Renan remarked that not only had two inland seas been connected, but the site of a future battlefield had been marked. During the Second World War his prediction came true when control of the Middle East became of utmost importance for the continuation of the Allied war effort: the economic blockade of Europe and the defence of Allied oil supplies depended on the Allies retaining Egypt and control of the Suez Canal.

A.E. Van Zyl

2012-02-01

143

Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

2011-01-01

144

Application of thorium-normalized airborne radio-spectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt

145

Application of thorium-normalized airborne radiospectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area. North-eastern Desert, Egypt. PMID:12137020

El-Sadek, Mohamed A

2002-07-01

146

Preliminary thoughts on Egypt’s Law Concerning Trafficking in Human Beings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article analyses the most important provisions of Egypt’s Law Concerning the Trafficking in Human Beings (‘Law’). Human trafficking in Egypt takes several forms and targets Egyptians and foreign nationals alike. While the Law is progressive and is largely pro victim, the author expresses concerns respecting the interpretation of some sections of the Law. For example, the Law evokes the existing tensions between shariah, which constitutes the main sources of legislation ...

Badawy, Tarek

2011-01-01

147

Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Source Rock Evaluation of the Lower Miocene Rocks Based on Well Logs: October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

October oil field is one of the largest hydrocarbon-bearing fields which produces oil from the sand section of the Lower Miocene Asl Formation. Two marl (Asl Marl) and shale (Hawara Formation) sections of possible source enrichment are detected above and below this oil sand section, respectively. This study aims to identify the content of the total organic carbon based on the density log and a combination technique of the resistivity and porosity logs (?log R Technique). The available geoche...

Aref Lashin; Saad Mogren

2012-01-01

148

Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Oil spills detection. • Image enhancement techniques. • Aeromagnetic data processing and interpretation. -- Abstract: Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE–SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa–Hurghada coastal zone

149

Characterization of Oligocene Sands and Gravels, Wad Ghoweiba, Northwest Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Using Spectral Signature and Principal Component Analysis of Terra Aster Images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

extracted from the principal component (PC) analysis using Eigen matrix. The highest percentages of information contributed by bands 1,2 and 5 were found to be in PC2, PC6 and PC9, respectively. A principal component color image (PC2, PC6 and PC9 in B, G, R) showed the Oligocene sands and gravels in a characteristic orange color. This result was verified using the available geological maps followed by field check. The method used here is effective for exploring new sites of the Oligocene sands and gravels that are being extensively used as raw materials for concrete and other building purposes

150

Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE-SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa-Hurghada coastal zone. PMID:23688834

Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

2013-07-15

151

Source parameters and moment tensor of the ML 4.6 earthquake of November 19, 2011, southwest Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern part of the Gulf of Suez is one of the most seismically active areas in Egypt. On Saturday November 19, 2011 at 07:12:15 (GMT) an earthquake of ML 4.6 occurred in southwest Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. The quake has been felt at Sharm El-Sheikh city while no casualties were reported. The instrumental epicenter is located at 27.69°N and 34.06°E. Seismic moment is 1.47 E+22 dyne cm, corresponding to a moment magnitude Mw 4.1. Following a Brune model, the source radius is 101.36 m with an average dislocation of 0.015 cm and a 0.06 MPa stress drop. The source mechanism from a fault plane solution shows a normal fault, the actual fault plane is strike 358, dip 34 and rake -60, the computer code ISOLA is used. Twenty seven small and micro earthquakes (1.5 ? ML ? 4.2) were also recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) from the same region. We estimate the source parameters for these earthquakes using displacement spectra. The obtained source parameters include seismic moments of 2.77E+16-1.47E+22 dyne cm, stress drops of 0.0005-0.0617 MPa and relative displacement of 0.0001-0.0152 cm.

Mohamed, Gad-Elkareem Abdrabou; Omar, Khaled

2014-06-01

152

The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

153

Retreatment of a 6-Canalled Mandibular First Molar with Four Mesial Canals: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful root canal treatment requires adequate knowledge regarding morphologic variations in root canal system of teeth. This report describes a six-canalled mandibular first molar with four mesial root canals requiring endodontic retreatment. The two additional canals in the mesial root were found during retreatment with the aid of illumination and magnification. In conclusion, the possibility of atypical morphology and additional canals should never be over looked.

Mohsen Aminsobhani

2010-11-01

154

Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Levels of the heavy metals Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) were determined in coastal water, sediments and soft tissues of the gastropod limpet, Patella caerulea, and the bivalve, Barbatus barbatus, from seven different stations in the western coast of the Gulf of Suez. The concentrations of heavy metals in water ranged between 3.37-4.78, 18.83-21.46, 2.75-3.17, 0.22-0.27, 0.99-1.21, 2.69-3.65, 3.75-4.56 ?g L - 1 and 23.82-32.78 mg g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The corresponding concentration values in the sediments were 8.65-12.16, 51.78-58.06, 36.52-42.15, 3.23-3.98, 9.03-12.75, 34.31-49.63, 3.28-4.56 and 64.20-70.22 ?g g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The highest accumulated metals were Fe, Zn and Mn in both P. caerulea and B. barbatus, while the lowest one was Cd. The accumulation of metals was more pronounced in P. caerulea than B. barbatus. The highest concentrations of all metals in water, sediments and mollusca were recorded at Adabiya harbour north of the Gulf, while the lowest concentrations were recorded at Gabal El-Zeit and Hurghada. Land based activities and ships awaiting berth are the main source of metal pollution in the northern part of the Gulf.

Hamed, Mohamed A.; Emara, Ahmed M.

2006-05-01

155

Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 2--Patterns of transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution, abundance and seasonality of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were studied for 2 years (1992-1994) in two newly reclaimed areas, namely El Manayef and El-Morra areas located on both sides of Suez Canal near Ismailia City. The results confirm the occurrence of transmission of both Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium since infected snails of both species were recovered in these areas. This consequently proves that reclamation of parts of the desert utilizing Nile water had led to spread of schistosomiasis to these areas. Analysis of the data shows that the infected snails, especially B. alexandrina, were found clustered in a relatively few numbers of transmission sites and furthermore the greater majority of these sites were found located within a less number of transmission foci. This pattern of focality is clearly demonstrated by Geographical Information System (GIS) produced maps. Infected B. alexandrina snails fluctuated seasonally showing 2 peaks, a minor peak in August and a higher one in November. Only one peak of infected B. truncatus was recognized in July. PMID:10605512

Yousif, F; el-Emam, M; Abdel Kader, A; el-Din, A S; el-Hommossany, K; Shiff, C

1999-08-01

156

The most common insect pollinator species on sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L. in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of insect pollinators associated with sesame, Sesamun indicum L. (Pedaliaceae was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. All different insect pollinators which found on the experimental site were collected for identification. Sampling was done once a week and three times a day. Three methods were used to collect and identify insects from the sesame plants (a sweep net, pitfall traps, digital camera and eye observation. A total of 29 insect species were collected and properly identified during the survey. Insect pollinators which recorded on the plants were divided into four groups, 18 belonged to Hymenoptera, 7 to Diptera, 3 to Lepidoptera and one to Coleoptera. Results revealed that Honybee, Apis mellifera was the most dominant species in the 2011 season and the second one in the 2012 season. Whereas small carpenter bee, Ceratina tarsata was the most dominant species in the 2012 season and the second one in the 2011 season. The percentage of Hymenoptera was higher in the two studied seasons by 90.94% and 89.59%, followed by Diptera by 3.93% and 5.38%, then Lepidoptera by 3.58% and 3.62, and in the last Coleoptera by 1.53% and 1.39%, respectively.

S.M. Kamel

2013-06-01

157

75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast...Navigation Canal (IHNC), Harvey Canal, and Algiers Canal during severe hurricane conditions...communities within the IHNC, Harvey, and Algiers Canals from potential hazards...

2010-06-08

158

Development of a model safety in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The questions of related to development model of development of safety of labour are considered. The structure of mechanism of creation of normative document on a labour protection in Egypt is offered.

?????? ????? ????????

2008-04-01

159

Rising Water Table Threatens Egypt's Monuments  

Science.gov (United States)

This article from National Geographic News examines the threat posed to Egyptian monuments by a rising water table. The article details the problems facing antiquities throughout Egypt and presents possible solutions.

Cohen, Chad; Geographic, National

160

EU considers freezing aid to Egypt | EurActiv  

...EU considers freezing aid to Egypt | EurActiv east-mediterranean,development-policy,global-europe,aid,Egypt,Morsi,Mursi EU news & policy debates- across languages ... VIDEOS Home › Development Policy › News EU considers freezing aid to Egypt -A + A Published 19 August 2013, updated 20 August ...Tags aid, Egypt, Morsi, Mursi European Union governments will this week question how to best use their economic ties with Egypt to ... 'Egypt is a key partner of the European Union,' the two officials said. 'Further escalation must be prevented. It could ...

 
 
 
 
161

Breast cancer in Egypt: a fact sheet  

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Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor among women. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women; 2.2% in men among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people.

Zawilla N

2011-01-01

162

Approaches to healing in Roman Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis examines the healing strategies utilised by the inhabitants of Egypt during the Roman period (from the late first century BC to the fourth century AD) in order to investigate how Egyptian, Greek and Roman customs and traditions interacted within the province. It explores the symbiotic relationship between 'professional' and 'amateur' medical practice within Egypt, and examines the ways in which three particularly well-attested health problems - eye complaints, febrile conditions a...

Draycott, Jane Louise

2011-01-01

163

Nuclear desalination in Egypt: activities and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main source of freshwater resources in Egypt is the River Nile. The Egyptian share of the Nile water was limited to 55.5x109 m3/year in the Nile Water Treaty concluded with Sudan in 1959. Due to the rapid population growth, the annual per capita freshwater resources declined from 2560 m3 in 1955 to 970 m3 in 1995. Consequently, desalination plants of various sizes and technologies have been introduced to Egypt in the past three decades. The Egyptian desalination inventory increased from less than 2000 m3/day in 1970 to almost 175000 m3/day in 1997, of which 54% was seawater desalination. The energy-intensive seawater desalination technologies are expected to play an increasing role in mitigating future potable water deficit in Egypt. Egypt has been considering for a number of years the introduction of nuclear energy to meet the combined challenge of increasing electricity and water demand on one hand and the limited primary energy and water resources on the other hand. In this regard, Egypt has been carrying a number of national, regional and international activities. This paper presents an overview of the Egyptian activities in the field of nuclear desalination including, feasibility studies and Research and Development activities. The results of recent studies are presented regarding: quantification of seawater desalination market in Egypt and preliminary economic assessment of potable water production by various combinations of energy sources and desalination processes proposed for El-Dabaa site. (author)

164

Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, Southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of 137Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of 226Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The 226Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg-1 for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg-1 for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l-1 for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, 226Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ?14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the 232Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while 137Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place. (authors)

165

Anal canal melanoma: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anal canal melanoma is a rare disease comprising 1% of all colorectal ie. anal malignant tumours with very poor long term prognosis. Its significant biologic aggressivity is the consequence of the tendency towards lymphatic, local and hematogenous spread. At the moment of diagnosis even 30% of the patients have distant metastases. Surgical intervention represents the only possibility for cure. Modern approach to the anal canal melanoma treatment implies two types of intervention: wide local excision preserving the sphincter mechanism and abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. There are numerous dilemmas about the choice of surgery in particular disease stages. The authors report on a 61 years old women in which anal canal melanoma with left inguinal lymphatic metastases was detected during the inspection of "haemorrhoids". After the diagnosis was established, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum was performed with dissection of both inguinal regions. .

Brankovi? B.

2006-01-01

166

Depositional environments and sequence architecture of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), west central Sinai, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Cenomanian-Turonian deposits are important reservoirs for many oil fields in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez region of Egypt. Study of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), from five dip-oriented outcrop locations in west central Sinai; indicates deposition of a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system on a ramp setting. The inner ramp facies (bivalve and benthonic foraminiferal wackestone) grades northward to the mid ramp facies (echinoderm calcisphere packstone, and oyster floatstone), and outer ramp facies (planktonic foraminiferal wackestone and calcisphere wackestone). The two studied formations comprise one second-order depositional sequence (duration of approximately 10 Million years). This large scale sequence includes four third-order depositional sequences, three of which are observed in the Raha Formation, with the other one recorded in the Abu Qada Formation. Because west central Sinai was tectonically stable during the Cenomanian and Turonian, the main factor controlling the lateral and vertical distribution of facies tracts is likely due to changes in the relative sea level. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event is known as the largest oceanic anoxic event during the Cretaceous. This global event has been documented in three of the studied sections. The recorded ?13C excursions range from +3.04‰ to +5.24‰. These high positive excursions in ?13C are associated with highly negative values of ?18O (values range from -6.01‰ to -1.38‰).

Anan, Tarek I.; El-Shahat, Adam; Genedi, Adel; Grammer, Michael

2013-06-01

167

Physical properties of root canal filling materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Root canal filling materials are used to obturate the root canal space. Several studies have been made in order to investigate their physical properties. A general review of these properties are discussed in this paper. (author)

168

Type III apical transportation of root canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph reveale...

Mantri, Shiv P.; Kapur, Ravi; Gupta, Niharika A.; Kapur, Charu A.

2012-01-01

169

Distribution of heavy metal residues in fish from the River Nile tributaries in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution patterns of some metals (zinc, iron, copper, cadmium and lead) in fish samples collected from El Menofiya Governorate, Egypt were studied. The samples were collected from El Menofiya, canal water supplies (El Sarsawia, El Bagoria and Bahr Shebin), in addition to El Embaby, El Menofi and Miet Rabiha drainage canals each 2 month during periods of 16 month, June 2007-Septemper 2008. In the present investigation, the high concentrations of metals were found in fish samples collected from the drainage canal. The highest mean concentration of lead (1.864 ?g/g), copper (1.495 ?g/g) and cadmium (1.840 ?g/g) were found in fish samples collected from El-Embaby drain. While the highest mean concentration of iron (108.26 ?g/g) and zinc (24.35 ?g/g) were present in fish samples collected from Miet-Rabiha drain. Lead and cadmium were found in higher concentration than those recommended by FAO for fish. PMID:21611738

Malhat, Farag

2011-08-01

170

Organophosphorus pesticides residues in fish samples from the River Nile tributaries in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of organophosphorus pesticides in fish samples from different tributaries of the Nile River in Egypt was monitored. Fish samples were collected from El Menofiya, canal water supplies (El-Sarsawia, El-Bagoria and Bahr Shebin), in addition to El-Embaby, El-Menofi and Miet Rabiha drainage canals each 2 month during periods of 16 month, June 2007-Septemper 2008. Chloropyrifos, cadusafos, diazinon, prothiphos and malathion were detected in fish tissues samples at level below the maximum residue limit. The highest average amount of chlorpyrifos (9.38 ng g(-1)) and malathion (8.31 ng g(-1)) were detected in El-Embaby drain. Prothiphos were found in tissues collected from El-Sarsawia canal and Miet-Rabiha drain at mean concentration of 4.91 and 6.55 ng g(-1), respectively. Diazinon was only found in one fish sample that collected from El-Menofi drain at the level of 9.23 ng g(-1). PMID:21953307

Malhat, Farag; Nasr, Islam

2011-12-01

171

Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

Nightingale, S.

1989-01-01

172

Computed tomography of the thoracic canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 100. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th1, Th2 levels and round at Th3-Th10 and large oval at Th11, Th12. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (author)

173

The Role of USAID in Development in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discuses the role of USAID in the development process in Egypt. It discusses the USAID role in Egypt in some sectors with more focus on USAID/Egypt economic growth, more specifically the Technical Assistance for policy Reform II (TAPRII). I will discuss the items of the program that made the environment conducive to trade and investment.

Attia, Sayed Moawad

2009-01-01

174

The Economics of Autism in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This was the first study ever done on the cost consequences of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD in Egypt or any other developing/industrializing country. The following questions were empirically investigated: What are the economic costs of ASD in Egypt and how do they compare with developed/industrialized countries? Why are cost consequences important in formulating ASD policy in Egypt and comparable countries? Approach: A statistical sample of 185 households, with at least 1 autistic family member, in the Greater Cairo Region was surveyed. Households were drawn from 3 distinct geographic clusters (urban, suburban and rural. Cluster sampling results were Chi-square (?2 tested. In addition, relevant ASD policies were content-analyzed. Results: We discovered that care and support for autistic Egyptian children and adults are typically based on a household-provider model, in contrast to western, institution-based models. ASD costs in Egypt largely derive from much higher investments in time, attention and behavioral adaptation on the part of family caregivers. Hence, autism cost consequences in Egypt significantly differ from many developed countries. Conclusion: Opportunity and transaction costs, feedback effects and spillover consequences of the household-provider model should be carefully considered in health policy formulation. Making autism care and support available, affordable and reliable should be a major health concern of the state.

Roger Lee Mendoza

2010-01-01

175

Radiopharmaceuticals production activities in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Applications of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the field of nuclear medicine in Egypt have increased so rapidly in the last few years. At present, a large number of hospitals are utilizing these radioisotopic techniques for both diagnosis and treatment. The following production activities are taking place in the Egyptian Radioisotope Production laboratories. By utilizing the research reactor a large number of radioisotopes which find wide applications in nuclear medicine were produced, such as iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-24, potassium-42 and molybdenum-99 / technetium-99m generators. Gallium-67, indium-111 and iodine-123 will be produced locally after installation of the cyclotron at the end of 1998. A large number of Tc-99m based kits for diagnostic medical applications have been produced. Also, many radiopharmaceuticals labelled with iodine-131 were produced. The radioisotope production laboratory is able to supply many hospitals with the radioimmunoassay kits of the thyroid related hormones (T4, T3 and TSH). Research and development activities are taking place in the field of monoclonal antibodies and tumor markers with special consideration of AFP, CEA, PSA and ?hCG. (author)

176

Earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams and nuclear power plants. Setting of nuclear power plants becomes of increasing important in northern Egypt with the commitment towards promoting nuclear electric generation. Therefore, the annual seismic hazard maps with non-exceedence probability of 80%, 85% and 90% are given. These maps show that northern Egypt is severely affects by earthquakes from potential sources around Sinai peninsula. Three sites (Nile Delta, Cairo, and Ismailia region) have been chosen to estimated the earthquake hazard in more detailes to serve as a basic parameter to the safety factor of different projects in these regions. A seismic safety factor of intensity 8.5 should be considered in designing the vital projects in northern Egypt. (author)

177

Will Egypt escape the AIDS epidemic?  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from Egypt bolster UN figures which suggest that north Africa and the Middle East are escaping the worse of the AIDS epidemic. The prevalence of the infection in donated blood in Egypt has remained very low over the past seven years, and prevalence has also remained low among people whose behavior would normally place them at risk of infection. Because cofactors for the spread of AIDS exist in Egypt and condom use is minimal, a likely reason why the epidemic has not had its usual impact is because the population adheres to the Islamic moral code which forbids adultery, premarital sex, and homosexuality. Thus, HIV infection may exist in small groups but is unlikely to spread into the general population. PMID:9100637

Lenton, C

1997-04-01

178

Horizontal canal type BPPV: bilaterally affected case treated with canal plugging and Lempert's maneuver.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 54-year-old woman complained of positional vertigo. During 3 months' observation, the patient showed mostly geotropic or apogeotropic nystagmus due to right canalolithiasis or cupulolithiasis, however, she sometimes showed nystagmus which suggested left horizontal canalolithiasis. We suspected that she suffered from bilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and performed Lempert's maneuver for both directions, however, they were ineffective. She underwent canal plugging for right horizontal canal. After surgery she showed no positional nystagmus of right horizontal canal origin. However, apogeotropic nystagmus of the left horizontal canal origin was still observed. This nystagmus changed to geotropic nystagmus and finally disappeared following Lempert's maneuver for the left side. Bilateral horizontal canal BPPV is difficult to be resolved, probably because physical treatment for one side would move debris to the cupula in the other canal. Canal plugging combined with Lempert's maneuver to the other side is one treatment option for intractable bilateral horizontal canal BPPV. PMID:14981331

Horii, Arata; Imai, Takao; Mishiro, Yasuo; Yamaji, Yoshiko; Mitani, Kenji; Kawashima, Takayuki; Kubo, Takeshi

2003-01-01

179

Reaching women in Egypt: a success story  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

Ahmed Mousa

2009-06-01

180

Updating radiation protection regulations in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this treatise is to present -the rational steps taken in the process of updating the Radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt. The contents of the review will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities. Furthermore, the various committees formed with responsibilities for specific issues are indicated, including the role of the Ministry of Health (MOH), and that of the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA). Finally, the efforts made towards updating the radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt are highlighted. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Paragangliomas of the spinal canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an aggressive growth pattern with early, local paraspinal recurrence and, eventually, intradural metastatic spread. This type of growth pattern has not been described previously. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal are more common than previously thought and can be located anywhere along the spine, although the lumbosacral level is the most common. Their appearance on MRI can not disinguish them from other tumours in the spinal canal. Even though paragangliomas in general are benign and slowly growing their growth pattern can vary and be more aggressive, to the point of metastatic spread. (orig.)

Sundgren, P.; Annertz, M.; Holtaas, S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Lund (Sweden); Englund, E. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital of Lund (Sweden); Stroemblad, L.G. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital of Lund (Sweden)

1999-10-01

182

Paragangliomas of the spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an aggressive growth pattern with early, local paraspinal recurrence and, eventually, intradural metastatic spread. This type of growth pattern has not been described previously. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal are more common than previously thought and can be located anywhere along the spine, although the lumbosacral level is the most common. Their appearance on MRI can not disinguish them from other tumours in the spinal canal. Even though paragangliomas in general are benign and slowly growing their growth pattern can vary and be more aggressive, to the point of metastatic spread. (orig.)

183

Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt / Monitoramento de cistos parasitarios no cerebro de um rebanho de ovinos no Egito  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cistos cerebrais parasitários constituem um grande problema para o gado. Entre estes, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são predominantes. Aqui, um número total de 60 ovelhas obtidas em uma fazenda particular na província Suez, Egito, foram examinadas post-mortem para a detecção de cistos parasitários visív [...] eis e microscopicamente para detectar cistos de pequenas dimensões. A necropsia revelou cistos medindo entre 0,5-6,5 cm de diâmetro, preenchidos com um fluido transparente, contendo um grande número de protoscolices. Por conseguinte, os cistos foram identificados como o metacestóide Coenurus cerebralis. Entre as ovelhas examinadas, 11 animais (7 machos e 4 fêmeas) (18,3%) estavam infectados. A maior parte dos cistos estavam localizados nos hemisférios cerebrais, com números variando de um a três em ovinos infectados. O efeito da presença de cistos no tecido do cérebro foi avaliado. Histopatologicamente, pseudocistos de Toxoplasma gondii foram encontrados em dois animais sem reações inflamatórias detectáveis. Em conclusão, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são graves problemas parasitários que desempenham um papel significativo no manejo de ovelhas no Egito, como resultado do contacto íntimo dos animais com os cães e gatos, que desempenham um papel crítico no ciclo de vida desses parasitas. Abstract in english Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to dete [...] ct small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscolices. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites.

Shehata, Anwar; Emad, Mahdy; Khalid Ali, El-Nesr; Khaled Mohamed, El-Dakhly; Adel, Shalaby; Tokuma, Yanai.

184

Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt / Monitoramento de cistos parasitarios no cerebro de um rebanho de ovinos no Egito  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cistos cerebrais parasitários constituem um grande problema para o gado. Entre estes, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são predominantes. Aqui, um número total de 60 ovelhas obtidas em uma fazenda particular na província Suez, Egito, foram examinadas post-mortem para a detecção de cistos parasitários visív [...] eis e microscopicamente para detectar cistos de pequenas dimensões. A necropsia revelou cistos medindo entre 0,5-6,5 cm de diâmetro, preenchidos com um fluido transparente, contendo um grande número de protoscolices. Por conseguinte, os cistos foram identificados como o metacestóide Coenurus cerebralis. Entre as ovelhas examinadas, 11 animais (7 machos e 4 fêmeas) (18,3%) estavam infectados. A maior parte dos cistos estavam localizados nos hemisférios cerebrais, com números variando de um a três em ovinos infectados. O efeito da presença de cistos no tecido do cérebro foi avaliado. Histopatologicamente, pseudocistos de Toxoplasma gondii foram encontrados em dois animais sem reações inflamatórias detectáveis. Em conclusão, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são graves problemas parasitários que desempenham um papel significativo no manejo de ovelhas no Egito, como resultado do contacto íntimo dos animais com os cães e gatos, que desempenham um papel crítico no ciclo de vida desses parasitas. Abstract in english Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to dete [...] ct small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscolices. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites.

Shehata, Anwar; Emad, Mahdy; Khalid Ali, El-Nesr; Khaled Mohamed, El-Dakhly; Adel, Shalaby; Tokuma, Yanai.

2013-09-01

185

Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

Reinhardt, R.

1987-07-01

186

Variações anatómicas do canal mandibular  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O canal mandibular é uma estrutura radiograficamente delimitada por duas margens radiopacas, localizado no osso da mandíbula desde o buraco mandibular até ao buraco mentoniano, que serve de ducto para o nervo alveolar inferior, estrutura de vital importância nos tratamentos efectuados na mandíbula e, se não for correctamente identificada, por levar ao insucesso destes mesmos tratamentos. A sua anatomia padrão pode sofrer algumas alterações consideradas normais entre ...

Morgado, Tito

2013-01-01

187

Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)

188

Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.

Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld

1998-04-01

189

Prevalence of Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroups in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The usual etiologic agent of bacterial meningitis in Egypt is Neisseria meningitidis Group A. Examination of meningococcal carrier isolates taken from several populations over a two year period revealed a surprising number of non-A strains, and 78% of 700...

J. E. Sippel, N. I. Girgis, A. El Ghoroury, M. H. Wahdan, R. Hablas

1973-01-01

190

Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment. Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social relationships. Not only do the children grow up in a different physical context, they are also exposed to new norms, values and behaviour that influences their everyday life and shape their identity. Especially the change from living in large, extended families to living in nuclear families as well as women’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed’ countries

Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

2007-01-01

191

Experience with the INES scale in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty years experience with Egypt first Research Reactor (ET-RR-1) operation, was introduced focusing on the famous events that were initiated and the procedures that were taken for their recovery or mitigation is given. Four out of seven events can be attributed to human errors, the events if classified using the INES

192

Journey to Egypt: A Board Game  

Science.gov (United States)

This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

Selvidge, Ellen

2006-01-01

193

Power competition in Nasser´s Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper has a double aim. First, to present briefly part of the basic theoretical aspects of ‘sociology of power’approach and, second, to expose the results obtained by its application on the case of Egypt during the years 1952-1970. This paper is based on a previous research, published under the title “Nasser’s National Interest. A ‘Sociology of Power’ Analysis”. For the purposes of this paper, we develop a part of the theoretical framework of the previous work, we skip its application on the case of Egypt and we present directly in the second part the conclusions we have obtained from the theory’s application in the case study of Egypt during the former research. The first part, the theoretical one, is analysing four main concepts of our approach: actors, elites, circular relations and differential accumulation of power and resources of power. A short reference follows to the pushing need for the international relations’ discipline to study the relations between actors, crossing the national boarders, in accordance to the theoretical framework previously exposed. After the theoretical part, the second part focuses on the empirical case, with the purpose to present the conclusions from the application of the theoretical framework on Nasser’s Egypt.

Kemou, Athina

2009-12-01

194

Review of parasitic zoonoses in egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

Youssef, Ahmed I; Uga, Shoji

2014-03-01

195

Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

2009-01-01

196

Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks  

CERN Document Server

The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks governed by Boolean nested canalizing functions, which previously required extensive simulations. Recently, the concept of nested canalizing functions has been generalized to include multistate functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper contains a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. In addition, the concept of nested canalization is further generalized and closed formulas for the number of such generalized fun...

Kadelka, Claus; Adeyeye, John O; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

2014-01-01

197

Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture by using a cadaver vertebra. EMI, CT 5005 scanner was used. Best condition to observe the thoracic canal by CT was nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permited within about 10/sup 0/ in configuration and dimension. Configuration of 10 normal thoracic canals at each vertebral level was assessed and the dimensions of the canal at these levels were measured. In the cases of developmental cervical stenosis, the thoracic canal showed narrow especially in sagittal diameter. On the other hand it did not show marked difference in transverse diameter. In 4 cases of ossification of the yellow ligament treated surgically, 3 cases showed narrow thoracic canal on CT scan and narrow cervical canal in conventional radiographs.

Nakamura, S.; Hattori, S.; Kawai, S.; Saiki, K.; Oda, H. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-06-01

198

Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture by using a cadaver vertebra. EMI, CT 5005 scanner was used. Best condition to observe the thoracic canal by CT was nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permited within about 100 in configuration and dimention. Configuration of 10 normal thoracic canals at each vertebral level was assessed and the dimentions of the canal at these levels were measured. In the cases of developmental cervical stenosis, the thoracic canal showed narrow especially in sagittal diameter. On the other hand it did not show marked difference in transverse diameter. In 4 cases of ossification of the yellow ligament treated surgically, 3 cases showed narrow thoracic canal on CT scan and narrow cervical canal in conventional radiographs. (author)

199

Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions and independent experts. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture and a full understanding of the energy industry and market in Egypt, the way they operate and their long-term perspectives

200

Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author).

Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

1995-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

202

Correcting for ear canal collapse during audiometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hearing thresholds of 20 subjects with normal hearing and normal ear canals and two subjects with collapsible ear canals were measured at octave frequencies from 250 to 8000 Hz under standard transducers (TDH-39) fitted with standard cushions (MX-41/AR) and experimental cushions (Telephonics 266CIII). When correction factors based on normal threshold differences were applied, thresholds obtained under the experimental cushion reasonably approximated the actual hearing of individuals with collapsible canals. PMID:6628851

Rizzo, S R

1983-01-01

203

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

204

Controls on the development and evolution of transfer zones: the influence of basement structure and sedimentary thickness in the Suez rift and Red Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed field mapping of the northern part of the Gebel Um Hammad-Gebel Duwi area on the western margin of the Red Sea indicates oppositely dipping rift blocks separated by a 60-km long, WNW-ESE-oriented, reactivated pre-rift fault of Late Precambrian age parallel to the Najd fault system of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. This fault forms the Sudmain transfer zone between the oppositely tilted half-grabens in the northwestern Red Sea region and is associated by a SE-plunging syncline. This pre-rift fault was reactivated by dextral transtension during the Late Oligocene rift opening. Compared to the transfer zones of the Suez rift, the Sudmain transfer zone is narrower. The Gebel Sufr El Dara transfer zone (between the southern and central half-grabens of the Suez rift) is 20 km wide and is also controlled by pre-rift faults oriented ENE-WSW. The latter were reactivated by left-lateral slip during the rift opening. On the other hand, the Gharandal transfer zone (northern part of the Suez rift) is 40-60 km wide and is not affected by the pre-rift faults in the Precambrian basement, perhaps owing to the large thickness of pre-rift sedimentary rocks in this area. The location of the Gharandal transfer zone was controlled by a NE-SW-oriented 'Syrian arc' fold. This study suggests that the northward increase in the width of transfer zones as well as the northward decrease in the length of half-grabens in the Suez-northern Red Sea rift system are related to the corresponding increase in the thickness of pre-rift Phanerozoic sedimentary section from about 400 m in the south to about 1800 m in the north.

Moustafa, Adel R.

1997-06-01

205

Computed tomography of the facial canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological details of the facial canal was investigated by computed tomography. In the first part of this study, dry skulls were used to delineate the full course of the facial canal by computed tomography. In the second part of this study, the patients with chronic otitis media and secondary cholesteatoma were evaluated. The labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the canal were well demonstrated with the axial scanning, and the mastoid part with the coronal scanning. Moreover, computed tomography showed excellent delineation of the middle ear contents. In patients with secondary cholesteatoma, the destructions of the intratympanic course of the bony facial canal were also assessed preoperatively. (author)

206

Comparison of the effect of five root canal preparation techniques on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many methods and techniques of canal preparation work well in large and relatively straight canals. However, in severely curved canals, the complexity increases markedly, and techniques rendering good results in usual cases may be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five root canal preparation techniques on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 100 simulated canal blocks with similar hardness were made from polyester. The degree of curvature was 45º with a radius of 2.55 mm and a straight part of 8mm. The blocks were prepared with five different techniques (20 canals in each group as follows: 1-Stepback 2- Passive step back 3- Balanced force using flex-R files 4- Balanced force using Ni-Ti hand instruments 5- Hybrid using a rotary Ni-Ti system (XtremRace. Digital photographs were taken from pre- and post instrumentation colored canals. Then images were superimposed and analyzed by an image editing software. The amount of removed material from the inner and outer canal walls was measured at five levels: 1-The canal orifice (O 2-The halfway between the orifice and the beginning of the curve (HO 3-The beginning of the curve (BC 4-The apex of the curve (AC and 5-The endpoint of preparation (EP. Additionally, the time of instrumentation, instrument failure and changes in working length were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Mean transportation was towards the outer aspect of the curve at the EP in all canals but there were no significant differences between the studied groups. At the BC point, all of the canals were transported towards the inner aspect of the curve and there were significant differences for both transportation values & direction among different groups. The highest amount of transportation was in step back and the lowest, in hybrid group. The highest transportation value was in step back and the lowest in balanced force group. Fractured and deformed instruments were observed in Flex-R files. The shortest canal preparation time was seen in XtremRace and the slowest, in Passive step back groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, changes in canal curvature were less with techniques using nickel titanium instruments and the fastest technique with least transportation was XtremRace.

Sheykhrezaee MS

2007-01-01

207

Enhancement of Seed Yield and Its Components in Some Promising Sesame Lines Using Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. Against Soil-borne Fungal Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological control by Trichoderma spp. has been considered as a biocontrol agents to protect plants against diseases in several crops. Its environmentally friendly antagonists against plant pathogenic fungi, especially soil born fungi, compared with chemical control. Therefore, a pot experiment at the Experimental Plant Breeding Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt was conducted over two years (2009 and 2010) to study the possibility of enhancement the yield an...

El-bramawy, M. A. S.; El-sarag, E. E.

2012-01-01

208

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Science.gov (United States)

...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment System, which...

2010-01-01

209

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2010-04-01

210

Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dalia M El-Sebaity1, Wael Soliman1, Asmaa MA Soliman2, Ahmed M Fathalla11Department of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, EgyptPurpose: To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt.Methods: All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalmology Department of Assiut University between July 2009 and July 2010 were included in the study. The demographic data of all patients and characteristics of the injury events were determined. The initial visual acuity and final visual acuity after 3 months follow-up were recorded.Results: One hundred and fifty patients were included. The majority of injuries occurred in children aged 2–7 years (50.7%. There were 106 (70.7% boys and 44 (29.3% girls. The highest proportion of injuries occurred in the street (54.7% followed by the home (32.7%. Open globe injuries accounted for 67.3% of injuries, closed globe for 30.7%, and chemical injuries for 2%. The most common causes were wood, stones, missiles, and glass. LogMar best corrected visual acuity at 3 months follow-up was: 0–1 in 13.3%; <1–1.3 in 27.3%; <1.3–perception of light (PL in 56%; and no perception of light (NPL in 3.3%.Conclusions: Pediatric ocular trauma among patients referred to our tertiary ophthalmology referral center in Upper Egypt over a period of 1 year was 3.7%. Of these, 67.3% of cases had open globe injury, 30.7% had closed injury, and only 2% had chemical injury. In Upper Egypt, socioeconomic and sociocultural status, family negligence, and lack of supervision are important factors in pediatric eye injuries, as 92% of children were without adult supervision when the ocular trauma occurred. Nearly 86.6% of children with ocular trauma end up legally blind. Modification of these environmental risk factors is needed to decrease pediatric ocular morbidity.Keywords: ocular trauma, pediatric, epidemiology

El-Sebaity DM

2011-09-01

211

New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como estas prácticas lingüisticas guardan una similitud visual y oral con las grabaciones de vídeo, de baja resolución, que se hacen con teléfonos móviles y que aparecen después en los blogs políticos. Todas estas nuevas prácticas revelan formas emergentes de acción política y de disidencia en el Egipto actual.

Hirschkind, Charles

2010-06-01

212

Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is t...

Mohammad Asnaashari,; Nassimeh Safavi

2012-01-01

213

[Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

Fabra Campos, H

1991-01-01

214

33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth...

2010-07-01

215

Osteoma located in the external ear canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteomas of the temporal bone are rare, slowly growing,benign neoplasms. They can cause symptoms of conductivehearing loss and fullness in the ear. We aimed toreport the case of a 43-year-old female patient with osteomalocated in the external ear canal. J Clin Exp Invest2013; 4 (2: 221-222Key words: CT, external auditory canal, osteoma

Ekrem Karaka?

2013-06-01

216

Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

217

VARIACIONES ANATOMICAS DEL CANAL CONDILEO / ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE CONDYLAR CANAL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english The variations in vascular anatomy and cranial foramina have important implications for their accurately recognition as normal or pathological. The condylar vein exits the skull base through the condylar canal, communicating the jugular foramen and the condylar fossa. The main purpose of this report [...] was to asses the prevalence and normal anatomical patterns of the condylar canal . Eighty-one cadaveric skull base specimens were retrospectively examined for the unilateral or bilateral presence or absence of the canal. In addition, the condylar canal was classified for its relationship with the sigmoid-lateral sinus, in two types: Intrasinus canal type and Retrosinus canal type. The condylar canal was found bilaterally in 25 skulls (30.8% ); unilaterally in 25 skulls (30.8%) and was absent in 31 specimens (38.2%). A higher prevalence of Intrasinus canal type was found (54.3% ). Although it was only identified 2 cases (2.4% ) of retrosinus canaltype, associated forms (4.9%) were discovered during examination. Of the unilateral cases, 14 cases were right sided and 11 cases were left sided (17.8% and 13.5% among all cases, respectively). The condylar canal has two anatomical patterns: intrasinus canal type and retrosinus canal type. This structure may have some clinical relevance, and it should not be misinterpreted as abnormal during image studies

Marcelo, Galarza; Hyoun, Yun Jong; Alicia, Merlo; Alfonso H., Albanese; Alfonso R., Albanese.

1998-07-01

218

VARIACIONES ANATOMICAS DEL CANAL CONDILEO ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE CONDYLAR CANAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The variations in vascular anatomy and cranial foramina have important implications for their accurately recognition as normal or pathological. The condylar vein exits the skull base through the condylar canal, communicating the jugular foramen and the condylar fossa. The main purpose of this report was to asses the prevalence and normal anatomical patterns of the condylar canal . Eighty-one cadaveric skull base specimens were retrospectively examined for the unilateral or bilateral presence or absence of the canal. In addition, the condylar canal was classified for its relationship with the sigmoid-lateral sinus, in two types: Intrasinus canal type and Retrosinus canal type. The condylar canal was found bilaterally in 25 skulls (30.8% ; unilaterally in 25 skulls (30.8% and was absent in 31 specimens (38.2%. A higher prevalence of Intrasinus canal type was found (54.3% . Although it was only identified 2 cases (2.4% of retrosinus canaltype, associated forms (4.9% were discovered during examination. Of the unilateral cases, 14 cases were right sided and 11 cases were left sided (17.8% and 13.5% among all cases, respectively. The condylar canal has two anatomical patterns: intrasinus canal type and retrosinus canal type. This structure may have some clinical relevance, and it should not be misinterpreted as abnormal during image studies

Marcelo Galarza

1998-07-01

219

Metoptic canal, duplication of the optic canal and Warwick’s foramen in human orbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The region of the optic strut is sometimes traversed by some minor canals whose incidence and general characteristics have never been studied. As such canals could be the route for vessels that could interfere in the surgery of the orbital apex, we undertook a detailed anatomical study on a vast collection of dry skulls. The examination of 943 dry adult skulls and 360 foetal skulls was carried out to precise the anatomy of canals in the optic strut area, their development and relationships with the optic canal. A canal traversing the optic strut was present in 8.54 % of the orbits. Based on diameter, position within the optic strut, and thickness of the bony plate separating it from the optic canal or from the superior orbital fissure, the canals piercing the optic strut were classified into four types, which include the well-known duplication of the optic canal, different aspects of the metoptic canal and a type of canal that to our knowledge has never been reported. Warwick’s foramen was found in 0.74 % of orbits. The area of the optic strut is the frequent site of canals joining the orbit with the middle cranial fossa. Some of them can host the ophthalmic artery; others could be run by minor vessels which, however, could be the source of annoying bleedings in surgical procedures. PMID:23959928

Bertelli, Eugenio

2014-01-01

220

Type III apical transportation of root canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful. PMID:22557916

Mantri, Shiv P; Kapur, Ravi; Gupta, Niharika A; Kapur, Charu A

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Connecting the national and the virtual: can Facebook activism remain relevant after Egypt’s January 25 uprising?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this article is to ground the debate about the connection between social media and popular uprisings in the specific context of recent social and political trends in Egypt. This is crucial when attempting to draw conclusions about the factors and mechanisms that produced Egypt’s January 25, 2011, revolution and, more importantly, whether social media can contribute to building a new political culture to support the revolution. Although it took just 18 days of protests to fo...

Iskander, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

222

Joint inversion of VES and TEM data for investigation of geothermal resources and sea water intrusion at Hammam Mousa hot spring, Sinai, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Geoelectrical methods are pioneer in geothermal resources exploration. With the advent of computing technology, it has become convenient to apply sophisticated data analysis and joint inversion to different field data sets. Numerous studies have shown that, the joint interpretation of galvanic and inductive data, where a single model satisfies both data sets, will generally enhance the resolution of the subsurface resistivity structure. Thus, the inclusion of inductive data in the VES data set is expected to reduce problems with layer suppression, reduce the low and high resistivity equivalences that may be encountered with this method. In this work, DC resistivity and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at Hammam Mousa area, Sinai, Egypt to explore the geothermal resources, groundwater aquifer and the effect of sea water invasion on this aquifer. The field survey comprises 19 DC resistivity soundings (VESes) with AB/2 up to 1000m and 27 transient electromagnetic (TEM) stations using a square loop of 25 m side length. Both data sets were firstly inverted in 1-D scheme using a nonlinear least-squares method and gave a layered-earth resistivity model. Besides, the joint interpretation of both VES and TEM data, using the available geological information as a constraining factor, could successfully enhance the inversion results. The geoelectrical cross section resulted from the inversion process shows the effect of the Suez Gulf water intrusion in the western part of the study area. Meanwhile, hot water reduces the resistivity values drastically near the hot spring.

223

Egypt: Politics in the New Millennium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It seems that with the new millennium, some potentially interesting changes have emerged within the Egyptian political arena. Whether these are linked to attempts at US democratic promotion in the Middle East is difficult to substantiate. What seems clear however is such reforms appear to have produced only the most minor of changes to the prevailing authoritarian system of contemporary Egypt. These changes have included reforms ranging from changes in legislative elections procedures (2000; internal re-structuring within the NDP(2001/2; a proposed revision of presidential referendum procedures (March 2005; followed by the first presidential elections in Egypt (September 2005 and new legislative elections a few months later (November-December 2005. This article will examine these political developments in an effort to gauge the degree to which such changes can potentially contribute towards the democratization of Egyptian politics in the new millennium.

Maye Kassem

2006-10-01

224

Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

225

Anthropogenic enhancement of Egypt's Mediterranean fishery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The highly productive coastal Mediterranean fishery off the Nile River delta collapsed after the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1965. But the fishery has been recovering dramatically since the mid-1980s, coincident with large increases in fertilizer application and sewage discharge in Egypt. We use stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) to demonstrate that 60%-100% of the current fishery production may be from primary production stimulated by nutrients from fertilizer and sewage runoff. Although the establishment of the dam put Egypt in an ideal position to observe the impact of rapid increases in nutrient loading on coastal productivity in an extremely oligotrophic sea, the Egyptian situation is not unique. Such anthropogenically enhanced fisheries also may occur along the northern rim of the Mediterranean and offshore of some rapidly developing tropical countries, where nutrient concentrations in the coastal waters were previously very low. PMID:19164510

Oczkowski, Autumn J; Nixon, Scott W; Granger, Stephen L; El-Sayed, Abdel-Fattah M; McKinney, Richard A

2009-02-01

226

Tick paralysis: first zoonosis record in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. Although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide. Tick paralysis was demonstrated for the first time in Egypt among four children living in rural area at Giza Governorate. The clinical pictures were confused with rabies; myasthensia gravis; botulism; diphtheritic polyneuropathy encountered in rural areas. The recovery of tick infesting the four little children and negative clinical and laboratory data of all diseases denoted tick paralysis. The encountered ticks infesting their animals were Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs, Hyalomma dromedarii on camels and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Haemaphysalis sp. on goats. The case was recognized as first record of tick paralysis in Egypt. PMID:22662597

Mosabah, Amira A Abd El-rahman; Morsy, Tosson A

2012-04-01

227

MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

Maryam Barzin

2010-05-01

228

Using ArcGIS to Study the New Lakes in the Toshka Basin in Egypt and Evaluate Egypt's New Valley Project  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1978, the Egyptians constructed a canal known as the Toshka Spillway from Lake Nasser into a low area to the west to allow spillover of Lake Nasser water. Despite the fact that the spillway was created in 1978, it wasn't until the late 1990s that Lake Nasser actually filled up to the level of the spillway canal and the overflow lakes began to form. In November of 1998, US astronauts orbiting in the Space Shuttle noticed the lakes filling for the first time, and they have had water in them ever since. Egypt has embarked on a long-term and far-reaching irrigation plan to create habitable land away from the Nile River Valley. The Toshka Lakes are not, however, a formal part of the project. One of the main points of the exercise is to have students use both their knowledge of Saharan hydrogeology and GIS analyses to evaluate whether the Egyptians are wise not to use the lakes as part of the proposed system of water distribution. In this exercise, students download and prepare their own SRTM DEMs and learn how to determine areas and volumes using ArcGIS. They can then ask questions and use ArcGIS to determine the answers. How much water is in the Toshka Lakes? What happens if Lake Nasser rises and more water flows down the canal? Will more lakes form, or will the lakes that are there just get bigger? How much water might be evaporating from the lake surfaces? How much water has to flow down the canal to keep the lakes at a particular level? What might happen as the annual Nile flood fluctuates from year to year? The document posted for downloading contains two homework assignments, two in-class activities, and a wrap-up assignment. You can also download a GIS Primer (Acrobat (PDF) 1.2MB Mar30 10) that we have written, which is a simple GIS "how-to" manual for tasks including those used in this exercise.

Tewksbury, Barb

229

MERS coronaviruses in dromedary camels, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified the near-full-genome sequence (29,908 nt, >99%) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a nasal swab specimen from a dromedary camel in Egypt. We found that viruses genetically very similar to human MERS-CoV are infecting dromedaries beyond the Arabian Peninsula, where human MERS-CoV infections have not yet been detected. PMID:24856660

Chu, Daniel K W; Poon, Leo L M; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S; Siu, Lewis Y; Guan, Yi; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Peiris, Malik; Kayali, Ghazi

2014-06-01

230

Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the ide...

Hussein, Nagwa R. A.; Hamed, Sohir T.; Zaki, Muhammed A.; Osman, Ahmed K.

2012-01-01

231

Models of Mathematics Curriculum Development in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need for developing mathematics curricula was clarified. Models of mathematics curriculum development in Egypt were identified as: \\"Temporary Committees\\" (TC), center of developing curriculum and educational materials (CDCEM), \\"National conferences\\" (NC) and \\"Educational standards\\" (ES). The advantages and disadvantages of each one of these models were evaluated. Then a new model was suggested covering the whole advantages of these models and avoiding their disadvantages.

Mina, Fayez M.

2012-01-01

232

Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt  

CERN Document Server

Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

2013-01-01

233

5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Comprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que ac [...] tualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades Abstract in english The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are current [...] ly being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseases

A. Rosalie, David.

2000-01-01

234

5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are currently being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseasesComprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que actualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades

A. Rosalie David

2000-01-01

235

Egypt sees its future in gas; L`Egypte voit son avenir dans le gaz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt oil production is stagnating (44 - 45 Mt per year) while its known gas reserves are growing (600 - 800 Gm{sup 3} in the Nile delta); thus, Egypt has decided to re-orientate its energy priorities and to become a regional hub for natural gas business. The gas production is 14 Gm{sup 3} per year and is largely used on the domestic market which will remain a priority (substitution of gas from oil is encouraged for power production and vehicles); exports should be developed towards the eastern mediterranean countries

Anon.

1997-12-31

236

Model equations for Calculating Rn-gas Concentrations in Air of Uranium Exploratory Tunnels, Allouga, West-Central Sinai , Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gabal Allouga area is located some 40 km due east from Abu Zenima town on the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, West-Central Sinai, Egypt. A network of exploratory tunnels totaling 670m in length and approximately 2x2 m in cross section, were excavated within a paleosol clayey bed. They host (Fe, Mn)-, Cu-, and U-mineralizations. Portions of the tunnels are naturally ventilated and others portions are non-ventilated and show ground water seepage through fractures. Model equations were developed for calculating the Rn-gas concentrations in the air of the tunnels under dry conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by air flow through porous media as well as for wet conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by ground water flow into the tunnels. Under dry conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations(15.2-60.6 PCi/1) are consistent with measured values by active techniques (3.26-22.85 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (19-69.1 pCi/1) when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha= 0.05-0.2), the emanating rock thickness (X=10 cm) and U-concentration averages 30 ppm. Under wet and non-ventilated conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations (159-1248 pCi/1) are consistent with the measured values by active techniques (231-1348 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (144-999pCi/1), when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha=0.1-0.25), the ground water flow (F=0.04-0.10 ml/s-1cm-2) and U-concertrations (100-250ppm)

237

Coupled effects of canal lining and multi-layered soil structure on canal seepage and soil water dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryPonding tests were conducted in the Shiyang River Basin in Northwest China to assess canal leakage characteristics. Four anti-seepage constructions (concrete lining, pebble lining, clay lining plus compacted canal bed, compacted canal bed only) were performed on four canal sections, which were situated in multi-layered soils. The canal sections were tested using a two-stage approach: First, a stable water level was maintained; second, a stage where the water level in the canal section was permitted to drop. The canal seepage rate and the soil water content near the canal bed were monitored during each stage and in each canal section. Soil texture, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity were determined in each canal section and soil layer. Double ring infiltration tests were performed to investigate infiltration behaviour from the canal sections. The saturated-unsaturated flow model HYDRUS-2D was applied to simulate canal seepage and the local soil water response. The simulation results compared well with the monitored data, indicating that the model can reliably simulate canal seepage under these complex soil structures and different canal liners. Both experimental results and numerical modelling show that the clay lining plus compacted canal bed provides the best anti-seepage performance, followed by compacted canal bed only, then pebble and concrete lining. Simulation results also predicted that the soil water content was discontinuous at the interface of distinct soil layers, and that the range and form of wetting front varied greatly in the four canal sections, with a larger wetted area for the more permeable canal. Simulations were performed to study the sensitivity of canal seepage to the permeability of each soil layer and canal liner. The results, confirmed by the double-ring infiltration tests, indicated that the canal lining is not the only factor affecting canal seepage: The soil permeability can also influence the seepage, especially where there is a low permeability layer (e.g., compacted soil layer) close to the canal.

Yao, Liqiang; Feng, Shaoyuan; Mao, Xiaomin; Huo, Zailin; Kang, Shaozhong; Barry, D. A.

2012-04-01

238

[Bilateral auditory canal squamous cell carcinoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

Only a small number of cases of bilateral carcinomas of the external ear canal have been described in the literature. We present the first case of a 72 year old male patient with a bilateral squamous cell carcinoma of the external ear canal at a very early stage. A computed tomography of the temporal bone revealed a well-pneumatized mastoid on both sides. Both external ear canals were filled with soft tissue without radiological signs of destruction of the adjacent bone. The carcinomas of the external ear canal were surgically removed using a canal-wall down technique and a selective neck dissection of regions II-IV. Histology confirmed a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the external ear canal without lymph node metastasis on both sides (TNM classification: pT1 G2 N0 M0 R0). Bilateral radiation therapy with 59.4 Gy resulted in stenosis of both ear canals. Hearing rehabilitation was achieved with bone conductive hearing glasses. Diagnosis und therapy of bilateral external ear carcinomas are presented and discussed. PMID:15711807

Shagdarsuren, S; Schwaab, M; Kissler, M; Lautermann, J; Sudhoff, H

2006-01-01

239

How to bond to root canal dentin  

Science.gov (United States)

Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

2014-01-01

240

Cucullanus egyptae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cucullanidae) infecting the European eel Anguilla anguilla in Egypt. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 80 specimens of the European eel Anguilla anguilla were collected during the period from February 2013 to March 2014 at the coast of the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea, Egypt). A new species of parasitic nematodes was recovered and described as Cucullanus egyptae. It was found in the eel's intestine with a prevalence of 68.7%. The morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worms had a wide cephalic extremity with a slit-like oral aperture being surrounded by a cuticular ring and delimited internally by a row of small teeth in addition to four sub-median cephalic papillae and one pair of lateral amphids. Body measurements showed that the male worms were smaller than females measuring 7.5-8.9 mm (8.3?±?0.2) in length and 1.6-1.9 mm (1.8?±?0.1) in width. Females measured 12.9-13.5 mm (13.1?±?0.2) in length and 2.9-3.2 mm (3.1?±?0.1) in width. The posterior end of the males is provided with ten pairs of caudal papillae and two long spicules which are slightly sclerotized, equal in size measuring 0.59-0.65 mm (0.62?±?0.01) in length. Comparing the present worms with other species of the genus Cucullanus, several similarities were observed. However, peculiar new characteristics such as the precloacal sucker (especially the spicula length), the arrangement and the distribution of the post-cloacal papillae, and the position of the excretory pore make it reasonable to describe a new species. The sequence data of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) obtained from the present nematode supported its taxonomic position within the genus Cucullanus. The new species is closely related to the first clade of Spirurina and even more closely related to Cucullanus dodsworthi as a sister taxon with a high percentage of identity. The sequence of the recorded SSU rDNA of this parasite is deposited in the GenBank with the accession no. KF681520. It is proposed to name the new species C. egyptae as the first representative of Cucullanidae in Egypt with a new host record. PMID:25030116

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Morsy, Kareem; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mohammed, Sanna

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

Pahl, Ronald H.

1998-01-01

242

Evolution of living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Egypt recently introduced LDLT with reasonable outcomes; yet, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. We hope that the initial success in LDLT will not deter the efforts to legalize cadaveric organ donation in Egypt.

Hatem Khalaf

2005-09-01

243

Anterior canal BPPV and apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV: two rare forms of vertical canalolithiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent form of BPPV. It is characterized by a paroxysmal positioning nystagmus evoked through Dix-Hallpike and Semont positioning tests. Anterior canal BPPV (AC) is more rare than posterior canal BPPV; it presents a prevalent down beating positioning nystagmus, with a torsional component clockwise for the left canal, counterclockwise for the right canal. Due to the possible lack of the torsional component, it is sometimes difficult to identify the affected ear. An apogeotropic variant of posterior BPPV (APC) has recently been described, characterised by a paroxysmal positional nystagmus in the opposite direction to the one evoked in posterior canal BPPV: the linear component is down-beating, the torsional component is clockwise for the right canal, counter-clockwise for the left canal, so that a contra-lateral anterior canal BPPV could be simulated. During a 16 month period, of 934 BPPV patients observed, the authors identified 23 (2.5%) cases of apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV and 11 (1.2%) cases of anterior canal BPPV, diagnosed using the specific oculomotor patterns described in the literature. Anterior canal BPPV was treated with the repositioning manoeuvre proposed by Yacovino, which does not require identification of the affected side, whereas apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV was treated with the Quick Liberatory Rotation manoeuvre for the typical posterior canal BPPV, since in the Dix-Hallpike position otoliths are in the same position if they come either from the ampullary arm or from the non-ampullary arm. The direct resolution of BPPV (one step therapy) was obtained in 12/34 patients, 8/23 patients with APC and 4/11 patients with AC; canalar conversion into typical posterior canal BPPV, later treated through Quick Liberatory Rotation (two-step therapy), was obtained in 19 patients,14/23 with APC and 5/11 with AC. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Considering the effects of therapeutic manoeuvres, the authors propose a grading system for diagnosis of AC and APC: "certain" when a canalar conversion in ipsilateral typical posterior canal BPPV is obtained; "probable" when APC or AC are directly resolved; "possible" when disease is not resolved and cerebral neuroimaging is negative for neurological diseases. Our results show that the oculomotor patterns proposed in the literature are effective in diagnosing APC and AC, and that APC is more frequent than AC. Both of these rare forms of vertical canal BPPV can be treated effectively with liberatory manoeuvres. PMID:24882928

Califano, L; Salafia, F; Mazzone, S; Melillo, M G; Califano, M

2014-06-01

244

Inequality and megaprojects: The Panama Canal expansion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Panama Canal is one of the fundamental global transoceanic routes. In 1999 and after the management of the Canal was returned to the state of Panama, the PCA, a public/private organism, was formalised. The PCA is in charge of the management of boat traffic as well as the maintenance of this infrastructure. In 1999 a Master Plan was developed with the aim of modernizing the Canal to adapt it to the necessities of global maritime traffic as the carrying capacity of very large boats increase...

Aledo Tur, Antonio

2006-01-01

245

A permanent mandibular second molar with seven root canal systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report illustrates the nonsurgical endodontic management of a seven-canaled mandibular second molar. The root canal configuration presented as four mesial and three distal canals. Identification of the canal system was made with the aid of magnification, ultrasonics, and multiple angulated radiographs. Postoperative examination at 18 months showed a clinically asymptomatic tooth with resolution of the periapical pathology. PMID:24634902

Kottoor, Jojo; Paul, Kuriachan Kottanathu; Mathew, Joy; George, Saira; Mathew, Jain; Roy, Arun

2014-05-01

246

Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to the expected detrimental impacts on coastal zones, agriculture, water security as well as indirect social and health impacts. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Although Egypt is a non-annex I country not requiring any specific emission reduction or limitation targets under the Kyoto protocol, its National plans have included mitigation measures to reduce its greenhouse gases. The main sectors contributing to climate change in Egypt are energy, industry, agriculture and waste. Waste, on the other hand, has been accumulating in the streets of Egypt and along its water banks causing considerable air, soil and water pollution and indirect detrimental health impacts. However, this waste which is composed of organic municipal waste, agricultural residues, agro-industrial waste, animal manure and sewage sludge are valuable biomass resources. Utilizing the waste resources of Egypt especially the biomass or the organic component of this waste will not only solve some of the pressing economic needs of Egypt such as animal fodder, fertilizer and fuel but will also alleviate environmental burdens through decreasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in the sector of waste as well as those of energy, industry and agriculture. This paper quantifies the biomass resources in Egypt generated from different waste resources. Then it demonstrates the efforts that Egypt made to contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions reductions through the Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism (CDM. The projects in the waste sector already established in Egypt and approved as CDM projects are listed, which are related to waste management facilities and those which are waste to energy projects. Finally, a list of mitigation projects as proposed by the Egyptian government to decrease GHGs as related to the waste sector are enumerated.

Dalia Adel Nakhla

2013-06-01

247

Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture of thoracic spinal canal using a cadaver vertebra. EMI CT 5005 scanner was used and 13 mm thick slice of cadaver vertebra was obtained. After obtaining of CT picture, we made a same thick specimen of cadaver vertebra and compared the CT picture to softex x-ray picture. The best condition of thoracic spinal canal by CT showed nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle of thoracic spinal canal was permitted within 10/sup 0/ in measurement and in configuration. The precise location being scanned was known by using different length of radiopaque catheter markers taped on a patient's back and comparing CT pictures to x-ray picture. Normal thoracic spinal canal was examined and we observed normal thoracic spinal configurations and confirmed that the ratio of frontal diameter to sagittal diameter had a pattern.

Nakamura, S.; Hattori, S.; Kawai, S. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-12-01

248

Thermal history of the eastern Gulf of Suez, II. Reconstruction from apatite fission track and {40Ar }/{39Ar } K-feldspar measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Apatite fission track (AFT) measurements from Miocene graben-fill sediments of the eastern Gulf of Suez in three deep boreholes (Belayim 113 M-2/6, Ras Garra M-1 and Alma-2) yield a wide range of ages (from 125 to 320 Ma) and mean track-lengths (˜10.1-12.7 ?m). This range is similar to that recorded from Precambrian crystalline basement flanking the graben which is the major source for the rift fill. Since the AFT ages exceed the age of the host strata, which are presently at their highest post-depositional temperatures, the rift-related thermal regime is one of only moderate heating. Downhole AFT data in the Belayim 113 M-2/6 borehole attest to a higher rift temperature than in the Ras Garra M-1 borehole, some 85 km to the south, where little or no thermal overprinting is evident. These findings are consistent with previously reported bottom hole temperatures and vitrinite reflectance data in the study area. Despite the higher syn-rift thermal regime indicated for Belayim 113 M-2/6, apatite provenance ages in Ras Garra M-1 are considerably younger. Thus, the AFT data in the Ras Garra M-1 area do not record significant rift-related thermal effects, but rather, they mainly retain a pre-rift provenance signature which reflects the order and depth of erosion at the uplifted flanks. The younger AFT ages in Ras Garra M-1, despite the weaker rift-related thermal effect, suggest a deeper level proportional to an additional ˜5-10°C of exhumation of the uplifted crystalline basement southwards along the eastern rift flank by Mid-Miocene time. This result is consistent with earlier findings which indicate both increased extension and heat flow southwards in the Gulf of Suez, and earlier exhumation of the rift flank. Immediately preceding extension and opening of the Gulf of Suez, the most deeply exhumed basement rocks presently exposed on the rift flanks were heated to temperatures ?110°C (total annealing of apatite), but zircon FT clocks in sinai, {40Ar }/{39Ar } data from granite penetrated in graben drilling at ˜3.89 km further corroborates pre-rift palaeotemperatures <˜170°C for crystalline basement underlying the Gulf of Suez.

Kohn, B. P.; Feinstein, S.; Foster, D. A.; Steckler, M. S.; Eyal, M.

1997-12-01

249

Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5?kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the mo...

Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W.; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

2011-01-01

250

CT appearances of external ear canal cholesteatoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

External ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC) is rare in ear, nose and throat (ENT) practice. Two cases, one bilateral, are described. Computed tomography demonstrates the extent of bony involvement. Erosion of the external canal should not be overlooked when reviewing CT of the petrous bone in cases of discharge from the ear. EECC may necessitate surgery and delay in the diagnosis of EECC can result in progressive bony destruction. PMID:9486076

Malcolm, P N; Francis, I S; Wareing, M J; Cox, T C

1997-09-01

251

Cervical and lumbar spinal canal stenosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis is a degenerative disease of the spine specifi callyrelated to human ageing as its cause. This is a degenerative diseaseof intervertebral discs and arthrosis of the spinal posterior articularfacets with subsequent stenosis of the spinal canal. As peopleare getting old health-related problems are increasing, includingdegenerative diseases of the spinal column. Physicians have to beable to deal with those problems, including clinical features, diagnosisand treatment and this is the goal of this review.

Reynaldo André Brandt

2008-03-01

252

Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the aforementioned articles indicate that this laser is effective in combination with a rinsing solution such as sodium hypochlorite.Results from studies including several types of the different Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in disinfecting canals showed that all wavelengths used in disinfection for different thicknesses of dentin were efficacious without damaging thermal effect. Considering that use of different lasers in canals can be accompanied with temperature increase which can sometimes lead to damages to teeth and surrounding tissues, thus the use of photochemical phenomenon for elimination of microorganisms have attracted attention of many researchers. Studies in this field imply the efficacy of this method in reducing canal bacterial count and recommend its use as an adjunctive after biomechanical preparation of canals. Results from performed studies show removal of intra canal debris and smear layer by different lasers and particularly the Erbium laser family. Furthermore various laser wavelengths, particularly of Diode and Nd:YAG lasers can be effective in reducing intra canal microbial count. Maximum effect is obtained when laser light is used in canals in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating substance in appropriate concentration. Therefore use of laser energy can improve success rate of root canal treatments.

Mohammad Asnaashari

2012-12-01

253

Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the identification of the investigated taxa based on fruit characters is provided.

Nagwa R.A. Hussein

2012-01-01

254

Egypt:- Delivering jobs, growth and trust - OECD  

...Following the Arab Spring, MENA countries have embarked on far-reaching political reforms, opening a window of opportunity to unleash the region&rsquos tremendous ... employment,investment,governance,jobs,mena,trust,arab spring Egypt:- Delivering jobs, growth and trust - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts ... For all these reasons the topic of this MENA Session “Delivering Jobs, Growth and Trust” is quite timely. Demands ...from the streets in the MENA countries went beyond political matters; they included calls for economic and social development. These demands translate ...

255

Emergence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in upper Egypt: the Giza governorate.  

Science.gov (United States)

We found an unexpectedly high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in a village in the Upper Egyptian governorate of Giza. Historically, S. mansoni is endemic in the northern Egyptian Nile Delta rather than in the southern Upper Egypt. This observation was made during an evaluation of a rural health care schistosomiasis surveillance program using a cross sectional survey for S. haematobium and S. mansoni in the village of El-Gezira El-Shakra El-Saf district in the Upper Egypt Giza Governorate. A 10% systematic random sample of households of the village was chosen. All persons in the selected houses were invited to submit urine and stool samples. All students from a primary school were also included in the study. Urine was screened by a polycarbonate filtration method and stool was examined using modified Kato-Katz technique. The prevalence of S. mansoni in the population sample and in the school children was 33.7% and 57.7%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the population sample and the school children was 7.4% and 10.6%, respectively. The prevalence of infection was highest in the younger age groups, and males were infected more than females. Review of Ministry of Health records showed that both species of vector snails, Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina, were present from 1991 to 1995, and that B. alexandrina was more abundant than B. truncatus in the canals surrounding this village. The unexpected high prevalence of S. mansoni in this village indicates an urgent need to include training programs for S. mansoni surveillance in the primary health care facilities of Giza and to educate villagers to request examinations for S. mansoni as well as for S. haematobium infection. PMID:10344658

Talaat, M; El-Ayyat, A; Sayed, H A; Miller, F D

1999-05-01

256

Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest. It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.

Geoffrey J. Tassie

2003-11-01

257

The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid agitation using a closely fitting instrument or by sonic or ultrasonic activation. This review highlights a way forward by understanding the physical processes involved through physical models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. (topical review)

258

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

2003-06-01

259

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

260

Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

 
 
 
 
261

Ophthalmic medicolegal cases in Upper Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To describe the pattern of ophthalmic medicolegal cases with emphasis on cases of assault, and to acquaint ophthalmologists with rules pertaining to expert testimony and medical reports. Methods A retrospective study was carried out to review files of 247 medicolegal cases from Upper Egypt seen by the senior author in 8 years. These were classified categorically and were analyzed from various characteristics and aspects. The scheme for examination of subjects and for formulating the medicolegal report is described. Results The different categories were assault in 224 cases (90.5%, military recruitment evasion in 8 cases (3.25%, occupational disability claims in 8 cases (3.25% and medical malpractice in 7 cases (3%. Thirty two cases (13% presented with alleged functional visual loss, of them 25 cases (10% were malingering. Traumatic lens subluxation or dislocation was seen in 37 (13.5% cases and phthisis and atrophia bulbi was the presenting sign in 55 (22.3% cases. Twenty percent of assault cases were females. There were no differences in incidence between the provinces in Upper Egypt. Assault tools inflicted injuries are described, as well as the outcome of these cases. Claims against military recruits could not be substantiated. Occupational claims for damages were false. Alleged medical negligence cases were rejected based on accepted standards of care and not on unexpected complications. Conclusion Medical reports have to be structured, detailed, accurate and unbiased. Data in this work are useful for statistical and planning purposes in the medicolegal domain.

Wasfy Ismail A

2009-01-01

262

A radiographic study of mandibular canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

263

A radiographic study of mandibular canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1987-11-15

264

Trypanosoma mega (Kinetoplastida) from Bufo viridis in Siwah Oasis, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large pleomorphic trypanosome, identified as Trypanosoma mega, is described from the toad Bufo viridis collected from Siwah Oasis at the Western Desert of Egypt. The prevalence of the trypanosome is 83.3%. Three trypanosome forms are described, small, intermediate and large stumpy form. Observations were also made on the lysed (diffused) trypanosomes. This is the first record of T. mega from B. viridis in Egypt which represents a new host and new geographical location. The measurements of the present trypanosome are given and compared with related forms previously described from Egypt. PMID:9097527

Ashour, A A; Gaafar, N A

1997-04-01

265

Morphology and clinical study of thoracic canal on computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In pathomorphological research of thoracic canal constriction, the optimal condition for computed tomography for the thoracic canal was sought using a skeletal model. Normally thoracic canal is oval at the high and low levels of the vertebra, and circular at the middle level. Constriction of the thoracic canal was found in the cases of developmental stenosis of the cervical vertebra. Morphologically, the canal was oval, depressed in anteroposterior direction, and this suggested narrowing of the canal in the sagittal diameter. There was correlationship between the sagittal diameter of the thoracic canal obtained by plain roentgenography and that obtained by CT. Therefore, the sagittal diameter measured by plain roentgenography can be an indicator for narrowing of the canal at the thoracic vertebral level. Narrowing of the thoracic canal was also observed in many cases of myelosis due to thoracic yellow ligament ossification.

Nakamura, Shuji; Hattori, Susumu; Kawai, Shinya; Saiki, Katsuhiko; Oda, Hirotsugu (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

1982-04-01

266

Morphology and clinical study of thoracic canal on computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In pathomorphological research of thoracic canal constriction, the optimal condition for computed tomography for the thoracic canal were seeked using a skeletal model. Normally thoracic canal is oval at the high and low levels of the vertebra, and circular at the middle level. Constriction of the thoracic canal was found in the cases of developmental stenosis of the cervical vertebra. Morphologically, the canal was oval, depressed in anteroposterior direction, and this suggested narrowing of the canal in the sagittal diameter. There was correlationship between the sagittal diameter of the thoracic canal obtained by plain roentgenography and that obtained by CT. Therefore, the sagittal diameter measured by plain roentgenography can be an indicator for narrowing of the canal at the thoracic vertebral level. Narrowing of the thoracic canal was also observed in many cases of myelosis due to thoracic yellow ligament ossification. (Ueda, J.)

267

Struggles of Distinction: Young Women Constructing Their Class Identity in Egypt’s Americanized Milieu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In urban Egypt, class is omnipresent in in structuring people's lives and the social sphere, and it matters for self-description. For understanding an individual's position, however, the usual distinction of three classes needs to be refined. Based on biographical interviews, I show how those belonging to “the Americanized Society”, a social space marked by its “Westernization”, construct their identity as upper middle class. The norms of their social world are at odds with the values of mainstream society. It is the importance of maintaining middle class identity that renders the ensuing conflicts problematic and invites interference. The negative image of both the elite and the poor explains, why middle class identity is so attractive in contemporary Egypt.

Sina Birkholz

2014-05-01

268

MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth – MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 × Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 × Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

269

Semicircular canal system in early primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammals with more rapid and agile locomotion have larger semicircular canals relative to body mass than species that move more slowly. Measurements of semicircular canals in extant mammals with known locomotor behaviours can provide a basis for testing hypotheses about locomotion in fossil primates that is independent of postcranial remains, and a means of reconstructing locomotor behaviour in species known only from cranial material. Semicircular canal radii were measured using ultra high resolution X-ray CT data for 9 stem primates ("plesiadapiforms"; n=11), 7 adapoids (n=12), 4 omomyoids (n=5), and the possible omomyoid Rooneyia viejaensis (n=1). These were compared with a modern sample (210 species including 91 primates) with known locomotor behaviours. The predicted locomotor agilities for extinct primates generally follow expectations based on known postcrania for those taxa. "Plesiadapiforms" and adapids have relatively small semicircular canals, suggesting they practiced less agile locomotion than other fossil primates in the sample, which is consistent with reconstructions of them as less specialized for leaping. The derived notharctid adapoids (excluding Cantius) and all omomyoids sampled have relatively larger semicircular canals, suggesting that they were more agile, with Microchoerus in particular being reconstructed as having had very jerky locomotion with relatively high magnitude accelerations of the head. Rooneyia viejaensis is reconstructed as having been similarly agile to omomyids and derived notharctid adapoids, which suggests that when postcranial material is found for this species it will exhibit features for some leaping behaviour, or for a locomotor mode requiring a similar degree of agility. PMID:19185902

Silcox, Mary T; Bloch, Jonathan I; Boyer, Doug M; Godinot, Marc; Ryan, Timothy M; Spoor, Fred; Walker, Alan

2009-03-01

270

Isotope techniques in the study of groundwater in the eastern Nile Delta and the transport of pollution from drainage water into Lake Manzala, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-two water samples were collected from eastern Nile Delta groundwater, Lake Manzala, surface water and main drainage stations during 1993-1995. The water samples were analysed for major, minor and tracer elements and for oxygen-18 and deuterium. The hydrochemical studies indicate that the groundwater of the eastern Delta can be classified into three groups of low, medium and high salinity. The fresh water is mostly encountered near the Nile and near irrigation canals in the south. The brackish and saline water occurs near the Bitter Lakes, the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea. The salinity is attributed to the leaching of terrestrial salts and to seawater intrusion. Nitrate concentration was found to be relatively high because of extensive fertilizer use. In general, the stable isotope contents of groundwater differ widely depending upon the contribution of each recharging source (present Nile, old Nile, precipitation, seawater intrusion and possibly palaeowater contribution in some localized areas). Investigation of Lake Manzala revealed that the water salinity is rather inhomogeneous, and high concentrations of trace elements were detected, which could be attributed to drainage water discharging into the lake. A stable isotope balance was developed to estimate seepage and evaporation from the lake. (author)

271

Policy aspects of electricity and the environment in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt is facing many challenges, most of which stem from the high population growth rate. Efforts to improve the standard of living require substantive development of Egypt's economic, technical, community, electricity and energy infrastructures. Over the past three decades, the electric energy demand has increased more than 15 fold, requiring development of sound national electric energy policies based on rational use of indigenous resources which are, unfortunately, limited. Realization of such policies faces a number of economic and social constraints, all of which need great efforts to overcome. Environmental considerations within Egypt's electric energy policies are focusing more attention on the degradation in environmental conditions, which is in line with growing public concern about this issue, both locally and internationally. An alarming increase in pollution levels in the urban areas of Egypt has necessitated the creation of new laws to curb pollution of the air and the environment, in addition to adhering to strict standards for effluents from thermal power stations. (author)

272

Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

1996-12-31

273

Economic evaluation of radiation inhibition of potato sprouting in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study reviews the status of potato cultivation in Egypt, annual production, local consumption and export volume during the period 1976-1978. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual crop loss due to sprouting, fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of potatoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of potatoes harvested in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of potatoes for sprouting inhibition has always been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Extensive studies have been carried out in Egypt since the 1960s to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated potatoes. Nevertheless, not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. This is the objective of the paper. (author)

274

Interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Opinion is still divided over a standard surgical procedure to decompress lumbar canal stenosis. Both, laminectomy with or without facetectomy and foraminotomy and interlaminar fenestration have been advocated. In the present communication interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis has been discussed. Sixteen consecutive patients (7 males and 9 females with clinical, neurological and radiological features of lumbar canal stenosis were treated by interlaminar (fenestration decompression. The age of onset of symptoms ranged between 22-57 years. Adjoining lamina around interlaminar space of involved segment along with ligamentum flavum and part of facet joint (undercutting facetectomy, extending laterally (foraminotomy were removed at single or multiple levels. Follow-up response (93.7% over a period of two and half years showed the results as good in 73.3% and fair in 26.7% of cases, with uniformly uneventful post-operative period.

Patond K

1999-10-01

275

Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture of thoracic spinal canal using a cadaver vertebra. EMI CT 5005 scanner was used and 13 mm thick slice of cadaver vertebra was obtained. After obtaining of CT picture, we made a same thick specimen of cadaver vertebra and compared CT picture to softex x-ray picture. The best condition of thoracic spinal canal by CT showed nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle of thoracic spinal cannal was permitted within 100 in measurement and in configuration. The precise location of being scanned was known by using different length of radiopaque catheter markers taped on a patient's back and comparing CT pictures to x-ray picture. Normal thoracic spinal canal was examined and we observed normal thoracic spinal configurations and confirmed that the ratio of frontal diameter to sagittal diameter had a pattern. (author)

276

Canal wall reconstruction: a newer implantation technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

An innovative hydroxylapatite canal wall implant underlies a new technique for reconstructing canal wall defects in well-pneumatized "disease-free" mastoid cavities. Previous primary reconstruction involving soft-tissue techniques were not always optimal, depending on the size of the defect. The new hard implant provides lasting canal wall contour, and the implantation technique can be duplicated by other otolaryngologists. Our experience with the implant is described in 11 patients (implant duration 2 to 37 months) using a modification of the technique described by Grote (1986). The implant is biocompatible, being incorporated into surrounding tissues. Indications, contraindications (relative and absolute), and the intraoperative sculpturing method are presented. Long-term and short-term complications are reviewed with suggestions to minimize complications. PMID:8388974

Wiet, R J; Harvey, S A; Pyle, M G

1993-06-01

277

EU ministers to hold emergency meeting on Egypt | EurActiv  

...EU ministers to hold emergency meeting on Egypt | EurActiv against Egypt, said EU envoy to the South Mediterranean Bernardino Leon. ...global-europe,Egypt,Morsi,Mursi,Muslim Brotherhood EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for EU news »x ...VIDEOS Home › Global Europe › News EU ministers to hold emergency meeting on Egypt -A + A Published 20 August 2013 Tags Egypt, ...emergency meeting in Brussels on Wednesday (21 August) to discuss how to coax Egypt's army-backed rulers into finding a peaceful compromise with supporters of deposed ...

278

Perceived stress among tomorrow’s attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: Few data are available on the level and sources of stress among law students in the Middle East generally and in Egypt specifically. We conducted this study to identify the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among law students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study covered 426 law students selected through a stratified cluster sampling method. The questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items on so...

Mostafa Amr; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

2010-01-01

279

Influences of Ancient Egypt on architecture and ornament in Scotland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work seeks to identify the forms and origins of Ancient Egyptian architecture and the complex historical progress which brought these to Scotland, identifying the affinities shared by both countries and their evolving role from their first arrival to the present day. The thesis follows Egypt’s first appearance in Scottish legend and its later influence, at the close of the 16th century, in the practices of organised Freemasonry, to be followed, from the second quarter of ...

Packer, John Aidan

2012-01-01

280

Geophysical Reservoir Evaluation of Obaiyed Field, Western Desert, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Obaiyed Gas Field is located in the Western Desert of Egypt, some 50 km south of the Mediterranean coast. It produces gas from the Upper Safa member of Khatatba Formation (Middle Jurassic). The Upper Safa reservoir has become an important exploration target in the Obaiyed field and has helped to revitalize exploration in the northwestern part of the Western Desert in Egypt. Therefore, the main purpose of this thesis is the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential of the Upper Safa reservoir th...

Farag, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdel-fattah Ibrahim

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Polyacrylamide Transport in Water Delivery Canals  

Science.gov (United States)

Linear, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is being considered in the western United States as a technology to reduce seepage in unlined water delivery canals. A broad laboratory and field testing program has been undertaken to understand the benefits and potential environmental impacts of PAM use. The ability to predict the fate and transport of PAM in water delivery canals could prove to be a useful planning tool for PAM application. However, one key area of uncertainty of this type of canal treatment is the hydration, reaction, and settling rates of PAM after the dry powder is added to the canal water. In this study, we have developed a model that incorporates a number of known physical and chemical processes that can affect PAM transport, such as convection, dispersion, dissolution, flocculation, and settling, while solving the governing convection-dispersion transport equation. The model uses a mixed analytical and advanced numerical approach, and implements a transient partitioning of PAM mass between the canal water, the substrate soil, and potentially to open water bodies downstream of the application point. All source terms are modeled based on physical and chemical mechanisms as well as laboratory or field determined parameters. To more closely simulate field treatment of some canals, where PAM application moves upstream in time, the model is capable of implementing either a fixed or mobile upper boundary. In the latter treatment, the PAM can be added discretely or continuously in both time and space. A number of test situations have been simulated thus far, including theoretical and hypothetical cases for a wide range of conditions. The model also performed well when predicting PAM concentrations from a full-scale canal treatment experiment. The model provides a useful tool for predicting PAM fate and transport in water delivery canals, and therefore can play an important role in evaluating the efficacy of PAM application for water resources management. Moreover, the model could also be used to simulate the transport of many other reactive particle in open channels, thereby widening its potential use to a lot of environmental situations.

Chen, L.; Zhu, J.; Young, M.

2007-12-01

282

CANALES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN Y COMPETITIVIDAD EN ARTESANÍAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se explica cómo la relación entre canales de distribución y competitividad se ve influenciada por variables contextuales como el tipo de negocio, su ubicación, su antigüedad y el tipo de producto, en un ambiente de negocio que vive la artesanía en tres estados de la República Mexicana: Oaxaca, Jalisco y Guanajuato. La teoría central se enmarca en la mercadotecnia y sus estrategias. Los canales de distribución, dentro de la mezcla de mercadotecnia, sobresalen porque la creciente competencia global hace más difícil entrar, controlar y mantenerse en cualquier mercado.

Jos\\u00E9 de la Paz Hern\\u00E1ndez Gir\\u00F3n

2002-01-01

283

Math Around the World (Part 1): Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the week, we will be studying Math in different cultures around the world incuding African, Indian, Babylonian, Mayan and others. Our first area of study will be Egypt, home to some of the greatest mathematical-based structures in the world. Any guesses to what those might be? _ _ R _ _ _ D S Today\\'s lesson will focus on several aspects of Egyptian Math. First, let\\'s learn where Math came from. After reading the information from the link below, please write down your opinion and reasoning on a separate sheet of paper. Was Mathematics Invented or Discovered? Now let\\'s read about the History of Egyptian Math: History of Egyptian Math Overview of Egyptian Math For the rest of today\\'s ...

Hoskins, Mr.

2005-11-20

284

Economic study of rice irradiation in egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the economics of rice irradiation and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The result of the analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit in Egypt would be economically feasible

285

Bronze Age Acrobats : Denmark, Egypt, Crete  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A Danish eighteenth-century find of some bronze figurines tells the story of the practising of similar ritual performances across Bronze Age Europe from Egypt to Scandinavia. The Danish figurines, as well as Swedish rock carvings, show backwards-bending female acrobats doing backward handsprings. The exact same appearance is found on Egyptian depictions related to ceremonies and festivals.OnMinoan Crete backwards-bent acrobats are related to bull leaping and bull ceremonies. Despite local variations, backwards-bent acrobatic performances carried out by topless female actorswere part of the immaterial, ritual and cosmological exchange that characterized the second and early firstmillennium BC.Beliefs and ritual practices went hand in hand with the adoption of a series of elite items and an aristocratic lifestyle, thereby creating a unique and fascinating European Bronze Age.

Iversen, Rune

2014-01-01

286

Status of marine protected areas in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

Forcada, A.

2011-01-01

287

Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

2007-01-01

288

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Science.gov (United States)

...MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended for use during...

2010-04-01

289

21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a)...

2010-04-01

290

5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714...GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

2010-01-01

291

Computed tomography of the thoracic canal. Experimental and clinical studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 10/sup 0/. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th/sub 1/, Th/sub 2/ levels and round at Th/sub 3/-Th/sub 10/ and large oval at Th/sub 11/, Th/sub 12/. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis.

Nakamura, S. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-05-01

292

Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present

293

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

294

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

295

The Panama Canal and Social Justice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

296

77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1)(C) of the Department...with respect to the provision of Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

2012-04-24

297

Revisão sistemática de Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae) / Systematics revision of Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyuleptidae, Pachylinae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Ogloblinia Canals, 1933 is revised and Quitete Mello-Leitão, 1936 is considered its synomym. The following new synonyms are here established: Ogloblinia calcarata H. Soares & Bauab, 1970, O. dentei Soares, 1945 and O. intermedia Soares, 1944 = O. loretoensis Canals, 1933; Quitete marginata Mello-Lei [...] lão, 1936 = O. argenteopilosa (Mello-Leitão, 1935). Ogloblinia pulchra, sp.n. (type-localily Brazil, Paraná: Guaratuba) is described.

Ricardo, Pinto-da-Rocha; Helia Eller Monteiro, Soares.

298

Revisão sistemática de Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae Systematics revision of Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyuleptidae, Pachylinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ogloblinia Canals, 1933 is revised and Quitete Mello-Leitão, 1936 is considered its synomym. The following new synonyms are here established: Ogloblinia calcarata H. Soares & Bauab, 1970, O. dentei Soares, 1945 and O. intermedia Soares, 1944 = O. loretoensis Canals, 1933; Quitete marginata Mello-Leilão, 1936 = O. argenteopilosa (Mello-Leitão, 1935. Ogloblinia pulchra, sp.n. (type-localily Brazil, Paraná: Guaratuba is described.

Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

1995-01-01

299

VARIACIONES ANATOMICAS DEL CANAL CONDILEO ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE CONDYLAR CANAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The variations in vascular anatomy and cranial foramina have important implications for their accurately recognition as normal or pathological. The condylar vein exits the skull base through the condylar canal, communicating the jugular foramen and the condylar fossa. The main purpose of this report was to asses the prevalence and normal anatomical patterns of the condylar canal . Eighty-one cadaveric skull base specimens were retrospectively examined for the unilater...

Marcelo Galarza; Hyoun Yun Jong; Alicia Merlo; Albanese, Alfonso H.; Albanese, Alfonso R.

1998-01-01

300

Neuroendocrine tumor of the anal canal Tumor neuroendócrino do canal anal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a rare case of neuroendocrine tumor of the anal canal and its poor prognosis, plus discuss the need of immunohistochemical for an acurate diagnosis and to guide treatment.Relatamos um caso raro de tumor neuroendócrino do canal anal e seu mau prognóstico, bem como a necessidade de imuno-histoquímica para o diagnóstico correto e para orientar o tratamento.

Adriana Borgonovi Christiano

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

In vitro evaluation of root canal preparation using oscillatory and rotary systems in flattened root canals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation of flattened root canals using the following systems: Endo-Eze AET stainless steel oscillatory instruments (Ultradent) and RaCe rotary NiTi instruments (FKG Dentaire). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human mandibul [...] ar incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 - Instrumentation with oscillatory Endo-Eze AET files (oscillatory technique); Group 2 - Instrumentation with rotary NiTi RaCe files (rotary technique). The teeth were decoronated, had their apices and coronal openings sealed with sticky wax and were embedded in crystal-clear orthophtalic polyester resin. The roots were sectioned transversally with diamond discs at 10 mm (middle third) and 5 mm (apical third) from the apex and the segments were reassembled for instrumentation. The sections were photographed before and after root canal instrumentation and evaluated with respect to whether the original root canal shape was modified by instrumentation. To evaluate the differences in the root canal shape before and after biomechanical preparation, scores were given regarding the instruments touch on the intracanal walls. RESULTS: In middle third of the root canals instrumented with the rotary system, there was a change in the original canal anatomy (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Under the tested conditions, Endo-Eze oscillatory system yielded the instrumentation of all flattened root canal walls, maintaining the canal original shape throughout the biomechanical preparation, and was more effective than RaCe rotary system.

Luis Cardoso, Rasquin; Fabíola Bastos de, Carvalho; Regina Karla de Pontes, Lima.

302

MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15

303

Barriers to the Use of Basic Health Services among Women in Rural Southern Egypt (Upper Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined potential demand-side barriers to women’s use of basic health services in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt. Face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire were carried out on 205 currently-married women, inquiring about their use of health facilities: regular antenatal care (ANC during the last pregnancy and medical treatment services when they suffered from common illness. Questions about their perceptions of barriers to the use of health services were categorized into three primary dimensions: structural, financial, and personal/cultural barriers. Distance and transportation to health facilities (structural barriers prevented about 30 % of the women from seeing a doctor. Forty-two percent of them felt the difficulty paying for health services (financial barriers. Approximately a quarter of women answered that gaining family permission, allocating time to go to health facilities, or concern about lack of female physicians (personal/cultural barriers was a big problem for them. After controlling for potential confounding factors, structural barriers showed an inverse association with the use of health services. Financial barriers indicated a strong association (OR=0.18, P<0.001 with the use of curative services (medical treatment, but not with the use of preventive services (regular ANC. Contrary to our expectation, personal/cultural barriers had no statistical significance with women’s use of health services. Although the Egyptian government had successfully extended basic health service delivery networks throughout the country, women in rural Upper Egypt were still facing various barriers to the use of the services, especially structural and financial barriers.

ATSUKO AOYAMA

2013-08-01

304

78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

...APHIS-2012-0053] Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United...have prepared a pest list associated with oranges and tangerines from Egypt that identifies...determine the risk posed by peach fruit fly in oranges and tangerines from Egypt. Based on...

2013-04-18

305

Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular / Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la im [...] plantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C). Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegrados Abstract in english The mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the pr [...] esent study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtained of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C). The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

Iván Claudio, Suazo Galdames; Carlos Andrés, Morales Herrera; Mario Gonzalo, Cantín López; Daniela Alejandra, Zavando Matamala.

306

Uranium resources and reserves in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resources and reserves of radioactive raw materials in Egypt include some conventional and nonconventional types discovered at some localities in the Eastern Desert, Sinai and the Western Desert. The conventional-type uranium and/or thorium include replacements in granitic rocks, and in alkaline dikes and sills. The nonconventional-types comprise marine phosphorites and black sand concentrations along the Mediterranean. Latent resource include some anomalous areas in carbonaceous shales, clays and phosphatized sandstones in the Western Desert. Some target areas are by now under development. In one locality some 3,000 tons of ore assayed at 0.108% U are proved through drilling and drifting. Marine phosphorites represent potential resources for uranium. The total estimated reserve and potential reserve of phosphatic rocks in Egypt amounts approximately to 2.5 billion tons. Assuming an average of 100 gm U3O8/ton, the above reserve contains as much as 250,000 tons U3O8. The economic potentiality of black sands with respect to uranium and thorium content must be viewed in terms of industrialization of the whole products coming out from black sands. Nevertheless, the estimated reserve of heavy minerals amounts to over 30 million tons in the top meter and over 600 million tons with 27% heavy minerals to a depth of 20 meters in the area of Damietta East, Rosetta East and West. Some other 42.6 million tons grading about 9% heavy minerals are proved to a depth of 20 meters east and west of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. Assuming an annual production of 12,000 tons monazite (this amount yields 54 tons U3O8, 720 tons Th O2 7,500 tons RE and 3,360 tons P2O5) and marketing of the other products coming out of black sands, it is estimated that the production cost of one pound. U3O8 amounts to $15 to $30. 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

307

Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

2012-11-01

308

Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

309

Mine detection in Egypt: Evaluation of new technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the central geographical location between Africa, Asia and Europe, Egypt was location for many battles. As a result of these battles, Egypt often cites a figure of twenty three million landmines and UXO emplaced in the country as a result of many wars since the World War II. The presence of such active mines caused many problems to Egypt. First, it obscures the development in the locations where it had been planted. Beside, many civilians and soldiers have been killed or maimed because of its unknown zones. Recently with the advances of geophysical techniques it becomes possible to use them in detecting landmines and UXO. Geoelectrical resistivity technique as a low cost, simple technique was used successfully to model the buried landmines and UXO objects in 2D. The technique was tested in Egypt using a newly adopted array of electrodes proposed by Kyushu University Mine Action Group (QMAG). The results are promising for future application using this tool in Egypt. Moreover, a new Advanced Landmine Imaging System (ALIS) developed at Tohoku University was also successfully evaluated at the Egyptian environment. The results show high efficiency for detecting both AP and AT mines. Accordingly, a new proposal for adopting both systems with robotic facility, to be applicable for wide area survey that can meet the Egyptian demand to solve the landmines problem there, is considered. (author)

310

Egypt's Policy Concerning Food Irradiation Research and Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypt's policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

311

Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

Goell, Edgar

2012-02-15

312

"Breaking the bureaucracy": drug registration and neocolonial relations in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the per capita use of prescription drugs in Egypt is amongst the highest in the world. Multinational pharmaceutical companies license their proprietary products for manufacture and sale in Egypt through their Egyptian subsidiaries. A Ministry of Health Committee reviews and approves for sale all drugs marketed in the country. Aside from being an extremely lucrative market itself, approval of a drug for sale and manufacture in Egypt also opens to the pharmaceutical companies other markets in the Arab world. The Egyptian drug approval process is thus both important for assuring the health of Egyptian nationals and a high-stakes activity for the pharmaceutical companies. This paper examines the social relations and interactions of multinational pharmaceutical representatives in Egypt with Egyptian researchers in relation to the Ministry of Health's drug approval process. From time-to-time events focus attention on the huge financial rewards reaped by multinational pharmaceutical companies from their activities in lesser developed countries. This attention not infrequently has revealed the "drugging of the Third World" as a result of actions by expatriate multinational pharmaceutical officials. Indigenous review procedures such as those established by the Egyptian Ministry of Health might guard against such external exploitation. This paper shows how in place of external exploitation, indigenous pharmaceutical company officials have manipulated local patterns of social interaction to construct a system of reciprocal obligations which may frustrate intended safeguards, and by reconstructing colonial institutional structures, creates a pattern of neocolonialism in Egypt. PMID:9665578

Rubinstein, R A

1998-06-01

313

The electrical power equipment and services market in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a market overview of the electrical power equipment and services in Egypt and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Between 1997 and 2001, energy consumption in Egypt increased by 17 per cent. Electricity demand is expected to rise rapidly due to population and economic growth. Plans are underway to add 8,000 MW of installed energy capacity to Egypt's current 15,200 MW by 2010. Priority will be on providing universal access to electricity and reliability in rural areas. Egypt is also taking part in many international projects to link its electricity grid with nearby countries. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Recent legislation exempts foreign companies from corporation tax and from tax on income from movable capital for 5 to 10 years. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve electric power generation and transmission projects. Considerations for market-entry in Egypt were outlined. 29 refs., 3 tabsabs

314

Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses / Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los def [...] ectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V) sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M)). Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en todos los niveles. Las alturas de los primeros dos cuerpos vertebrales lumbares mostraron variabilidad en los grupos adyacentes. Lo mismo se observó en los tres siguientes, que crecieron constantemente con el crecimiento de los fetos. El canal sacro mostró un crecimiento variable en longitud en los diferentes grupos. El crecimiento constante en la longitud y el diámetro del canal lumbar pueden ser utilizados para determinar la edad aproximada de los fetos por razones médico-legales. Abstract in english Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an [...] accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V) based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were anal

, Sumayya; Nafis A, Faruqi; Mohd Salahuddin, Ansari; Farah, Ghaus.

2011-09-01

315

Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses / Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los def [...] ectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V) sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M)). Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en todos los niveles. Las alturas de los primeros dos cuerpos vertebrales lumbares mostraron variabilidad en los grupos adyacentes. Lo mismo se observó en los tres siguientes, que crecieron constantemente con el crecimiento de los fetos. El canal sacro mostró un crecimiento variable en longitud en los diferentes grupos. El crecimiento constante en la longitud y el diámetro del canal lumbar pueden ser utilizados para determinar la edad aproximada de los fetos por razones médico-legales. Abstract in english Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an [...] accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V) based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were anal

, Sumayya; Nafis A, Faruqi; Mohd Salahuddin, Ansari; Farah, Ghaus.

316

Cirurgia de resgate no carcinoma de canal anal Salvage surgery in anal canal carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a sobrevida dos pacientes portadores de carcinoma epidermóide do canal anal submetidos a cirurgia de resgate, por recidiva ou falha do tratamento radioquimioterápico inicial. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva dos pacientes portadores de carcinoma epídermóide do canal anal submetidos a cirurgia de resgate, de outubro de 1986 a setembro de 2000. RESULTADOS: Foram matriculados 93 pacientes portadores de carcinoma epidermóide do canal anal no período, e 21 (22,5% foram submetidos a resgate cirúrgico. Em 19 pacientes (91% foi realizada amputação abdominoperineal do reto (operação de Miles, em um paciente exenteração pélvica total e em um paciente excisão local. Não houve mortalidade operatória. A sobrevida média do grupo após resgate cirúrgico foi de 24 meses. CONCLUSÕES: Após recidiva e/ou falha da radioquimioterapia, a cirurgia de resgate é importante no controle locorregional do carcinoma epidermóide do canal anal.BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare neoplasia, the treatment of wich is based on chemoradiation Surgery is recommended alter treatment failure and recurrence. METHOD: A retrospective review from October 1986 to September 2000 of all patients who underwent salvage surgery alter chemoradiotherapy failure. Patients were reviewed as to time until recurrence and overall survival. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal were reviewed. Twenty-one patients (22,5% with residual or recurrent disease underwent salvage surgery. 19 patients (91% underwent abdomino-perineal resection, 1 patient underwent pelvic exenteration and local resection was performed in 1 patient. There was no operative mortality. The overall survival was 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage surgical resection for anal canal carcinoma can be expected te yieid a number of survivors from residual/recurrent disease.

Carlos A. C. Rangel de Castro

2002-12-01

317

Mandibular First and Second Molars with Three Mesial Canals: A Case Series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adequate cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canal system are mandatory for successful root canal treatment. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for the practitioner. The occurrence and location of the third mesial canal (Middle Mesial Canal in mandibular first and second molars in relation to other two mesial canals that were treated in private practice were studied. In 27 clinical cases, the presence of a middle mesial canal was demonstrated. The third canal was located in the middle of the distance between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals. This canal configuration was found in six second lower molars and twenty one first molars. Middle mesial canal in all of our cases joined to mesiobuccal or mesiolingual canals. None of the teeth consisted of three independent canals with three apical foramina. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth.

Mohsen Aminsobhani

2010-01-01

318

Flavonoids from Albizia chinensis of Egypt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se llevo a cabo el aislamiento de los flavonoides Kaemferol-3-O-?-L-ramnopirano-sida, quercetina-3-O-?-L-ramnopiranosida, luteolina, kaemferol y quercetina, del extracto metanolico de las hojas de Albizia chinensis colectada de Egipto. La identificación de los compuestos se llevo a cabo mediante el [...] análisis espectroscópico. Se valoro la actividad antimicrobiana de los tres primeros compuestos mostrando actividad moderada contra bacterias gram-positivas y gram-negativas. No se observo actividad antifungicida de estos compuestos. Abstract in english The flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside together with luteolin, kaempferol and quercetin, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Albizia chinensis collected from Egypt. Identification of the flavonoid constituents was carried by anal [...] ysing their spectroscopic data and/or by comparing these data with those reported in the literature. The first three isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity and the results revealed that the tested compounds exhibited moderate inhibiting activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria while no antifungal activity was observed.

Neveen S., Ghaly; F. R., Melek; Nayera A. M., Abdelwahed.

2010-12-01

319

Implications of terrain movements in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

Nassar, Mohamed M.

1988-10-01

320

Optimum Geoid Fitting Technique for Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper introduces a proposed geoid fitting technique of the physically determined geoid to the GPS/leveling derived geoid in Egypt. First the possible blunders of the available GPS benchmarks are eliminated. The technique works on the basis of the absolute geoid difference (physical geoid minus GPS/leveling derived geoid). The proposed geoid fitting technique selects a number of few best suited GPS benchmarks using an automatic optimization scheme. The influence of each GPS point on the remaining GPS points is computed using the least-squares prediction technique. The GPS point having the minimum influence on the remaining points is added to the subset of the GPS points to be used for the external checking. This step is repeated iteratively, and each time the number of the available GPS is decreased by one, till an acceptable limit of the influence of the GPS points on the remaining ones. This limit has been set for the current investigation to couple of decimeters. The output of this scheme is two subsets. The first subset comprises the points having the minimum influence, which represents the subset used for the external check of the geoid quality. The second subset contains the GPS points used for the geoid fitting process. A practical test of the proposed technique is given and the obtained internal and external geoid accuracies are widely discussed.

Abd-Elmotaal, Hussein; Makhloof, Atef

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

The national waste management system in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislative umbrella. The legal framework is well defined by both the Decree No. 288 (1957) which allowed the establishment of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Commission (now it is the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA)) and the Law 59 (1960) which assigned the full responsibilities for licensing, management and control of the use of radioactive materials and the waste arisings to the AEA. The operational capabilities are allocated to the Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Centre (HLWMC). These capabilities include, beside the operators, the facilities for treating and conditioning liquid and solid radioactive waste. The liquid radioactive waste facility has been completed under the IAEA Technical Assistance Project. The facility can treat 10 m3/day of low level liquid radioactive waste and 2 m3/ day of medium level liquid waste. The facility was commissioned in December 1993. It uses three methods for treating liquid radioactive waste: precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. Sludges and concentrates resulting from the treatment are conditioned by cementation in the cementation plant which is a part of the facility. The solid radioactive waste treatment includes compaction and incineration. The compacted waste will be conditioned by cementation in the cementation plant. 10 refs, 4 figsefs, 4 figs

322

Geothermal studies in the Nile Delta, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

228 temperature measurements of 48 wells located in the northern part of the Nile Delta were used for obtaining geothermal gradient values at each well. Considering thermal conductivity values for the rocks forming the stratigraphic section in the Nile Delta to range between 2-2.3 w/m°C heat flow values over this part of the country were found to range between 39 and 56 mw/m 2. These values show the extension of the regional low heat flow that covers the Eastern Mediterranean area south to the northern parts of Egypt. Geothermal gradient values obtained at the 48 wells were used for compling maps of gradient variation over the study area. They were also used for calculating the depth at which 90°C and 150°C are expected. This range of temperature represents the probable liquid Hydrocarbon window, and depth and isopach maps for it are constructed. They show thicker window at Mit Ghamer, Tanta, Abu Qir, NAF, Tell El Ahmer, Wastani, and Qantara. These areas represent more potential areas if source rock is present. These results probably present additional informations for better assessment of oil and gas potentials of the Nile Delta.

Riad, S.; Abdelrahman, E. M.; Refai, E.; El-Ghalban, H. M.

323

Flavonoids from Albizia chinensis of Egypt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se llevo a cabo el aislamiento de los flavonoides Kaemferol-3-O-?-L-ramnopirano-sida, quercetina-3-O-?-L-ramnopiranosida, luteolina, kaemferol y quercetina, del extracto metanolico de las hojas de Albizia chinensis colectada de Egipto. La identificación de los compuestos se llevo a cabo mediante el [...] análisis espectroscópico. Se valoro la actividad antimicrobiana de los tres primeros compuestos mostrando actividad moderada contra bacterias gram-positivas y gram-negativas. No se observo actividad antifungicida de estos compuestos. Abstract in english The flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside together with luteolin, kaempferol and quercetin, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Albizia chinensis collected from Egypt. Identification of the flavonoid constituents was carried by anal [...] ysing their spectroscopic data and/or by comparing these data with those reported in the literature. The first three isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity and the results revealed that the tested compounds exhibited moderate inhibiting activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria while no antifungal activity was observed.

Neveen S., Ghaly; F. R., Melek; Nayera A. M., Abdelwahed.

324

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

Martin, F T

2012-01-31

325

Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

326

Modeling the spatial spread of Rift Valley fever in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that harms both human health and livestock production. It is believed that RVF in Egypt has been repeatedly introduced by the importation of infected animals from Sudan. In this paper, we propose a three-patch model for the process by which animals enter Egypt from Sudan, are moved up the Nile, and then consumed at population centers. The basic reproduction number for each patch is introduced and then the threshold dynamics of the model are established. We simulate an interesting scenario showing a possible explanation of the observed phenomenon of the geographic spread of RVF in Egypt. PMID:23377629

Gao, Daozhou; Cosner, Chris; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Beier, John C; Ruan, Shigui

2013-03-01

327

Characterizing Water, Sediment, Nutrients, and Contaminant Fluxes in Coastal Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine Constituent Dynamics in Coastal Egypt; Alexandria, Egypt, 20 November 2009; The Egyptian coastal area is a highly dynamic region in which materials (water, sediment, nutrients, and contaminants) are transported from various sources to the Mediterranean and Red seas. At a workshop in Egypt, U.S. and Egyptian scientists discussed these largely unquantified processes and how they interact to drive coastal ecology. A major goal of the workshop was to identify the most pressing research priorities for the region for both scientific and management purposes. The workshop concluded by recommending that international multidisciplinary efforts be undertaken to characterize water, nutrient, sediment, and contaminant delivery fluxes and mechanisms to coastal regions of the Nile Delta.

Peterson, Richard N.; El-Gamal, Ayman

2010-03-01

328

Education in Egypt and Egyptian response to eclipses  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1939 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. About 15 students yearly obtain their PhD degrees in Astronomy from the Egyptian universities. Seven International groups under my supervision have done the total solar Eclipse observations that took place on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). The results of observations and photos will be discussed. Egyptian-French group have done the total solar eclipse observations that took place on 25 February 1952 in Khartoum by using Worthington Camera. The research groups of Astrophysics in Cairo University and Helwan observatory are interested in the fields of solar physics, binary stars, celestial mechanics, interstellar matter and galaxies. Most of the researches have been published in national scientific journals, and some of them were published in International Journals.

Hady, A.

2006-08-01

329

THE FIRST TURKISH GOVERNOR OF EGYPT IN EARLY MIDDLE AGE  

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Full Text Available In this study, to Egypt in the early medieval period, the governor was given information about Abu Salih al-Haresi. Abbasid rule during the administration of the state’s role in the Turks spoke of Turkey’s first governor of Egypt from the previous situation was briefly explained. Abu-l-Abbas es-Seffah of the first Abbasid caliph in time, the Turks took place in the army while during the second Caliph Abu Jafar Al-Mensur was brought up to the task state. The third caliph al-Mahdi gave the Egyptian governor to Abu Salih al-Haresi, having Turkish origin. Abu Salih’s personality, his beeing governor to Egypt and the information about his activities were analysed basing on international resources.

Rafik ISMAYILOV

2010-04-01

330

Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

Elsobki, M.; Sherif, Y. [Environics, Cairo (Egypt); Wooders, P. [International Inst. for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

2009-10-15

331

Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

332

Deployment of Coherent Ionospheric Doppler Receiver Chain IN EGYPT  

Science.gov (United States)

This project was by and between University of Texas at Austin in USA and Helwan University in Egypt in order to conduct joint scientific investigations of the Earth's ionosphere. The parties will develop a network of passive radio instruments to monitor the ionospheric weather associated with the equatorial fountain situated over southern and central Egypt. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal scales over which the equatorial fountain varies, a network of three Coherent Ionospheric Doppler Receiver (CIDR) systems will be deployed in a roughly north-south chain in Egypt. By analyzing the CIDR data set as a function of time and ionospheric drivers, this project will gain valuable new insights into the weather of the equatorial fountain and the radio environment.

Mahrous, A. M.; Garner, T.

2008-05-01

333

Variaciones Anatómicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales / Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interacción entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimático subyacente durante la Odontogénesis. La interacción anormal de estos tejidos podría resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupción de un diente anómalo, ectópico o con variación anatómica. El prese [...] nte reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatómicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnóstico en los tres casos se efectuó por medio del análisis de radiografías. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos raíces y dos canales, el premolar maxilar presentó tres raíces y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este último, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitación. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatómicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologías que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicación de exámenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatómicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento. Abstract in english Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report [...] shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was performed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

Gonzalo H, Oporto V; Ramón E, Fuentes F; Camila C, Soto P.

334

Variaciones Anatómicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interacción entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimático subyacente durante la Odontogénesis. La interacción anormal de estos tejidos podría resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupción de un diente anómalo, ectópico o con variación anatómica. El presente reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatómicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnóstico en los tres casos se efectuó por medio del análisis de radiografías. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos raíces y dos canales, el premolar maxilar presentó tres raíces y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este último, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitación. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatómicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologías que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicación de exámenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatómicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento.Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was performed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

Gonzalo H Oporto V

2010-09-01

335

Foreign ministers vow to promote ‘dialogue’ in Egypt | EurActiv  

...Foreign ministers vow to promote ‘dialogue’ in Egypt | EurActiv   The decision acknowledges Europe's limited economic muscle in forcing Egypt's army-backed rulers ... global-europe,security,Egypt,Islamists,Morsi,Mubarak,Mursi,Muslim Brotherhood EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for ...VIDEOS Home › Global Europe › News Foreign ministers vow to promote ‘dialogue’ in Egypt -A + A Published 22 August 2013 1 comment Tags ... Egypt, Islamists, Morsi, Mubarak, Mursi, Muslim Brotherhood The European Union stopped short of agreeing immediate cuts in financial or ...

336

INFOGRAPHIC: EU leads in providing non-military aid to Egypt | EurActiv  

... INFOGRAPHIC: EU leads in providing non-military aid to Egypt | EurActiv development-policy,global-europe,development aid,Egypt,infographic EU news & policy ... VIDEOS Home › Development Policy › News INFOGRAPHIC: EU leads in providing non-military aid to Egypt [fr] -A + A Published ...July 2013, updated 10 July 2013 1 comment Tags development aid, Egypt, infographic The European Union is the largest of contributor of development assistance to Egypt, where ...B2B advertising Network Advertising Workshops & Special Reports EU Projects Agenda & PR Service Infographics Yellow Pages Political Parties Consultancies EU Projects list EurActiv Jobsite Post ...

337

Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

Young, O

2009-02-01

338

Anal canal plasmacytoma - An uncommon presentation site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are rare plasma cell tumors that arise outside the bone marrow. They are most often located in the head and neck region, but may also occur in the other locations. The lower gastrointestinal EMP represents less than 5% of all cases, and location in the anal canal is exceedingly rare. Aim: We present an exceedingly rare case of anal canal plasmacytoma, aiming to achieve a better understanding of this rare entity. Methods: We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a bulky mass in the anal canal. The lesion measured about 6 cm and invaded in all layers of the anal canal wall. The biopsy was performed and revealed a round and plasmocitoid cell population with a solid growth pattern and necrosis. The tumoral cells have express CD79a and CD138 with lambda chains. There was no evidence of disease in other locations and these features were consistent with the diagnosis of an extra-osseous plasmacytoma. The patient was submitted to conformal radiotherapy 50.4 Gy total dose, 1.8 Gy per fraction. After 24 months, the patient is asymptomatic and the lesion has completely disappeared. Conclusions: EMP accounts for approximately 3% of plasma cell malignancies. The median age is about 60 years, and the majority of patients are male. The treatment of choice for extramedullary plasmacytoma is radiation therapy in a dosage of about 50 Gy. Patients should be followed-up for life with repeated bone marrow aspiration and protein studies to detect the development of multiple myeloma. (authors)

339

Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

Young, O

2012-02-01

340

ESR Studies and Dating of Egyptian Gypsum at Ras Mala'ab, Sinai, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

s represent the top of the Miocene in the Gulf of Suez area, since the Miocene-Pliocene boundary is now put at 5.00-5.50 Ma ago. Therefore, the ESR age of the Ras Mala'ab gypsum is consistent with the geologic age assignment

 
 
 
 
341

Antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All root canal sealers should have antimicrobial activity so that they could act against any remaining bacteria after root canal obturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five root canal sealers: AH26, a resin based paste; Apexit, calcium hydroxide based paste; Endomethasone and Tubliseal, zinc oxide eugenol based materials and Ketac Endo Aplicap, glass ionomer based sealer. Matherials And Methods: Antimicrobial activity was tested against S. mutans 70C and L.casei ATCC 27773 using ADT (agar diffusion inhibitory test on TYC SB, blood and MRS agars. Freshly prepared paste or cement was placed in grooves of 4 mm in diameter in agar plates. Prepared agar plates were incubated at 37ºC in GAS PAC system for 24hours. The antimicrobial effect was determined according to the diameter of growth inhibition zone around tested materials. Three measurements were done for each material and values were recorded in millimeters. Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney test. The results confirmed that epoxy resin and zinc oxide eugenol based sealers had the greatest antimicrobial effect. Calcium hydroxide and glass ionomer based sealers showed significantly lower antimicrobial activity compared to AH26, Endomethasone and Tubliseal. Conclusion: The greatest antimicrobial activity was found for epoxy resin based sealer (AH26 for both tested microorganisms.

Vujaškovi? Mirjana

2006-01-01

342

gastropods as pollution indicators in the red sea coast, egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

thirty samples of Nerita albicilla and canarium (Gibberulus) gibbosus from fifteen stations along the Egyptian Red Sea coast from Abu Darag on the gulf of suez southwards to Berenice were selected for chemical analysis. the present work focuses on the environment-sensitive elements and their possible hazards. Nerita is a geochemical marker for a sizeable group of trace elements including; Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Th , Ba, Ti, S, Sc and Se, while canarium is a good accumulator of the elements, Mo, U, Au and K. both species have the same selectivity for Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Sr and P. these differences are attributed to mode of life and incorporation of the elements within the crystal lattice of carbonates composing the shells. on basis of the obtained data, the study area can be divided into three zones namely; almost pristine, moderately polluted zone and markedly polluted one . pollution is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

343

[Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light. PMID:21192112

Maria Rosso, Ana

2010-01-01

344

ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

345

No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance; N. 3017. Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete relative au projet de fusion entre Gaz de France et Suez, aux conditions de sa preparation et de son annonce et aux consequences de la privatisation de Gaz de France pour les usagers et l'equilibre du marche de l'energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

Balligand, J.P.; Ayrault, J.M.; Hollande, F.; Besson, E.; Migaud, D.; Emmanuelli, H.; Brottes, F.; Bataille, Ch.; Ducout, P.; Gaubert, J.; Habib, D

2006-04-15

346

NMR imaging of the vertebral column and the spinal canal. 2. rev. and enl. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book on the MRT (magnetic resonance tomography) of the vertebral cord and spinal canal covers the following topics: physics fundamentals and application; malformation of the spinal canal; degenerative vertebral column diseases; vertebral column and spinal canal carcinomas; inflammatory diseases of the vertebral column and the spinal canal; applicability of MRT in case of acute spinal cord traumata; vascular diseases of the spinal canal

347

Mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar del adulto cubano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizaron mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar en estudios radiográficos simples de la columna lumbosacra en las vistas anteroposterior y lateral, en 200 adultos sin antecedentes de dolor y afección lumbar o ambos. Se utilizó la técnica recomendada por Eisenstein en 1976 para definir el margen posterior del canal. Se corroboró la importancia del diámetro sagital como parámetro esencial para determinar la estenosis del canal estando los límites de la normalidad entre 14,7 y 21 mm. Se establece como límite inferior de la distancia interpedicular 22,6 mm. El canal de las mujeres es menor que el de los hombres, y el canal de la raza negroide es menor al de la raza caucasiana y los mestizos en su diámetro sagital. Se recomienda este método con el fin de establecer un diagnóstico precoz de la estenosis del canal en el sector lumbar.Measurements of the lumbar spinal canal were made in simple radiographic studies of the lumbosacral column in the anteroposterior and lateral view in 200 adults with no antecedents of pain or lumbar affection. The technique recommended by Eisenstein in 1976 to define the posterior edge of the canal was used. The importance of the sagittal diameter as an essential parameter to determine the stenosis of the canal was corroborated. Normal limits are between 14.7 and 21 mm. An inferior limit of the interpedicular distance of 22.6 mm is established. The women's canal is smaller than that of men, whereas the canal of the black persons is lower than that of Caucasians and mestizos in its sagittal diameter. This method is recommended in order to made an early diagnosis of the stenosis of the canal in the lumbar sector.

Beatriz Expósito Rodríguez

2002-12-01

348

Biomechanics of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Horizontal canal (HC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV) is a vestibular disorder characterized by bouts of horizontal ocular nystagmus induced during reorientation of the head relative to gravity. The present report addresses the application of a morphologically descriptive 3-canal biomechanical model of the human membranous labyrinth to study gravity-dependent semicircular canal responses during this condition. The model estimates dynamic cupular and endolymph displacements elic...

Rajguru, Suhrud M.; Ifediba, Marytheresa A.; Rabbitt, Richard D.

2005-01-01

349

Design and implementation of an irrigation canal SCADA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Portugal all of the upstream controlled canal systems work with flexible water delivery schedules and therefore canal operational losses can be significant. Real-time technologies can allow the canal managers to continuously compare the real operation with its optimal or target value and to take appropriate corrective steps as required and minimize the water operational losses. The paper presents the design, field solutions and tuning of an implemented SCADA system on a Portuguese upstrea...

Rijo, Manuel

2005-01-01

350

SCADA system with predictive controller applied to irrigation canals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper applies a model predictive controller (MPC) to an automatic water canal with sensors and actuators controlled by a network (programmable logic controller), and supervised by a SCADA system (supervisory control and a data acquisition). This canal is composed by a set of distributed sub-systems that control the water level in each canal pool, constrained by discharge gates (control variables) and water off-takes (disturbances). All local controllers are available through an industria...

Figueiredo, Joa?o; Botto, Miguel; Rijo, Manuel

2013-01-01

351

Mandibular premolars with aberrant canal morphology: An endodontic challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete cleaning and shaping is the key to successful endodontic treatment. A thorough understanding of the internal anatomy and morphology of the root canal system is an important consideration when performing cleaning and shaping procedures. Mandibular premolars are one of the most difficult teeth to treat endodontically because of aberrant root canal anatomy. This article describes case series of mandibular premolars with variations in root canal anatomy treated successfully by conventional endodontic treatment.

Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

2014-01-01

352

100 years of ion beams: Willy Wien's canal rays  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When Goldstein's report on the "positive light" (or what is known as "Kanalstrahlen", canal rays) in gas discharge tubes first appeared in 1886, Willy Wien had just finished his thesis at the Helmholtz Institute in Berlin. Eleven years later he performed his first experiments on canal rays and found [...] that they consisted of inert, charged and neutral particles. The charged component in canal rays could be de ected using electric and magnetic fields, enabling Wien to roughly determine their mass-to-charge ratio. Improving vacuum conditions and detection efficiency, Thomson finally resolved the lightest constituents of canal rays: the hydrogen ions H+ and H2+. This marked the beginning of mass spectrometry. The first mass spectrographs were parabola-image instruments being used by Thomson to discover isotopes. Until about 1923, canal rays became the most common ion source. Also Aston used canal rays as an ion source for the first double focussing mass spectrometer. - Wien continued his work on canal rays up to the end of his life (he died in 1928). He investigated their interaction with matter, i.e. the mean free path of canal rays in gases with respect to charge exchange and atomic excitation. His particular interest was addressed to the physics of light emission by canal rays, such as the line spectrum and the splitting of these lines in magnetic and electric fields, the Doppler effect and lifetimes.

Karl, Wien.

1999-09-01

353

Root canal filling with calcium hydroxide using different techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several different techniques for placing calcium hydroxide into root canals have been proposed, such as amalgam carriers, vertical pluggers, McSpadden compactors, Lentulo drills, files and special syringes. Because correct filling of the root canal is necessary for calcium hydroxide paste to act effectively, the aim of this research was to study different techniques of root canal filling with calcium hydroxide pastes in dog teeth. The placement of calcium hydroxide with a file, absorbent paper points and vertical pluggers presented the lowest number of empty spaces in the three thirds of the root canal, followed by the Lentulo drill and the McSpadden compactor. PMID:11870964

Estrela, Carlos; Mamede Neto, Iussif; Lopes, Hélio Pereira; Estrela, Cyntia R A; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

2002-01-01

354

100 years of ion beams: Willy Wien's canal rays  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When Goldstein's report on the "positive light" (or what is known as "Kanalstrahlen", canal rays) in gas discharge tubes first appeared in 1886, Willy Wien had just finished his thesis at the Helmholtz Institute in Berlin. Eleven years later he performed his first experiments on canal rays and found [...] that they consisted of inert, charged and neutral particles. The charged component in canal rays could be de ected using electric and magnetic fields, enabling Wien to roughly determine their mass-to-charge ratio. Improving vacuum conditions and detection efficiency, Thomson finally resolved the lightest constituents of canal rays: the hydrogen ions H+ and H2+. This marked the beginning of mass spectrometry. The first mass spectrographs were parabola-image instruments being used by Thomson to discover isotopes. Until about 1923, canal rays became the most common ion source. Also Aston used canal rays as an ion source for the first double focussing mass spectrometer. - Wien continued his work on canal rays up to the end of his life (he died in 1928). He investigated their interaction with matter, i.e. the mean free path of canal rays in gases with respect to charge exchange and atomic excitation. His particular interest was addressed to the physics of light emission by canal rays, such as the line spectrum and the splitting of these lines in magnetic and electric fields, the Doppler effect and lifetimes.

Karl, Wien.

355

Medicine in Egypt at the time of Napoleon Bonaparte  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The scientists and doctors who accompanied Napoleon to Egypt in 1798 undertook a survey that is one of the great intellectual achievements of the 19th century. It left a record of the health and wellbeing of the people, especialy in Cairo

Russell, Thomas G.; Russell, Terence M.

2003-01-01

356

The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

Ibrahim, Ali S.

2010-01-01

357

Islamic versus Western Conceptions of Education: Reflections on Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the contradictions between Islamic education theory and the Western-based education systems found in most Islamically oriented countries. Uses Egypt as a case study to illustrate the complex and delicate balance policy makers must achieve in meeting the needs of economic development while also affirming their countries' Islamic cultural…

Cook, Bradley J.

1999-01-01

358

Seroprevalence of bluetongue in sheep and goats in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to understand the epidemiological status of bluetongue infection in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected sheep and goats. Samples were collected during the vector breeding season from September to November 2010, from 14 Egyptian governorates which represent different geographical regions of Egypt, and were tested by Agar Gel Immuno-precipitation Test (AGPT. Results: Out of total 1293 animal serum samples (sheep-1028 and goats-265, 17.5% of sheep and 14.7% of goats serum samples were found positive. The overall prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different governorates was 16.9%. The highest prevalence of bluetongue group specific antibodies was detected in Beni-Suef, Giza, and Al Sharqia governorates (13.2%. The results indicate that there is a necessity to run further studies to identify the negative governorates. In addition, there is a lack in information regarding the BTV serotypes in Egypt. Conclusion: This study reflected high seroprevalence of bluetongue infection in sheep than goats. The results indicated that further studies are needed to identify the vectors from different agro-climatic zones, in addition, the BTV serotypes that are circulating in Egypt.

M. A. Mahmoud

2014-04-01

359

Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

Hubbard, Janie

2010-01-01

360

MULTIPLE WATER REUSE IN POULTRY PROCESSING: CASE STUDY IN EGYPT  

Science.gov (United States)

An industrial-scale multiple water reuse system was under investigation for a period of four years at a modern poultry processing plant in Alexandria, Egypt. The system involved: chlorination of cooling water from the compressor; reuse of this water in the chiller; successive tra...

 
 
 
 
361

The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

Stone, Brian

2008-01-01

362

Burden of stroke in Egypt: current status and opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries have a diversity of populations with similar life style, dietary habits, and vascular risk factors that may influence stroke risk, prevalence, types, and disease burden. Egypt is the most populated nation in the Middle East with an estimated 85.5 million people. In Egypt, according to recent estimates, the overall prevalence rate of stroke is high with a crude prevalence rate of 963/100?000 inhabitants. In spite of disease burden, yet there is a huge evidence practice gap. The recommended treatments for ischemic stroke that are guideline include systematic supportive care in a stroke unit or stroke center is still deficient. In addition, the frequency of thrombolysis in Egypt is very low for many reasons; the major one is that the health insurance system is not covering thrombolysis therapy in nonprivate sectors so patients must cover the costs using their own personal savings; otherwise, they will not receive treatment. Another important factor is the pronounced delay in prehospital and in hospital management of acute stroke. Improvement of stroke care in Egypt should be achieved through multi and interdisciplinary approach including public awareness, physicians' education, and synergistic approach to stroke care with Emergency Medical System. PMID:25041503

Abd-Allah, Foad; Moustafa, Ramez Reda

2014-12-01

363

Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

Poppe, Donna

2011-01-01

364

Nasser and Pan-Arabism: Explaining Egypt's Rise in Power.  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis explains Egypt's rise to preeminence in the Arab Middle East from 1952 to 1967. It examines the implementation of President Nasser's domestic and foreign policies as prescribed by the ideology of pan-Arabism and how this ideology, coupled with...

R. E. Danielson

2007-01-01

365

Joint venture: Jacques Giordano Industries, France and REEFCO, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Joint venture arrangements can provide mutually advantageous links between developed and developing countries. Jacques Giordano, President of Jacques Giordano Industries and Mohamed Ibrahim Saleh of REEFCO, Egypt describe their successful partnership which brings quality solar water heaters to the Egyptian market. The topics include technology transfer, manufacturing, marketing, legal aspects, financing, and government policy

366

Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

2010-01-01

367

Viability analysis of PV power plants in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates, from techno-economical and environmental points of view, the feasible sites in Egypt to build a 10 MW PV-grid connected power plant. Available PV-modules are assessed and a module is selected for this study. The long-term meteorological parameters for each of the 29 considered sites in Egypt from NASA renewable energy resource website (Surface meteorology and Solar Energy) are collected and analyzed in order to study the behaviors of solar radiations, sunshine duration, air temperature, and humidity over Egypt, and also to determine the compatibility of the meteorological parameters in Egypt with the safety operating conditions (SOC) of PV-modules. The project viability analysis is performed using RETScreen version 4.0 software through electric energy production analysis, financial analysis, and GHG emission analysis. The study show that placement of the proposed 10 MW PV-grid connected power plant at Wahat Kharga site offers the highest profitability, energy production, and GHG emission reduction. The lowest profitability and energy production values are offered at Safaga site. Therefore, it is recommended to start building large-scale PV power plants projects at Wahat Kharga site. (author)

EL-Shimy, M. [Electric Power and Machines Department, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Engineering, 1 EL-Sarayat St., Abassia 11517, Cairo (Egypt)

2009-10-15

368

Site selection and evaluation of nuclear power units in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The selection of sites for nuclear power units in Egypt by SOFRATOME for Nuclear Plants Authority is carried on using a method based on interaction between different criteria. The method and the main results on criterion 'radio-ecological impact' are sketched briefly

369

Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were analyzed by using Student's 't' test. Lumbar canal starts growing in length significantly in group III foetuses onward. There was consistency in the growth of lumbar canal diameters with gestational age at all levels. Heights of vertebral bodies of Ist two lumbar vertebrae showed variability in some adjacent groups. The same in the next three grew constantly with the growth of foetuses. Sacral canal showed variable growth in lengths in different groups. Steady growth in the length and diameter of the lumbar canal may be used for approximate age of foetuses for medicolegal reasons.La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los defectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M. Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en

Sumayya

2011-09-01

370

CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL  

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Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

1993-06-01

371

Epidermal inclusion cyst of external auditory canal.  

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Epidermal inclusion cyst is a benign cyst filled with keratin fibers, and its wall has nearly the same characteristics as the epidermis. It is commonly seen in the skin and has the tendency to slowly grow toward deeper epidermis parts and to cause cystic expansion. We report a 23-year-old woman who presented with right external otitis lasting for 2 months. The patient's complaints did not respond to treatment even after parenteral antibiotic therapy. Surgical exploration revealed epidermal inclusion cyst of the ear canal. This pathologic entity is discussed in the light of current literature. PMID:20647839

Alimoglu, Yalcin; Mercan, Hasan; Karaman, Emin; Oz, Buge

2010-07-01

372

Space science education in Egypt and the 2006 solar eclipse  

Science.gov (United States)

The space science research has been started in Egypt since 1910 by measuring the solar constant as indication of solar radiation at Helwan Observatory. The solar sunspot studies and its influence on the Nile flooding was erected and operated at Helwan as a first solar station in Egypt during 1957. Zeiss-Coude' refractor was installed in 1964. Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1936 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology of Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. The total solar eclipse observations on 25th February, 1952 in Khartoum have been done by on Egyptian-French group by using the Worthington Camera. Several international groups observed the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). A coordinated effort partly undertaken in the frame of the French-Egyptian scientific cooperation permitted joined simultaneous eclipse observations of the solar corona. Several Ground base instrumental set-up has been prepared. Spaceborne quasi-simultaneous EIT and Lasco observations of SoHO have been used as well as TRACE observations in Lyman-alpha of HI. W-L images taken with and without a radial filter are processed to show the magnetic structure of the corona. Polarization analysis is performed to study the F-corona in the outer corona. Several filters have been obtained to show the distribution of the emission measures of the inner and middle corona. Spectra were obtained over several emission lines.

Hady, A. A.

2008-12-01

373

Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities  

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Full Text Available This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies. This is because the return on investment in the mining industry is generally low and the pay back period is relatively long compared with easy-to-get money projects. Another reason is the disarray of the mining laws and regulations and lack of administrative capability to deal with domestic and international investors and solve the related problems. Also, lack of skilled personnel in the field of mining and mineral processing is an additional factor for the set back of the mining industry in Egypt. This is why the mining technology in Egypt is not very far from being primitive and extremely simple, with the exception of the underground mining of coal, North of Sinai, and Abu-Tartur phosphate mining, where fully automated long wall operations are designed. Also, the recent gold and tin-tantalum-niobium projects are being designed on modern surface mining and mineral processing technologies. The present review presents an overview of the most important metallic mineral commodities in Egypt, their geological background, reserves and production rates. A brief mention of the existing technologies for their exploitation is also highlighted.

Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid

2011-03-01

374

The enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal: a new CT finding of facial nerve canal fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the value of enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in the diagnosis of facial nerve canal fracture. Methods: Thirty patients with facial nerve canal fracture underwent axial and coronal CT scan. The correlation between the fracture and the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was analyzed. The ability of showing the fracture and enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in axial and coronal imaging were compared. Results: Fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was found in the operation in 30 patients, while the fracture was detected in CT in 18 patients. Enlargement of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was detected in 30 patients in the operation, while the enlargement of fossa was found in CT in 28 cases. Enlargement and fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal were both detected in CT images in 18 patients. Only the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was shown in 12 patients in CT. Conclusion: Enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was a useful finding in the diagnosis of fracture of geniculate fossa in patients with facial paralysis, even no fracture line was shown on CT images. (authors)

375

Root Canal Treatment of Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Separate Roots and Canals Using Spiral Computed Tomographic  

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Anatomic and internal morphology of a root canal system is more complex and differs for each individual tooth of which mandibular premolars have earned the reputation for having aberrant anatomy. The occurrence of three canals with three separate foramina in mandibular second premolars is very rare. A wider knowledge on both clinical and radiological anatomy especially spiral computed tomographic is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. These teeth may require skillful and special root canal special shaping and obturating techniques. This paper reports an unusual case of a mandibular second premolar with atypical canal pattern that was successfully treated endodontically. PMID:25101187

Hariharavel, V. P.; Kumar, A. Ashok; Ganesh, C.; Aravindhan, R.

2014-01-01

376

Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions  

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The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from Lake Manzala (Nile Delta) suggests this period was one of declining discharge (Stanley et al. 2003). Amenhotep III's temple floor lies 2m above the calcareous palaeosol and its construction lies within the broad dating of the ancient surface. It is possible that low discharge levels enabled him to build his temple high and dry of the Nile floods. Future seasons should allow us to clarify this using 14C and OSL dating, and in time we hope to shed more light on the fluvial history of the Nile and how this affected the decision making of the ancient Egyptians. References Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Emery, V.L., Jones, S., Barker. D.B. 2013. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2013, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 99, 35-52. Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Hunter, M.A., Jones, S., Masson, A., Millet, M., Pennington, B.T. 2012. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2012, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 98, 27-42. Stanley, D.J., Krom, M.D., Cliff, R.A. and Woodward, J.C. 2003. Nile flow failure at the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic and petrologic evidence, Geoarchaeology 18(3), 395-402.

Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

2014-05-01

377

Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt  

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This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

1994-01-01

378

Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, while this one leaves no doubt to have its origin in Nisyros. (authors)

379

Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal  

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The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000 years were obtained. As a key national cultural relic, candidate of the world cultural heritage, and route of the South-to-North Water Diversion, the China Great Canal is a worthy subject of a study. Results presented in this paper therefore have high realistic significance.

Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

2014-03-01

380

Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography  

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Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CB?CT) was used first. After the CB?CT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CB?CT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt  

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Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

Bahig, A. E.

2008-01-01

382

Ecological implications of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of Burullus Lagoon of Nile Delta, Egypt  

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This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Ni) from three short sediment cores collected from Burullus lagoon of the Nile delta, Egypt. 210Pb and 137Cs measurement is applied to understand sedimentation rate and related chronology. Remarkably low isotopic activities and intensive bioturbation in the lagoonal sediments rendered age determination difficult. Samples with detectable 137Cs in the upper core sediments together with sediment lithology could help infer a sedimentation rate of about 2.0 mm yr -1, thereby indicating post-dam (after 1964) sedimentation of the upper 10-cm core sediments. Our results demonstrate that most heavy metals in the surficial sediments after normalization to Al decrease seaward, showing a function of distance to the sewerage outlet on the inland lake coast. Also, there is an upwardly increasing trend of normalized heavy metals, especially in the upper 10-cm core sediments. Relevancy analysis has identified Mn, Pb and Cd as the diagnostic heavy metals in Burullus lagoon, most likely derived from Tanta and Kafrelsheihk, the major downtowns in the central Nile delta plain, from where wastewaters are directly discharging into the lake via canal networks. Although Burullus lagoon is presently least affected by pollution as compared to other major lagoons of the Nile delta, the increasing quantities of diagnostic metals, especially Mn, are extremely toxic, as they are potentially linked to the risks of digestive issues and pancreatic cancer reportedly. The situation calls for a rational planning for sewerage treatment in the protected Burullus coast.

Chen, Zhongyuan; Salem, Alaa; Xu, Zhuang; Zhang, Weiguo

2010-02-01

383

19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

2010-04-01

384