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Sample records for suez canal egypt

  1. Environmental aeroradioactivity levels in the Suez-Canal Zone, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals essentially with the establishment of the environmental radioactivity levels in the Suez Canal Zone. It will provide basic information that can be used as a reference to detect and determine the amount and extent of any possible future variations in the natural radioactivity level in that part of Egypt, that might result from nuclear testing or accidents involving release of nuclear radiations and fallout of nuclear fission products that might affect both the terrestrial and atmospheric environments. According to the statistical analysis of the radio active measurements recorded over the Suez Canal Zone, it was found that its mean radiometric background is 7.76 millirem/year. Seven lithological units were separated, each was found to be homogeneously distributed, as far as radioactivity is concerned and has its own characteristic statistics. They form the environmental terrestrial aeroradioactivity map of the area. The Suez Canal Zone is characterized by the presence of extensive water surfaces represented by the Gulf of Suez, Bitter Lakes, El Temsah and El Manzalah Lakes. These represent the lowest radiometric level (0.03-5.16 millirem/year) in the studied zone in spite of the presence of a slightly higher level around the rim of the great Bitter Lake. The highest radiometric level was (4.4-15.3 millirem/year) found associated with El Shat formation of Middle Miocene age and which is composed mainly of sandstone, clay, limestone and gypsum. In sandstone, clay, limestone and gypsum. In that regard the present study demonstrated that periodical aerial radiometric surveying for the entire Suez Canal area is highly recommended for monitoring changes in its environmental radioactivity levels. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulela, Hamdy A.; El-omla, Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Eight surface sabkha soils samples were collected from Ismailia—Suez roadbed, southwestern of Suez Canal district. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses were conducted using grain size; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Grain size analysis indicates high contents of fine sand and mud as well as presence of salts. X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDAX tool clarified that the sabkha soils are enriched by quartz, sulfate minerals (gypsum, ...

  3. Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Aboulela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight surface sabkha soils samples were collected from Ismailia—Suez roadbed, southwestern of Suez Canal district. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses were conducted using grain size; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Grain size analysis indicates high contents of fine sand and mud as well as presence of salts. X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and EDAX tool clarified that the sabkha soils are enriched by quartz, sulfate minerals (gypsum, anhydrite, carbonate minerals (calcite-dolomite-aragonite, chlorides (halite and bischofite, and clay minerals. The results elucidate that the appearance of sabkha deposits and their distribution in the study area are controlled mainly by the content of water soluble salts through parent materials; ground water table; subsurface structural; and physiographic features for instance surface relief or topography; and human activity.

  4. Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal beaches, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal

  5. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  6. Effect of transplantation on heavy metal concentrations in commercial clams of Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Gabr, Howaida R.; Gab-alla, Ali A-f A.

    2008-01-01

    Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra are commercially fished clamswith a wide distribution in the shallow inshore waters of Lake Timsah, Egypt.They are usually contaminated with heavy metals. Consumption of suchcontaminated clams can pose a public health risk. To minimise this risk,therefore, the clams should be removed from the contaminated waters andtransferred to an approved area to reduce the high levels of metals beforebeing marketed. The aim of this work was to study the effect...

  7. Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, K.I. (Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (USA))

    1988-08-01

    The Gulf of Suez is an intracratonic rift basin which originated in the early Miocene on the once-continuous Arabo-African plate. The Precambrian crystalline basement is overlain by a platform cover of Early Cambrian to Eocene age. There is no evidence of tectonic precursors to the Miocene breakup. Marine transgressions, for example during the Carboniferous and Cretaceous, followed wide embayments caused by long-wavelength oscillations trending northwest-southeast on the North African craton. This article discusses the geologic history of the Gulf.

  8. Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Analyses Techniques For Optimum Land Use Planning, West of Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study aims at using remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for optimum landuse planning of the area located north Ismaillia - south Port Said Governorates on the western side of Suez Canal. It is bounded by longitudes 32 degree 10 and 32 degree 20 E and latitudes 300 4 rand 31 0 00' N. Great part of this area is under reclamation and suffering from improper landuse. Ten geomorphologic units were recognized i.e. clay flats, decantation basins, overflow basins, sand sheets, gypsiferous flats, old river terraces, sand flats, turtle backs, lake beds, and recent river terraces. Using US Soil Taxonomy, two soil orders could be identified; Entisols and Aridisols which are represented by ten great groups: Typic Haplosalids, Typic Haplogypsids, Typic Toriorthents, Vertic Argigypsids, Vertic Torrijluvents, Vertic Natrargids ,Typic Torripsamments, Typic Torrifluvens, Aquic Torriorthents and Typic Psammaquents. Surface and ground water with respect to salinity and alkalinity hazards were investigated ,where surface water of the main canals was classified as C2-S 1, C3-S 1 ,C4-S2 and C4-S4, meanwhile the ground water was classified as C3-S 1, C3 -S 1 ,C4-S2 ,C4-SI and C4-S4 .Optimum landuse planning of the studied area includes three approaches i.e., physical planning, optimum cropping pattern and other uses. Physical planning includes designing of three geospatial models. I-treatment plant site selection model. 2-c-treatment plant site selection model. 2-central village site selection model and 3- shortest path for new Canal model. Current cropping pattern was obtained by matching the crop requirements with soil characteristics, where soils of high sand flats and low gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, alfalfa and cotton, soils of low sand flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for olive, citrus and melon, soils of low recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, cotton, corn and rice ,soils of moderately recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, potato and rice, soils of high recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, rice and cotton, soils of high gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for corn, cotton, and citrus, soils of decantation basins are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, rice, corn, cotton, soils of turtle bake are currently highly suitable (S2) for melon, potato, cotton, soils of overflow basins are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus, peach, soils of sand sheets and old river terraces are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus

  9. Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the Suez Canal Bank is going to be highlighted. (author)

  10. Waste management practices in the Gulf of Suez - Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghzaly, S.M.; Binegar, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company (GUPCO) is the largest offshore oil producing company in Egypt. GUPCO currently produces 400,000 BOPD from over 350 wells supported by 87 offshore producing platforms. As a leader of the Egyptian petroleum industry, GUPCO established within its strategies and goals a separate category covering safety, health and Protection of the environment. This step was recognized and emphasized the importance of GUPCO`s role in protecting the Egyptian environment while producing oil and natural gas. This paper discusses the existing waste management practices of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company which were put into place to protect the Egyptian environment in the Gulf of Suez-Egypt and GUPCO`s associated operations.

  11. Assessment of the impact from transporting radioactive materials in the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study in Egypt, carried out as the subject of an IAEA research contract, has used the INTERTRAN Code to provide an assessment of doses to handlers and the collective dose to the population, due to transport of radioactive material through the Suez Canal. Calculations were carried out using the data appropriate to the Canal, based on actual statistics and observations and default data built into the Code. The average collective dose per year was calculated to be 4.5 man rem and doses to handlers under normal transport conditions represented 97% of the total. Use of built-in default data gave results 106 times higher. 11 refs, 16 tabs

  12. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF6 packages traversing the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF6 shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF6 on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resultinhe toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

  13. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF6) packages tracking Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF6) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF6) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF6) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested

  14. Egypt's first subsea completion: A Gulf of Suez case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.'s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt's first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations

  15. Sorption behaviour of cobalt-60 on Suez Canal bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralogical, elemental analysis and sorption behaviour of the Suez Canal bottom sediments in the Port Said area were investigated. It was found that the bottom sediment consist mainly of quartz, feldspars and traces of calcite mineral. The cation-exchange capacity was found to increase as the particle size of the sediment decreased. Sorption of 60Co by the bottom sediment increased with contact time up to 6 h. Variation of the solution pH from 4 to 9 showed limited increase in the sorption of 60Co. As carrier concentrations increase from 10-7N to 10-3N, sorption of Co was found to increase linearly following Freundlich isotherm. The presence of Mg2+ and Fe3+ in solution depressed the sorption of 60Co by the sediments. The desorption of 60Co from bottom sediment with distilled and Suez Canal water was found to increase with contact time. (author)

  16. Stratigraphy and correlation of Belayim Cenomanian, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elshafy, E.; Abu-Ellile, M. M.

    The Cenomanian rocks in the land and marine Belayim wells (Nos. 113-32, 113-M5, M1) in the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez are mainly clastics with few nonclastics. They have been referred to the Raha Formation and correlated with the Cenomanian in north Egypt. About 46 foraminiferal species could be identified. Species of Hedbergella, Thomasinella and Cribrostomoides are the most conspicous and form three definite and traceable biozones. The zonal as well as the recorded index species are useful in local, regional and intra-continental correlation.

  17. Rift offsets, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1988-02-01

    Structure and stratigraphic mapping in the northern half of the Gulf of Suez (GOS) documents two en echelon, rift-parallel (Clysmic trend) rift segments. The segments are right stepping and share a zone of overlap, which extends southward from the southern border of the Wadi Araba structure on the western shore of the gulf to the north end of the Abu Durba block on the east side of the gulf. The spatial relationship of the two segments defines the central GOS rift offset, and the structural depression linking the segments in the area of overlap forms a rift-offset zone. Another potential rift offset, though less well constrained, also with a north-south trend may be present south of Gebel Zeit. This rift and the central GOS rift offset provide a model for the opening of the GOS in which north-south rift-offset zones link Clysmic-trending rift segments, imparting a regional zig-zag pattern to the initial rift configuration. Recognition of offset zones and their associated fault fabrics is essential for effective exploration of rift basins. For example, the alignment of producing fields and elongation directions of individual fields in the central GOS offset are anomalous relative to those of other producing trends in the Gulf.

  18. Egypt`s first subsea completion: A Gulf of Suez case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hawary, A.; Hoffman, J.G.

    1996-06-01

    A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.`s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt`s first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations.

  19. Uranium concentrations in sediments of the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suez Canal bottom sediment samples have been analyzed by alpha-spectrometry for the measurement of uranium. This method is based on the extraction of uranium with trioctylphosphine oxide/cyclohexane (TOPO) followed by reextraction and separation on anion exchange resins, and finally electrodeposition. The ?-activity of 238U and 234U were measured by surface barrier detectors, in Bq/kg dry weight. The obtained results were compared with concentrations determined by ? measurements. The results point to a state of disequilibrium between 238U and RaeU (radium equivalent uranium) which is attributed to the escape of radon. (author)

  20. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy G. Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  1. Egypt`s first remotely controlled subsea completion -- A Gulf of Suez case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hawary, A.; Hoffman, J.G.

    1995-11-01

    A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company`s (GUPCO) first remotely controlled subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the Gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was utilized to economically justify development of this one well marginal field which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low cost subsea tree was utilized to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez many fields have been discovered by have not been developed due to low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if any economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible due to reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. Capturing the experience of Amoco in the Gulf of Mexico and in the Dutch North Sea, GUPCO was able to build a low cost subsea system which would allow for the economic development of the marginal fields discovered in the past. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints which will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore the actual field installation of Egypt`s first remotely controlled subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls,and offshore installation operations.

  2. A preliminary regional geothermal assessment of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Zaher, Mohamed; Saibi, Hakim; El Nouby, Mohamed; Ghamry, Essam; Ehara, Sachio

    2011-05-01

    The tectonic setting of Egypt, in the northeastern corner of the African continent, suggests that it may possess significant geothermal resources, especially along its eastern margin. The most promising areas for geothermal development in the NW Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift system are locations along the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez that are characterized by surface thermal manifestations, including a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures. The Gulf of Suez region is one of the most interesting geothermal areas in Egypt because of the high temperatures of its springs. Geothermal studies were performed based on bottom-hole temperature logs of 103 offshore oil wells in the Gulf of Suez. The eastern margin of the Gulf of Suez, especially in the vicinity of hot springs, is characterized by high temperature gradients and heat flow values of more than 100 mW/m 2. Geophysical studies, which characterized the gravity and aeromagnetic signatures of the Gulf of Suez, were used to investigate the origin of the high heat flow and to constrain the depths of the heat sources in the hottest areas. Based on these data, conceptual and numerical models of hydrothermal systems were developed of the Hammam Faraun and Hammam Musa hot springs, which are the hottest springs in Egypt. The modeling results show that the origin of the high heat flow is the uplifted basement rocks.

  3. Slim-hole drilling in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the economical, operational and environmental aspects of the reduced hole size drilling now used in offshore operations in Gupco and other major petroleum companies operating in the Gulf of Suez Area Egypt. The results demonstrate that reduced hole size drilling saves cost: use of slim hole reduces time related intangible savings, fixed tangible savings, and tangible equipment savings. The advantages of small hole size and the reduction in the volume and size of oil wet drilling cuttings help minimize the environmental impact associated with the use of oil base mud. The reduction in drilling fluid volume and treatment cost, higher rates of penetration, better hole cleaning capabilities, savings in consumables (such as bits, mud, cement and diesel oil), less tangible cost, and easier equipment mobilization are interacted to produce significant operational gains. This results in savings to 40 to 50 percent of well costs versus the cost of conventional wells drilled in the same area. Although substantial savings were realized, there are elevated risks with the major one being the lack of a good contingency in the event unexpected hole condition or geological condition require an extra casing to be run prior to reaching the total depth. Effective preplanning between the drilling, exploration, and engineering to accurately define possible geologic targets and their potential drilling problems can minimize these risks associated with drilling slim holes risks associated with drilling slim holes and provide higher levels of success in meeting objectives

  4. Geology of the Warda discovery, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, J.N.; Greet, M.J.; Collings, B.P.; Davis, C.B.; Miller, M.H. (BG Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-08-01

    British Gas, as operator for its partners, Yukong Ltd., and Union Pacific Petroleum Suez Ltd., recently discovered the Warda field in the Gulf of Suez in November 1990. Discovery well Hb78-2, located 4 km off the mouth of the Wadi Araba on the west side of the north-central Gulf of Suez, reached a total depth of 8,400 ft in Nubia clastics. Oil was tested in the Hb78-2 from five separate clastic intervals at a cumulative flow rate of approximately 7,000 BOPD of 20-24{degree} API with no water. Currently, an appraisal well program is underway to extend the limits of the field. This significant new-field discovery is located in a part of the Suez basin that previously considered to have limited oil potential. Geophysical assessment of the structure used exploration 3-D seismic coverage and concurrently acquired potential-fields datasets. The Warda structure at Kareen-Rudeis levels is a broad four-way closure, trending northwest-southeast, which drapes over older pre-Miocene tilted fault blocks. The Warda structure lies downthrown to a major Clysmic shoulder fault and is bounded on the northeast by another Clysmic down-to-the-basin normal fault. Cross faulting is noted at the deeper levels, and particularly influences the rift boundary faults. According to burial-history modeling, oil generation occurred within 4-5 million years after the Eocene-Senonian carbonate source rocks achieved onset of oil generation at a birthline of 10,000-11,000 ft subsea. The Cretaceous-Carboniferous Nubia sandstones apparently have acted as a conduit for oil migration from the adjacent Lagia hydrocarbon kitchen a few kilometers to the northeast.

  5. Residual Circulation in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, M. A.; El-Sabh, M. I.; Murty, T. S.; Backhaus, J. O.

    1998-02-01

    A three-dimensional non-linear hydrodynamical numerical model has been used to study the water movement in the shallow Gulf of Suez at the northern end of the Red Sea. The computational grid used to schematize the Gulf has a horizontal resolution of 3×3 km and levels at 5, 15, 30 and 60 m in the vertical. The simulations were carried out separately for tidal forcing and wind forcing. Further, in each case, stratified conditions were considered to represent the state of the Gulf during late summer periods. In the case of wind-induced circulations, a uniform wind speed of 5 m s -1was applied over the Gulf, blowing from NW, N and NE directions. The results suggest that the dynamics of the Gulf of Suez are governed by the interaction of wind and density forcing. Only occasionally, for instance in the vicinity of headlands and islands, tidal residuals are of similar importance. For the overall residual currents, it was found that the typical (quasi) baroclinic two-layered inverse-estuarine circulation observed in the Gulf of Suez can be produced under the combined action of M 2-tide and winds blowing steadily from the north-eastern direction. North-western and northern winds produced the reverse pattern.

  6. La crisis del Canal de Suez en 1956: el fin de una época en el Medio Oriente y el comienzo de otra

    OpenAIRE

    Efraim Davidi

    2006-01-01

    La crisis del Canal de Suez (o Campaña de Suez, Guerra de Suez u Operación Kadesh) fue una guerra que estalla en 1956 en territorio egipcio. El conflicto que opone a Egipto a una alianza formada por Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel se produce a consecuencia de la nacionalización del Canal de Suez por el dirigente egipcio Gamal Abdel Nasser. Esta alianza entre dos estados europeos e Israel respondió a intereses comunes: económicos, comerciales y políticos. Durante el curso del mes que sig...

  7. Superposed deformation in the northern Suez Rift, Egypt: relevance to hydrocarbons exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, A.R. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Geology; Khalil, M.H. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-07-01

    Detailed subsurface studies of the northern part of the Suez Rift and adjacent areas indicate the superposition of two different episodes of deformation. During the earlier (Late Cretaceous) phase of deformation, folds with NE-SW oriented axes were formed in northern Egypt as a result of convergence between Africa and Eurasia and the closure of the Neotethys. During the later (early Miocene) deformation, NW-oriented normal faults were formed as a result of the opening of the Suez Rift. Borehole data have shown that a belt of NE en echelon folds with NE-SW axes exists in the subsurface in the northernmost part of the rift, between Ayun Musa and the Sukhna-1 well, south of Gebel Ataqa. This fold belt represents the SW continuation of the en echelon folds exposed in the Mitla Pass, to the NE of the rift. Another pre-rift structure is the offshore extension of the Wadi Araba structure as a SE-facing monocline. This offshore structure also represents the continuation of the Gebel Somar structure, on the eastern shoulder of the Suez Rift. The Gebel Somar and Wadi Araba structures represent the southernmost pre-rift folds in northern Egypt. Pre-rift folds in the study area stood high above sea-level during the Palaeocene and early Eocene. Upper Cretaceous and/or older rocks in the cores of these folds were later uncomfortably covered by middle Eocene rocks. The presence of Late Cretaceous folds should be taken into consideration when exploring for hydrocarbons in this part of the Suez Rift. Borehole data in NE Egypt also indicate the presence of Late Cretaceous folds underneath the almost flat-lying Tertiary rocks in the northern part of the Eastern Desert. These folds are considered to be potential hydrocarbon traps in this relatively poorly-explored area. (Author)

  8. Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.

  9. Extensional hard linkages, eastern Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Ken; Khalil, Samir

    1998-06-01

    The Araba Abu Durba area on the eastern margin of the Gulf of Suez exhibits two superb outcrop examples of extensional hard linkages in a rift basin. Here, three large, domino-style, basement-cored, northeast-dipping fault blocks are formed by a series of major northwest-trending normal faults. These are offset by two north-northeast trending sinistral oblique-slip transfer faults that terminate in horsetail normal fault splays. The transfer faults do not extend across the entire rift basin. Detailed mapping and structural analysis show that they developed by breakage of initial low-strain relay ramps along reactivated north-northeast trending basement fabrics between overlapping northwest-trending normal fault segments. Paleostrain analysis of fault-slip indicators shows that both the normal and the sinistral oblique-slip transfer faults were formed synchronously in response to northeast-southwest extension, perpendicular to the main northwest rift trend.

  10. Miocene platform-margin reefs, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, N.P.; Rosen, B.; Coniglio, M.

    1988-02-01

    Jebel Abu Shaar is a completely dolomitized carbonate platform atop a crystalline basement horst on the western side of the Gulf of Suez. Margins of the platform, where not removed by synsedimentary faulting, are formed by well-developed coral reefs. The massive reef carbonates consistently illustrate two stages of growth: a basal paucispecific unit of branching coral bafflestone, mostly Stylophora and a thicker upper unit of diverse coral framestone, dominated by faviids. A deep-water, slope-parallel biostrome of ahermatypic corals, dominated by Dendrophyllia and containing numerous Balanophyllia and Madracis, is present 10 km north of Abu Shaar. Corals are well cemented by numerous rinds of marine cement which is overlain by geopetal internal sediment containing planktonic foraminifers and pteropods.

  11. Ascidian introductions through the Suez Canal: The case study of an Indo-Pacific species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Marc; Shenkar, Noa

    2012-10-01

    Although marine biological invasions via the Suez Canal have been extensively documented, little is known about the introduction of non-indigenous ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea), a group containing particularly aggressive invasive species. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to study the introduction of the ascidian Herdmania momus into the Mediterranean Sea. We reviewed its taxonomy and global distribution, and analyzed how genetic variation is partitioned between sides of the Suez Canal. The taxonomic revision showed that H. momus currently has a wide Indo-Pacific distribution. Genetic data indicated two well-differentiated colonization histories across the eastern Mediterranean. Our findings suggest that the range expansion of H. momus has been greatly facilitated by the combined effect of human-mediated transport and the species' ability to adapt to different environments. The integrative approach presented here is critical to attain a holistic understanding of marine biological invasions, especially when studying groups with a poorly resolved taxonomy. PMID:22857711

  12. Thermochronological investigation of the timing of rifting and rift segmentation in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, W.; Stockli, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Tertiary Gulf of Suez rift system is one of the best-studied continental rift systems and has inspired many fundamental geodynamic models for continental rifting. However, our limited knowledge of how extensional strain is spatially and temporally distributed has made it difficult to adequately evaluate models for the dynamic evolution of this rift. A critical aspect of constraining the evolution of rifting and rift segmentation in the Gulf of Suez involves acquiring reliable geochronological constraints on extensional faulting. This study has commenced a systematic investigation of the timing and spatial distribution of rifting, lateral rift segmentation, and rift localization within the Gulf of Suez, Egypt, employing apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. (U-Th)/He thermochronometric analysis of sample transects from exhumed fault blocks within the rift integrated with structural data will allow us to directly determine the timing, distribution, and magnitude of extension. The onset of major rifting (~24-19 Ma) in the Gulf of Suez was marked by the development of crustal domino-style tilt blocks and syn-rift deposition of the late Oligocene non-marine Abu Zenima Fm and non-marine to restricted marine Nukhul Fm. Development of the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform cut off the rift from the Red Sea rift at an early extensional stage. Apatite (AHe) and zircon (ZHe) (U- Th)/He data were collected from basement and pre-rift sedimentary sample transects from the central and southern Sinai Peninsula portion and the Gebel El Zeit area in the southern Gulf of Suez as well as from basement samples from selected drill cores off Gebel El Zeit. Preliminary data exhibit partially reset ages trending as old as ~70 Ma (AHe) and ~450 Ma (ZHe) from shallower structural levels (Proterozoic basement and Phanerozoic cover sequence). Structurally deeper samples yield abundant AHe ages of ~22-24 Ma, indicative of rapid cooling and exhumation during the early Miocene. More basin-ward AHe samples are as young as ~17 Ma, recording continued early to middle Miocene extension in the Gulf of Suez. Detailed thermochronometric dating in progress should yield a more complete picture of the temporal and spatial distribution of extensional faulting in the Gulf of Suez.

  13. Esporre l’Egitto. Viaggiatori europei all’inaugurazione del canale di Suez (1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Strukeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La dilatazione mediatica e spettacolare delle manifestazioni dell’inaugurazione del Canale di Suez (1869 ci portano a riflettere sull’impatto della trasformazione dell’esperienza del viaggio nei decenni centrali dell’Ottocento, anche nel più stretto ambito della formazione e della cultura degli artisti figurativi. La ricchezza delle testimonianze iconiche e dei resoconti dei due tours proposti agli invitati europei da Ismail Pascià, nell’alto Egitto seguendo il percorso del Nilo, e nei territori del Canale, ci permette di ricostruire la complessità di questa ‘messa in scena’ dell’Egitto, che sembra dilatare l’impianto del Parc Egyptien all’Esposizione Universale del 1867.

  14. Accommodation structures on Morgan hinge zone, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Morgan hinge zone is a narrow, complex structural belt separating a province of southwest-dipping fault blocks in the southern Gulf of Suez from a northeast-dipping province in the central Gulf. The variety of accommodation structures within this zone appears to result from the intersection of oppositely dipping, low-angle extensional detachments underlying the two dip provinces. The central and southern Gulf provinces both exhibit similar gross morphologies. An array of similarly tilted fault blocks extends from one margin of the rift to close to the opposite margin, where dips of the tilt blocks decrease, then reverse, forming a broad structural arch adjacent to the border fault. This structural pattern results from extension on a low-angle master detachment having a dip opposite to that of the overlying tilt block array. Thus, the central Gulf province appears to have opened by extension on a southwest-dipping detachment, whereas the southern Gulf province opened on a northeast-dipping detachment.

  15. Miocene platform-margin reefs, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, J.P.; Rosen, B.; Coniglio, M.

    1988-01-01

    Jebel Abu Shaar is a completely dolomitized carbonate platform atop a crystalline basement horst on the western side of the Gulf of Suez. Margins of the platform, where not removed by synsedimentary faulting, are formed by well-developed coral reefs. The massive reef carbonates consistently illustrate two stages of growth: a basal paucispecific unit of branching coral bafflestone, mostly Stylophora and a thicker upper unit of diverse coral framestone, dominated by faviids. In the upper unit, the reef crest is massive columnar Porites and less common Caulastrea framestone. The back-reef is a framestone of diverse faviids, mainly Montastrea Favites, and Tarbellastrea, and interbedded reef-flat rhodolite rudstones. The back-reef and reef-flat facies grade onshelf into Stylophora bafflestone biostromers and faviid bioherms. The reef front is a shallow to intermediate depth zone of numerous and diverse faviids, dominated by Montastrea and Acanthastrea framestones, bioclastic sands, and hardgrounds. Deeper zones are mostly small Acanthastrea mounds or rhodolite/bivalve rudstones with scattered faviids and Acanthastrea. Synsedimentary lithification, internal sedimentationm, and bioerosion prevail throughout. A deep-water, slope-parallel biostrome of ahermatypic corals, dominated by Dendrophyllia and containing numerous Balanophyllia and Madracis, is present 10 km north of Abu Shaar. Corals are well cemented by numerous rinds of marine cement which is overlain by geopetal internal sediment containing planktonic foraminifers and pteropods.

  16. Accommodation structures on Morgan hinge zone, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

    1988-02-01

    The Morgan hinge zone is a narrow, complex structural belt separating a province of southwest-dipping fault blocks in the southern Gulf of Suez from a northeast-dipping province in the central Gulf. The variety of accommodation structures within this zone appears to result from the intersection of oppositely dipping, low-angle extensional detachments underlying the two dip provinces. Three major accommodation structures link to form the Morgan hinge zone. Transverse arches project outward from both rift margins. In the west, near Ras Shukheir, a gently dipping platform breaks northward into an array of small cross-strike tilt blocks but is truncated on the south by a broad, arcuate cross fault with major throw. In the central Gulf, a series of arcuate normal faults form spiraling splays around the broad dome at the Morgan field. The factors controlling the accommodation structures are (1) the configuration of the master detachments adjacent to the accommodation zone, (2) the vertical separation between the two opposing master detachments, and (3) preexisting mechanical weaknesses within the prerift basement terrane.

  17. Oil window in the Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, A.N. (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt))

    1988-08-01

    Petroleum in the Gulf of Suez is multisourced mainly by restricted marine Cretaceous to Eocene beds. The Campanian carbonates of the Sudr Formation and the Turonian shales of the Abu Qada Formation are high-quality sources. Other proven sources are carbonate and shale intervals within other sub-Miocene formations. Geothermal modeling calibrated by maturation measurements suggests that the organic-rich lower Miocene marls may not be mature enough to expel hydrocarbons north of the Morgan-Amal fields area but are mature to the south. This could be related mainly to a gradual increase in thermal gradient from north to south (20-55{degree}C/km). A few anomalies do exist, however. Thermal gradients are generally higher in areas where oil accumulated. The depth of peak generation ranges between 5,200 m to the north and 3,300 m to the south. The geographic variations in heat flow, maturation depths, and age of source rocks are not reflected in the timing of hydrocarbon migration. During the middle Miocene, a short-lived salinity crisis resulted in the deposition of massive thick evaporites that form the ultimate seal in the Gulf. The accompanying rapid burial of the underlying sub-Miocene potential source intervals caused them all to sequentially enter the oil window, within a very short time, soon after the evaporites accumulated. This timing was perfect for hydrocarbon preservation: after seal deposition and major disturbing regional tectonic events. The almost simultaneous migration from all the source beds resulted in mixed multisourced hydrocarbon accumulations.

  18. Structure of Morgan hinge zone, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbee, M.H.; Coffield, D.Q.; Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.; Smale, J.L.

    1986-05-01

    The Morgan hinge zone separates two major segments of the Suez rift containing opposite internal tilt-block rotations. Field studies within the zone's exposed western part show this complex cross-strike structure to be a transfer or accommodation feature, rather than a scissor-faulted hinge system or superimposed, through-going, strike-slip zone. The zone's western part contains complexly faulted and variably tilted blocks with unique histories, in contrast to adjacent orderly tilt-block arrays. Some faults exhibit oblique slip. To the south, the zone terminates against the Esh el Mellaha block, a large, southwest-dipping tilt block. Immediately to the northeast, the Zeit tilt block extends farther northwest and is separated from the adjacent Gebel Gharumul area by a small, deep pull-apart basin. To the northeast, the hinge zone passes across the rift through Morgan oil field and then doglegs southeastward, ending in a disturbed zone analogous to the Gebel Gharumul area. All fault sets appear to be contemporaneous and have maintained physical continuity. Local oblique slip and tilting, and high-angle, through-going cross faults terminating in doglegs, associated with deep pull-apart basins, suggest laterally varying transcurrent motion, rather than simple scissor faulting. The continuous border faults preclude through-going, strike-slip faults. Thus, the Morgan hinge zone is a transfer structure forming a decoupled interface between two orderly tilt-block systems. Although strike-slip motions are present locally, they probably cancel out along the entire zone and do not represent regional cross-strike shear.

  19. Bio indicator for monitoring radioactive pollution in Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elseredie or pinctada radiatata bivalve oyster used as a food stuff in town of Suez; was found to be a good bio indicator for Co-60 and Cs-134. This laboratory study; under similar marine environment including ph, salinity and temperature; indicated that these oysters concentrate Cs-134 in the soft tissue higher than in the shell. This may be due to similarity between Cs and K. Contrary to Cs, co was concentrated in the shell more than in the soft tissue. This was attributed to physico-chemical adsorption of Co by shell. The release (loss) of Co-60 and Cs-134; carried out under the same conditions of the field environment; was found to follow the same trends of their uptake. Release of Cs-134 was fast and di phasic reaction whereas in case of Co-60 it is slow continuous and monophasic reaction

  20. Optimal site matching of wind turbine generator: Case study of the Gulf of Suez region in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Shimy, M. [Electric Power and Machines Department, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Engineering, 1 EL-Sarayat St., Abassia, 11517 Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    During the last few years, Egypt has emerged as the leader of wind power in the Middle East and Africa. In the Gulf of Suez region, a continuously expanding large-scale grid-connected wind farm is available at Zafarana site. The Gulf of EL-Zayt site in the Gulf of Suez region is now under extensive studies related to wind power projects such as feasibility and bird migration studies. Therefore, the Gulf of Suez region is considered in this paper for optimal site matching of wind turbine generator (WTG). This paper treats the problem of site matching of WTG through improved formulation of the capacity factor. Such factor is estimated based on Weibull PDF and an accurate model for the WTG output-power-curve. Ornithological, martial, and other limitations placed on WTG hub heights in the Gulf of Suez region in Egypt are taken into account. In addition, a MATLAB based program is created to implement the presented technique of optimal site matching of WTG. Based on turbine-performance-index (TPI) maximization, optimal output-power-curve and optimal commercial WTG are determined for each candidate site in the Gulf of Suez region. Long-term performance measurements at Zafarana wind farms in comparison with the results are used to validate the presented technique and the optimality of the results. (author)

  1. October field: The latest giant under development in Egypt's Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelek, J.J.; Abdine, A.S. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-09-01

    October field, the third largest oil field in Egypt, produced 378 MMBO from its discovery in 1977 until January 1990. It is the northernmost giant oil field in the Gulf of Suez Rift basin. Twenty wells from five platforms in approximately 190 ft (58 m) of water currently drain over 3,238 ha. Recent successful field extensions demonstrate the viability of continuing exploration in this oil-rich area. This structurally trapped field is a complex of rotated fault blocks typical of rift basins worldwide. A northwest-trending normal fault with an approximate throw of 1,220 m has trapped an 335-m oil column on the upthrown eastern side. On the upthrown side, the Carboniferous through Oligocene prerift section dips gently to the northeast and is unconformably overlain by generally flat Miocene to Holocene clastics, carbonates, and evaporites. Severe multiple problems result from thick Miocene evaporites hampering seismic definition of the highly productive prerift section. These same evaporites serve as the ultimate seal in October field and throughout the Gulf of Suez. Although four layers are productive, approximately 95% of field reserves are within Carboniferous to Lower Cretaceous massive Nubia Sandstones. The remaining reserves are in more stratified Upper Cretaceous sandstones, basal Miocene rift-fill Nukhul Formation clastics, and a Lower Miocene clastic in the upper Rudeis Formation. Several distinct reservoir accumulations exist, with the deepest and most significant original oil-water contact at {minus}10,670 ft subsea. October field oil gravities range from 14 to 34{degree} API, with an initial solution GOR of 134 to 474 SCF/STB. The hydrocarbon source for all October field oil as well as most Gulf of Suez oil is believed to be the Campanian Brown Limestone Member of the Sudr Formation. Average reservoir parameters for the Nubia Formation are 16% porosity, 236 md permeability, 137 m net pay thickness, and 5,506 psi original reservoir pressure.

  2. Subsurface structural mapping of Gebel El-Zeit area, Gulf of Suez, Egypt using aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; Salem, Ahmed; Ushijima, Keisuke

    2005-08-01

    The Gebel El-Zeit area is located on the western coast of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The areas in/and around the Gulf of Suez are generally important due to their hydrocarbon resources. In this study, we have applied gradient interpretation techniques (Euler deconvolution and analytic signal) to the aeromagnetic data of the Gebel El-Zeit area. The main objective of this study is to identify and delineate the possible subsurface structure of the area that may assist in locating new hydrocarbon prospects. Results of Euler method suggested that, on the eastern and western parts of the area, the basement could be observed on the ground (~50 m over the ground) and became more deeper on the central part to reach depth of 5 km (from the ground level). Results from the analytic signal method indicated that, the depth to the basement has an average value of 156 m on the eastern side and 758 m on the western side. Generally, the area is characterized by a graben structure bounded by major faults striking in the NW-SE direction.

  3. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Egyptian Mango (Mangifera indica L. Cultivers Grown in Suez Canal and Sinai Region Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes.

  4. Sedimentology and significance of an early syn-rift paleovalley, Wadi Tayiba, Suez Rift, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher Aiden-Lee

    2008-09-01

    Wadi Tayiba is located along the western margin of the Hammam Faraun fault block, western Sinai, Egypt and is generally thought to contain exposures of the 'type-section' for late pre-rift to early syn-rift stratigraphy associated with the Oligo-Miocene Suez Rift. Previous studies have suggested a complex vertical succession of sedimentary facies characterise the late pre-rift to early syn-rift and imply major and abrupt variations in relative sea-level during this time. Detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis of the Wadi Tayiba type-section presented in this study identifies not only a far simpler vertical facies succession than previously suggested but also the development of a major paleovalley system at the base of the early syn-rift succession. It is suggested that this subtle but significant feature is the cause of the complex vertical facies succession previously interpreted. It is concluded that continuous marine sedimentation and only moderate amplitude variations in relative sea-level occurred during the Eocene to Early Oligocene within at least this part of the Suez Rift. A major relative sea-level fall occurred during the middle Oligocene and a regionally developed erosional surface associated with this event marks the contact between late pre-rift and early syn-rift strata. The results of this study have major implications for sub-regional correlations of late pre-rift to early syn-rift stratigraphic units and resultant palaeogeographic reconstructions of the late pre-rift to early syn-rift period.

  5. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*

    OpenAIRE

    Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-dieter; El-rayes, Ahmed E.

    2008-01-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its...

  6. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

  7. Timing of structural development of oil traps in Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhary, L.R.; Shaheen, S.

    1988-01-01

    To date, more than 40 oil fields with an estimated 25billion bbl of oil in place have been discovered in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. These oil accumulations are present both in the pre-graben and graben-fill cycles which are separated by Oligocene tectonic phase, hitherto considered to be responsible for differentiation and formation of oil traps. In the present study, the structural development of many oil traps is related to intra-Rudeis tectonic phase of late early Miocene age. Presence of an a

  8. Facies and sequence stratigraphy of some Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Mowafi, Ahmed; Al-Malky, Mazen

    2015-01-01

    The shallow-water siliciclastics and carbonates of the Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt represent an epiric ramp. The facies are characterized by stacked high-frequency cycles with restricted ramp to shoal margin sequences. Based on an extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, six lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. A sequence-stratigraphic analysis was carried out by integrating lithostratigraphic marker beds, facies relationships, stratigraphic cycles, and biostratigraphy. The investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. S1, is interpreted to correspond to the Late Burdigalian stage (18-16.38 My), S2 corresponds to the Late Burdigalian-Early Langhian stage (16.38-14.78 My), and S3 represents the Late Langhain-Early Serravallian stage (14.78-13.66 My). Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles.

  9. La crisis del Canal de Suez en 1956: el fin de una época en el Medio Oriente y el comienzo de otra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Davidi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La crisis del Canal de Suez (o Campaña de Suez, Guerra de Suez u Operación Kadesh fue una guerra que estalla en 1956 en territorio egipcio. El conflicto que opone a Egipto a una alianza formada por Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel se produce a consecuencia de la nacionalización del Canal de Suez por el dirigente egipcio Gamal Abdel Nasser. Esta alianza entre dos estados europeos e Israel respondió a intereses comunes: económicos, comerciales y políticos. Durante el curso del mes que siguió a la nacionalización del Canal, un acuerdo secreto fue firmado en Sèvres, en las afueras de Paris, en el cual se selló la cooperación militar de Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel contra Egipto.

  10. Boundary layer structure observed by Shipborne Doppler Sodar in the Suez Canal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of the boundary layer with a monostatic Sodar and other instrumentation were carried out in the Suez canal zone in January and March 1979, from the Italian m.v. Salernum on its way to and from a GARP assignment. The Sodar was operated almost continuously throughout the passages. In addition to the intensity records, an off-line Doppler analysis involving the use of the fast Fourier transform of the digitized Sodar echoes has provided the vertical component w of the velocity. In general, because of efficient filtering and of the good quality of the data, a vertical profile of w has been determined for each transmitted pulse. During a prolonged stay in the Bitter lakes vertical profiles of temperature and humidity were also obtained by deploying a tethered balloon. Large temporal and spatial temperature contrasts exist in the canal zone due to the presence of the desert and of large and small bodies of water. The ensuring phenomenology during the time of observation was quite varied. (author)

  11. GC estimation of organic hydrocarbons that threaten shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawrah, M F; Ebiad, M A; Rashad, A M; El-Sayed, E; Snousy, Moustafa Gamal; Tantawy, M A

    2014-11-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination is one of the important environmental problems at petroleum-related sites, which causes critical environmental and health defects. Severe petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from coastal refinery plant was detected in a shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer is bordered by Gulf in the Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The overall objective of this investigation is to estimate the organic hydrocarbons in shallow sandy aquifers, released from continuous major point-source of pollution over a long period of time (91 years ago). This oil refinery contamination resulted mainly in the improper disposal of hydrocarbons and produced water releases caused by equipment failures, vandalism, and accidents that caused direct groundwater pollution or discharge into the gulf. In order to determine the fate of hydrocarbons, detailed field investigations were made to provide intensive deep profile information. Eight composite randomly sediment samples from a test plot were selected for demonstration. The tested plot was 50 m long?×?50 m wide?×?70 cm deep. Sediment samples were collected using an American auger around the point 29° 57' 33? N and 32° 30' 40? E in 2012 and covered an area of 2,500 m(2) which represents nearly 1/15 of total plant area (the total area of the plant is approximately 3.250 km(2)). The detected total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were 2.44, 2.62, 4.54, 4.78, 2.83, 3.22, 2.56, and 3.13 wt%, respectively. TPH was calculated by differences in weight and subjected to gas chromatography (GC). Hydrocarbons were analyzed on Hewlett-Packard (HP-7890 plus) gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). The percentage of paraffine of the investigated TPH samples was 7.33, 7.24, 7.58, 8.25, 10.25, 9.89, 14.77, and 17.53 wt%, respectively. PMID:25052330

  12. Petroleum biomarkers as environment and maturity indicators for crude oils from the Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Moharrem Bek, Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ (Egypt); Hegazi, A.H. [Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster Univ. (Germany); El-Gayar, M.S. [Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Andersson, J.T. [Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Depositional environment and maturation assessments of source rocks from the central Gulf of Suez, Egypt were evaluated utilizing the biomarker distributions in nine crude oils derived from a syn-rift tectonic sequence of the central Gulf of Suez province. No obvious variations were observed amongst the studied crude oils, suggesting that these oils are all of the same genetic type. These oils feature a predominance of oleanane, reaching 24%, and a relatively low gammacerane concentration of 10%, suggesting that these oils were derived from a terrigenous organofacies source rock with a significant angiosperm higher land plants input deposited within the marginally mature syn-rift shale of Lower Miocene Nukhul, Rudeis and Kareem formations of mixed kerogen types II-III. Maturity parameters based on various sterane isomerisation distributions, i.e. C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}). C{sub 29}{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}20S/(S+R) and TAS/(TAS+MAS) and aromatic sulfur compounds such as 4-MDBT/ 1-MDBT, 4,6/-1,4-DMBT, 2,4/-1,4-DMDBT and the DBT/phenanthrene indicate a low thermal maturation level for the generated hydrocarbons within the syn-rift lithostratigraphic succession. These similarities in geologic occurrences and biomarker characteristics suggest the possibility that the hydrocarbon expulsion could have been initiated from deeply buried Miocene source rocks and trapped within the syn-rift structures throughout the extensional faults of the central Gulf of Suez province. (orig.)

  13. Dinoflagellates from the Miocene Rudeis and Kareem formations borehole GS-78-1, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beialy, Salah Y.; Ali, Ali S.

    2002-08-01

    The Miocene Rudeis and the Kareem formations encountered in the Neogene part of the GS-78-1 borehole, Gulf of Suez produced diverse assemblages of dinoflagellate cysts, spores and pollen. The Early Miocene (Burdigalian) age assigned to the Rudeis Formation and the Early-?Middle Miocene (Langhian-Serravallian) age postulated for the Kareem formation is based on the presence of dinoflagellate cysts. These offer a good basis for biostratigraphic correlation of the Miocene deposits in the Gulf of Suez with those in the Nile Delta and Sinai in Egypt, and also with those present in key sections from the Mediterranean, the Canadian offshore sequences, Northwest Europe and from the North Atlantic. The terrestrial palynoflora (spores and pollen) affords no really precise, independent testimony as to the age of the samples, apart from being generally indicative of a Neogene age, in accord with the established gross age of the sediments, derived mainly from planktonic forams, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts. The Rudeis Formation was deposited in a relatively deep water environment, based on the abundance fluctuations in miospores and dinoflagellates. However, the miospores recovered from the Rudeis Formation give an equivocal signal with respect to depositional environment. Such observed incursions of terrestrial elements in the Rudeis Formation could indicate that they might have been carried about within the basin of deposition by the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, or that they were displaced into a deep water setting. The overlying Kareem Formation was identified as an outer continental shelf deposit to upper bathyal (distal) environment because it contains a higher percentage of marine dinoflagellate cysts in most investigated samples, except in its uppermost part which shows the lowest percentage of marine forms. These include Spiniferites ramosus, S. pseudofurcatus, Operculodinium centrocarpum, Polysphaeridium zoharyi, Systematophora placacantha and Lingulodinium machaerophorum. The consistent presence of P. zoharyi in the Kareem Formation indicates that the Gulf of Suez was at times in the tropical to subtropical belt during the Early-?Middle Miocene age.

  14. Neogene tectonic and stratigraphic events in the Gulf of Suez rift area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew L.

    1988-10-01

    The Gulf of Suez Neogene (syn-rift) section contains at least five datable intra-basinal unconformities or stratigraphie hiatuses. These events and associated changes in sedimentary sequences seen in the basin can be related to changes in Suez rift subsidence, Miocene eustasy, and the tectonic effects of adjacent Red Sea and Dead Sea rifting. The first hiatus spans Oligocène to earliest Miocene time and separates syn-rift from pre-rift strata throughout the region. This erosional event resulted from regional emergence during the Oligocene and the initiation of Suez rifting. A second hiatus, from ~ 21-19 Ma, separates the poorly dated, shallow-marine Nukhul Formation of Aquitanian to early Burdigalian age from the overlying upper bathyal shales of the middle Burdigalian to Langhian (NN3-5) Rudeis Formation. This hiatus resulted from both a brief lowstand in early Burdigalian sea level and increased Suez rift-related tectonism. This event climaxed with the rapid tectonic subsidence that established deep-marine conditions by 19 Ma. A third major event occurs within the Rudeis at ~ 17 Ma (NN4, N7) and marks the initiation of uplift of I he rift shoulders and margins, and decelerated subsidence, or even minor uplift, in the axial trough. Hiatuses are seen over paleohighs e.g. tilted fault blocks, whereas coarse elastics are deposited in more basinal areas in submarine fans and as turbidites. A fourth unconformity, at ~ 14 Ma, separates the Middle Miocene Kareem Formation from overlying anhydrites and open marine shales of the Belayim Formation. Minor tectonic uplift throughout the Suez region resulted from this event, and a sill was established between the Mediterranean and Suez basins, allowing cyclic anhydrite-marl deposition from ~ 14 to 11 Ma. This "post-Kareem event" may be the sedimentary response to initiation of movement along the Dead Sea-Aqaba transform. A sharp drop in sea level at ~ 11 Ma restricted the Suez basin even more, and marked the initiation of massive halite precipitation in the central and southern Suez, well south of the sill area. A final major Neogene event occurs at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, and is marked by a major unconformity caused by tectonic uplift. This tectonic pulse is related to initiation of Red Sea sea-floor spreading, and acceleration of sinistral motion along the Dead Sea-Aqaba transform at ~ 5 Ma. This event establishes the marine connection with the Red Sea and the sedimentary environments seen in the Gulf of Suez today.

  15. Study of recent crustal kinematics along the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A. S.; Mahomud, S.; Abu-Ali, N.

    2009-04-01

    The subject of the research work is dealing with the use of GPS and seismological data for the investigation of recent crustal kinematics for geodynamical studies along the Gulf of Suez. The collaborative effort is extended to use GPS observations to assert the present tectonic features in the study region. The earthquake activity is relatively higher in the southern part of the Gulf and gradually decreasing northward. The high seismicity is mainly attributed to the presence of Sinai triple junction. GPS observations along Gulf of Suez controlled by the IGS permanent stations around the study region. On average, the survey data indicated the motion varies between 1 to 5mm/yr. The detected motions reflect the general trend movement of the Sinai Peninsula. Moreover, the deformation analysis indicates that the entire Gulf of Suez is predominated by extensional deformation in southern part. The obtained extensional deformation style is obviously decreased from south to the north that is consistent with earthquake distribution and regional tectonics models. Earthquake focal mechanisms in the Gulf of Suez have been predominated by normal faulting with left-lateral strike slip components that is consistent with regional tectonics. The extension axes derived from fault plane solutions are oriented in NNE-SSW direction in a good agreement with current stress field from borehole breakouts along the Gulf of Suez. Moreover, the recent GPS results are highly consistence with the obtained extension direction.

  16. Geology and hydrocarbon habitat in a rift setting: Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Salah, M.G. (U.A.E. Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates))

    1994-09-01

    The southern Gulf of Suez is located at the junction of the African and Arabian plates, and has excellent hydrocarbon potential. The stratigraphic units in the area are grouped into two main megasequences, the pre-rift (Pre-Oligocene) and the syn-rift (Oligocene-recent) lithostratigraphic units. Gravity, magnetic, seismic and well data were used to delineate outlines of several narrowly elongated northwest-trending depositional troughs, separated by structural ridges. Several pre-rift and syn-rift rich source units occur and are mature enough in the deep troughs to generate hydrocarbons. A geochemical study of source rocks and oil samples showed two groups of oil: Gulf of Suez oils of pre-rift sediments; and southern Gulf of Suez oils from Middle Miocene carbonates. The reservoirs are also classified into: pre-rift reservoirs, such as fractured and weathered Precambrian basement, Nubia sandstone, Cretaceous sandstone and fractured Eocene limestone; and syn-rift reservoirs such as Lower and Middle Miocene carbonates and sandstones. Most oil fields in the region have multiple, producing reservoirs. The Miocene Evaporite Group forms the primary seal for most of the reservoirs, and the shales and dense carbonates of both the pre-rift and syn-rift sections form secondary seals. Trap types include structural, stratigraphic and combination traps. The southern Gulf of Suez, which shares more than one-third of the whole Gulf of Suez reserves, remains high in hydrocarbon potential with many untested plays. 31 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Multiphase flowmeter successfully measures three-phase flow at extremely high gas-volume fractions -- Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.B.; Borling, D.C. [Amoco Egypt Oil Co., Cairo (Egypt); Powers, B.S. [Amoco Sharjah Oil Co. (United Arab Emirates); Shehata, K. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co. (Egypt); Halvorsen, M. [Fluenta A/S (Norway); AboElenain, A. [Cross-Countries (Egypt)

    1998-02-01

    A multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) installed in offshore Egypt has accurately measured three-phase flow in extremely gassy flow conditions. The meter is completely nonintrusive, with no moving parts, requires no flow mixing before measurement, and has no bypass loop to remove gas before multiphase measurement. Flow regimes observed during the field test of this meter ranged from severe slugging to annular flow caused by the dynamics of gas-lift gas in the production stream. Average gas-volume fraction ranged from 93 to 98% during tests conducted on seven wells. The meter was installed in the Gulf of Suez on a well protector platform in the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co. (Gupco) October field, and was placed in series with a test separator located on a nearby production platform. Wells were individually tested with flow conditions ranging from 1,300 to 4,700 B/D fluid, 2.4 to 3.9 MMscf/D of gas, and water cuts from 1 to 52%. The meter is capable of measuring water cuts up to 100%. Production was routed through both the MPFM and the test separator simultaneously as wells flowed with the assistance of gas-lift gas. The MPFM measured gas and liquid rates to within {+-} 10% of test-separator reference measurement flow rates, and accomplished this at gas-volume fractions from 93 to 96%. At higher gas-volume fractions up to 98%, accuracy deteriorated but the meter continued to provide repeatable results.

  18. Application of well log analysis for source rock evaluation in the Duwi Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sharawy, Mohamed S.; Gaafar, Gamal R.

    2012-05-01

    Several models were developed to use the conventional wireline logs for evaluating the thermal maturity of the source rock and calculating the total organic carbon (TOC) content. Application of these models for the Duwi Formation, southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt, is the main purpose of this paper. Gamma ray, density, sonic, resistivity and neutron are the commonly used wireline logs to identify and quantify source rock. The results, which compared with the results obtained from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis show that cautions must be taken into consideration when applied these models because most of the models are empirical and their validation takes place under certain conditions. It can be concluded that the Duwi Formation represents very good source rock capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbon of oil-prone type II. The kerogen is waxy sapropel related to marine plankton deposited under reduced condition.

  19. Wind resources of the Gulf of Suez and northern Red Sea, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, N.G. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Meteorology and Wind Energy; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Wind Energy Dept.

    1997-06-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 5-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez is presented. The primary purpose has been to establish reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for this area. With mean wind speeds and energy densities of 8-12 ms{sup -1} and 500-1400 Wm{sup -2}, respectively, at a height of 25 m over roughness class 0 (water), the wind resources of the Gulf of Suez are comparable to those of the most favourable regions in NW-Europe. The wind atlas methodology has proven very useful in the extreme climatic conditions of the desert. Applied with care, it can provide accurate predictions of the wind climate at candidate sites for wind turbines along the Gulf of Suez. (author)

  20. Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama

    2003-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations; a secondary purpose has been to evaluate the applicability of current wind resource estimation and siting tools – in particular the European Wind Atlas methodology – to this region where the meso-scale effects are pronounced and the climatic conditions (e.g. atmospheric stability) somewhat extreme. The wind data are analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Meso-scale Model (KAMM) has been used to model the wind flow as well as to establish the magnitude and spatial variation of the wind resource in the Gulf of Suez – based on the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data set. Results are compared to long-term measurements of wind speed and direction at 13 meteorological stations along a 250-km stretch of the Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea. The simulations of the wind climate in the Gulf of Suez with the KAMM meso-scale model capture the main features of the complicated flow patterns and of the observed wind climates; however, the mean wind speeds and power densities are somewhat underestimated. The wind resource is found to be very high in the Gulf of Suez – with capacity factors of up to about 70% – at the same time the horizontal gradients of wind speed and power density are quite steep. The combination of meso- and micro-scale flow models – here the KAMM/WAsP methodology or the Numerical Wind Atlas – seem necessary in order to make reliable wind resource assessments in all parts of the Gulf of Suez.

  1. Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric parameters, the frequency of occurrence, abundance and density analyses, the seaweed C. prolifera is more frequent, abundant and dense in Suez Canal than the seagrass H. stipulacea, which is very rare. Instead C. prolifera forming extended dense meadows with percentage cover nearly 100% m–2 at many sites. This mainly happened; due to the competitive success of C. prolifera which seems to be related to its big size, high density, rapid growth, high efficiency in dim light conditions, high tolerance to severe nutrient limitation and salinity and temperature fluctuations and to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. The presence of these toxic secondary metabolites explains why C. prolifera is avoided by many of macro invertebrates as a habitat or feeding grounds.

  2. Geology and hydrocarbon habitat in rift setting: northern and central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Salah, M.G. [United Arab Emirates University Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    1995-06-01

    The Gulf of Suez contains in excess of 40 oil reserves with a wide variation in size, dating from Early Paleozoic to post Miocene. The area concerned is a late Oligocene rift ed basin bounded by 2 sets of marginal faults. The northern and central sectors of the Gulf are characterized by exposed Precambrian Basement rocks and the Paleozoic-Tertiary section on both sides of the Gulf. Geology, hydrocarbon potential and tectonic influence on hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in the northern and central Gulf of Suez are discussed. Major pre rift and syn rift rich source rocks could yield oil and/or gas. Oils in this region were sourced from pre rift beds. In the central region, Upper Miocene Evaporites form the ultimate seal on reserves. Shale and dense limestones of the pre- and syn rift stratigraphic unit form the primary seals in the northern Gulf of Suez. Exploration potential was said to be high in the northern and central Suez Gulf. Both the northern and the central part of the Gulf have many untested plays.

  3. Miocene biofacies development and geological history of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, G.W.; Girgis, M.H. (Robertson Group, Llandudno (United Kingdom)); Abdine, S. (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt))

    1992-02-01

    Miocene sediments of the Gulf of Suez were deposited in a rapidly subsiding rift which became active during Late Oligocene and Early Pliocene tectonic episodes. Complex lithological variations associated with the variable submarine structure commonly preclude detailed correlation of drilled subsurface successions. Thick Middle to Late Miocene evaporites and their geometry obscure seismic interpretation of prospective sub-evaporitic Early and Middle Miocene sequences. The thick Miocene sediments are believed to have significantly furnished the source, as well as the reservoirs and seals for the oil discovered in the Gulf of Suez. Over four billion barrels of oil have been established as recoverable reserves in Miocene reservoirs. A new Gulf-wide detailed correlation scheme is established based upon a series of newly defined microfaunal assemblage zones. These zones are based on holistic analysis of microfauna utilizing planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, diatoms, otoliths and pteropods. Dating by planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils indicates the zones are isochronous. Vertical and lateral variations in assemblage characteristics have been identified, mapped and are concluded to be the results of vertical and lateral differences in salinity, water depth, water clarity, lithological variation and oxygen availability. The correlative applicability of this scheme within the Gulf of Suez provides potential for it to serve as a reference for drilled sequences in the Red Sea, where thicker evaporite sequences make sub-evaporitic stratigraphic correlation even more difficult owing to the greater seismic attenuation. (author)

  4. Geothermal studies in oilfield districts of Eastern Margin of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Zaher, Mohamed; El Nuby, Mohamed; Ghamry, Essam; Mansour, Khamis; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Atef, Heba

    2014-06-01

    Results of geothermal studies carried out at 149 onshore oil wells have been used in evaluation of temperature gradient and heat flow values of the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez. The investigations included temperature logs in boreholes, calculation of amplitude temperature, geothermal gradients and heat flow. The results obtained indicate that geothermal gradient values are in the ranges of 0.02-0.044 °C/m and regionally averaged mean heat flow values are found to fall in the interval of 45-120 mW/m2. Temperature gradients and heat flow values change from low values eastward to high values toward the axial of Gulf of Suez rift. The result of this research work has been highly successful in identifying new geothermal resources eastward of the Gulf of Suez. Additionally, this study shows that the areas with relatively higher temperature gradients have lower oil window, mature earlier, than those with low gradient values. Thus, high temperature gradients cause to expedite the formation of oil at relatively shallow depths and narrow oil windows. On the other hand, low temperature gradient makes the oil window to be quite broad when locate at high depths.

  5. Neogene tectono-stratigraphic events in Gulf of Suez rift area, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.L.

    1987-05-01

    Micropaleontologic and sedimentologic studies of Miocene outcrop and borehole sections from the flanks and axial trough of the Suez rift have documented five major tectono-stratigraphic events, or hiatuses, during the Neogene. The first Neogene hiatus spans the late(.) Oligocene to earliest Miocene and separates Miocene from pre-Miocene strata throughout the Gulf of Suez. This erosional event resulted from both low global sea levels in the Oligocene and the initiation of Suez rifting. A second hiatus, from 21 to 19(.) Ma, separates the poorly dated shallow marine Nukhul formation from overlying middle Burdigalian and younger (NN3-NN5) upper bathyal shales of the Rudeis Formation. This hiatus resulted from both low early Burdigalian sea levels and increased rift-related tectonism. A third major event occurs within the Rudeis around 16 Ma (N7, NN4). This mid-Clysmic event of Garfunkel and Bartove is characterized by accelerated uplift of the rift margins and subsidence of the axial trough. Local unconformities are seen over paleohighs, while coarse clastics are deposited in more basinal areas in submarine fans and turbidites. A fourth hiatus at 14 to 13 Ma (N10-N11) separates the middle Miocene (N9) Kareem Formation from the overlying Belayim Formation evaporites. This hiatus may correlate with the initiation of rifting along the Dead Sea-Aqaba system. The fifth Neogene event is a tectonic pulse in the early (.) Pliocene that further rotated many tilted fault blocks. This event is roughly synchronous with the initiation of Red Sea sea-floor spreading and accelerated sinistral motion along the Dead Sea transform at approx. 5 Ma.

  6. Surface expression of an accommodation zone within the Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffield, Dana Q.; Schamel, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The Gebel Gharamul region in the western Gulf of Suez offers an excellent outcrop example of the structural geometries associated with an accommodation zone termination. The surface expression of the accommodation zone is dominated by a basement promontory, which protrudes from the rift shoulder and underlies the junction of oblique ramps from two adjacent half-grabens, both of which face the Gulf of Suez. The southern half-graben represents the breakaway fault of the southwest-dipping tilt-block domain, and the northern half-graben represents the collapse of the upper plate above the northeast-dipping tilt-block domain. Basement and Nubian rocks in the hanging walls above the opposing low-angle detachments on either side of the accommodation zone are broken by gulf-parallel synthetic normal faults and orthogonal transfer faults, which act as block terminations and incrementally accommodate the large-scale rotation and displacement between adjacent blocks. The prerift and synrift stratigraphic succession is draped over this fault template, resulting in a complex and variable distribution of structures, the product of an inhomogeneous stratigraphic succession within an accommodation zone.

  7. Oil prospect of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzarka, M.H.; Mostafa, A.R. (Alexandria Univ., Shatby (Egypt))

    1988-01-01

    Four groups of rocks, having more than 0.5% of organic carbon are defined within the subsurface section of Rahmi area, Gulf of Suez. The deduced types of indigenous kerogen are: algal-amorphous, inertinite-woody, and herbaceous. The algal-amorphous kerogen of Rudeis/Nukhul Formations (Lower Miocene), Eocene and pre-Eocene rocks is recognized as being oil prone, that is having high capacity for generating oil. The application of hydrocarbon liquid window concept shows that the LOM values fall within the range from 8.6 to 10.8, and the thermal alteration index for the different units is not extended into oil generation window, where it ranges from immature (Kareem Formation-Lower Miocene), to moderately mature (Paleocene), to the beginning of the thermal phase of oil generation (Senonian). The vitrinite reflectance values indicate a low level of thermal maturity. The formational temperatures increase towards the depocentral part of the basin and eastwards to the present Gulf of Suez. The thermal maturity index increases towards ancient stratigraphic units. The study of organic richness, quality and maturity revealed that, where the Nukhul, Eocene and Senonian rocks are buried deeper in the study area, would have been excellent source rocks for oil.

  8. Structural evolution of the southern transfer zone of the Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Ali M. A.; Abdel Aal, Mohamed H.; El-Said, Mohamed M.; Abd El-Naby, Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    We present a detailed study about the initiation and reactivations of Zeit-El Tor transfer zone, south Gulf of Suez rift, and its structural setting and tectonic evolution with respect to the Cretaceous-Cenozoic tectonic movements in North Egyptian margin. NE trending zone of opposed-dipping faults (22 km wide) has transferred the NE and SW rotations of the sub-basins in central and south Gulf of Suez rift, respectively. The evolution of this zone started by reactivation of the NE oriented late Neoproterozoic fractures that controlled the occurrence of Dokhan Volcanics in the rift shoulders. Later, the Syrian Arc contraction reactivated these fractures by a sinistral transpression during the Late Cretaceous-Eocene time. N64°E extension of the Oligo-Miocene rift reactivated the NE fractures by a sinistral transtension. During this rifting, the NE trending faults forming the transfer zone were more active than the rift-bounding faults; the Upper Cretaceous reverse faults in the blocks lying between these NE trending faults were rotated; and drape-related reverse faults and the positive flower structures were formed. Tectonic inversion from contraction to extension controlled the distribution and thickness of the Upper Cretaceous-Miocene rocks.

  9. Mineral composition and environmental geochemistry of the beach sediments along the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kammar, A. M.; Arafa, I. H.; El-Sheltami, O. R.

    2007-10-01

    This work assesses the mineral composition and environmental geochemistry of the beach sediments along the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Mineralogically, the sediments are enriched in both non-opaque and opaque heavy minerals. The heavy minerals are concentrated especially in the size fraction 63-125 ?m. Magnetite is the main opaque mineral, while titanite is the most abundant non-opaque mineral in the two size fractions; 63-125 ?m and 125-250 ?m. The studied sediments are derived from different sources. It seems that the H 2S-rich hydrothermal solutions emanated in Hamam Faraon area, and its surroundings, maintain adequate anoxic conditions for reduction of iron oxy-hydroxides to sulphides. Geochemically, the relative enrichment in the HFSE, Y, REE, Th and U, besides the depletion in some of the heavy metals may suggest that the beach sediments of the study area are strongly influenced by felsic sources such as granites and pegmatites. The signature of the mafic and ultramafic components is feeble. The study area contains significantly high concentrations of some potentially toxic metals such as Pb, Mo, Sn, Cd, Sb, As, Se, Th and U.

  10. Oligocene lacustrine tuff facies, Abu Treifeya, Cairo-Suez Road, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Motelib, Ali; Kabesh, Mona; El Manawi, Abdel Hamid; Said, Amir

    2015-02-01

    Field investigations in the Abu Treifeya area, Cairo-Suez District, revealed the presence of Oligocene lacustrine volcaniclastic deposits of lacustrine sequences associated with an Oligocene rift regime. The present study represents a new record of lacustrine zeolite deposits associated with saponite clay minerals contained within reworked clastic vitric tuffs. The different lithofacies associations of these clastic sequences are identified and described: volcaniclastic sedimentary facies represent episodic volcaniclastic reworking, redistribution and redeposition in a lacustrine environment and these deposits are subdivided into proximal and medial facies. Zeolite and smectite minerals are mainly found as authigenic crystals formed in vugs or crusts due to the reaction of volcanic glasses with saline-alkaline water or as alteration products of feldspars. The presence of abundant smectite (saponite) may be attributed to a warm climate, with alternating humid and dry conditions characterised by the existence of kaolinite. Reddish iron-rich paleosols record periods of non-deposition intercalated with the volcaniclastic tuff sequence.

  11. 2001 August earthquake swarm at Shadwan Island, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Abdel-Fattah, Ali K.

    2006-10-01

    The earthquake swarm that struck Shadwan Island at the entrance of the Gulf of Suez in 2001 August included 408 events. Almost all of these events (94 per cent) were microearthquakes and only 6 per cent had small measurable magnitudes (5.0 > ML >= 3.0). Most of the earthquakes were weak and followed each other so closely in time that they could not be identified at more distant stations. The fault plane solutions of the strongest events of the swarm show almost identical focal mechanisms, predominately normal faulting with a significant sinistral strike-slip component for nodal planes trending NW-SE. A comparison with the mechanisms of the 1969 and 1972 events which took place 20 km north of the swarm epicentral region shows similarities in faulting type and orientation of nodal planes. The azimuths of T-axes determined from focal mechanisms in this study are oriented in the NNE-SSW direction. This direction is consistent with the present-day stress field derived from borehole breakouts in the southern Gulf of Suez and the last phase of stress field changes in the Late Pleistocene, as well as with recent GPS results. The source parameters of the largest (ML >= 3.0) events of the 2001 August Shadwan swarm have been estimated from the P-wave spectra of the Egyptian National Seismograph Network (ENSN). Averaging of the values obtained at different stations shows relatively similar source parameters, including a fault length of 0.65 <= L <= 2 km, a seismic moment of 7.1 × 1012 <= Mo <= 3.0 × 1014 N m and a stress drop of 0.4 <= ?? <= 10 bar.

  12. Geology and habitat of oil in Ras Budran field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhary, L.R.; Taha, S.

    1987-10-01

    The Ras Budran structure at the deepest mappable seismic reflector, the top of the Kareem Formation (middle Miocene), is a broad northeast-southwest-trending anticlinal feature with an anomalous strike nearly at right angles to the main Gulf of Suez trend. Oil is produced from three units of Nubian Formation sandstone from a depth of 11,000-12,000 ft (3352-3657 m). The lower unit of Paleozoic age averages 10% porosity and has up to 200 md in-situ permeability. Wells completed in this unit produce up to 2000 BOPD. In contrast, the sands to the upper two units of the Early Cretaceous have 15-20% porosity and up to 700 md permeability. Wells completed in this unit produce 6000-8000 BOPD. The Ras Budran structure was formed primarily during an intra-Rudeis tectonic phase (lower Miocene). Oil migration for accumulation in the structure started in the late Miocene or Pliocene when the Santonian Brown Limestone and the Eocene Thebes Formation, the main source beds in the Gulf of Suez, reached the threshold of oil generation at a burial depth of approximately 10,000 ft (3048 m). At this depth, the organic matter in the source beds had a high transformation ratio (0.10 to 0.15), high yields of C/sub 15+/ soluble organic matter and C/sub 15+/ saturated hydrocarbons, vitrinite reflectance (R/sub 0/) of 0.62%, and a time-temperature index (TTI) value of 15. Oil migration from mature source beds in adjoining lows into low-potential Nubian reservoirs is easily explained by fault planes that acted as conduits for oil migration. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Mechanical response to stratigraphic inhomogeneity during extension, and surface expression of buried structures, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawarecki, Susan L.; Coffield, Dana Q.

    1990-03-01

    Mechanical response of the stratigraphic succession to rifting in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt, varies depending on the degree of competence of the rock units. This "mechanical stratigraphy" has been documented by observational evidence from field surveys in the northern Esh el Mallaha and in the Ras Issaran area, in conjunction with seismic reflection data. Complex response patterns to basement-rooted block faulting is seen on several scales in both the prerift and synrift rocks. The prerift section is divided into three major units based on mechanical response: Precambrian basement, pre-Cenomanian "Nubian sandstone," and Cenomanian-through-Eocene stable platform marine rocks. Brittle faulting in the basement propagates into the Nubian sandstone by densely fracturing the latter parallel to the fault planes. The overlying inhomogeneous Cenomanian-Eocene section drapes and folds over underlying structural elements. These rocks contain complicated structures due to the interlayering of thin brittle and ductile beds. The incompetent units allow bedding-parallel detachment and also flow into voids created during faulting or folding of the competent units. The synrift section comprises three major stratigraphic units, each of which reacts differently to block faulting. These are the early Miocene carbonate/clastic section, the middle-late Miocene evaporite section, and the onshore Pliocene-Recent clastic passive-cover sequence. In general, the lower synrift rocks respond to deformation much like the Cenomanian-Eocene units, draping and folding due to interlayered brittle and ductile beds. Seismic reflection data indicate that the evaporite section is a major detachment zone, with faults in underlying units dying out upwards, as the ductile salts or anhydrites drape and flow. Structural response in this section is varied and complex. The deformation of the evaporites breaks the overlying passive-cover rocks, with faults in the latter soling into the underlying ductile strate. On gravel plains flanking the Gulf of Suez, the neotectonic fault pattern and resulting topographic and drainage changes reflect underlying structures. The faults breaking the passive cover sequence at the surface initially form en echelon traces; with continued movement these coalesce into straight or curved, often splaying, fault traces. Where the evaporite section reaches a significant thickness, the structures seen at the surface may be entirely decoupled from those of the prerift and early synrift sequences.

  14. Geology and habitat of oil in Ras Budran field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhary, L.R.; Taha, S.

    1987-05-01

    Deminex discovered the Ras Budran oil field in 1978. Discovery well EE 85-1 was drilled in about 140 ft of water, 4 km off the Sinai coast of the Gulf of Suez. Appraisal drilling (EE 85-2, 3, and 4 wells) confirmed the presence of a major field with an estimated 700 million bbl oil in place. The field, developed from three wellhead platforms, went on production in April 1983. To date, 20 development wells have been drilled. The Ras Budran structure at the deepest mappable seismic reflector, top Kareem (middle Miocene), is a broad northeast-southwest-trending anticlinal feature striking nearly at right angles to the main Gulf of Suez trend. At pre-Miocene producing horizons, the structure is complex and consists of a northeast-dipping flank (14-15) broken into several blocks by faults and limited to the south and west by major bounding faults. Oil is produced from three units of Nubian sandstone at a depth of 11,000 to 12,000 ft. The lower unit of Paleozoic age averages 10% porosity and up to 200 md in -situ permeability. The wells completed in this unit produce up to 2000 BOPD. In contrast, the sands of the upper two units of Lower Cretaceous age have a 15-20% porosity and up to 700 md permeability. The wells completed in these units produce 6000-8000 BOPD. The Ras Budran structure was primarily formed during the intra-Rudeis tectonic phase (lower Miocene). Migration of oil for accumulation in Ras Budran started late in the upper Miocene or Pliocene when the Santonian Brown Limestone and the Eocene Thebes Formation, the main source beds in the Gulf, reached the threshold of oil generation at a burial depth of about 10,000 ft (3000 m). At these depths, the organic matter in the source beds have a transformation ratio (0.10 to 0.15), increased yields of C15 + soluble organic matter and C15 + saturated hydrocarbons, a vitrinite reflectance of 0.62%, and a TTI value of 15.

  15. Oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations in Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajibrahim, S.K.; Okla, S.

    1983-03-01

    According to published geological studies, there are two theories regarding the origin of petroleum in the Gulf of Suez area. One theory advocates that the majority of the oil accumulations in this region originate from two different source rocks: Eocene limestones and Miocene marls. The other theory states that only Miocene marls and shales of the Gharandal and Ras Mallah groups are the source rocks. The present study is a geochemical evaluation of Eocene limstones as potential source rocks. Samples were analyzed for their petroporphyrin types and distributions using established analytical techniques that included uv/vis, mass spectrometry, and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). These techniques permitted the determination of several petroporphyrin parameters such as yield, distribution, and the ratios of nickel to vanadyl complexes and of DPEP to etio types. These geochemical parameters were then employed for oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations of the samples analyzed. In general, the oils had higher porphyrin contents, higher vanadyl to nickel porphyrins ratios, and lower DPEP to etio ratios compared to the shales. Most importantly, however, the porphyrin distribution (HPLC fingerprints) for the oils were significantly different from those of the shales. The shale samples showed three different fingerprints, one of which is uncommon of petroporphyrins found in petroleum and related bitumens. Among the oils, two different fingerprints were observed, regardless of their geological age. Although these observations suggest more than one source for the oils, they could not corroborate the the assumption that the Eocene formation is a potential source rock.

  16. Miocene salt structures as exploration indicators in the offshore B-Trend, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saoudi, A.M. (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., El Maadi, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-03-01

    The B-Trend is a structural horst block extending in a northwest-southeast direction for about 40 km in the southern offshore area of the Gulf of Suez. It contains six individual sub-structures (six oil fields) oriented along strike and dipping toward the southwest. Subsurface geologic data from 60 wells together with the available seismic data in the area were integrated to explain the development of salt structures along this belt and their influence on oil exploration. These salt structures are restricted to the Belayim and South Gharib formations of middle and upper Miocene age, respectively. Moreover, they are arranged as linear features along the trend. Thickening in the Belayim salt is due in some cases to injection and in others to deposition. The apexes of the Belayim injected salt bodies are located down-dip from the crest of the underlying structures and are shifted westward from the apexes of the overlying larger South Gharib salt bulges. The highset corner of the pre-Miocene structures is located to the east of the injected Belayim salt pillows. Thick Belayim salt of depositional origin usually exists on the downthrown side of the leading edge fault to the east. The thickness ratios between the different members of the Belayim Formation help to differentiate between the injected and deposited salt bodies. These ratios can be used to orient well tracks to the optimum structural target while drilling.

  17. Carbonate depositional environments and reservoir properties of the Miocene rocks, east Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakarat, M.A.K.; Kholief, M.M.

    1988-08-01

    Miocene carbonate rocks in six surface sections on the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez were carefully studied in the field, petrographically examined, and mineralogically analyzed using SEM and x-ray microanalysis for all elements. In general, reservoir quality of the Miocene carbonates was poor because of original composition and texture. Three different types of porosity were distinguished in the studied Miocene carbonates: primary (intergranular and moldic), secondary (leached), and fracture. Much of the porosity in the Miocene reservoirs is secondary; however, sometimes this secondary porosity may be reduced by compaction and/or precipitation of evaporites in fractures and pores. The authors conclude that the primary porosity of the carbonate rocks in the reef complex was eliminated by lithification and cementation; only secondary porosity remained. This secondary porosity developed in all environments (supratidal, intertidal, and subtidal), but the best porosity developed in the subtidal facies. This high porosity occurs because the dolomites in the subtidal facies are coarser and free from anhydrite cement, whereas in supratidal and intertidal facies the dolomites are finer and their porosity is plugged by secondary anhydrite cement.

  18. Subsurface Structural Imaging Of Esh El Mallaha Area, Gulf Of Suez, Egypt Using Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, E.; Salem, A. S.; El-Bohoty, M. E.; Ushijima, K.

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a case study on the subsurface structural imaging of Esh El Mallaha area. Esh EL Mallaha area is located on the western flank of the Gulf of Suez and it has a great importance due to its hydrocarbon resources. In 1994 the area was covered by aeromagnetic survey conducted by Aero Service Division, Western Geophysical Company of America. The main object of this work to delineate the subsurface structural framework of the area that may assist in hydrocarbon exploration. A 3D analytic signal technique was applied to the aeromagnetic data. One of the most advantages of the analytic signal is that it produces a maximum value over a 2D magnetic source and as a result it enables more accurate location of the magnetic sources. It is also straight forward to determine the depth to the magnetic contacts using a simple formula derived from the analytic signal. Generally, Esh EL Mallaha area is characterized by two basinal structures taking the direction of the NW-SE parallel to the Red Sea rift. Those two basins are separated by long dike igneous rocks bounded by two major faults and taking the direction of NW-SE.

  19. Mechanical stratigraphy of sedimentary section - implications for petroleum exploration, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawarecki, S.L.; Coffield, D.Q.; Schamel, S.

    1987-05-01

    Mechanical response of sedimentary units to extension varies, depending on their rheology. In the Gulf of Suez, knowledge of the mechanical stratigraphy assures better control for seismic interpretation, structural analysis, and delineation of possible hydrocarbon traps. Recent field studies and seismic analysis allow delineation of the structural response of a range of prerift and synrift lithologies. The prerift section is divided into three major mechanical/stratigraphic units: Precambrian basement, Nubian sandstone, and Cenomanian through Eocene shallow marine platform rocks. Single fault planes in the basement are expressed in the overlying Nubian sandstone as closely spaced parallel faults and fractures. In contrast, the inhomogeneous Late Cretaceous-Paleogene section of alternating brittle and ductile beds drapes over the underlying normal faults. The synrift section may comprise three mechanical/stratigraphic units: (1) early Miocene carbonates and clastics; (2) middle-late Miocene evaporites; and (3) Pliocene-Recent clastics. The lower synrift rocks respond to faulting much like the Cenomanian-Eocene units. The evaporite section acts as a major detachment zone, with underlying faults dying out upward. Onshore, faults in the more brittle passive cover rocks sole into the underlying evaporites. Thus, faults at the surface may be entirely decoupled from master faults in the early synrift and prerift strata. Mechanical response in the synrift section is complicated by syntectonic processes such as growth faulting, compaction, and lateral facies changes.

  20. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Rudies sandstone (Lower Miocene), Warda Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2012-05-01

    The Lower Miocene Rudies sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southeastern part, Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their provenance and diagenesis and their impact in reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Warda field, representing the Lower and Middle Rudies, were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rudies sandstones have an average framework composition of Q85F7.2R7.8, and 83% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Middle Rudies sandstones are only slightly more quartzose with an average framework composition of Q90F7R3 and 86% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. Rudies sandstones are mostly quartz arenite with subordinate subarkose and sublithic arenites and their bulk-rock geochemistry support the petrographic results. The modal analysis data of studied samples suggest influence of granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks. The geochemical data interpretation on the basis of discriminate function diagrams reveal the source material was deposited on a passive margin. Textural attributes possibly suggest long-distance transport of grains from the source region and indicates a cratonic or a recycled source. Tectonic setting of Rudies Formation reveals that the lower Rudies sandstones are typically rift sandstone and their deposition constrained the beginning of the faulting, while the middle Rudies sandstones were transported from the far along the rift. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

  1. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and reservoir quality of the sandstones of the Kareem Formation, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2013-09-01

    The Middle Miocene Kareem sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their diagenesis and provenance and their impact on reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Zeit Bay Oil Field, and the East Zeit Oil Field represent the Lower Kareem (Rahmi Member) and the Upper Kareem (Shagar Member), were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rahmi sandstones have an average framework composition of Q95F3.4R1.6, and 90% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Upper Shagar sandstones are only slightly less quartzose with an average framework composition of Q76F21R3 and 82% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. The Kareem sandstones are mostly quartzarenite with subordinate subarkose and arkose. Petrographical and geochemical data of sandstones indicate that they were derived from granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks and deposited in a passive continental margin of a syn rift basin. The sandstones of the Kareem Formation show upward decrease in maturity. Petrographic study revealed that dolomite is the dominant cement and generally occurs as fine to medium rhombs pore occluding phase and locally as a grain replacive phase. Authigenic quartz occurs as small euhedral crystals, locally as large pyramidal crystals in the primary pores. Authigenic anhydrites typically occur as poikilotopic rhombs or elongate laths infilling pores but also as vein filling cement. The kaolinite is a by-product of feldspar leaching in the presence of acidic fluid produced during the maturation of organic matter in the adjacent Miocene rocks. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

  2. Modeling petroleum generation and geochemistry of crude oils in Ras Budran field, northern gulf of Suez, Egypt: implications for prospectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)

    2005-12-01

    Petroleum generation modeling of the pre-rift succession in Ras Budran Field, which is located in the northern Gulf of Suez province in Egypt, showed that the best oil prone source rocks identified are the carbonate dominated one in the Upper Cretaceous and the Middle Eocene. These source rocks contain type-II kerogen (liptinitic materials) and progressively increase in their peak of oil generation from 0.63 and 0.83 vitrinite reflectance at a depth of about 3000 meters during the early of middle Miocene age and could have charged traps during the intra Rudeis tectonic phase. Crude oil and source rock extract interrelationships display a great similarity in their geologic occurrences and biological marker distributions. The biomarker characteristics indicate a low relative abundance of oleanane index around 5% pristane/phytane ratio<1, higher C{sub 35}/C{sub 34} homohopanes>1 and higher gammacerane indices >30%, suggesting a typical marine organic matter with source rock deposition under reducing conditions, Marginally mature stage of oil generation is indicated by the relatively low sterane isomerization of C{sub 29} {alpha}{alpha}{alpha} 20S/(S+R) and C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) of about 06 and relatively low aromatic sulfur compound rations. Crude oil geochemistry and related source rock potential define genetically related oils which ware generated from marginally mature and organic-rich carbonate source rocks, most probably from the pre-rift Duwi and Thebes formations. The best oil prone for future prospectivity would be oriented west of Ras Budran Field toward the deep marine of the Gulf, where the undiscovered reserves are expected to be accumulated within the pre-rift reservoirs in the footwalls of the normal faulted blocks. (orig.)

  3. Sedimentology of rift climax deep water systems; Lower Rudeis Formation, Hammam Faraun Fault Block, Suez Rift, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppard, Christopher W.; Gawthorpe, Rob L.

    2006-09-01

    In most marine rift basins, subsidence outpaces sedimentation during rift climax times. Typically this results in sediment-starved hangingwall depocentres dominated by deep-marine mudstones, with subordinate local development of coarser clastics in the immediate hangingwall derived from restricted catchments on the immediate footwall scarp. To highlight the spatial variability of rift climax facies and the controls upon them, we have investigated the detailed three-dimensional geometry and facies relationships of the extremely well exposed Miocene, rift climax Lower Rudeis Formation in the immediate hangingwall to the Thal Fault Zone, Suez Rift, Egypt. Detailed sedimentological analyses allows the Lower Rudeis Formation to be divided into two contemporaneous depositional systems, (1) a laterally continuous slope system comprising, hangingwall restricted (architecture of the depositional systems identified reflect the influence of the steep footwall physiography, accommodation and drainage evolution associated with the growth of the Thal Fault. The under-filled nature of the hangingwall depocentre combined with the steep footwall gradient result in a steep fault-controlled basin margin characterised by either slope bypass or erosion, with limited coastal plain or shelf area. Sediment supply to the slope apron deposits is controlled in part by the evolution and size of small footwall drainage catchments. In contrast, the localized submarine fan is interpreted to have been fed by a larger, antecedent drainage network. The structural style of the immediate footwall is also believed to exert a control on facies development and stratigraphic evolution. In particular, fault scarp degradation is enhanced by fault propagation folding which creates basinward-dipping bedding planes in the pre-rift footwall strata that large pre-rift blocks slide on.

  4. Application of isotopic type curves to multiple source oil-source rock correlation in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zein El Din, M.Y.; Shaltout, E.M.

    1987-05-01

    Isotopic type curves are obtained by plotting carbon isotopic ratios of the saturate, aromatic, NOS/sub S/, and asphaltene fractions according to increasing polarity. Extrapolating the regression line, a good approximation of the measured delta/sup 13/C values of the genetically related kerogen can be obtained. Isotopic type curves for 46 crude oil samples from 15 fields in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt, were constructed. In all the analyzed samples the delta/sup 13/C values of asphaltene fractions were found to deviate from the regression line towards the more negative delta/sup 13/ values. The data suggest that these oils were generated from multiple sources. The main part of saturate and aromatic fractions is derived from a relatively more mature source rock. By linear extrapolation of delta/sup 13/C values of saturate and aromatic fractions, the delta/sup 13/C value of kerogen of the mature source rock can be calculated. The main part of the asphaltene fraction might have been derived from a relatively less-mature source rock, and its delta/sup 13/C value was used to calculate delta/sup 13/C value of the genetically related kerogen. The oil in each field is thought to be sourced from two different source rocks. The more mature one has delta/sup 13/C values of kerogen that vary from one field to another, while the second, less-mature source has commonly provided oil to all studied fields. This conclusion may prove to be very helpful in oil prospecting in the studied area.

  5. Modulation of stress related protein genes in the bass (Epinephelus guaza) caught from the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Khalil, Wagdy K B

    2013-10-01

    Impact of chemical pollution on expression of stress protein genes in the bass Epinephelus guaga collected from several locations including Suez Oil Production Port (Floating port), Atakah Fishing Port, Adabiya Port and Tawfik Port in Suez Governorate, Egypt, was investigated. In the current study, levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and fish samples collected from Suez Gulf were assessed. In addition, gills and liver tissues of caught bass fish were used to address the interaction between pollution status and the expression of stress-related genes (Hsp70a, Hsp70b, Hsp47, MT and CYP1A). Our analysis demonstrated that levels of PAHs in Floating and Tawfik ports were higher than those found in the Atakah Fishing Port and the Adabiya Port. In addition, MDA and PC contents were significantly higher in gills and liver tissues collected from Floating and Tawfik ports than those collected from Adabiya and Atakah ports. In correlation to the above results, all fish collected from the Floating and Tawfik ports presented a significant increase in Hsp-, MT- and CYP1A-mRNAs. On the other hand, fish samples collected from the Atakah Fishing and Adabiya ports showed no induction of the stress-related genes transcription in such tissues. In conclusion, the current research demonstrates that remarkable increase in PAH contaminants levels in Floating and Tawfik ports are correlated with the levels stress protein-related genes transcription in E. guaga gills and liver tissues. PMID:23849466

  6. Surface expression and internal structure of an Accommodation zone, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, D.Q.

    1987-05-01

    Recent studies of rifts have shown that they are typically asymmetric, with much larger throw on one boundary fault system than on the other. In addition, the sense of rift asymmetry alternates along the axis of the rift, resulting in tilt-block domains of opposing dips to be juxtaposed against one another. The accommodation zones that separate the different domains strike perpendicular to the rift axis and accommodate the differential rotation between the tilt blocks. The problems presented by how the accommodation zones form, what controls their location, and the dynamics of their development are poorly understood. The Morgan Hinge Accommodation zone is exposed at the surface in the southwestern Gulf of Suez. Here, a basement promontory extends eastward from the rift shoulder and separates the northeast-dipping blocks to the north from the southwest-dipping blocks to the south. A complete prerift and synrift stratigraphic succession is exposed around the margins of this promontory and effectively records the structural evolution of this feature. The accommodation zone is approximately 10 km wide and consists of a complex fracturing and breaking up of the coherent blocks to the north and south into many small subblocks. Two fault trends dominate, one Gulf-parallel and the other Gulf-perpendicular. Fault spacing within the zone is on a kilometer scale, with most offsets showing normal displacements of tens to hundreds of meters. Strike-slip movement is negligible. These small-scale displacements between subblocks accommodated the large-scale displacements resulting from the opposing rotation between adjacent tilted blocks.

  7. Syn-rift carbonate depositional patterns: Miocene, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Suez rift, initiated in the Miocene, consists of asymmetric fault blocks, separated by transfer zones. Syn-rift Miocene carbonates developed on highs; the intricate relations are illustrated at Gebel Gharamul and Esh El Mellaha. Gebel Gharamul is a rollover, cut by antithetic faults, located on a transfer zone. Small coralgal rimmed shelves initially developed over the eroded footwall nick of an early western antithetic. Steepening depositional dips reflect increasing graben subsidence. Subsequently, the main easterly antithetic regionally lowered the rollover, promoting stacked coral rimmed shelf sequences with increasing dip filling the graben, with the back reef onlapping the main rollover crest. Simultaneously, a low-angle flexure (2/sup 0/-3/sup 0/) developed along the northern rollover margin. Low-angle (5/sup 0/) biostromal rimmed shelves, exhibiting sigmoidal clinoforms rapidly accreted laterally, as reflected in flat-based sequences. Depositional pattern eventually merged over the rollover to produce laterally complex rimmed shelf sequences. Esh El Mellaha is a footwall to a major extensional fault. In a southerly extensional cusp (20 km), the fault throw decreases from kilometers to flexural (2-3/sup 0/) displacement. Coralgal rimmed shelves and escarpment fringing reefs mantle the footwall. Initial, thick, and most laterally extensive sequences develop over the flexure. Accretion is primarily subvertical, reflecting continuous flexural subsidence. Where the fault cusp has less than a 30/sup 0/ inclination, carbonate sequences exhibiting oblique and oblique sigmoid clinoforms (40/sup 0/) prograded over and heeled the fault during periods of fault inactivity. With a fault plane inclination over 40/sup 0/, slope progradation was precluded and thin vertically accreting escarpment sequences developed.

  8. Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on a Miocene fault-block, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haddad, A.; Aissaoui, D. M.; Soliman, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Miocene sediments at Abu Shaar (Red Sea, Egypt) include both carbonates and detrital silicates whose distribution is closely related to a pre-Miocene basement fault-block. As such, they demonstrate the relationships between local distensional tectonics and sedimentation. Because of the vertical bathymetric relief of the basement block, the carbonates include both a spectacular talus and massive platform facies. In spite of the presence of scattered corals, sedimentation is not truly reefal as deposits consist essentially of muddy bioclastic and silicate sands. The most typical ecological elements are numerous spectacular stromatolites. Rigidity of the sedimentary mass was mainly induced by early marine cementation. Carbonate-siliciclastic transitions on and around the Abu Shaar platform were determined mainly by basement morphology and related pre-Miocene tectonics.

  9. Egypt & Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Tamer Abdel-aziz

    2011-01-01

    Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

  10. Mapping Geological Structures In Wadi Ghoweibaarea, Northwest Gulf Of Suez, Egypt, Using Aster-Spot Data Fusion And Aster DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical and economical constraints prompt the need of obtaining lithological and structural information for development of desert areas with reduced field effort. The fusion of multi-sensor satellite data is an effective mean of exploiting the complimentary nature of different data types. This technique allows fusion of spectral-spectral information of multi-source data with high accuracy. In the present study, fusion of SPOT and ASTER data was applied to test the potentiality of this technique in mapping geological formations and structural lineaments in Wadi Ghoweiba area, to the west of the northwestern tip of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. ASTER data is characterized by a wide range of spectral bands (14 bands), while SPOT panchromatic data is characterized by high (10 meters) spatial resolution. Based on spectral characteristic analysis (SCA) of the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands of ASTER data, two false-color band-ratio images (1/3, 2/5, and 4/ 9) and (1/5, 8/9, and 4/6) in R, G, B were produced for better lithological discrimination. SPOT panchromatic image data was fused with ASTER band ratio images data using principal component (PC) and color normalization or Brovey transformation techniques. The fused images proved to be excellent for lithological discrimination. ASTER data includes bands 3N (Nadir) and 3B (Backward) that are acquired in the spectral range of near infrared region (from 0.78 to 0.86 microns) allowing extraction of digital elevation model (DEM). Thrtion of digital elevation model (DEM). Three-dimensional perspective views were generated by draping SPOT-ASTER ratio fused images over ASTER DEM. This technique was used to enhance morphologically-defined structures. The fused images and the 3D perspective views were interpreted to produce a photo geological-structural map that was verified using the available geological maps and subsequent field check. The produced photo geological map indicates that fusion of SPOT and ASTER ratio image's data is a reliable technique for geological mapping especially in remote and inaccessible areas

  11. Fission-track analysis of basement apatites at the western margin of the Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt: evidence for synchroneity of uplift and subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Gomaa I.; Steckler, Michael S.; Buck, W. Roger; Kohn, Barry P.

    1989-09-01

    Fifty-six apatite fission-track ages and 52 horizontal confined track-length measurements are reported from Precambrian crystalline rocks along the western margin of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Ages fall in the range of ca. 11-385 m.y. and older ages often occur within very close geographic proximity to younger ones, indicating non-uniform uplift. The wide range in ages is accompanied by a systematic variation in the distribution of horizontal confined fission track lengths. On the basis of apatite fission track ages and their length distributions, data fall into three distinct groups. Group I: ages ranging from 43 to 385 m.y. Length distributions are all positively skewed and with decreasing age become progressively broader with shorter mean track length. Group II: ages ranging from 23 to 31 m.y. Length distributions are negatively skewed with either a distinct tail or a small peak of short tracks. Group III: ages ranging from 11 to 20.5 m.y. Length distributions are al unimodal, narrow, negatively skewed and have the longest mean lengths among samples studied. Apatite ages from groups I and II are interpreted as "mixed ages" as a result of cooling during uplift from different levels within the apatite partial track annealing zone. Ages from Group III are interpreted as "cooling ages" due to uplift from the apatite total track annealing zone with minor partial annealing. Correcting the ages of the two oldest samples in this group for track-length reduction yields ages of 21 ± 2.2and23 ± 1.5m.y. It is proposed that the onset of rift-flank uplift in the Gulf of Suez—northern Red Sea area occurred between 21 and 23 m.y. ago. Fission-track analysis in combination with subsidence data from the Gulf of Suez basin, indicate that commencement of basement uplift postdate the start of rifting and is interpreted as evidence for passive rifting at the Gulf of Suez. Furthermore, this uplift is contemporaneous with, and is directly related to, the process of extension and subsidence at the Gulf of Suez.

  12. Wind atlas for the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt. Measurements and modelling 1991-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Niels G. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Said, Usama Said [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Wind Energy Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    The results of a comprehensive, 5-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to establish reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for this area. With mean wind speeds and energy densities of 9-12 ms{sup -1} and 600-1350 Wm{sup -2}, respectively, at a height of 25 m over roughness class 0 (water), the wind resources of the Gulf of Suez are comparable to those of the most favourable regions in NW-Europe. The wind atlas methodology has proven very useful in the extreme climate conditions of the desert. Applied with care, it can provide accurate predictions of the wind climate at candidate sites for wind turbines along the Gulf of Suez. (Author)

  13. Gulf of Suez has excellent potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdine, S.

    1981-07-01

    Egypt's re-emergence as an oil exporting country in the past several years was brought about by the drilling of fewer than 100 exploration wells in a small area of the Gulf of Suez. Now that Israel and Egypt are at peace and Egypt again controls this area, prospects for large, new discoveries in previously untested areas are excellent.

  14. The Procedures for Transit of Ships Carrying Radioactive Materials in Regional Waters and Sea Ports of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian Legislation related to the safe transport of radioactive materials, a license is required for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Egyptian territorial water and sea harbors of Egypt including Suez Canal. The License is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the license have been developed according to the International and Egyptian Legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive material in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive material in the Egyptian territorial water and its sea harbors including Suez Canal according to the national and international regulations

  15. Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. ? 13C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the westher hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of time during the burial history, where the oil kitchens are deep and thermally high that are capable for generating highly mature oil. This could enhance segregation of light hydrocarbon from the heavier oil molecules prior oil expulsion and hydrocarbon generation. These constant differences in burial history and organic matter influx specifying each area are the reason of the restricted isotopic results for each one. The deviation of oil characteristics from one environmental condition to the other reflects a mixing of those cases. This clear evidence of 13C isotopic signature implies easier specification of oil origin that could be used in other locations

  16. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radiation Protection Dept.

    1994-07-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author).

  17. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shinawy, Rifaat M. K.

    1994-07-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 to 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned.A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes

  18. Stress field in the central and northern parts of the Gulf of Suez area, Egypt from earthquake fault plane solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, M.; Hussein, H. M.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; El-Hady, Sh.

    2011-07-01

    Earthquake focal mechanism solutions from 18 events in the central and northern parts of the Gulf of Suez with local magnitudes ranging from 2.8 to 5.2 and occurring between 1983 and 2004 are used to determine the type of motion and stress pattern of the region. Fault plane solutions show mostly normal component; pure normal faulting mechanisms and normal faulting with a strike-slip component. Only some mechanisms show pure strike-slip faulting. The fault planes strike in NW, WNW, NNE and ENE directions, in conformity with the geologically observed striking faults in the northern and central parts of the gulf. The principal stress orientation is also estimated by inverting the selected focal mechanism solutions. The results show that the northern part of the Gulf is subjected to NE-SW to NNE-SSW extension, with a horizontal ?3 (plunge 3°) and subvertical ?1 (plunge 80°). This means that the horizontal extensional stresses are still present in the central/northern Gulf of Suez.

  19. Significant structural reinterpretation of the giant October Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt using SCAT, isogon based sections and 3D seismic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sercombe, W.J.; Smith, G.W. (Amoco Exploration and Production, Houston, TX (United States)); Morse, J.D. (Computational Geology, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The October field, a sub-salt giant in the extensional Gulf of Suez (Egypt) has been structurally reinterpreted for new reserve opportunities. Quantitative SCAT analyses of the wellbore dip data have been integrated with 3D seismic by using dip isogons to construct local structural sections. SCAT dip analysis was critical to the reinterpretation because SCAT revealed important structural information that previously was unresolvable using conventional tadpole plots. In gross aspect, the October Field is a homocline that trends NW-SE, dips to the NE, and is closed on the SW (updip) by the major Clysmic Normal Fault. SCAT accurately calculated the overall trend of the field, but also identified important structural anomalies near the Clysmic fault and in the northwest and southeast plunge ends. In the northwest plunge end, SCAT has identified new, south dipping blocks that are transitional to the structurally-higher North October field. The southeast plunge end has been reinterpreted with correct azimuthal trends and new fault-block prospects. These new SCAT results have successfully improved the 3D seismic interpretation by providing a foundation of accurate in-situ structural control in an area of poor-to-fair seismic quality below the Miocene salt package.

  20. Significant structural reinterpretation of the giant October Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt using SCAT, isogon based sections and 3D seismic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sercombe, W.J.; Smith, G.W. [Amoco Exploration and Production, Houston, TX (United States); Morse, J.D. [Computational Geology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The October field, a sub-salt giant in the extensional Gulf of Suez (Egypt) has been structurally reinterpreted for new reserve opportunities. Quantitative SCAT analyses of the wellbore dip data have been integrated with 3D seismic by using dip isogons to construct local structural sections. SCAT dip analysis was critical to the reinterpretation because SCAT revealed important structural information that previously was unresolvable using conventional tadpole plots. In gross aspect, the October Field is a homocline that trends NW-SE, dips to the NE, and is closed on the SW (updip) by the major Clysmic Normal Fault. SCAT accurately calculated the overall trend of the field, but also identified important structural anomalies near the Clysmic fault and in the northwest and southeast plunge ends. In the northwest plunge end, SCAT has identified new, south dipping blocks that are transitional to the structurally-higher North October field. The southeast plunge end has been reinterpreted with correct azimuthal trends and new fault-block prospects. These new SCAT results have successfully improved the 3D seismic interpretation by providing a foundation of accurate in-situ structural control in an area of poor-to-fair seismic quality below the Miocene salt package.

  1. Palynology, palynofacies and petroleum potential of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Abo Ghonaim, A. A.; Mostafa, A. R.; El Atfy, H.

    2014-07-01

    Palynological, palynofacies and organic geochemical results of 46 samples retrieved from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt are presented. The two latter formations are not dated palynologically as their lithology is not promising for palynological yield. However the Matulla Formation is dated as Turonian-Santonian age, based on the combined evidence of pollen and dinocysts. Palynofacies analysis carried out under both transmitted and fluorescent microscopy indicated that both the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations are deposited under a distal suboxic-anoxic environment. On the other hand, the Turonian-Santonian Matulla Formation supported the existence of a marginal marine deposition under dysoxic-anoxic basin to proximal suboxic-anoxic shelf environments. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and TOC results indicated that most of the studied formations are thermally immature to marginally mature and have a good petroleum potential. They are organically-rich in both oil- and gas-prone kerogen Type-II and II/III, deposited under marine reducing conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

  2. Style and sequence of deformation during extensional fault-propagation folding: examples from the Hammam Faraun and El-Qaa fault blocks, Suez Rift, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. A. L.; Gawthorpe, R. L.; Sharp, I. R.

    2006-03-01

    Kilometre-scale fault-parallel folds are identified adjacent to normal faults in the Oligo-Miocene Suez Rift, Egypt and are interpreted to have formed in response to fault-propagation folding above upward propagating blind faults. The geometry, scale and distribution of secondary structures within the folds and their cross-cutting relationships with the master faults allow the style and sequence of deformation during fault-propagation folding to be established and suggest that during the initial stages of folding, the proto-footwall underwent extension which was accommodated by layer-parallel slip in encasing mudstone horizons and linked normal faulting and block rotation in carbonate and sandstone units. The proto-hanging wall also contains dominantly extensional normal faults although locally, where the master fault had a convex-into-the-footwall map-view trace, reverse faulting and fracturing occurred. Secondary structures adjacent to the master fault were not all active simultaneously, but initiated and died at different stages during the evolution of the fault-propagation fold. The results of this study confirm many key predictions of numerical and physical analogue models but also highlight several important controls on the evolution of fault propagation folds in extensional settings which existing models cannot capture, such as the influence of the map-view trace of the propagating fault and lateral variations in cover stratigraphy lithology and strength on the style and magnitude of secondary deformation.

  3. Engineering applications of seismic refraction method: A field example at Wadi Wardan, Northeast Gulf of Suez, Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.; Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2008-09-01

    Fourteen shallow seismic refraction profiles were conducted in Wadi Wardan, northeast Gulf of Suez, Sinai to delineate some of the shallow soil engineering characteristics for construction purposes. Both compressional (P) and shear (S) waves were acquired and interpreted using Generalized Reciprocal Method (GRM) then the resulted velocity-depth model is verified using a Finite Difference (FD) method to improve the final velocity-depth model. A number of engineering parameters such as Concentration Index, Material Index, Density Gradient, and Stress Ratios are calculated. The seismic velocity values, engineering, consolidation, and strength parameters show that the bedrock at northern and southern parts of the study area is characterized by less competent rock quality, while the central part is characterized by more competent rock quality. Hence, the central part is suggested for construction activities.

  4. Sequence stratigraphy and high-frequency cycles: New aspects for a quantitative evaluation of the Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nio, S.D.; Yang, C.S. (International Geoservices, Leiderdorp (Netherlands)); Tewfik, N.; Darwish, M. (Earth Resource Exploration, Cairo (Egypt)); Jonkman, H. (International Geoservices, Leiderdorp (Netherlands))

    1993-09-01

    A new development in the application of sequence stratigraphic concepts in marine as well as continental basins is the recognition of high-frequency cyclic patterns in rock successions in the subsurface. Studies of six wells from the northern, central, and southern parts of the Gulf of Suez show the presence of well-preserved, high-frequency cycles with periodicities similar to the orbitally forced Malankovitch parameters. Subsurface rock successions, third-order sequences, and high-frequency cycles were compared with outcrops. After establishing the biostratigraphic framework for the above-mentioned wells, a sequence analysis was performed. Sequence boundaries and maximum flooding positions in each well were calibrated with the occurrences and evaluation of the high-frequency cycles. It became obvious that there is an intimate relationship between these high-frequency Milankovitch cycles and sequence organization. In addition, a close relationship can be observed in the subsurface as well as in outcrops between high-frequency climatic changes (connected to the Milankovitch cycles) and (litho)facies variability. Quantitative evaluations of each sequence and/or systems tract can be computed with the International Geoservices' cyclicity analysis tool (MILABAR). The results are summarized in a well composite chart, rate (NAR), and ratio of preserved time. In correlations between the wells, an accuracy of 500-100 Ka can be obtained. The quantitative evaluation of the sequence and high-frequency cycle analysis gave some new aspects concerning the (litho)facies and geodynamic development during the pre- as well as the synrift stages of the Gulf of Suez Basin.

  5. Cretaceous petroleum-bearing rock types—their diagenesis and significance in the Gulf of Suez area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Metwalli, M.; Wali, A. M. A.; Abd El-Shafy, A.

    1987-07-01

    Detailed petrographic studies of cores of Cretaceous sediments from the Gulf of Suez area, from both productive and non-productive fault blocks, reveal the rock types, their petrophysics, the nature and distribution of their cements and the effect of diagenesis on hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. An understanding of the petrographic and sedimentologic characteristics of these clastic and non-clastic sediments helps in a valid interpretation of their depositional history and their significance in petroleum exploration. This study is important because of the observed complexity of the virtually unexplored areas and sections of buried Cretaceous rocks in the Gulf of Suez petroleum province, caused by the combined effects of sedimentation and tectonic movements that shaped the Gulf as an intercontinental juncture. There are four petrographic groups, arenite, micrite, wackestone, and claystone. Each group is subdivided into main types and subtypes that reflect the environmental changes within the shallow, fluctuating basin of deposition in the Gulf and related areas. In order to elucidate the porosity changes, the dolomitization process and the clay fractions were investigated. It appears that a post-compactional mechanism is responsible for providing the medium with the Fe 2+, Mg 2+ and K + needed for dolomite formation. Consequently, a porosity decrease may arise from the effect of argillaceous-rich carbonate portions. Also, the decrease of porosity of the Matulla Formation (Lower Senonian sandstone) as compared to the pre-Cenomanian sandstone is the result of increasing overgrowth of secondary silica. Significant dolomitization has increased the porosity of the Lower Seronian—Turonian sediments. This is due to the difference in ionic radii between calcite and dolomite crystal packing. Thus, the petrographic variability of the studied sediments and their diagenesis reflect the variability of their capacity as petroleum-bearing rocks, both laterally and vertically.

  6. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

  7. Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, M. E. Mohamed; Deif, A.; El-Hadidy, S.; Moustafa Sayed, S. R.; El Werr, A.

    2008-12-01

    The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f0) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A0) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest.

  8. Evolution of Miocene footwall-derived coarse-grained deltas, Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Implications for exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawthorpe, R.L. (Univ. of Manchester (England)); Hurst, J.M.; Sladen, C.P. (BP Exploration, London (England))

    1990-07-01

    The Miocene Abu Alaqa Group, exposed on the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez, contains a series of coarse-grained delta deposits located in the hanging wall of the northwest-trending East Margin fault zone. Seven major fan sequences have been identified. The first three fan sequences are aggradational and cover an area of less than 2 km{sup 2}. The sequences are dominated by pebble/boulder conglomerates, with predominantly sigmoidal, high-angle clinoforms (between 15 and 25{degree}) as much as 150 m high. These fan sequences represent talus cones and fan deltas, which were probably deposited during activity on the fault zone and are situated at transfer segments. The other four fan sequences are predominantly progradational, consisting of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic braid deltas with local reefs. They are less than 30 m high, have low-angle clinoforms (< 15{degree}), and cover an area as large as 30 km{sup 2}. These fan sequences were deposited during a phase of tectonic quiescence when sedimentary and eustatic mechanisms determined sand-body geometry. These fan deltas and braid deltas may form hydrocarbon traps in the subsurface and create localized reservoirs. The rapid facies change into basinal fines creates an excellent lateral stratigraphic seal, but vertical and lateral seals across the fault zone generally are not well developed. 8 figs.

  9. Q-values for P and S waves in Southern Sinai and Southern Gulf of Suez Region, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gad-Elkareem A.

    2014-05-01

    The quality factor Q has been estimated using spectral amplitudes of P and S waves from earthquakes recorded by the seismic network of the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) in southern Sinai and southern Gulf of Suez region. The earthquakes recorded at nine stations - DHA, NUB, TR1, TR2, KAT, SH2, GRB, HRG and SFG have been used in this study. The spectral amplitude ratios have been calculated between 2 - 20 Hz and single station spectral ratio method has been applied for this purpose. The results show that the quality factors for both P and S waves (Qp and Qs) increase as a function of frequency according to law the Q = Q0fn. By averaging the estimated Q- Value obtained at all stations we calculated the average attenuation laws: Qp = (13.15± 0.76) f0.95± 0.19 and Qs = (20.05± 0.79) f1.03±0.04 for P and S waves respectively. These relations are useful for the estimation of source parameters of earthquakes and simulation of earthquake strong ground motions. The QS /QP ratio for KAT station is less than 1 at lower frequencies, whereas at HRG and SH2 stations QS /QP ratio is are greater than 1.

  10. Carbonate flow characteristics and log response for effective reservoir management of Miocene carbonates, the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamed, S.F. [General Petroleum Company, Rancho Dominguez, CA (United States); Ibrahim, M.; Attia, M.; Khttab, H.; Elhady, N.A. [Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    Carbonate reservoir systems are normally made up of different porosity types and lithologies. Each type of porosity has various elements that make up its pore system; pore geometry, size, size distribution and pore throat. One of the most difficult challenges is understanding the various pore and rock types through heterogeneous carbonate as there are no universal applicable techniques to recognize the different rock types and flow units through heterogeneous rock. Conventional log response and traditional log interpretation do not have the ability to discriminate the different rock types. As such, discriminating between rock types and flow units through heterogeneous carbonate, requires a compilation of all available data. This paper demonstrated how the conventional log interpretations lead to improper perforation selection and ineffective stimulation. Two cases in the same field and the same carbonate formation were presented to demonstrate how the traditional log interpretations are not adequate for proper reservoir management. A simple approach has been established to define the reservoir quality and the flow units through the Miocene carbonates located in the central part of the Gulf of Suez using a series of cross plots for the old wells logging and the production results. Moreover, the flow units from the recent cores, open hole and production logging, throughout Miocene carbonates confirm the discriminated flow units approach. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f0) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A0) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest

  12. Maastrichtian-Early Eocene litho-biostratigraphy and palægeography of the northern Gulf of Suez region, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.

    2001-02-01

    The Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene sediments on both sides of the northern Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into eight formal formations (including one group) and one informal formation that are described in detail. These lithostratigraphic units reflect three different environmental regimes of deposition or non-deposition. The first regime is characterised by uplift and erosion or non-deposition resulting mostly from the uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba structure, a branch of the Syrian Arc Foldbelt. The shallow water carbonate platform and slope deposits of the Late Campanian-Maastrichtian St Anthony Formation and the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Southern Galala and Garra Formations represent the second regime and are found north and south of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba High. The third regime is represented by basinal chalks, marls and shales of the Maastrichtian Sudr Formation and of the Paleocene-Eocene Dakhla, Tarawan and Esna Formations, the Dakhla/Tarawan/Esna informal formation and the Thebes Group. The distribution and lateral interfingering of the above mentioned environmental regimes reflect different vertical movements, changing basin morphology, sea level changes and progradation of shallow water sediments and is illustrated on 11 palæogeographic maps.

  13. Kinematics of the oblique faults in the east central Gulf of Suez Rift, Wadi Araba, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh; Abdelmaksoud, Ashraf

    2014-05-01

    The Oligo-Miocene Gulf of Suez rift is characterized by four fault trends; a rift-parallel trend, two trends oblique to the rift trend and a cross trend. The rift-parallel trend strikes 310o to 340o and is referred to as the Clysmic trend. The two trends, which are oblique to the Clysmic trend, strike 350o to 030o and 280o to 310o; the first has been referred to as the north-oblique (N-oblique), and the second as the northwest-oblique (NW-oblique). The cross trend includes faults nearly orthogonal to the Clysmic trend i.e. they strike between 050o and 075o. Image interpretation and detailed field mapping and structural studies at a scale of 1: 20,000 of the Wadi Araba area in southwest Sinai Peninsula indicate e Clysmic faults are mostly normal showing major dip-slip movements. The oblique faults were found to be younger than the Clysmic faults and that the N-oblique faults are characterized by major sinistral strike-slip movement, while the NW-oblique faults are characterized by major dextral strike-slip movement. Cross cutting relationship, geometry and palaeostress analysis indicate that the oblique faults are conjugate Riedel shears originated due to NE to NNE extension related to the Aqaba-Levant transform that has been active since the Middle Miocene.

  14. Normal fault growth, displacement localisation and the evolution of normal fault populations: the Hammam Faraun fault block, Suez rift, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthorpe, Rob L.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Young, Mike J.; Sharp, Ian R.; Moustafa, Adel R.; Leppard, Christopher W.

    2003-06-01

    Fault segment linkage, migration of the locus of fault activity, and displacement localisation were important processes controlling the late Oligocene-Recent evolution of the normal fault population of the Hammam Faraun fault block, Suez rift. Initial fault activity was distributed across the fault block on fault segments that had attained their final length within 1-2 My of rifting. These initial segments then either grew by increasing displacement and linked to form longer segmented fault zones or died, during a rift initiation phase that lasted 6-8 My. Following this rift initiation phase, displacement became localised onto >25-km-long border fault zones bounding the fault block and many of the early high-displacement intra-block fault zones died. Following displacement localisation onto the major faults bounding the fault block, the locus of maximum displacement continued to migrate, with post-Middle Miocene displacement focused on the western margin of the fault block. This migration of fault activity between major crustal-scale normal faults can be viewed in terms of strain localisation at the rift scale. The results from this study question conventional fault growth models based on final displacement distributions, and highlight the sequential nature of faulting on major normal faults bounding domino-style tilted fault blocks.

  15. Geophysical Constraints on the Hydrogeologic and Structural Settings of the Gulf of Suez Rift-Related Basins: Case Study from the El Qaa Plain, Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Sauck, William; Sultan, Mohamed; Yan, Eugene; Soliman, Farouk; Rashed, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Groundwater has been identified as one of the major freshwater sources that can potentially meet the growing demands of Egypt's population. Gravity data (from 381 ground gravity stations) were collected, processed, and analyzed together with the available aeromagnetic (800 line-km) data to investigate the hydrogeologic and structural settings, areal distribution, geometry, and water storage of the aquifers in El Qaa coastal plain in the southwest Sinai Peninsula, and to assess their longevity given projected extraction rates. Findings include (1) complete Bouguer anomaly and total magnetic intensity maps show two connected sub-basins separated by a narrow saddle with an average basin length of 43 km and an average width of 12 km; (2) two-dimensional modeling of both gravity and magnetic data indicates basin fill with a maximum thickness of 3.5 km; (3) using anomalous residual gravity, the volume of water in storage was estimated at 40-56 km3; and (4) progressive increases in extraction rates over time will deplete up to 40 % of the aquifers' volume in 200-230 years and will cause the water quality to deteriorate due to seawater intrusion in 45 years. Similar geophysical exploration campaigns, if conducted over the entire coastal plains of the Red Sea and the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, could assist in the development of sound and sustainable management schemes for the freshwater resources in these areas. The adopted techniques could pave the way toward the establishment of sustainable utilization schemes for a much larger suite of similar aquifers worldwide.

  16. Facies and geologic history of an exposed Miocene rift-margin carbonate platform: Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, N.P.; Coniglio, M.; Aissaoui, D.M.; Purser, B.H.

    1988-05-01

    Abu Shaar is a small exhumed carbonate platform of lower to middle Miocene age on a horst of Precambrian crystalline rock along the western side of the Gulf of Suez. The reef-rimmed complex is entirely dolomite but with exquisitely preserved primary and diagenetic microfabrics. Similar platforms, some of which contain hydrocarbons, are buried beneath evaporites in the Gulf. The platform developed in three stages, defined as local members of the Rudeis Formation. The first stage records deposition during progressive marine onlap as aprons of mixed terrigenous-carbonate sediments evolved into a wide reef-rimmed platform. Synsedimentary platform-margin collapse subsequently removed the most seaward portions of the reefs along the eastern Gulf-facing margin. These truncation surfaces were then covered by a second phase of reef growth and deposition of fore-reef carbonates. The third and final stage, deposited following a sea level drop and subaerial exposure, is a series of well-bedded peritidal carbonates that become progressively more evaporitic upward. Fore-reef facies are again truncated by synsedimentary slope failure. Former evaporites are now recorded as collapse breccias, contorted bedding, black chert nodules, and evaporite molds. Porosity is mainly secondary as vugs and molds and is highest in platform interior facies. These more porous sediments contained more aragonitic components originally and were less affected by submarine cementation. In contrast, the higher degree of synsedimentary lithification of platform-margin reef and fore-reef sediments is comparable with what is commonly observed in modern reef-dominated platform margins. 15 figures, 1 tables.

  17. Facies and depositional environment of the Holocene evaporites in the Ras Shukeir area, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, M. A. M.; Attia, O. E. A.; Wali, A. M. A.

    1997-05-01

    The Holocene evaporite sequence in the Ras Shukeir area conformably overlies marine shell banks and cross-bedded to graded-bedded beach sands and gravels. The evaporite sequence is represented by gypsum-anhydrite layers that are interbedded with mudstone layers. Field and petrographic investigations of the evaporite deposits revealed two facies types, laminated evaporite facies (primary) and nodular to enterolithic anhydrite facies (diagenetic). The laminated evaporite facies is subdivided, from the bottom to top, into regular laminated evaporite, chevron gypsum-algal micrite laminations and wavy algal laminated evaporite. Based on their textures and fabrics, the regular and wavy laminated evaporite facies are interpreted as primary deposits in a coastal lagoon and salina environment. The chevron gypsum-algal micrite facies formed by the growth of chevron gypsum at the sediment-water interface within a shallow subtidal lagoonal environment that was characterized by extensive benthic algal mats. The nodular to enterolithic anhydrite facies is secondary and formed diagenetically within a siliciclastic supratidal sediment. Some of the laminated evaporite facies have been diagenetically altered in a supratidal sabkha environment as evidenced by the following: (1) the partial formation of nodular evaporite instead of laminated evaporite; (2) disruption of gypsum laminations by plant roots and rootlets as well as by precipitation of lenticular gypsum on the root wall; and (3) partial dissolution of halite laminae and the formation of wavy anhydrite laminae. Consequently, the Holocene evaporites in the Ras Shukeir area were deposited in a shallow semi-closed to closed basin that was separated from the Gulf of Suez trough. Changing sea level led to progradation of the evaporite facies from subtidal to intertidal lagoon and salina to a supratidal sabkha.

  18. The influence of facies and depositional environment on the occurrence and distribution of carbazoles and benzocarbazoles in crude oils: a case study from the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakr, M.M.Y. [Alexandria University, (Egypt). Geology Department; Institut fur Erdoel und Organische Geochemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Wilkes, H. [Institut fur Erdoel und Organische Geochemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Two major hinge zones separate the Gulf of Suez (GOS) of Egypt into three tectonic sub-provinces, namely the northern, central and southern sectors. Based on bulk and molecular parameters, the crude oils from the GOS can be subdivided into three groups according to their geographical origin from the three sectors. The geochemical characteristics of the oils are consistent with inferred depositional environments of anoxic marine carbonate facies in the central sector, compared to a more oxic environment that has received an increased proportion of clastic input in the southern sector, while the northern is intermediate in character. Most of the oils cover a relatively narrow maturity range (0.86-0.98 R{sub c}) in the peak oil window. The biomarker parameter Ts/(Ts+Tm) is controlled by variations of facies and depositional environment, but not maturity. Concentrations of pyrrolic nitrogen compounds in the GOS crude oils are in general relatively low, but show a large range of variability. In crude oils of the northern sector a strong predominance of C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} carbazoles over the lower homologues is observed. Towards the south, the relative abundance of carbazole and the methylcarbazoles increases successively. Variations within the methylcarbazoles and C{sub 2}-carbazoles are rather small and, therefore, are not useful for a straightforward classification of oil families. However, atypical patterns in some of the oils, particularly from the northern sector, give evidence for contributions from yet unidentified local sources, which might not be of general importance in the GOS petroleum province. Benzo[b]carbazole is near or even below detection limit in the GOS crude oils. The benzocarbazole a/(a+c) ratio shows a consistently positive correlation with API gravity, Pr/Ph and Ts/(Ts+Tm) and a negative correlation with the sulphur content. Based on these observations, it is inferred that facies and depositional environment of the relevant source rocks are the major factors influencing the benzocarbazole distributions. In the central sector of the GOS, in which oils are predominantly sourced from carbonates deposited under strongly reducing conditions, a/(a+c) values are mainly below 0.5. In the southern sector where source rocks were deposited under less reducing conditions and received significant clastic input, as well as in the northern sector, the a/(a+c) values are mainly above 0.5. (author)

  19. A least-squares approach to depth determination from second derivative gravity anomalies due to two-dimensional faulted and folded structures with application to the Gulf of Suez region, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, E. M.; Bayoumi, A. I.; El-Araby, H. M.

    The present work confirms the basic ideas of Gupta [1983 Geophysics48, 357-360] and Abdelrahman et al. [1985 Geophysics50, 262-263] on the effectiveness of the least-squares method in determining depths to a vertical step (thin plate approximation) and a horizontal cylinder from the second vertical derivative maps by finding a solution of a non-linear equation in the form of f( z) = 0. Analysis of the second vertical derivative anomaly map in an area of the Gulf of Suez region of Egypt by this present approach revealed a depth to the center of a long NW-SE trending salt body approximated by a horizontal cylinder to be in a very good agreement with that obtained from seismic depth maps.

  20. Wind farm planning at the Gulf of Suez

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    2004-01-01

    The Wind Atlas for Egypt project is an element in a national effort to provide the best possible basis for planning of future environmentally sustainable development and utilization of wind energy resources and technology in Egypt. The present reportcompiles the data, information and recommendations available for planning of wind farm projects in the Gulf of Suez.

  1. Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Burdigalian-Serravallian sediments in Wadi Sudr (Gulf of Suez, Egypt): comparison with the Central Paratethys evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ied, Ibrahim M.; Holcová, Katarína; Abd-Elshafy, Ezzat

    2011-06-01

    Two main Miocene facies were recorded in the Gulf of Suez area: a deep marine and a coastal facies. The analysed sections in the Wadi Sudr area belong to the marine facies. The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) is represented by coastal, shallow marine sediments, rich in coral, algae, gastropods and large pectinids followed by Langhian open marine sediments and Serravallian lagoonal carbonates. The open marine sediments contain well preserved planktonic and benthic foraminifers and abundant ostracods. The parts of the sections containing foraminifers have been correlated with three planktonic foraminiferal zones (Praeorbulina glomerosa Zone, Orbulina Zone and Globorotalia praemenardii-Globorotalia peripheroronda Zone). Two benthic ecozones were defined (Heterolepa dutemplei-Laevidentalina elegans Zone and Bolivina compressa-Elphidium spp. Zone). Two cycles of sea-level changes can be distinguished and correlated with global sea-level cycles Bur5/Lan1 and Ser1. The first (Langhian) cycle culminated in open marine sublittoral to upper bathyal well aerated sediments. The second (Serravallian) cycle was shallower, littoral suboxic sediments were overlaid by euryhaline carbonates. The studied foraminifera-bearing sediments can be correlated with the lower and Middle Badenian of the Central Paratethys. Though the area of the Gulf of Suez and the Central Paratethys were situated in different climatic zones, and influenced by different tectonic events, the main paleoenvironmental events (sea-level changes, oxygen decrease, salinity changes) are comparable. This correspondence shows that the decisive factors triggering these events were global climatic events.

  2. Late Quaternary reorientation of stress field and extension direction in the southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Evidence from uplifted coral terraces, mesoscopic fault arrays, and borehold breakouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, William; Taviani, Marco

    1996-08-01

    Uplifted Pleistocene coral terraces and modern earthquakes show that several large normal faults are presently active in the southern Gulf of Suez rift basin. The footwall of one of these faults is exposed at Gebel el Zeit, where terraces at elevations of +10-18 and +42 m have been radiometrically dated as 125 ka and 426 ka, respectively. After correcting for eustatic sea-level changes, this results in net tectonic uplift rates of about 0.1 m/kyr. Published interpretations and our own observations indicate that the average extension direction during the Miocene to Pliocene synrift history was 055°. Analysis of borehole breakouts and published earthquake fault plane solutions, however, suggests that the present-day stress field in the southern Gulf has a 010°-020° Shmin orientation. Detailed structural observations show that a change in extension direction occurred in the late Pleistocene, with rotation of the stress field beginning prior to formation of the 125 ka terraces but after formation of older Pleistocene terraces whose ages are less tightly constrained. Using a horizontal slip direction of 015° and our observed net footwall uplift rate, we calculate a separation velocity between Sinai and Africa of 0.8-1.2 m/kyr. The proposed Pleistocene change in extension direction in the Gulf of Suez corresponds closely with the post-500 ka change in extension direction documented in the Kenyan rift system and a similar change in extension direction recorded in the central Red Sea. These regional similarities in tectonic history suggest that the underlying causes of these events may be a plate-scale phenomenon affecting the entire Afro-Arabian rift system, rather than local changes in the Quaternary stress field.

  3. Structural evolution of the [open quotes]B[close quotes] trend and its significance for hydrocarbon exploration in offshore Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M. (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-09-01

    The [open quotes]B[close quotes] trend is one of the important structural trends in the southern part of the Gulf of Suez. Located 250 km southeast of the town of Suez, this trend includes seven oil fields: Amal, Wali, GS 365, Sidki, East Zeit, Hilal, and Ashrafi. The present study was done to study the structural development of the B trend, through integrating data from 70 wells drilled in the area with seismic interpretations and the interpreted structural pattern of the rifted blocks mapped in outcrop. Results of this study indicate that the B trend consists of a series of faulted and southwesterly dipping sub-blocks. The predominate strike direction is northwest-southeast. In the early rifting phase (Late Eocene-Oligocene) the previously mentioned subblocks were believed to have ben composed of a single major fault block, which had a northwest strike and a gentle dip toward the southwest. This huge block was bounded to the east by a large zigzag fault. The intermittent extension rift tectonics that continued throughout the Miocene caused the breakdown of the huge B trend block into the present substructures. This breaking down occurred using two preexisting directions of fractures, which were oriented northwest and north-northeast. this interpretation concurs with the synthetic transfer rift model and explains the prismatic to rhombic geometry of the B trend subblocks. The north-northeast faults acted as hinges (rotation planes) for the B trend block, which consequently responded separately with the intermittent extension tectonics. Some subblocks were tilted more than others. This rotational movement provided the lateral strike separation between the subblocks, juxtaposition of the impermeable seals against the reservoir rocks, and created the separate oil fields that are characterized by different oil water contacts.

  4. Aqaba-Levant transform-related faults in the Gulf of Suez rift: The Durba-Araba fault, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Abdelmaksoud, Ashraf S.

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf of Suez rift is dominated by NNW- to NW-striking “Clysmic” faults trending parallel to the rift. In addition there are NNE- and WNW-striking (oblique) faults that trend at an angle to the rift. The Durba-Araba fault (DAF) in southwestern Sinai represents one of several NNE-striking faults. It separates the Durba fault block on its NW from the Araba fault block on its SE. Detailed (1:20,000 scale) field mapping and structural studies of the DAF and the onshore area to the east of Belayim Bay (eastern margin of the central Gulf of Suez rift), indicate that the exposed part of the DAF extends for 7.5 km NNE from the mouth of Wadi Araba, at which point it bends and splays into three N- to NNW striking faults, forming a horse tail structure. The fault shows 4 km of pure sinistral strike-slip displacement. Northerly plunging fault propagation folds in the Phanerozoic rocks adjacent to the DAF accommodated the sinistral displacement. These folds are cut and displaced by the splay faults. Near its northern end, the middle splay fault affects the Pliocene El Qa'a Formation. At Gebel Qabeliat a group of en echelon left-stepping NNE- to N-striking faults overlaps the DAF generating a pull-apart (rhomb) graben, in which Pliocene and Quaternary sediments are downthrown against the Upper Miocene rocks. Kinematic indicators on most of these faults show major sinistral strike-slip movement. Palaeostress analysis of slip striae indicates sub-horizontal ENE to NNE extension, comparable to the present day stress regime. Cross-cutting relationships indicate that the NNE- to N-striking oblique faults are younger than the NW-striking Clysmic faults. These faults are probably presently active since they affect Pliocene and Quaternary sediments. It is proposed that these faults are related to the Aqaba-Levant transform that has been active since the Middle Miocene.

  5. Geometry and architecture of faults in a syn-rift normal fault array: The Nukhul half-graben, Suez rift, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Paul; Gawthorpe, Rob L.; Hodgetts, David; Rarity, Franklin; Sharp, Ian R.

    2009-08-01

    The geometry and architecture of a well exposed syn-rift normal fault array in the Suez rift is examined. At pre-rift level, the Nukhul fault consists of a single zone of intense deformation up to 10 m wide, with a significant monocline in the hanging wall and much more limited folding in the footwall. At syn-rift level, the fault zone is characterised by a single discrete fault zone less than 2 m wide, with damage zone faults up to approximately 200 m into the hanging wall, and with no significant monocline developed. The evolution of the fault from a buried structure with associated fault-propagation folding, to a surface-breaking structure with associated surface faulting, has led to enhanced bedding-parallel slip at lower levels that is absent at higher levels. Strain is enhanced at breached relay ramps and bends inherited from pre-existing structures that were reactivated during rifting. Damage zone faults observed within the pre-rift show ramp-flat geometries associated with contrast in competency of the layers cut and commonly contain zones of scaly shale or clay smear. Damage zone faults within the syn-rift are commonly very straight, and may be discrete fault planes with no visible fault rock at the scale of observation, or contain relatively thin and simple zones of scaly shale or gouge. The geometric and architectural evolution of the fault array is interpreted to be the result of (i) the evolution from distributed trishear deformation during upward propagation of buried fault tips to surface faulting after faults breach the surface; (ii) differences in deformation response between lithified pre-rift units that display high competence contrasts during deformation, and unlithified syn-rift units that display low competence contrasts during deformation, and; (iii) the history of segmentation, growth and linkage of the faults that make up the fault array. This has important implications for fluid flow in fault zones.

  6. Characterization of Oligocene Sands and Gravels, Wad Ghoweiba, Northwest Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Using Spectral Signature and Principal Component Analysis of Terra Aster Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multi-spectral imager that was launched on board NASA's TERRA Spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER covers a wide spectral region with 14 bands from the visible to thermal infrared with high spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions. An additional backward looking near-infrared band provides stereo coverage. The spatial resolution varies with wavelength; 15 m in the visible and near infrared (VNIR, 3 bands), 30 m in the short wave infrared (SWIR, 6 bands), and 90 m in the thermal infrared (TIR, 5 bands). Each ASTER scene covers an area of 60 X60 km. In the present study the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands have been used to discriminate the Oligocene sands and gravels from the surrounding rock units that are exposed near the mouth of Wadi Ghoweiba, at the northwestern side of the Gulf of Suez. Spectral reflectance curves of 9 rock units were extracted from ASTER data and were subsequently examined. The spectral reflectance curve for the Oligocene sands and gravels shows a spectacular unique behavior compared to the spectral reflectance curves of the other 8 rock units. Based on the spectral reflectance behavior, ASTER bands 1, 2 and 5 are found to be the most suitable bands for discriminating the Oligocene sands and gravels from the surrounding 8 rock units. Therefore, the highest percentages of information of these bands were quantitatively extracted from the principal component (P extracted from the principal component (PC) analysis using Eigen matrix. The highest percentages of information contributed by bands 1,2 and 5 were found to be in PC2, PC6 and PC9, respectively. A principal component color image (PC2, PC6 and PC9 in B, G, R) showed the Oligocene sands and gravels in a characteristic orange color. This result was verified using the available geological maps followed by field check. The method used here is effective for exploring new sites of the Oligocene sands and gravels that are being extensively used as raw materials for concrete and other building purposes

  7. Morgan oilfield. [Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The Egyptian General Petroleum Corp. in partnership with the Pan American UAR Oil Co. (now Amoco Egypt Oil Co.) discovered a major offshore oil field, Morgan, in the Gulf of Suez Basin, in April 1965. The oil was found in Miocene sands in 2 reservoirs. The upper one is in the Hammam Faraun member of the Belayim Formation. This reservoir has limited reserves and has been put on production since Jan. 1972. The lower reservoir is the Kareem Formation and is more prolific than the upper one and has been on production since April 1967. The geology of the field is of special interest with respect to the S. Gharib Formation salt movements and the post-depositional erosion at the end of the Kareem Formation deposition, both of which are discussed. Over one billion barrels of stock tank reserves is estimated to exist in the present field area which is approx. 11,400 acres (46.2 sq km). (10 refs.)

  8. Petrography, geochemistry and primary origin of spheroidal dolomite from the Upper Cretaceous/Lower Tertiary Maghra El-Bahari Formation at Gabal Ataqa, Northwest Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, H. A.

    2002-08-01

    Field, petrographical, and geochemical studies of the Maghra El-Bahari Formation at Gabal Ataqa in Egypt indicate an occurrence of spheroidal dolomite as a primary precipitate. Petrographically, this dolomite is microcrystalline (10-40 ?m in diameter) and lacks any direct or indirect evidence of a precursor mineral. Each dolomite spherule is composed of a cluster of coalesced incomplete rhombohedral sub-units exhibiting a globular body with a hollow core. This dolomite is commonly associated with authigenic palygorskite and gypsum. Based on its associations, the spheroidal dolomite occurs in two modes: (i) siliciclastic-disseminated dolomite and (ii) evaporitic-associated dolomite. On the basis of its elemental and stable isotopic signature, the spheroidal dolomite is subdivided into two types: Type A and Type B. Type A is Ca-rich (with average CaCO 3 and MgCO 3 equal to 58.20 and 39.91 mol%, respectively) and with average Sr=108 ppm, average Na=656 ppm, average Mn=72 ppm, and ?18O ranges from -0.4 to +0.9‰ PDB. Type B, compared with Type A, is nearly stoichiometric (with average CaCO 3 and MgCO 3 equal to 49.32 and 43.75 mol%, respectively) with higher average Sr (508 ppm), average Na (3008 ppm), average Mn (171 ppm), and ?18O (+0.98 to +1.8‰ PDB). Slightly positive values of ?13C (+0.18 to +2.10‰ PDB) are recorded for the two types of dolomite. Type A belongs to the siliciclastic-disseminated dolomite, whereas Type B is of the evaporitic-associated dolomite. It is interpreted that the spheroidal dolomite directly precipitated from a solution that was supersaturated with respect to dolomite components and did not develop by dolomitization of precursor carbonates. Two main sources are suggested for dolomite precipitation: hypersaline water and mixed saline-fresh water.

  9. Light-gravity crude oil is produced in the Gulf of Suez mine property; Suezuwankoku de keishitsu genyu wo sanshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    TEIKOKU OIL announced that an output of crude oil 3114BPD and natural gas NISSAN 270000m{sup 3} was confirmed from the trial pit No.1 well in Gulf of Suez girth Ashrahy mine property (Egypt zight bay northeast 4 km) in Egypt which the TEIKOKU OIL Suez petroleum invested with Japan National Oil Corp. on 10th has participated. 60% and TEIKOKU OIL Suez petroleum possess 40% on interests of this mine property in IEOC Co.. The oil quality of the crude oil which produces this time is 43.5 degrees and light type in the API. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Depositional framework and sequence stratigraphic aspects of the Coniacian Santonian mixed siliciclastic/carbonate Matulla sediments in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azabi, M. H.; El-Araby, A.

    2007-04-01

    Superb outcrops of mixed siliciclastic/carbonate rocks mark the Coniacian-Santonian Matulla Formation exposed in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks, west central Sinai. They are built up of various lithofacies that reflect minor fluctuations in relative sea-level from lower intertidal to slightly deep subtidal settings. Relying on the facies characteristics and stratal geometries, the siliciclastic rocks are divided into seven depositional facies, including beach foreshore laminated sands, upper shoreface cross-bedded sandstone, lower shoreface massive bioturbated and wave-rippled sandstones, shallow subtidal siltstone and deep subtidal shale/claystone. The carbonate rocks comprise lower intertidal lime-mudstone, floatstone and dolostone, shallow subtidal skeletal shoal of oyster rudstone/bioclastic grainstone, and shoal margin packstone. Oolitic grain-ironstone and ferribands are partially intervened the facies types. Deposition has taken place under varied conditions of restricted, partly open marine circulation, low to high wave energy and normal to raised salinity during alternating periods of abundant and ceased clastic supply. The facies types are arranged into asymmetric upward-shallowing cycles that record multiple small-scale transgressive-regressive events. Lime-mudstone and sandstone normally terminate the regressive events. Four sequence boundaries marking regional relative sea-level falls divide the Matulla Formation into three stratigraphic units. These boundaries are Turonian/Coniacian, intra-Coniacian, Coniacian/Santonian and Santonian/Campanian. They do not fit with those sequence boundaries proposed in Haq et al.'s global eustatic curves (1988) except for the sea-level fall associated with the intra-Coniacian boundary. Other sequence boundaries have resulted from regional tectonic impact of the Syrian Arc Fold System that has been initiated in north Egypt during the Latest Turonian-Coniacian. These boundaries enclose three well-defined 3rd order depositional sequences; their enclosing shallowing-upward cycles (i.e. parasequences) record the 4th order relative sea-level fluctuations. 34 and 20 parasequence sets, in the order of a few meters to tens of meters thick, mark the Matulla sequences in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks respectively. Each sequence shows an initial phase of rapid sea-level rise with retrogradational sets, followed by lowering sea-level and progradation/aggradation of the parasequence sets. The transgressive deposits display predominance of deep subtidal lagoonal facies, while highstand deposits show an increase in siliciclastic and carbonate facies with the progressive decrease of lagoonal facies. The sedimentary patterns and environments suggest that the regional, partly eustatic sea-level (i.e. intra-Coniacian) changes controlled the overall architecture of the sequence distribution, whereas changes in the clastic input controlled the variations in facies associations within each depositional sequence.

  11. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host-parasite relationship at a molecular level. PMID:23938396

  12. Rift offsets, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Structure and stratigraphic mapping in the northern half of the Gulf of Suex (GOS) documents two en echelon, rift-parallel (Clysmic trend) rift segments. The segments are right stepping and share a zone of overlap, which extends southward from the southern border of the Wadi Araba structure on the western shore of the gulf to the north end of the Abu Durba block on the east side of the gulf. The spatial relationship of the two segments defines the central GOS rift offset, and the structural depression linking the segments in the area of overlap forms a rift-offset zone. Another potential rift offset, though less well constrained, also with a north-south trend may be present south of Gebel Zeit. This rift and the central GOS rift offset provide a model for the opening of the GOS in which north-south rift-offset zones link Clysmic-trending rift segments, imparting a regional zig-zag pattern to the initial rift configuration. Recognition of offset zones and their associated fault fabrics is essential for effective exploration of rift basins. For example, the alignment of producing fields and elongation directions of individual fields in the central GOS offset are anomalous relative to those of other producing trends in the Gulf.

  13. Gupco's experience in treating Gulf of Suez sea water for waterflooding the El-Morgan oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hattab, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co, (GUPCO), is currently water flooding two fields using Gulf of Suez water. The paper demonstrates the treatment phases adopted for the sea water to improve its quality prior to injection, and to control the corrosion, scaling and other problems which are usually associated with untreated sea waters. Also discussed are GUPCO'S experience in sea water flood at the El-Morgan Oil field, problems encountered and corrective action taken to overcome these problems. The chemical treatment programs adopted are presented along with final conclusions and recommendations that can be applicable to similar floods in Egypt using Gulf of Suez Water. 58 refs.

  14. Geothermal potential of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Chandler A.; Morgan, Paul; Boulos, F. K.

    1983-04-01

    One hundred and sixty samples of groundwater from nearly all parts of Egypt have been collected and chemically analyzed in order to assess the country's geothermal potential. The samples considered to be thermal include 20 wells ( T > 35° C), 4 springs ( T > 30° C) and 1 spring not included in the present inventory. The remaining samples, together with data from the literature, establish background chemistry. The hottest springs are located along the east shore of the Gulf of Suez: Uyun Musa (48°C) and 'Ain Hammam Faraoun (70°C). Additional warm springs are located along both shores of the Gulf of Suez and this region is the most promising for geothermal development. The Eastern Desert of Egypt, particularly the coastal area adjacent to the Red Sea has above normal heat flow ( ~ 72.0 < mWm-2) and therefore some geothermal potential although only one thermal well (Umm Kharga: 35.8°C) could be located, In the major oases of the Western Desert (Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra and Bahariya), the regional temperature gradient is low (< 20° C/ km), but many of the wells tap deep artesian aquifers and produce large volumes of water in the 35-43°C range. Such wells constitute a low temperature geothermal resource. None of our samples in northern Egypt can be considered thermal including several reported "hot springs." Application of the silica, NaKCa. and NaKCaMg geothermometers does not indicate the presence of a high temperature geothermal resource at any area we visited.

  15. Gulf tanker trade ignores the Suez Canel shortcut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The Egyptian Government is hopeful of increasing its revenues from Suez Canal operations to over $1.1 billion by 1985, including about $700 million from oil tanker trade, upon completion in 1980 of the first stage of the Canal extension and modernization program, which will cost a total of almost $1 billion. The first phase (and second phase), which is in progress, will increase draft to 53 ft (68 ft), will allow passage of loaded tankers of up to 150,000 dwt (up to 260,000 dwt), and will boost throughput to 500 million dwt (610 million dwt) in 1985, with oil accounting for approx. 60Vertical Bar3< (two-thirds) of the traffic. Also in progress is construction of by-pass slots at Port Saiil, al-Timsah, Deversoir, and al-Ballah, which are scheduled for completion by mid-1980 as part of a long-term plan to build a two-way channel along the Canal by the year 2000. Revenues in 1978 fell short of the Suez Canal Authority's $450 million forecast to a little over $400 million, including about $160 million from oil tanker trade, owing to reduced oil traffic, i.e., 11.2Vertical Bar3< decline in loaded tanker tonnage to 30.9 million dwt from 1977 to 1978. Tanker traffic in 1978 comprised 630 vessels averaging 49,000 dwt; 930 tankers traversed the canal southwards in ballast. Difficulties in financing the canal improvements are discussed.

  16. Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (?3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

  17. Suez and Sterling, 1956

    OpenAIRE

    Klug, Adam; Smith, Gregor W.

    1999-01-01

    Daily data on spot and forward dollar/sterling exchange rates and on Britain's foreign exchange reserves are used to reassess the financial history of the 1956 Suez crisis. We find that support of sterling at its Bretton Woods lower bound lost credibility as early as July. Reserve losses also are consistent with an exchange rate crisis. We provide the first econometric study of foreign exchange market intervention in the pre-convertibility phase of the Bretton Woods system. The Bank of Englan...

  18. Sequence development and fault propagation in extensional settings. A case study from the ''rift initiation'' Abu Zenima and Nukhul Formations, Gulf of Suez Rift, Egypt. An analogue for the Jurassic of Mid Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, I.R.; Gawthorpe, R.L.; Corfield, S.; Carr, I.

    1999-07-01

    This presentation describes facies and stratal stacking patterns that developed within the ''rift-initiation'' Oligo-Miocene Abu Zenima and Nukhul Formations of the Suez Rift during normal fault propagation and linkage. This formation comprises fluvial red bed conglomerates, sandstones, and lacustrine marls deposited in early-formed structural depressions. Initial comparisons with the Tilje, Ror, Tofte and Ile Formations of the Halten Terrace of Mid Norway reveal some marked similarities. Deposition is concentrated in elongate marine embayments parallel to the main structural elements resulting in axial palaeocurrents with a dominant tidal signature. Point-sourced fan deltas are also evident, sediment dispersal being strongly influenced by fault-controlled basin physiography. Marked strike variation in the age of syn-rift wedges adjacent to block bounding faults are also evident, a pattern consistent with lateral fault growth. These data indicate that to produce accurate reconstructions of synrift phases of basin development one must address the dynamics of structural-stratigraphic interactions, in particular recognition of the nature of propagation and linkage of originally isolated normal faults. Furthermore, a pragmatic approach to applying sequence stratigraphic methodology during active phases of basin growth is crucial to successful correlation.

  19. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal H El-Gazzaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62 and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48; 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12; Hepatitis B (HBV-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54% developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

  20. Prevalence of female genital cutting among Egyptian girls / Prévalence des mutilations génitales féminines chez les filles en Egypte / Prevalencia de la mutilación genital femenina entre las niñas en Egipto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammed A, Tag-Eldin; Mohsen A, Gadallah; Mahmoud N, Al-Tayeb; Mostafa, Abdel-Aty; Esmat, Mansour; Mona, Sallem.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El concepto de mutilación genital femenina (MGF) abarca en general las prácticas tradicionales que entrañan la ablación parcial o total de los genitales externos femeninos por razones no terapéuticas, culturales o de otro tipo. En Egipto, el resultado de la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud r [...] ealizada en 2000 reveló que un 97% de las mujeres casadas participantes en la encuesta habían sufrido MGF. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó un método de muestreo aleatorizado polietápico para seleccionar los sitios. Primero, el país se dividió en cinco zonas geográficas: área metropolitana de El Cairo, Bajo Egipto, Alto Egipto, Sinaí y región del Canal de Suez. Segundo, en cada prefectura se seleccionaron al azar dos distritos educativos (excepto Luxor). En cada uno de los distritos seleccionados, las escuelas se clasificaron en primarias, preparatorias y secundarias. En cada nivel educativo, las escuelas se clasificaron en rurales, urbanas, públicas y privadas. El número total de mujeres entrevistadas fue de 38 816. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto era del 50,3%. El porcentaje era de un 46,2% en las escuelas públicas urbanas, 9,2% en las escuelas privadas urbanas, y 61,7% en las escuelas rurales. Los niveles educativos de la madre y el padre estaban inversamente relacionados con la MGF (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Female genital cutting (FGC) is the collective name given to traditional practices that involve partial or total cutting away of the female external genitalia whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. In Egypt, the result of the Demographic Health Survey in 2000 revealed that [...] 97% of married women included in the survey experienced FGC. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt. METHODS: Multistage random technique was applied for site selection. First, Egypt was divided into five geographical areas; Greater Cairo, Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Sinai and Suez Canal Region. Second, from each governorate, two educational districts were selected randomly (except Luxor). In each of the selected districts, the schools were divided into primary, preparatory and secondary schools. In each education stage, the schools were divided into rural, urban, government and private. The total number of females interviewed was 38 816. FINDINGS: The prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt was 50.3%. The prevalence of FGC was 46.2% in government urban schools, 9.2% in private urban schools and 61.7% in rural schools. Educational levels of mother and father were negatively associated with FGC (P

  1. Development of El-Salam Canal Automation System

    OpenAIRE

    Noha Samir Donia

    2012-01-01

    In Egypt irrigation water is becoming more scarce with the continuously increasing demand for agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes. To face this increasing irrigation demand, the available water supply in Egypt is supplemented by the reuse of agricultural drainage water as in El-Salam Canal that do not satisfy water quality standards defined for the canal. This paper introduces an automation system for El-Salam Canal to control the flow of the fresh water and drainage water supplied ...

  2. Geothermal potential of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanberg, C.A. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (USA)); Morgan, P.; Boulos, F.K.

    1983-07-01

    One hundred and sixty samples of groundwater from nearly all parts of Egypt have been collected and chemically analyzed in order to assess the country's geothermal potential. The samples considered to be thermal include 20 wells (T > 35 degr. C), 4 springs (T > 30 degr. C) and 1 spring not included in the present inventory. The remaining samples, together with data from the literature, establish background chemistry. The hottest springs are located along the east shore of the Gulf of Suez: Uyun Musa (48 degr. C) and 'Ain Hammam Faraoun (70 degr. C). Additional warm springs are located along both shores of the Gulf of Suex and this region is the most promising for geothermal development. The Eastern Desert of Egypt, particularly the coastal area adjacent to the Red Sea has above normal heat flow and therefore some geothermal potential although only one thermal well (Umm Kharga: 35.8 degr. C) could be located. In the major oases of the Western Desert (Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra and Bahariya), the regional temperature gradient is low (< 20 degr. C/km), but many of the wells tap deep artesian aquifers and produce large volumes of water in the 35-43 degr. C range. Such wells constitute a low temperature geothermal resource. None of our samples in northern Egypt can be considered thermal including several reported 'hot springs'. Application of the silica, NaKCa, and NaKCaMg geothermometers does not indicate the presence of a high temperature geothermal resource at any area we visited.

  3. 3D prestack depth migration in the Gulf of Suez; A case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western, P.G. (Unocal Thailand Ltd, Central Plaza Office Building, 1693 Phaholyothin Road, Bangkok (Thailand)); Ball, G.J. (Unocal Science and Technology Div., Brea, CA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Seismic reflection data in the southern Gulf of Suez, offshore Egypt, are commonly severely affected by shallow velocity inhomogeneities in the form of diapiric salt bodies, and depth migration techniques must be used in order to image the presalt structure correctly. Frequently the diapir and the underlying prospective structure are three dimensional rather tan two dimensional and thus require 3D techniques to resolve them. In addition, the severity of the problem is sometimes such that the common midpoint (CMP) stack assumptions are invalid and prestack depth migration is therefore required. In 1990, Unocal developed a practical 3D prestack depth-migration scheme, which was applied to a data set in the Gulf of Suez. The prospect was subsequently drilled and results proved the effectiveness of the technique. This paper describes the use of the technique in the form of a case history. It is expected that the technique will be routinely used to solve similar problems.

  4. Residue levels of organochlorines and mercury in Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis, eggs from the Faiyum Oasis, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullie, W.C. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands) Foundation for Ornithological Research in Egypt, Belfort (Netherlands)); Massi, A.; Focardi, S.; Renzoni, A. (Universita di Siena (Italy))

    1992-05-01

    In Egypt, the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis is a common resident bird of the Nile Valley, the southern part of the Nile Delta, and the Suez Canal area. In the 1970s it disappeared as a breeding bird from the greater part of the Nile Delta, as did several other bird species, notably birds of prey. Only in recent years some of the species that had declined are markedly recovering, such as the Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus and the Cattle Egret. There is circumstancial evidence that these birds declined - at least partially - as a result of pesticide use in the main cotton growing areas, but this has never been substantiated. The recent recovery of some bird populations, commencing in the 1980s, coincides with a general shift from the use of organochlorines (except for endrin and HCH which are still in use) towards synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates and carbamates in Egyptian agriculture: 30 million kg of formulated product annually, of which 70% are applied to cotton. The number of breeding pairs of Cattle Egrets in a well-known colony at Giza (30[degrees].01'N 31[degrees].13'E) steadily declined from 2500 in 1977 to 1100 in 1984. Therefore, it was decided to collect some eggs for residue analysis. Cattle Egrets are not piscivores, such as most other egrets, but mainly insectivores. They feed in agricultural areas and likely are good indicators for pesticide use in these habitats. Based on gizzard contents analysis, Kirkpatrick (1925) concluded that Cattle Egrets in Egypt only occasionally take (semi) aquatic prey, such as toads, and further predominantly Orthoptera and Diptera on arable land. Various studies have been published with respect to pesticides or heavy metals in the Egyptian environment but, surprisingly, birds have been almost completely ignored. The data presented are the first residue analyses of bird eggs from an agricultural area in Egypt, and as such they can be considered as baseline data for future research. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Dupont; Perrine Ferauge; Romina Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recruitm...

  6. Tectono-stratigraphic development of the Neogene Gulf of Suez rift basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.; Arthur, M.A. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Subsidence analysis (backstripping) was carried out on a series of wells from the Gulf of Suez and northern Red Sea region of Egypt in order to examine the interplay between tectonic events, basin subsidence, sedimentation, and sea level changes in a young, developing ocean basin and continental margin. Using constraints on chronostratigraphy and paleodepth from various sources combined with stratigraphic and structural information from industry wells and other geophysical sources, it has been possible to compile the data necessary to perform geohistory analyses throughout the region.

  7. Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m2, and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity-producing wind turbine installations. The regional wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The numerical wind atlas database, in combination with SRTM 3 elevation data and satellite imagery, provide the means for immediate WAsP wind resource assessments anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published in a Wind Atlas for Egypt.

  9. Wind atlas for the Gulf of Suez. Measurements and modelling 1991-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Said, U.S.; Frank, H.P.; Georgy, L.; Hasager, C.B.; Akmal, M.; Hansen, J.C.; Salam, A.A.

    2003-04-01

    The results of a 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez and northern Red Sea, Egypt, are reported. The study employs wind speed and direction measurements taken from 1991 to 2001 at four meteorological stations, as well as wind data taken from 2000 to 2001 at 11 stations. The 25-m masts were erected specifically for the wind resource study, but provide information on other climate statistics as well: air pressure, solar insolation, air temperature, air temperature gradient, atmospheric stability, wind speed profiles, extreme wind speeds, gust and lull wind speeds, turbulence intensity. Satellite imagery obtained from NOAA 11 AVHRR data are used to map land and sea surface temperatures. The wind data are analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP 7.3). The regional wind climate of the Gulf of Suez has further been modelled using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Meso-scale Model (KAMM). Maps of the mean wind speed and power density are presented. The KAMM simulations capture the main features of the observed wind climate; the mean wind speed and energy flux density are somewhat underpredicted. The Wind Atlas for the Gulf of Suez documents the existence of a widespread and large wind resource in the Gulf of Suez, even larger than was hitherto assumed. With mean wind speeds and energy densities of 7-12 ms{sup -1} and 400-1500 Wm{sup -2}, respectively, estimated at a height of 50 m over roughness class 1 (smooth desert surface), the wind resources are comparable to those of the most favorable regions in NW-Europe. (au)

  10. Estimation of the Pollution Level in El Timsah Lake, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide range of activities surrounding El Timsah Lake and the discharge effluent at the north and eastern parts of the lake led to high level of anthropogenic pollution in lake water more than the navigation activities. Heavy metals concentration increases in low salinity water toward the land from the discharging effluent. Whereas, oil hydrocarbon and water salinity increase toward Suez Canal current water. This indicates some dispersion of oil ballast water of shipping tankers or from petroleum companies during transportation in the Suez Canal. Chemical and isotopic results indicate lake water stratification, low mixing rate due to slow current of lake water. This led to long residence time of the pollution load enhancing accumulation and precipitation of the heavy metals to the bottom sediment near the boundaries of the lake

  11. Gupco's experience in treating Gulf of Suez seawater for waterflooding the El Morgan oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hattab, M.I.

    1982-07-01

    Pressure maintenance by waterflooding in some reservoirs may be considered essential for satisfactory oil recovery. The main objective of waterflooding is to place water into a rock formation at both the desired rate and pressure with minimal expense and trouble. This objective, however, cannot be achieved unless this water has certain characteristics. The water, therefore, should be treated and conditioned before injection. This study addresses the treatment phases adopted to improve seawater quality before injection, and to control problems associated with untreated seawater. Also discussed are GUPCO'S (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.) experience in seawaterfloods, problems encountered, and corrective actions taken to overcome these problems. The chemical treatment programs adopted are presented along with final conclusions and recommendations that can be applied to similar floods in Egypt with (Gulf of Suez) GOS. 47 refs.

  12. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m3. According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m3, placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption syptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range of economic and political measures, are seeking to favour natural gas exports to restore the balance of payments in the hydrocarbons sector and to establish the position of Egypt as a gas supply hub for the Middle East. Hence, to guarantee a market for Egyptian gas, the main foreign operators present in Egypt have proposed the following export projects: Agip is promoting the idea of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Israel; BP Amoco has submitted a bid for the construction of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan; British Gas has recently been authorized to set up the Egypt LNG company, in partnership with an Egyptian company, to sell the gas produced on offshore fields discovered in early 1999 off the Western Delta, probably in the form of LNG; Shell intends to submit a similar request. (authors)

  13. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  14. Tectonic Analysis of Esh El-Mallaha Area, Gulf of Suez Using Euler Deconvolution for Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, E.; Ushijima, K.

    2004-05-01

    Esh El-Mallaha area is located on the western coast of the Gulf of Suez which is considered the main source of hydrocarbon resources in Egypt. The main exploration problem of the Gulf of Suez (and areas around) is the existence of the Pre-Miocene salt that masks the seismic energy and as a result, seismic method is not usually able to provide information about the subsurface structure. A solution may be existed using potential field methods such as magnetic which is highly sensitive to basement and not affected by salt. Herein, aeromagnetic data over Esh El-Mallaha area have been interpreted to provide a new look on the subsurface structure and tectonics of the area. This interpretation includes the application of Euler method which has been considered as a sufficient tool in magnetic interpretation. Comparing the results of Euler method with the available geologic data (wells, geologic maps), Euler method facilitates in identification of new faults as well as mapping of known faults from geologic information. Generally, the area is characterized by two basins structure trending in the NW-SE (parallel to the Gulf of Suez) direction. These two basins are separated by a high topographic feature (Esh El-Mallaha range) and bounded by faults of most probably normal type.

  15. Realizm in the International Relations in the Example of French Invasion of Egypt //// M?s?r'?n Frans?zlar Taraf?ndan ??gali Örne?inde Uluslarras? ?li?kilerde Realizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erdemir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Osmanl? (Ottoman State struggled for its very existenceagainst the imperialist powers’ partition plans, particularly, in thenineteenth century. The imperialist competition of the Europeanpowers on Egypt influenced on the Osmanl? rulers’ internationalpolicies. Egypt was an important place in the region andinternational relations from the ancient to the modern periods. Theopening of the Suez Canal increased this geo-political significancefurther, which fuelled the confrontation among the Europeanpowers. The Osmanl? rulers’ policies regarding on Egypt wereadapted to the internal and external developments.Egypt’s proximity to the French colonies in the north andcentral African countries were important for France as well as forGreat Britain. Egypt shortened the way to India and South EastAsian colonies, which made Egypt a focal point for France, Russiaand Britain. European power struggles in Europe and other partsof the world were reflected in their Egyptian policies and itsimmediate region. The Osmanl? authorities were well aware of thefact that the Armed forces could not be able to deal with all theseimperialist powers at a time. Therefore, policies were finely tuned‘balanced policies’ one to another between the imperialist powers’expectations and confrontations. Egypt with its all specialities wasperfectly used for the policies of the Osmanl? State and others.This study discusses the confrontation and power strugglesof the imperialist powers for Egypt, and how the Osmanl? Stateresponded to such policies. What kinds of roles Egypt played in thecreation of the Osmanl? policies towards the European powers?What would be beneficial outcome of such policies for the Osmanl?State and Egypt? The study highlighted that how an internalmatter can be an international issue to determine the influential powers’ policies. How international interests creates internationalconflicts and alliances as in the examples at the beginning of thenineteenth century in Egypt. //// Osmanl? Devleti özellikle 19ncu yüzy?lda emperyalistgüçlerin bölme planlar?na kars? hayatta kalma mücadelesivermistir. Avrupal? Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerindeki yar?slar?Osmanl? yönetiminin uluslararas? politikalar?n? etkilemistir. M?s?r,Eskiça?’dan günümüze bölgede ve uluslararas? iliskilerde önemlibir yere sahiptir. Süveys kanal?n?n aç?lmas? M?s?r’?n jeopolitikönemini art?r?rken Avrupal? güçlerin aralar?ndaki mücadeleleri deateslemistir. Osmanl?’n?n M?s?r ile ilgili politikalar? da içte ved?sar?da meydana gelen yeni gelismelere göre sürekli uyarlanm?st?r.M?s?r’?n Kuzey ve Orta Afrika’daki Frans?z kolonilerine olanyak?nl??? Fransa için önemli oldu?u kadar Büyük Britanya için dehayatidir. M?s?r’?n Hindistan ve Güney Do?u Asya ülkelerindekisömürgelere giden yolu k?saltmas? Fransa, Rusya ve ?ngiltere içinönemli bir ilgi oda?? haline gelmesine sebep olmustur. Avrupal?güçlerin Avrupa ve dünyan?n di?er bölgelerindeki mücadeleleriM?s?r politikalar?nda yans?maktad?r. Osmanl? eskisi gibi silahl?kuvvetlerinin emperyalist güçlere kars? ayn? anda mukabeleedemeyece?i gerçe?inin fark?ndad?r. Bu yüzden oldukça hassasayarlar gerektiren “denge politikalar?” Emperyalist güçlerinbeklentileri ve çat?smalar? dikkate al?narak ayarlanm?st?r. BöyleceM?s?r kendine has bütün özellikleriyle Osmanl? Devleti’nin özel vegenel ç?karlar? için de?erlendirilmistir.Bu çal?sma, Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerinde güçmücadeleleri ve çat?smalar?n? ele al?rken Osmanl? Devleti’nin bupolitikalara nas?l cevap verdi?ini incelemektedir. Avrupal? güçlerekars? Osmanl? politikalar?nda M?s?r nas?l bir rol oynam?st?r? Bupolitikalar?n Osmanl? Devleti ve M?s?r için olumlu sonuçlar? nelerolmustur? Çal?smada, bir iç meselenin etkili güçlerinmüdahaleleriyle nas?l bir uluslararas? konu haline getirildi?i vepolitikalar? etkiledi?i gösterilmektedir. Uluslararas? ç?karlar

  16. Eternal Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available in English, French, and Arabic, Eternal Egypt is a website with a wealth of information on "the artifacts, characters, and places that together comprise the wonder that is Eternal Egypt." The website is organized so visitors can choose between a guided tour, begin with one of the cultural highlights (such as The Temple of Luxor or Part of a Wall of a Tomb), or simply explore and discover. A key feature of the website is the context provided in relation to various topics, so that a visitor can learn about the artifacts, but also how they connect to other people, places and artifacts, and where they fit in terms of an overall timeline and on a multimedia map of Egypt. Topics include: Arts and Crafts (Libraries, Architecture, Paintings and Relief, Sculpture, Humanities, Crafts), Science (Archaeology, Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine, Social Science, Engineering), Agriculture (Irrigation, Herding, Farming, Crops), Commerce and Trade (Transportation), Government (Leaders, Seats of Power, Theocracy, Military), and Society and Culture (Family, Food and Drinks, Clothing, Sports and Entertainment, Religion and Spirituality).

  17. CANAL AUTOMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals have been used to distribute water for irrigation for several millennia. The practices gradually evolved from a shovel to open gaps in a berm to fixed structures to movable structures such as gates. Regulation of water in canals is still by manual labor in most parts of the world. A few hydra...

  18. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing on its superb collection of materials from archaeological excavations, the British Museum presents this extensive learning resource on Ancient Egypt. The site features texts, images, and interactive elements detailing Egyptian daily life, mythology, timekeeping, geography, architecture, governance, business, writing, and rituals of death. The material is clearly and simply written so that the site would be useful for primary school students, but it is informative and substantial enough to be of interest to college students and curious adults as well. Thoroughly hyperlinked and replete with images that can be enlarged for detailed perusal, the site goes beyond the typical teaser Websites so often posted by lesser museums.

  19. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Dupont

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recruitment and employment access, training and career development, and well-being in the workplace. These HRM practices seem important to analyse given the context in which companies will have to evolve: ageing of the population, risks of labour shortage, or the war for talent. Our results imply that CSR has a positive influence on employees’ advocacy role (Ulrich & Brockbank, 2005 because the Group integrates concerns regarding equal treatment, health and safety, and diversity. We also believe that GDF SUEZ Group desires to develop its brand further by presenting itself as a responsible employer to harvest the benefits that flow from that label.

  20. GdF Suez, the real energy champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During summer 2010, France discovered that she owned a second energy giant, GdF Suez, ranked number two as a power producer just behind EdF, but world number one in the energy domain thanks to the taking over of International Power (UK) in 2010. Until now, GdF Suez and EdF were confronting with each other in a fair game, keeping their respective seizure on their historical monopolies, gas for GdF Suez and electricity for EdF. From now onward the two giants have started an open fight on all markets, with the exception of nuclear energy for which the French government continues to favour EdF. This paper recalls the main steps of the last 15 years of GdF Suez progress, from the Suez investment bank in 1995 to the merger with GdF in 2008 and the acquisition of International Power in 2010. Then it makes a comparative portrait of both GdF Suez and EdF energy groups with their respective advantages and, finally, it ends with an interview of G. Mestrallet, president of GdF Suez who explains the strategy of his group. (J.S.)

  1. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  2. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

    2013-03-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. PMID:23306160

  3. Oil potential of western Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargras, M.; Hunter, G.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Since 1886, Egyptian and foreign companies have explored the Gulf of Suez by classical mapping and geophysical techniques. During that time 13 oil and as fields have been discovered. Average daily production currently is of the order of 50,000 BOPD. Structurally, the western Gulf of Suez is divided into two major provinces: West Bakr and West Zeit. Within each province, fields are located over structural traps. As a result of drilling it is apparent that the structures resulted from major movement during the early Miocene. A major unconformity occurs at the top of the lower Miocene Nukhul Formation; and the beds of the overlying middle Miocene Belayim Formation transgress on to rocks as old as Precambrian. The Nubia Sandstone, one of the best reservoirs, is a blanket deposit over the whole gulf ranging in thickness from 130 m (425 ft) to in excess of 660 m (2150 ft). The Miocene sands are more sporadic in their distribution and thickness. Three depocenters are known in West Bakr, Shukheir, and Wacdi Dib areas. Further reservoirs of lesser importance are Cretaceous sands, 6.5 m (21 ft) to 32 m (105 ft) thick throughout the area, Eocene carbonates, and Miocene reefs. Production up to the present has been from structural traps; future expansion of production will depend upon our ability to locate stratigraphic traps. Sands sourced by the shales have seldom given high yields. The hope is that through the generation of depositional environment models it will be possible to define prospects where the optimum sand/shale ratio of 1/4 to 1/6 can be found.

  4. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  5. Life in Egypt!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Pendleton

    2011-04-07

    What is the difference between life in the United States and life in Egypt? Use this fact chart to record your findings! Where is Egypt? Sightseeing in Egypt Use this time to record your findings in the "places" section of your fact chart and complete any other section you can with the information you have learned! Facts about Egypt Language (with audio) A Day in the Life Use this time to record your findings in the "people" section of your fact chart and complete ...

  6. Geography of Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr. Myers

    2010-09-30

    This activity focuses on the importance of geographic features and the abundance of natural resources that helped ancient Egypt become the world's first superpower. Students will learn about the geography and resources available to the ancient Egyptians. Read each question below carefully. Using the following maps: modern political map geographical features map natural resources map archaeological sites map And the following features on the Egypt's Golden Empire website: natural resources farming Answer each question below using as much detail as possible. What countries border modern-day Egypt? (modern political map) Name the major bodies of water that surround an are a part of Egypt. (modern political map) What ...

  7. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Website, "dedicated to supplying information about the religious beliefs of ancient Egypt," offers internally linked essays and descriptions from scholarly sources detailing the relationship between the land and ancient beliefs; glossaries with healthy descriptions of the deities and symbols; and eighteen prominent mythological stories of Ancient Egypt. An annotated list of about a dozen other pertinent sites is also posted. A simple search engine is provided and can be accessed by going to the incongruously titled "Egypt" page, which offers users an opportunity to search the site, sign the guestbook, or email the author -- a college instructor -- questions about Egyptian mythology, but which offers no additional information on Egypt itself.

  8. Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes and the genesis of some crude oils from Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delta13C values obtained from 25 crude oil samples representing the main producing oil fields in Egypt indicate a significant difference between the Gulf of Suez Province and the Western Desert Province, which is attributed to environmental differences in the source rocks of the two provinces. Variations within each of the two provinces were compared and related to age, thermal maturity as well as migration processes. Variations of the delta13C values were also related to changes in the GOR (gas/oil ratio) and API gravity values

  9. Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte

    OpenAIRE

    El Ayouti M. K.

    2006-01-01

    Accumulations of oil were first known in Egypt since 1968, some ten years after the famous Drake well in Pennsylvania in August 1859. These oil accumulation were found as seepages in tunnels dug for extracting sulphur in the area of Gemsa on the West coast of the Gulf of Suez. Since that time exploration activites were conducted on and off throughout a long history of operations which witnessed the use of the latest developments in exploration tools and techniques. So far, the main oil provin...

  10. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  11. Offensive strategy: Suez wants to hustle EdF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Electrabel, its new energy pole, the private company Suez is looking for multiple ways of entry to reinforce its positions in France in the gas and electric power sectors in the prospect of the complete opening of energy markets in 2004. This article analyzes the strategy of Suez to become the most credible challenger of EdF, the French historical national electric utility: reorganization of its industrial and commercial activities, gain of new clients and definition of a new strategy for the gas market. (J.S.)

  12. Gravity and magnetotelluric investigations to elicit the origin of Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Mohamed; Nishijima, Jun; El-Qady, Gad; Aboud, Essam; Masoud, Osama; Soliman, Mamdoh; Ehara, Sachio

    2011-06-01

    There is a clear correlation between the principal areas of current geothermal development and the seismically active boundaries of the moving segments of lithosphere defined by the plate tectonic models of the Earth. The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of African continent suggests that the most important areas for geothermal exploration are in the region where a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures was located around the Gulf of Suez. Gravity and magnetotelluric surveys were made in the area of Hammam Faraun hot spring, which represents the most promising area for geothermal development in Egypt. These surveys were carried out for the purpose of eliciting the origin of Hammam Faraun hot spring. The results of the analyses and interpretations of these data show that the heat source of the hot spring is due to uplift of hot basement rock. This uplift may cause deep circulation and heating of the undergroundwater.

  13. Ras Budran development in the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldenhauer, W.

    1982-01-01

    Leading a consortium during the last few years, Deminex discovered the 'Ras Budran' oil field in the Gulf of Suez. That field is now being developed and is expected to start producing toward the middle of this year. The annual output potential is estimated at 1.5 million tons.

  14. Extensional tectonics and facies distribution in the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.H.; Hurst, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Gulf of Suez is an asymmetric Miocene rift 80 km wide inits dentral part. The main fault blocks of the central sector, Esh El Mellaha and Gebel Zeit are believed to link into an easterly dipping crustal megashear. In this paper, the geologic history of the tectonics and the carbonate sedimentation patterns are discussed.

  15. Development of the Qattara Project, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Nile, as a huge source of cheap hydroelectric energy, was fully exploited in Egypt upstream of Aswan in 1968 by the construction of the famous Aswan and High Dam Hydroelectric Complex. The growth of demand for electrical power is such that an additional large source of energy is required. The Qattara Project would offer not only an ideal source of low cost power production, but a vital boost for Egypt's national economy. The fundamental idea of the scheme is to channel Mediterranean Sea water into the Qattara Depression, using the difference in levels to produce hydroelectric power. The rate of discharge of sea water into the depression should be equivalent to the rate of evaporation from the lake surface. This situation will arise ten years after starting to fill the lake, when the water has reached a level of 60 m below sea level. The possibility of using PNE to excavate a Mediterranean Sea - Qattara Depression canal was first postulated by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Establishment in 1971. In 1973 a pre-feasibility study was prepared, based on preliminary site investigations performed during the period 1964-1965, namely geological and cartographic surveys, as well as on comparative economic evaluation of various solutions. The study showed clearly that the project including both base-load and peak-load hydroelectric power stations and using nuclear excavation of a canal between the sea and the depression offers a competitive solution for cheap power producompetitive solution for cheap power production. A subsequent feasibility study, which was started in 1975, investigates alternative ways of constructing the canal/tunnel system, using conventional tunnelling and PNE. For the nuclear solution, two cases are considered, one using unlimited yields and another with 150 kt maximum yield. A preliminary assessment of the effects of the explosion and costs of the nuclear component of the project are given. (author)

  16. The Tayiba Red Beds: Transitional marine-continental deposits in the precursor Suez Rift, Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, A. A.; Imam, M. M.

    1999-04-01

    The Tayiba Red Beds, exposed in the Abu Zenima area, west-central Sinai, have been intensively studied for their clay mineralogy and charophytes assemblages. Three surface sections exposed at Wadi El-Tayiba and Wadi Nukhul were studied. The Tayiba Formation uncomformably overlies the Middle Eocene Khaboba Formation at Wadi Nukhul and the Late Eocene Tanka Formation at Wadi El-Tayiba and commonly underlies the Early Miocene Nukhul Formation with unconformable relationships. The Tayiba Formation at Wadi Nukhul consists predominantly of continental coarse clastic sediments represented by polymictic conglomerates, alternating with red to pinkish mudstone, ferruginous sandstone and varicoloured mottled siltstone with plant remains. At Wadi El-Tayiba, the Tayiba Formation is represented by marine, yellow mudstone and red siltstone, alternating with greyish and reddish-yellow argillaceous to sandy limestone, highly fossiliferous with reworked Nummulites spp. and molluscan shell fragments. The mineralogical composition of the studied clay size fraction showed that most samples are dominated by illite, together with smectite, kaolinite and illite/smectite mixed layers. The relative proportion of these constituents shows wide variation. Smectite is more abundant than other constituents at Wadi El-Tayiba. The high content of smectite is usually accompanied by a terrigenous influx in the form of kaolinite and illite, reflecting deposition in an inner neritic shallow marine environment. The sediments of Wadi Nukhul are characterised by an appreciable proportion of illite, together with an illite/smectite mixed layer and minor amounts of kaolinite, suggesting deposition in fluviatile environments. The detailed investigation of charophytes (green algae) in the investigated sections showed that Wadi El-Tayiba is nearly barren of these microflorae, except for some benthic foraminifera from a shallow marine environment. In contrast, Wadi Nukhul yielded a high frequency and great diversity of charophytes, where 15 species have been identified, described and illustrated for the first time. The utilisation of the ranges of these species allowed the subdivision of the section into three charophyte zones, which are correlated with other zones recorded in Europe, as well as the standard mammal levels in the world. These biozones strongly assign the Tayiba Formation to the Late Eocene to Late Oligocene (Late Priabonian to Chattian). A depositional model was suggested for the Tayiba Formation in west-central Sinai.

  17. Structural analysis of a relay ramp affecting Eocene carbonate rocks in the Suez Rift, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Laukemann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Detailed fault zone and relay ramp characterization have only to some extent previously been done in carbonate rocks. This study aims to use field data to contribute a better understanding of the deformation related to normal faults and relay ramps in carbonate rocks. Specifically, the study focuses on characterization of damage zone deformation variations along normal faults, relay ramp complexity and implications for permeability and fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs. The study area is loc...

  18. A lithostragraphical and structural study on Gebel El-Zeit area, gulf on Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, A.

    Gebel El-Zeit area is situated close to the Arabo-Nubian shield, so that it has been affected by Paleozoic (Caledonian and Hercynian) and Mesozoic (alpine) orogenic movements. This paper deals with the effect of these movements on the facies of the sedimentary rocks. The study has led to two main conclusions: a) the occurrence of four stages of sedimentation each seperated by unconformity; b) the existence of complex inter-relationship between rifting and sedimentation, periodic tilting and fracturing of the horst blocks with erosional beveling of older deposits following each stage of sedimentation.

  19. Diagenesis of diagenetic quartzarenites, Gebel El-Zeit area, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahab, A.A.; McBridge, E.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1990-05-01

    At the northern corner of El Zeit Range, 370 m of sandstone overlie Precambrian granite and underlie Cretaceous marine strata. The sandstones include the marine Lower Cambrian Araba Formation and the overlying dominantly fluvial Upper Cambrian( ) Naqus Formation The framework composition of both sandstones is almost entirely quartz with trace amounts of muscovite, K-feldspar, and heavy minerals. Up to 18% oversize pores, some filled with younger cements, attest to extensive dissolution loss of detrital grains. Because the final mineralogical maturation of these quartzarenites was through diagenesis, they are diagenetic quartzarenite. During burial diagenesis, the introduction of 5% quartz cement (unhomogeneously distributed) was followed by locally pore-occluding calcite cement. The sands were then compacted sufficiently to develop slightly sutured quartz grain contacts. These events were followed by extensive dissolution loss of carbonate cement, detrital feldspars, micas, and heavy minerals; by the formation of local patches of kaolinite (average = 6%); and by the formation of extensive iron-oxide cement, including specular hematite. These features suggest extensive invasion of meteoric water and exposure to oxidizing conditions. The time of this event can only be dated as post-Cambrian( ) and pre-Cenomanian. Some outcrop samples contain pore-occluding gypsum cement or mixtures of gypsum and halite cement. Sr{sup 87}/Sr{sup 86} ratios of four samples of gypsum cement have two modes equal to 0.7079 and 0.7085. These values are those of Miocene and slightly younger seawater. They suggest that evaporites were leached by modern meteoric water from nearby exposed Miocene and younger marine evaporite-bearing strata, transported in surface and groundwater to the topographically low terrain where the Cambrian sandstones crop out, and were precipitated by evaporation of surface water.

  20. Strong motion simulation at Abu Zenima city, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Amin Esmail

    2013-06-01

    Earthquake hazard assessments are an important task for the design of earthquake resistant structures and insurance industry. Such assessments get more importance when the site of interest is located near an active earthquake zone. Such situation is present for the location of Abu Zenima city. The city is characterized by the presence of industrial and Maritime platform in addition to other Oil production facilities. These industrial facilities motivated the present work. The simulated earthquake ground motion time histories are conducted using stochastic technique. The magnitude used for simulation is obtained using both probabilistic and deterministic approaches. An analysis using both approaches shows that moderate earthquakes in the vicinity of the site could have the largest effects on the area. Thus an earthquake of magnitude 4.5 at a distance of 21 km is chosen as design earthquake. The simulated ground motions are presented in terms of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time histories. In addition the response spectra are also presented that may be used for engineering purposes.

  1. Provenance of Gebel El-Zeit sandstones, gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Antar A.

    1992-01-01

    The Paleozoic elastic succession at Gebel Zeit chiefly consists of fine- to medium-grained quartz arenite, locally containing well-rounded quartz pebbles. The marine Araba Formation (Early Cambrian) was deposited during transgression over a Precambrian granite. The overlying Naqus Formation (Late Cambrian) is fluvial, except for the uppermost few meters. Paleocurrent data for the Araba and Naqus formations indicate derivation from the north-northeast and south-southwest respectively. Quartz typology, other morphologic features of quartz, and mineral inclusions in quartz, as well as the study of heavy minerals were used to determine the provenance of the sandstones. Quartz typology successfully identified a granitic source for the Araba Formation. A combination of parameters indicates that the Naqus Formation was derived chiefly from a metamorphic terrain. Two ratios, polycrystalline/monocrystalline quartz and undulose/non-undulose quartz, successfully distinguish sandstones of the Araba Formation from those of the Naqus Formation. These values are 0.14 and 0.25 for Araba sandstones and 0.26 and 0.46 for Naqus sandstones, respectively. These differences either reflect different source rocks, or have resulted from selective abrasion loss of polycrystalline quartz in the rigorous surf zone during the marine transgression that deposited the Araba Formation.

  2. Diagenetic history of Cambrian quartzarenites, Ras Dib Zeit Bay area, Gulf of Suez, eastern desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Wahab, Antar

    1998-10-01

    In the northern corner of the El Zeit range, 370 m of sandstone overlie Precambrian granite and underlie Cretaceous marine strata. The sandstones include the marine Lower Cambrian(?) Araba Formation and the overlying, dominantly fluvial, Upper Cambrian(?) Naqus Formation. The framework compositions of both sandstones are almost entirely quartz, with trace amounts of muscovite, K-feldspar and heavy minerals. Up to 21% oversize pores, some filled with younger cements, attest to extensive dissolution loss of detrital grains. Because the final mineralogical maturation of these quartzarenites reflects diagenesis, they are diagenetic quartzarenites. During burial diagenesis, the introduction of up to 8% quartz cement (inhomogeneously distributed, mean = 3%) was followed by local, pore-occluding calcite cement, which halted compaction. Sandstones without calcite cement underwent additional mechanical and chemical compaction sufficient to develop sutured quartz grain contacts and reduce porosity (˜27%). These events were followed by: (1) extensive dissolution loss of carbonate cement, detrital feldspars, micas, and heavy minerals; (2) formation of local patches of kaolinite (mean = 3%); and (3) formation of extensive iron-oxide cements, including specular hematite. These features suggest extensive invasion by oxidizing meteoric water. The timing of this event can only be dated as post-Cambrian(?) and pre-Cenomanian. Some outcrop samples contain pore-occluding gypsum cement, or mixtures of gypsum and halite. Sr 87/Sr 86 ratios of four samples of gypsum cement have values (0.7079 and 0.7085) that indicate Miocene and slightly younger seawater. Evaporites were evidently leached by modern meteoric water from nearby outcrops of Miocene and younger marine evaporite-bearing strata, transported in surface and ground water to the topographically low terrain where the Cambrian sandstones crop out, and reprecipitated by evaporation. Initial primary porosity (45%) was reduced to ˜27% by compaction in sands with minor quartz cement; compaction ceased where calcite was precipitated. Subsequent dissolution of some calcite cement and unstable detrital grains generated considerable secondary porosity.

  3. Taphonomy of Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) shell concentrations from Ras El Abd, west Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Qot, Gamal M.; Abdel-Gawad, Gouda I.; Mekawy, Manal S.

    2009-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) rocks of the Ras El Abd area include three main shell concentrations: a molluscan shell bed, the lower rhynchonellid bed, and the upper rhynchonellid bed. Analysis of the taphonomic signatures indicates that; the molluscan shell bed represents a proximal tempestite, the lower rhynchonellid bed corresponds to a primary biogenic concentration sensu [Fürsich, F.T., Oschmann, W., 1993. Shell beds as tools in basin analysis: the Jurassic of Kachchh, western India. Journal of the Geological Society 150, 169-185], and the upper rhynchonellid bed a proximal storm-flow concentration. The shell concentrations formed below fair-weather wave-base in shallow, relatively high energy environments.

  4. Organic geochemistry of the Cenomanian-Turonian sequence in the Bakr area, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Alaa R. [Alexandria Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Alexandria (Egypt)

    1999-02-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian transgression has been studied on a 220 m cored section using common source rock data, elemental data and conventional biomarker parameters. Differences in the type of organic matter found in these regressive and transgressive offshore marine sediments have been documented and assessed within a sequence stratigraphic framework. The interval of maximum flooding of the Cretaceous seaway shoreline is delineated by discontinuities in the total organic carbon content and Hydrogen Index. The overall transgressive event is also accompanied by (a) an increase in the concentrations of elements such as thorium, vanadium, potassium, barium, sodium .. etc., (b) changes in the relative concentration and the characteristics of the biomarker parameters and (c) changes in the characteristic features of the kerogen. All of the these data are consistent with a simultaneous decrease in terrigenous organic matter and increase in marine algal input. (Author)

  5. Gulf of Suez plays center on tilted fault blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, J.M.; Greer, M.J.; Collins, B.P.; Davis, C.B. (British Gas E and P, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Miller, M.H. Jr. (BG Egypt, S.A., Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-05-01

    The December 1990 discovery of Warda Field in the northern Gulf of Suez by operator British Gas and partners represented a significant new find in an area previously rated to have low potential. The Hb 78-2 discovery well for the field is located 4 km off the mouth of the Wadi Araba on the west side of the northern central Gulf of Suez. After reaching a TD of 8,400 ft in Nubia sandstones, operator tested 14[degree] to 24[degree] API oil from five separate clastic intervals at a cumulative flowrate of 6,880 bopd, no water. A brief exploration history and an initial description of the petroleum geology of the Warda field follow.

  6. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification. PMID:25390047

  7. Geodynamics Studies in the active seismic regions in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A. S.

    2003-04-01

    The recent crustal movement studies have a great role for evaluating the geodynamics of the seismo-active areas in the country. The crustal deformations must be in mind where it connecting significantly with the human life and its resources. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active areas in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes gad been occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt, Cairo, Aswan, Red Sea, Sinia and Nile Delta regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated areas and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS will be used where geodetic networks are covering such seismic-active areas, around Nasser Lake, gulf of Suez, Cairo, Sinai and the Nile Delta. The main goal of these studies are monitoring of the crustal deformations associated with the earthquake occurrence in these seismo-active areas in order to study its geodynamical behavior and reducing the earthquake losses. The results of these movements at all networks in Egypt represent the form of the dynamic models for the deformations occurred during the different epochs of measurements. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis will threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active areas.

  8. Vertical Distribution of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Western Flank of the Gulf of Suez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheriti, L.; Levin, V.; Pondrelli, S.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the vertical distribution of seismic anisotropy beneath the site on the western flank of the Gulf of Suez. The area was affected by rifting during early stages of the Arabian-Nubian Shield breakup, but became quiescent at ˜15 Ma when the locus of rifting shifted to the Gulf of Aqaba. We use two complimentary techniques sensitive to seismic anisotropy: birefringence in teleseismic SKS phases, and receiver function analysis focused on directional and epicentral systematics of SH-polarized converted waves. While the first method provides an integral measure of anisotropic properties, the second is sensitive to abrupt changes in them. Data used in the analysis were collected by the station KEG (Kottamya, Egypt) operated as a part of the MEDNET project from 1990 through 1999. Measurements of shear wave splitting yield fast directions in the range of 20° -40° NE for the majority of observed backazimuths. A significant minority of observations, clustered around backazimuths of 85° -90° and 260° -270° , displays more northerly fast directions. Such systematic variations in the value of fast direction are expected if the anisotropic fabric varies with depth. Indeed, numerous phases indicative of anisotropy are evident in the receiver functions. Most conspicuously, the crust-mantle transition displays characteristic traits of anisotropy, with transversely polarized pulses of opposite polarity observed from the northeast and from the west. The likely orientation of the symmetry axis for these phases is within 15° of south. Additionally, a shallow converted phase (2 s delay) exhibits polarity changes near backazimuths of 60° NE and 310° NW, while a deeper feature ( ˜12 s delay) seen from the west change polarity around backazimuth of 300° . We construct a vertical profile of seismic properties (velocity and anisotropy) beneath station KEG by jointly modeling the receiver functions and the pattern of fast shear wave directions. Inferred depths, types and orientations of anisotropy-inducing fabrics are interpreted in the context of the tectonic history of the region.

  9. Egypt Daily.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of the World News network, Egypt Daily.com provides a wealth of links to frequently updated news stories dealing primarily with Egypt. From the homepage, users can click on any number of recent items gathered from a variety of different sources, including the BBC, ABC News, Arabic News, and CNN. The archive of news items stretches back several weeks, and news items are also arranged thematically into sections dealing with the economy, tourism, and technology on the site's main page. The site also features a number of helpful links, such as those leading to English-language news resources for the Arabic-speaking world and to online newspapers in Arabic. The site is rounded out by a list of online travel guides for those seeking to plan a trip to Egypt or other parts of North Africa.

  10. Springs in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, H.

    1996-03-01

    Examples of springs in Egypt deal only with examples of natural springs producing potable water. None of the natural springs producing highly mineralized thermal water for therapeutical are considered. No water from natural springs in Egypt is bottled. Egyptian standards state that the total dissolved solids in potable water should not exceed 1000 ppm, except in Siwa, where the only available source for water for human consumption is from springs that have water containing more than 2000 ppm TDS. Six natural springs in Egypt provide typical examples for the Sinai and the Western Desert: Ain Furtaga in the southern pre-Cambrian province of Sinai Peninsula; Ain El Gudeirat in the sedimentary plateau of North Sinai; and Ain El Bishmo, Ain El Bousa, and Ain El Gabal in the Western Desert Oases of Bahariya, Kharga, and Dakhla. They discharge from the Nubian Sandstone aquifer system. The sixth spring, Ain El Arayes, is a spring in Siwa Oasis.

  11. Comparison of burnout pattern between hospital physicians and family physicians working in Suez Canal University Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Amany Ali; Mohamed, Khalid Abd-Elmoez; Kamel, Mohammed Hbany; Ismail, Mosleh Abdul Rahman; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. It is associated with impaired job performance. Methods This descriptive study examined 171 physicians for the presence of burnout and its related risk factors. The evaluation of burnout was through Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The participant was considered to meet the study criteria for burnout if he or she got a “high“ score on at least 2 of the three dimensions of MBI. Results In the current study, the prevalence of burnout in hospital physicians (53.9%) was significantly higher than family physicians (41.94%) with (p=0.001). Participants who work in the internal medicine department scored the highest prevalence (69.64%) followed by Surgeons (56.50%) and Emergency doctors (39.39%). On the other hand, Pediatricians got the lowest prevalence (18.75%). Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout. Conclusion There is a significant difference of burnout between hospital physicians and family physicians among the study subjects. Working in the teaching hospital and being married are strong predictors for occurrence of burnout. PMID:25422682

  12. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  13. Root canal irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ?root canal irrigants? and ?endodontic irrigants.? The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  14. Some aspects in relation to the efficient use of soils, water and fertilizers in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only 3% of the land area of Egypt is cultivated. Efforts have been directed to the irrigation and cultivation of new lands and the reclaimation of saline and sodic lands to meet the demands of a rapidly increasing population. Isotopic techniques can play a major role in reclaimation schemes by allowing the direct measurement of Na exchange and leaching, and of water storage and utilization. Mutation breeding could be important in developing stress tolerant plants. Water is the main limiting resource in Egypt. Water conservation measures have included the liming of irrigation canals, improved irrigation efficiency, drainage water and ground water utilization and nuclear desalinization. (author)

  15. ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    Biney–amissah, Araba

    2013-01-01

    Project Title: ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT) Abstract: The Copts have been discriminated - under Mubarak’s regime and now under Mursi’s - without any certain law to assure them of their basic rights and freedom of speech. The Muslims have the dominant privilege in Egypt (and in Middle Eastern countries in general), however, Christians should also have rights in a democratic Egypt. There is no common understanding of divisions between the legal structure of societies and the di...

  16. Structural set-up of Southern Sinai and Gulf of Suez areas indicated by geophysical data

    OpenAIRE

    Rabeh, T.

    2003-01-01

    This work deals with the evaluation of the structural set-up of the southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez and western part of Gulf of Suez from magnetic, gravity, and seismic data. The utilised techniques including the Least Squares separation method suggest NW, NE, and E-W trends. The trend analysis shows north 35°-45° west, north 15°-25° east and E-W which may be related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea stresses.The Euler deconvolution illustrates that the ar...

  17. Microearthquake studies in Egypt carried out by the geological survey of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Fouad K.; Morgan, Paul; Toppozada, Tousson R.

    1987-07-01

    Extensive microearthquake studies have been conducted in Egypt as a joint project between scientists from the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority (EGSMA) and U.S. scientists. At this stage, a great part of the data has been analyzed and two intensively active areas have been located: one in the Abu Dabbab area of the Eastern Desert, the second at the mouth of the Gulf of Suez near Gubal Island (Daggett et al., 1980). Both sites have been reported to be the epicenters of large earthquakes in 1955 and 1969, respectively. A few scattered earthquakes have also been located in the northern part of the Red Sea, some of which lie along its median axis (Daggett et al., 1986) adding to evidence for the medial opening of the northern Red Sea. After the occurrence of an earthquake (M = 5.5) in the Aswan region on 14 November 1981, continuous recording of the many aftershocks was carried out by EGSMA for about seven months from December 1981 to July 1982, when the temporary network was replaced by a network of telemetered seismographs installed and operated by Helwan Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in cooperation with scientists from Lamont and Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO). The majority of epicenters are concentrated in the vicinity of G. Marawa about 65 km upstream of Aswan Dam, along the E-W Kalabsha fault. The observed focal mechanism is consistent with a right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Kalabsha fault. Analysis of Aswan microearthquakes has been done by EGSMA in cooperation with scientists from California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG).

  18. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. - Highlights: ? The positive DRAD values indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. ? Thorium normalization was applied to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities. ? The conventional well logs are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in wells. ? Determining hydrocarbon potentialities zones using spectrometric gamma-ray logs

  19. Graben infilling in Gulf of Suez and Red Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burollet, P.F.

    1986-05-01

    During the last 4 years, the French research group Genegass has completed geological and geophysical studies in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez. Neogene infilling of the basin is related with basement quality and volume of clastic supply, and inherited structural features are important to the development of Miocene rifting. The Neogene series may be divided into four major groups (Listed A-D), each limited by unconformities that seem to reflect the major stages of rifting. (A) The lowermost formations begin with a conglomerate and are followed by a variegated unit of sand and clay. In the Gulf of Suez, especially on the eastern bank, these formations are marine. Along the Red Sea, tilted blocks may be capped by stromatolites, and the valleys between them are the site of shale and evaporite sedimentation (lower Miocene). (B) The main extension phase results in an invasion of marine shales. The lower zones contain coarse clastics, and the high zones contain reefs and bioclastic limestone (late Burdigalian to early Serravallian). (C) The middle to late Miocene corresponds to a regional basinward tilting. Stromatolites coat the slopes, and conglomerate fans are found in the lower zones. Evaporite sedimentation dominates; anhydrite is found on the borders, and in the basin, thick halite is overlain by a clastic series. Basement shoulders are uplifted. (D) During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, the central part of the graben showed an important subsidence, and salt tectonism was active with diapirs and collapses.

  20. Role of Lithology and Subsurface structures detected by potential field data in controlling the radioactive mineral accumulation at Natash area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shadia, Elkhodary; Taha, Rabeh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La zona de Wadi Natash se encuentra en la parte sur del desierto del este de Egipto. Tiene una gran importancia, ya que cuenta con gran acumulación de minerales radiactivos, como uranio, torio y potasio. En esta zona se llevó a cabo un estudio de potencial integrado, con el objetivo de localizar a p [...] rofundidades factibles cuerpos con susceptibilidad magnética suficiente para representar intrusiones magmáticas relacionadas con la radiactividad del lugar y delinear las estructuras del subsuelo que afectan la zona. Tanto los datos magnéticos y de Bouguer como los datos radiométricos se interpretaron rápidamente por la posición de la fuente y las profundidades. Lo anterior fue factible al utilizar la deconvolución de Euler y de Werner, además de técnicas de modelado en 3D. Los resultados deducidos del análisis de tendencias muestran que la tendencia de la falla principal que afecta a la zona tiene una dirección de NNW-SSE (Mar Rojo-Golfo hacia Suez) y atraviesa por el menos predominante NNE-SSW (El Golfo de Aqaba-dirección Mar Muerto) y por WnW-ese (sistema de falla Najd). Los organismos causantes fueron fotografiados a profundidades que van de 0,3 kilómetros hasta 1,5 km. Las profundidades a lo largo de las discontinuidades se deben a la presencia de la falla NNW-SSE y actúan como canales de paso para las soluciones hidrotermales. Puede afirmarse que las acumulaciones de minerales radiactivos fueron causadas por las soluciones hidrotermales ricas en minerales radiactivos como resultado de la intrusión volcánica Natash a las rocas graníticas. Los clásticos Qouseir y la piedra de la arena Nudian se vieron afectados por estas soluciones y muestran una respuesta positiva de los minerales radiactivos. Abstract in english Wadi Natash area is located in the southern part of the Eastern desert of Egypt. It has a great importance for containing accumulations from the radioactive minerals of Uranium, Thorium and Potassium. An integrated potential study was carried out on the study area with the aim of locating depths to [...] causative bodies with sufficient magnetic susceptibility that may represent magmatic intrusions with relation to the radioactivity location and delineate the subsurface structures affecting the area. Both magnetic and Bouguer data as well as radiometric data were interpreted rapidly for source positions and depths using Euler deconvolution, Werner deconvolution and 3D modeling techniques. The results deduced from the trend analyses show that the major fault trend affecting the area have NNW-SSE (Red Sea-Gulf of Suez trend) direction intersected by the less predominant NNE-SSW(The Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea trend) and WNW-ESE (Najd Fault System) fault trends. The causative bodies were imaged at depths ranging from 0.3 km to about 1.5 km. The depths along the interpreted profiles display discontinuities in potential field markers due to presence of the NNW-SSE fault trends act as pass channels for the hydrothermal solutions. It can be stated that the radioactive mineral accumulations were caused by the hydrothermal solutions rich with radioactive minerals as a result of intruding Natash volcanic to the granitic rocks. The Qouseir clastics and the Nudian sand stone were affected by these solutions and show a positive response for the radioactive minerals.

  1. Fracture types detected in eastern Mediterranean reservoirs (Turkey and Egypt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, R.; Taha, M. (Schlumberger, Dubai (United Arab Emirates )

    1988-08-01

    Most of Turkey's reservoirs are in the fractured Cretaceous Mardin Formation; however, new possibilities in fractured Paleozoic sandstones are being sought. The dominant fractures are fold related and are found on the northern flanks of the asymmetrical anticlines. The strike of these fractures is perpendicular to bedding planes and parallel to dip. There are fewer tear-fault-related and crestal-position fractures, but these may have a greater vertical extent. Fractures are present in all the producing areas of Egypt except the Nile delta. Basement fractures associated with shear zones in the southern Gulf of Suez have become an important exploration target. Fracture orientations are related to the major shear orientations except where later folding and faulting have caused structural rotation. The development of Zeit Bay field has shown that fractured basement rock can constitute a significant reservoir. The fracture reservoirs in northern Sinai and the Western Desert are in Cretaceous and Jurassic limestones and/or dolomitic limestones. The major shear fractures are parallel to the northwest-north-northwest compressive stresses that formed the reservoir structures; however, local fold- and fault-related fractures are also present.

  2. Evaluation of the Nutrient Status of Some Hydrophytes in the Water Courses of Nile Delta, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shaltout, Kamal H.; Galal, Tarek M.; El-komi, Thanaa M.

    2009-01-01

    The nutritive values of three dominant hydrophytes along the water courses in Nile Delta, Egypt (Echinochloa stagnina, Eichhornia crassipes, and Ceratophyllum demersum) were evaluated in terms of estimating their phytomass, organic, and inorganic chemical compositions. Shoots were collected seasonally from 25 permanent stands representing the distribution of the three species along 15 canals and 10 drains distributed in 5 localities within the Nile Delta. Living and dead parts and total phyto...

  3. Extension and rifting: the Zeit region, Gulf of Suez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, J.

    A field analysis of faults and fractures in the Ras Gharib-Ras Gemsa region of the Gulf of Suez shows that the main Late Cenozoic extension occurred perpendicular to the rift axis. Three main types of dip-slip normal faults successively developed as the tilt of blocks bounded by antithetic normal faults increased. Determinations of the amount of extension from structural data are compatible with estimates made using subsidence data through a simplified model of lithospheric stretching. The uplift of rift shoulders is related in chronology and volume to the subsidence of the rift. The geometry of fault patterns and directions of extension suggests that the Late Cenozoic total movement corresponds to a counterclockwise rotation of 4-5° of Sinai relative to Africa, with a pole close to Cairo.

  4. Study optimizes gas lift in Gulf of Suez field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Waly, A.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Darwish, T.A.; Osman Salama, A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt); El-Naggar, M. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-06-24

    A study using PVT data combined with fluid and multiphase flow correlations optimized gas lift in the Ramadan field, Nubia C, oil wells, in the Gulf of Suez. Selection of appropriate correlations followed by multiphase flow calculations at various points of injection (POI) were the first steps in the study. After determining the POI for each well from actual pressure and temperature surveys, the study constructed lift gas performance curves for each well. Actual and optimum operating conditions were compared to determine the optimal gas lift. The study indicated a net 2,115 bo/d could be gained from implementing its recommendations. The actual net oil gained as a result of this optimization and injected gas reallocation was 2,024 bo/d. The paper discusses the Ramadan field, fluid properties, multiphase flow, production optimization, and results.

  5. Two offshore LNG terminals planned by Suez in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US LNG market represents today only 15 million tons per year but it is growing up rapidly and should reach 75 million tons per year in the next ten years. According to Cambridge Energy Research, LNG imports will represent 18% of the US gas resources in 2015 with respect to 3% today, and in 2010 LNG will represent 30% of the world natural gas trade. For these reasons, the Suez group has planned to acquire two offshore gas terminals, i.e. LNG tanker ships fitted with a gasification plant, to supply its Everett terminal on the US East coast and a future terminal in Florida. In both cases, the investment is the same as for an onshore terminal facility. Short paper. (J.S.)

  6. Exploration implications of neotectonic fault pattern, Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawarecki, S.L.; Perry, S.K.

    1983-03-01

    Detailed topographic mapping of the Ras Issaran area along the west bank of the Gulf of Suez reveals Quaternary faulting along preexisting trends, cross-fault reversals, and tectonically controlled sedimentation. The neotectonic fault systems of the region were identified and mapped by altimetry of selected bedrock units and Quaternary gravel surfaces. Tectonic activity in the Ras Issaran area is dominated by movement occurring on two major sets of normal faults. The primary set consists of NW-trending, gulf-parallel faults which define major horst and basin systems. Breaking these are roughly NE-trending cross-faults. Relative dissection and weathering of the relict gravel surfaces indicate the most recent uplift of the area occurred sequentially from northwest to southwest in three major segments. As uplift shifted along structure, motion on intervening cross-faults reversed. Bed-rock facies changes indicate gulf-parallel faulting has continued from the Miocene along preexisting trends to the present day. Local fault-associated arching also influenced deposition, resulting in thickening Pliocene clastic fill off the crest of the uplift. In the adjacent basins, ongoing sedimentation encouraged growth faulting. In general, the NE-SE cross-faults did not influence sedimentation to the same extent as the gulf-parallel fault system. Detailed mapping of the neotectonic fault system indicates a continuation of past structural movement through the Quaternary. As oil concentrations are intimately related to local structures in the Gulf of Suez, detailed knowledge of Quaternary fault movements combined with seismic interpretation, can significantly aid in understanding the sedimentology and structural features of potential oil reservoirs.

  7. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the pra...

  8. Transect workshop held in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazangi, Muawia

    A workshop on the progress of the Global Geoscience Transects (GGT) project in the Middle East and Africa (see maps) was held January 15-17 in Cairo, Egypt. (Transect plans in the region have been described in Eos, 69, p. 124). It was jointly organized and funded by the Egyptian National Committee of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Lithosphere Program coordinating Committee CC-7 of GGT. A. Ashour of Cairo University, Egypt, chaired the workshop; the general secretary was S. Riad of Assiut University, Egypt, who was responsible for most of the organization, scheduling and implementation of the workshop.

  9. Responding t o the Challenges of Breast Cancer in Egypt and Other Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt.

  10. Subsidence in the gulf of suez: implications for rifting and plate kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Michael S.; Berthelot, François; Lyberis, Nicolas; Le Pichon, Xavier

    1988-10-01

    The Gulf of Suez is a Neogene rift which has evolved as one arm of the Sinai triple junction together with the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Backstripping of well data in the central and southern Gulf of Suez shows three distinct phases of tectonic subsidence. During the initial stage of opening of the rift, the rate of subsidence was very low. In the late Burdigalian (Rudeis fm.) there is a rapid increase in subsidence. By the Middle Miocene, the subsidence had slowed again. Extending the backstripping to a two-dimensional cross-section of the Gulf of Suez allows better quantitative estimates of extension. Correcting for the large regional uplift ( 1100 m on the Egyptian side) is critical for obtaining accurate values for the extension. Uplift of the rift decreases the net tectonic subsidence by over one fourth, relative to that predicted by uniform extension. The total extension at the latitude of Gebel Zeit (28° N) is 30 km, which corresponds to 32-36 km at the triple junction. Approximately {1}/{3} to {1}/{2} of the extension occurred during the rapid subsidence of the second opening phase. Slower extension continued for the rest of the Miocene and throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Stress directions calculated from microstructures exhibit several directional phases to the opening of the Gulf of Suez. These data, together with constraints from the other arms of the Sinai triple junction, can be combined into a scenario for the kinematic evolution of the region. At first, the Gulf of Suez is the northward continuation of the Red Sea, and both open at ? N30°. The first subsidence phase in the Gulf of Suez represents an initial startup of the rifting with very low amounts of extension. This geometry continued through the main phase of Suez extension. Subsequently, the Gulf of Aqaba formed as a strike-slip boundary. As the Arabia-Africa motion transferred to the Gulf of Aqaba, the direction of extension in the Gulf of Suez rotated clockwise towards perpendicular extension and slowed. The post-Miocene shift to oblique opening in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea transform is the result of a minor change in the pole of opening. This change is below the current resolution of the data for the Gulf of Suez, which is probably opening at < 1 mm/ yr.

  11. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

  12. Spinal canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.)

  13. Waterlogging in the New Reclaimed Areas Northeast El Fayoum, Western Desert, Egypt, Reasons and Solutions*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed Ali El Abd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The waterlogging in the new reclaimed areas has become a major concern in the area Northeast El Fayoum, Western Desert, Egypt. It is not only endangering the structures and properties but also causing major environmental problem affecting the health of the area, habitats, and the biotic of the land community, as well as the deteriorating of Egypt’s Pharaonic monuments (El Lahun and Hawarah pyramids. Both the daily seepage from excess irrigation water and the presence of impervious clay or limestone beds at shallow depths may represent the main contributor of ground-water rising in the shallow aquifer. This paper investigates the interplay of the hydrogeological characteristics, soil properties and recent land reclamation projects on the distribution of waterlogging and salinization within the study area. The field observations show that new reclaimed areas have been recently cultivated in distant areas from the old agricultural land. These new cultivations have developed widespread waterlogging, soil salinization and deterioration of Egypt’s Pharaonic monuments as a result of rising groundwater related problems. In this paper, the data used come from database of drillings for eleven observation wells distributed inside the whole area to measure periodic water levels. The soil litho-units are mainly composed of coarse sand, sandy clay, silt and fractured limestone underlined by impervious clay or limestone, thus limiting the downward percolation of excess irrigation water and therefore develops waterlogging. The drainage networks and suitable irrigation methods have to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dry land to better control waterlogging and salinization hazard. It is highly recommended in this research that newly small and deep cut drainage canals network should be constructed and connected to the master drainage canal to dewater the excess irrigation water and to prevent the waterlogging in the concerned area.

  14. Fractured but not fractal: Fragmentation of the gulf of suez basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvin, Gabor

    1989-03-01

    Recent geophysical studies revealed that the Palaeozoic basement of the Gulf of Suez consists of an enormous number of fault blocks whose network qualitavely resembles the contraction-crack polygons which can be found in nature in a wide variety of materials and on all scales (mud cracks, hardening concrete, age cracking in paintings, etc.). The fault network of the Gulf of Suez basement forms a rather uniformly spaced polygonal pattern, most of the blocks are four-sided, the lengths of block sides parallel with the Gulf of Suez axis are exponentially distributed. The power-law size distribution associated with the fractal (scale-free) fragmentation can be possibly ruled out. The paper calls attention to the necessity of calssifying the physical processes leading to fragmentations with exponential-, lognormal-, and power-law size distributions, respectively.

  15. Tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberis, N.

    1988-10-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba can be determined using fault slip data. Early opening of the Suez rift in the lower Miocene resulted from NNE-SSW extension, oblique to the rift trend. Subsequent tectonic events began in the Late Burdigalian and were associated with ENE-WSW extension which determined the shape of the Suez rift. In the Gulf of Aqaba the movements are younger. The Late Miocene motion is associated with a strike-slip stress pattern (040° direction of extension associated with a 130° compression) which produced the left lateral motion between the Arabian plate and the Sinai peninsula. Since the end of the Miocene the faulting is the result of an E-W extension, which indicates a rotation of the regional stress pattern in the vicinity of the transform fault.

  16. CANAL user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANAL is a subchannel computer program for the steady-state and transient thermal hydraulic analysis of BWR fuel rod bundles. The purpose of this manual is to introduce the user into the mechanism of running the code by providing information about the input data and options

  17. Root canal medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki; Yeng, Thai; Parashos, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The ultimate goals of endodontic treatment are complete removal of bacteria, their byproducts and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete seal of disinfected root canals. Intracanal medicaments have been thought an essential step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning may be assuming greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Until recently, formocresol and its relatives were frequently used as intracanal medicaments, but it was pointed out that such bactericidal chemicals dressed in the canal distributed to the whole body from the root apex and so might induce various harmful effects including allergies. Furthermore, as these medicaments are potent carcinogenic agents, there is no indication for these chemicals in modern endodontic treatment. Today, biocompatibility and stability are essential properties for intracanal medicaments. The more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. Calcium hydroxide has been determined as suitable for use as an intracanal medicament as it is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. It also induces hard tissue formation and is effective for stopping inflammatory exudates. Single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, is generally not now contraindicated and various reports have shown that the clinical outcomes between single- and multiple- visit endodontics are similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics: however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, calcium hydroxide is recommended to be used as an intracanal medicament. PMID:19323305

  18. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  19. Sedimentation patterns in southern Gulf of Suez rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.; Smale, J.L.

    1986-05-01

    Surface and subsurface mapping in the southern Gulf of Suez, primarily in the Gemsa Plain and contiguous regions, delineates sedimentation patterns that persisted throughout extensive tectonism, subsidence, and large sea level variations. Proximal clastic facies reflecting uplift and erosional stripping of rift shoulders and tilt-block crests interfinger with a succession of normal marine and evaporitic units during basin filling, while sedimentation kept pace with subsidence. The Gema Plain subbasin comprises a half graben abutting the border fault of the southwest-dipping Esh el Mellaha tilt block on the southwest and rising onto Gebel Zeit, a stripped tilt-block crest. To the north, the basin laps onto the structurally high Ras Shukheir platform. Two cross-cutting wadis, draining northeastward, provide primary clastic input. Wadi Dara cuts a low-lying topographic high north of the Esh el Mellaha and Wadi Dib crosses the northern Esh el Mellaha, draining the basin to its southwest. During the early Miocene, normal marine conditions prevailed, with both wadis building large fan-delta complexes whose coarse clastics interfinger with basinal shales and marls eastward and ultimately thin onto the Zeit high. In the later Miocene, the same basic pattern persisted, with marine evaporites largely substituting for marls and fine clastics. Today, large fan complexes still dominate sedimentation. The basic facies patterns have remained essentially unchanged throughout rifting, although lithologies changed through time in response to the interaction of local vertical movement and eustatic sea level variation.

  20. Carbonate diagenesis and rifting in the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purser, B.H.; Orszag-Sperber, F.; Aissaoui, D.M. (Universite Paris XI, Orsay (France))

    1988-08-01

    Lower Miocene carbonates of the northwest Red Sea and Gulf of Suez have been deposited on a series of structural blocks where bathymetric relief, created by early rift tectonics, has strongly influenced both sedimentation and early diagenesis. Initial submarine cementation by fibrous calcite and aragonite strongly affects slope deposits, destroying most primary porosity. It was followed by several phases of regional dolomitization whose isotopic signatures suggest nonmarine influence. Undolomitized sediments are the exception. An intense dissolution is the principal agent determining petrophysical qualities of the series. Nonmarine sparitic cements are not important, indicating the dissolved carbonate has been flushed out of the system. Finally, large-scale sulfate replacement affects dolomites adjacent to the middle Miocene primary evaporites. These secondary sulfates are associated with a zone of calcitized dolomite (dedolomite). This diagenetic activity obviously reflects repeated changes in the composition of interstitial waters. Its exceptional intensity is explained by the contemporaneous basin relief; the presence of numerous subparallel blocks has resulted in the development of separate bodies of water relating to both meteoric influx and evaporation. Together with normal marine waters, these fluids of variable density have penetrated the intervening sedimentary platforms via the numerous slopes. It is clear that multiphased carbonate diagenesis is one of the many expressions of early rifting.

  1. Spatial and temporal evolution of the Suez rift subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, I.; Colletta, B.

    1987-02-01

    In an attempt to characterize the longitudinal evolution of the Suez rift, subsidence curves have been computed for 75 wells and 10 cross-sections distributed all along the rift. Tectonic and overall subsidence have been distinguished by means of the backstripping method showing the role of sedimentary loading effects. Regional maps and profiles of the tectonic subsidence indicate that, because of block tilting, transversal discrepancies are much more important than longitudinal ones. Along the axial zone no p3opagating phenomenon could be demonstrated, and the whole rift length is attained during the first 2 or 3 My as evidenced by the ubiquitous deposition of the basal Nukhul Fm of Aquitanian to Lower Burdigalian age. The tectonic subsidence history appears identical all along the axial trough during the first stages of rifting. It is characterized by two major events: (1) a rapid and strong subsidence between 20 and 15 My (Rudeis Fm), and (2) a tectonic quiescence between 15 and 5 My. Main longitudinal variations occur after 5 My, and during this period 3 zones may be distinguished: (1) a northern area (Darag Basin) where uplift is dominant, (2) a central part (most of the Gulf) with very low tectonic subsidence or quiescence and (3) a southern part (close to the Red Sea) where tectonic subsidence has restarted.

  2. New technology helps asset team identify overlooked reserves in Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, C.; Day, R. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt); Valusek, J.E. [Landmark Graphics Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In a recent study of the July field in the central Gulf of Suez, a GUPCO asset team identified nearly 3.5 million barrels of overlooked oil with the aid of interactive interpretation software designed specifically for geologists. To tap these new reserves, the company drilled the first horizontal well in the Gulf of Suez. It tested at over 14,000 b/d of oil. Without the geological software to help clarify numerous problematical reservoir terminations and more accurately predict their shape, these reserves probably would have remained unexploited.

  3. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  4. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  5. Characterisation of extensional faults in carbonate rocks (Suez Rift, Egypt); with particular focus on the role of shale smear

    OpenAIRE

    Elvik, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    The distribution, composition and flow-properties of fault core and shale smear along faults in carbonate reservoirs is less well understood compared to faults in siliciclastic rocks. This study uses field data to characterize and quantify fault zone properties that are critical for understanding structural heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. The study focus on; (1) variability and co-dependence of displacement, shale smear, fault- thickness, -composition and -geometry; (2) the effect of s...

  6. Sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental studies on the clastic sequence of Gebel El-Zeit area, gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Antar; Allam, A.; Kholief, M.; Salem, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present work deals with the sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental studies of the Palaeozoic clastic sequence (Cambrian?) of the Gebel El-Zeit area. The sandstones which build up the major part of this sequence are fine to coarse grained moderately to well sorted, mostly of unimodal patterns, strongly fine skewed to near symmetrical and vary from meso- to very lepto-kurtic. The grain-size parameters and their bivariate relations do not give an exact environment of deposition nevertheless, most of them have a fluviatile origin. So, the application of some of the bivariate relations to ancient sediments, which microscopically show mild or no cementation, is still valid if coupled with other parameters, such as sedimentary structures, palaeocurrent analysis and other confirmed data. The palaeocurrent analysis indicates that these sandstones came from two completely different sources. A marine transgression from the north northeast produced the Araba Formation, whereas the Naqus Formation has been interpreted as fluvial. The source is situated to the south southwest. The streams were probably very erratic and intermittent.

  7. Comparative study of multi-data fusion techniques in mapping geological features: Wadi Ghoweiba, Northwest Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S. M.; El Leithy, B. M.

    2010-10-01

    In this study SPOT-panchromatic image with 10 m spatial resolution was fused with ASTER-band ratio images with 30 m spatial resolution. The fusion of SPOT image with ASTER band-ratio data using PC, Brovey, HPF and IHS transform techniques proved to be excellent for both lithological and structural mapping as it preserves the spectral information of ASTER and SPOT data. By visually comparing of these data fusion, the HIS and CNT, methods produce high color distortion with respect to the original image, while it preserve a perfect spatial resolution. The PCA fusion method produce very low color distortion but it dose not preserve all the spatial information. The HPF fusion method produce very low color distortion as well as preserve all the spatial information which look sharper than the other images. This study revealed that, the HPF fusion method looks the best method comparing with the other methods in terms of the quality of spectral and spatial information. By quantitatively analyzed using the correlation coefficient, The CC is ranging from 0.406 to 0.455 using HIS fusion method. While by using Brovey transform, the CC ranging from 0.955 to 0.988. Wherever, The CC between the multispectral input data and the output fused image is ranging from 0.988 to 0.996 using automatic PCA fusion technique. By using manual PCA fusion technique, the CC is ranging from 0.978 to 0.997, so there is no big different between the automatic and the manual PCA methods. The best CC between the multispectral input data and the output fused image is ranging from 0.989 to 0.999 using HPF fusion technique.

  8. Holocene carbonate facies model, Ras Shukhier hypersaline pool and its surrounding sabkha, west Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keheila, E.; Khalifa, H.; El-Haddad, A.

    1989-06-01

    The Holocene Ras Shukhier pool is an active carbonate depositional subenvironment surrounded by an evaporitic supratidal sabkha. Field and petrographic studies of the carbonate constituents of the pool lead to the recognition of seven sedimentary facies. These are: (1) carbonate lithoclast-pellet-aggregate sand facies, (2) algal (cyanophyt) stromatolites comprising stratiform cryptalgal laminites and laterally close-linked hemispheroids (LLH-C), (3) pellet-lime mud with dolomitized bioclastic floatstone/packstone crusts, (4) pellet-lime mud facies, (5) gastropod ( Cerithium) pellet-lime muddy sand facies, (6) puffy gypsum crust, and (7) tufa limestone patches. The lateral distribution of the carbonate facies in the pool is dependent on the orientation of the pool with respect to the prevailing northwest winds and on the direction of water seepage. The evaporitic sabkha is classified here into: (a) a seasonally water-covered rim where the carbonates and evaporites formed seasonally by direct precipitation from the surface water, and (b) a subaerially exposed sabkha with lithified halite crust exhibiting tepee structures. The occurrence of carbonates, followed by sulphates and halites, within the sabkha siliciclasts, have been developed by sedimentation from brines migrating upward.

  9. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy, graphic correlation, and depositional history of the early Miocene, Gemsa Plain, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smale, J.L.; Thunell, R.C.; Schamel, S.

    1987-05-01

    Exposures of the early Miocene successions in the Gebel Gharamul and Gebel el Zeit regions, along with subsurface Gemsa Plain well logs, have been graphically correlated using Shaw's method. Three important regional events have been recognized. From oldest to youngest they include the following: (1) The Early Clysmic event, which is marked by strong onlap and truncation (Nukhul formation). (2) The Mid-Clysmic or Mid-Rudeis event, which is associated with the G. Subquadrata datum (LAD) and is characterized by structural truncation and downlap. Marginal outcrops of the Gemsa subbasin show internal disconformities marked by the presence of igneous boulder conglomerates, siliciclastic pulses, and synsedimentary slumps. A possible fan delta proximal to Gebel el Zeit was initiated at this time. Other fan deltas from both Wadi Dara and Wadi Dib continued to be active primary conduits for clastic distribution from the rift shoulders. Basinward, structural highs were formed and eroded, and continuous sedimentation occurred in structurally low areas. (3) The Kareem/Belayim event, which is characterized by an increase in sedimentation rate. Overall, the early synrift sedimentation patterns can provide limits on the timing of fault-block movements. Increased biostratigraphic resolution allows for better correlation of lateral facies changes across the half-graben and results in an improved stratigraphy over that presently used.

  10. Interpretation Of Three Dimensional Seismic Data In Delineating The Structural Elements At Ras Budran Oil Field, Gulf Of Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sakr, M. M. E.

    1989-01-01

    Structural evaluation in Ras Budran oil field was achieved by using the state of art geophysical technology, represented by the 3-D seismic data. Integrated together with the borehole geological and geophysical data. The time contour maps of five reflectors starting with deeper top Kareem formation up to the shallowest top Zeit formation were constructed. These mappable horizons illustrate generally a half plunging NE - SW anticline which bisected by 'several fault systems at different levels...

  11. Crustal evaluation of the northern Red Sea rift and Gulf of Suez, Egypt from geophysical data: 3-dimensional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salah; Jahr, Thomas; Jentzsch, Gerhard; Saleh, Ahmed; Ashour, N. M. Abou

    2006-07-01

    Combined 3-D interpretations of gravity and aeromagnetic data have been used in addition to continental and marine seismic profiles, well logs and geological cross-sections. The combination of gravity and magnetic data has improved the geometry and the density distribution in the 3-D calculated profiles. Results of the current work reveal possible crustal thickness and density distribution between the sedimentary cover and the upper mantle including the Moho discontinuity. The Moho depth map of the region, as obtained from the 3-D modeling exhibits various crustal thickness distributions. The type of crust changes gradually from continental to oceanic, from north to south. The zone of crustal thinning coincides mostly with zones of low-density, heated anomalous upper mantle beneath the rift floor (7 km). The eastern plateaus (the Red Sea hills) show by far the largest crustal thickness in the region (32 km). The Moho relief, as indicated from magnetic interpretation, shows a poor flattening especially in the eastern region. This is contrary to what is given by other authors. However, the present results are in good agreement with the geothermal gradient values in the Red Sea. The interpretation of magnetic data of the Red Sea Rift shows that the spreading rate of the part south of latitude 26.5° N agrees well with the theoretical model, in the order of 0.7 cm/yr. Less agreement has been obtained in the part north of latitude 27.5° N. The magnetic anomalies along the axial portion of the rift floor, as deduced from the results of the regional and residual separation and the 3-D magnetic modeling, are mainly caused by the oceanic crustal structures beneath the graben.

  12. Exploration and assessment of the geothermal resources in the Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Abdel; Saibi, Hakim; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Mesbah, Hany; Ehara, Sachio

    2012-02-01

    The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of the African continent suggests that it may possess significant geothermal resources, especially along its eastern margin. The most promising areas for geothermal development in the northwest Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift system are located where the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations, including a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures. Magnetotelluric and gravity-reconnaissance surveys were carried out over the geothermal region of Hammam Faraun to determine the subsurface electric resistivity and the densities that are related to rock units. These surveys were conducted along profiles. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) inversion model techniques were applied on the MT data, integrating the 2D inversion of gravity data. The objectives of these surveys were to determine and parameterize the subsurface source of the Hammam Faraun hot spring and to determine the origin of this spring. Based on this data, a conceptual model and numerical simulation were made of the geothermal area of Hammam Faraun. The numerical simulation succeeded in determining the characteristics of the heat sources beneath the Hammam Faraun hot spring and showed that the hot spring originates from a high heat flow and deep ground water circulation in the subsurface reservoir that are controlled by faults. These studies were followed by an assessment of the geothermal potential for electric generation from the Hammam Faraun hot spring. The value of the estimated potential is 28.34 MW, as the reservoir is assumed to be only 500 m thick. This value would be enough for the desalination of water for both human and agricultural consumption.

  13. Canalization: what the flux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-02-01

    Polarized transport of the hormone auxin plays crucial roles in many processes in plant development. A self-organizing pattern of auxin transport--canalization--is thought to be responsible for vascular patterning and shoot branching regulation in flowering plants. Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that membrane localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN)-family auxin efflux carriers in proportion to net auxin flux can plausibly explain canalization and possibly other auxin transport phenomena. Other plausible models have also been proposed, and there has recently been much interest in producing a unified model of all auxin transport phenomena. However, it is our opinion that lacunae in our understanding of auxin transport biology are now limiting progress in developing the next generation of models. Here we examine several key areas where significant experimental advances are necessary to address both biological and theoretical aspects of auxin transport, including the possibility of a unified transport model. PMID:24296041

  14. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyeye, J. O.; Kadelka, C.; Laubenbacher, R.; Li, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables....

  15. Foci of Schistosoma mansoni in Assiut province in middle Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhat, A; Abdel-Aty, M A; Nafeh, M; Hammam, H; Abdel-Samia, A; Strickland, G T

    1993-01-01

    Following detection of Schistosoma mansoni in a 12 years old boy who had both schistosomal polyposis and periportal fibrosis with hepatosplenomegaly, epidemiological studies to confirm local transmission were performed in his and 30 other villages in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. The index case's brother and 6 of 380 inhabitants of his village who provided stool specimens were infected with S. mansoni and a farmer with dysentery and hepatosplenomegaly had a positive rectal snip biopsy. All had hepatic abnormalities on ultrasound examination. Two of 221 schoolchildren in another village had mixed infections with S. mansoni and S. haematobium; 17 others had only S. haematobium. None of 419 inhabitants living near the infected boys had S. mansoni infection. Snails from canals and drains near both villages were netted, identified, counted and checked for infection: in the second village one of 1039 Bulinus truncatus was infected with Schistosoma sp. but none of 859 Biomphalaria alexandrina was infected. Schistosomiasis mansoni is being focally transmitted in 2 villages in Assiut Governorate and appears to be spreading from Lower to Middle and Upper Egypt. We believe B. alexandrina, which has been present in some of the waterways for at least 15 years, were infected recently by local inhabitants returning from Iraq or by cattle traders or military recruits from the Delta. PMID:8249064

  16. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 5 Vols. Annexes 6--10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    Annex 6, which investigates the possible hydroelectric resources of Egypt, reveals that presently the only existing sites are on the upper Nile at the High and Aswan Dams. There are 8 sites on the Nile where it is practical to add hydroelectric generation and, of these, only 4 are feasible for immediate construction. There are also pumped-storage sites on the Nile and the Red Sea. There is also the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert which can be utilized for conventional, as well as pumped-storage generation, by bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea to the depression by canal or tunnel. The options were considered for construction of hydro plants to met the electric load growth of Egypt when other forms of energy supply would be integrated into a comprehensive supply pattern. In Annex 7, the prospective use of nuclear energy to meet Egypt's resources (uranium and thorium) to implement a nuclear energy program, and potential effects of the expanded use of nuclear energy are discussed. Annex 8 discusses solar energy (technology descriptions and impacts, solar thermal power, photovoltaics). Also wind power generation, biomass utilization, desalination, solar air conditioning and refrigeration, and cost of power from diesel engines are discussed. Annex 9 covers geothermal potentials in Egypt, discussing resources with temperatures above 180/sup 0/C; from 150 to 180/sup 0/C; from 100 to 150/sup 0/C; and with temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. Annex 10 discusses the electric power systems in Egypt. The following subjects are covered: existing electric power systems; electrical power facilities under construction or planned for construction by 1985; past and projected growth of electrical energy; distribution; and electrical power system projected from 1985 to 2000. (MCW)

  17. Sustainable development assessment tools dedicated to territorial collectivities. GDF SUEZ Research and Innovation division expertise.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonard, Ame?lie; Lafragette, Ame?lie; Dridi-dastrevigne, Emilie

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents in a first part GDF SUEZ Research and Innovation Division works on different sustainable development assessment tools (especially Material and Energy Flow Analysis (MEFA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Carbon Balance and Ecological Footprint). The following part is focused on a Material and Energy Flow Analysis Project on the scale of a city : the example of Lille.

  18. Egypt air radioactive sources warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would like to give me this chance, of being here among famous scientists. I wish to thank the general director of cargo division, and the general manager of import for providing all facilities for me to be present at this scientific meeting. At this conference, I wish to explain the role played by egypt air (as public sector company) in the officiant of radiation physics. The atomic energy authority, ministry of health, and ministry of civil aviation; have provided instructions that were essentially required to complete the work of the national radioactive warehouse located in egypt air terminal in Cairo. Now the license for operating the store has been granted. Prior to constructing the warehouse, the radioactive sources were distributed among the foreign cargo terminals at Cairo airport, such as swiss air, air france, saudi arabia, the Ice stores, as well egypt Air. Cargo terminals. The control of radiation hazard was therefore difficult. The ministry of Civil aviation then issued a decree dictating the storage of all radioactive sources exclusively at the national store of egypt air. All foreign cargo terminals should transfer all imported radioactive sources to the national warehouse at Cairo air port. According to that decree. 6 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Distributed control at Love canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

    1994-09-01

    Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

  20. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    OpenAIRE

    Agunwamba, J. C.; Dike, C. C.; Ogarekpe, N. M.; Dike, B. U.

    2013-01-01

    The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The t...

  1. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  2. Comparative Study of Canal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Umare

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available India is basically an agrarian country and crop-water is supplied through the system of canals. In conventional design of canal system, canals seepage losses are a big concern for an engineer. An approximate estimation of seepage under the un-lined canal is 7 Cumec per Million Square Meter & that of Lined Canal is 2.5 Cumec per Million Square Meter. To address the problem, Prof. P K Swamee has suggested an alternate design philosophy based on minimum seepage loss. Swamee presented simplified algebraic equations for computation of seepage loss for various sectioned canals, which accurately replace the cumbersome evaluation of complex integrals. Swamee, concluded that using these seepage loss equations and the general uniform flow equation canal can be designed for minimum seepage under the canal system. But, in India so far, only conventional design is adopted all over the state. The calculation of seepage is based on the thumb rule or the field observations done in the past for similar structures ; and to reduce the seepage losses, canal lining is adopted which involves the heavy cost of construction & maintenance as well. This approach does not suits to the present environmental conditions where scarcity of water has become the concern and is being felt by the entire world. In such situation, adaptability of Swamee’s approach needs to be examined. This paper studies the comparison of the design philosophy suggested by Prof. P K Swamee with conventional design philosophy adopted by government agencies in tropical country like India.

  3. Wetland Loss: Digging of Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This activity has students build a model canal and perform experiments with it to illustrate the destruction of wetlands, resulting from the digging of canals for oil and gas exploration in the coastal wetlands and cypress logging in the swamps. Older students will examine topographic maps of the area in which they live to identify natural and constructed canals in the wetlands, and find older maps to compare the area of wetlands before and after major canals were built. Students can also research the relationship between channel building, subsidence and salt-water intrusion, and wetland loss in both fresh and salt-water wetlands across the United States.

  4. Chephren's Quarry, Upper Egypt:Archaeological registration and mappingof ancient quarry sites

    OpenAIRE

    Heldal, Tom; Storemyr, Per

    2003-01-01

    Chephren's Quarry is one of the world's oldest hard-stone quarries. It is situated in the easternmost part of Sahara - covering nearly 100k2 of flat, hyper-arid desert, some 60 km west of Lake Nasser ( River Nile) and the famous Abu Simbel temple in the extreme south of Egypt. Lately, it has been discovered that this unregistered, archaeological site of great importance, is seriously threatened by modern development - the canal and irrigation work related to the South Valley Development Proje...

  5. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalie David, A.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are currently being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptia...

  6. Evaporitic and biosiliceous cyclic sedimentation in the Miocene of the Gulf of Suez—Depositional and diagenetic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchy, J. M.; Noël, D.; Wali, A. M. A.; Aref, M. A. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Middle to Late Miocene evaporite-bearing formations which outcrop along the Gebel Zeit and Gems highs in the southwestern Gulf of Suez (Egypt), consist of thick calcium sulphate beds rhythmically interbedded with marlstones, siltstones and claystones containing various amounts of biogenic silica, as well as pure diatomites. The calcium sulphate beds are composed mainly of gypsum and anhydrite. Subaqueous crustallisation in subpermanent brine ponds of marine origin predominated during deposition of the selenite and laminated gypsum. Early diagenetic interstitial growth of nodular anhydrite occurred episodically when the water level dropped, in response to increasing salinity associated with the precipitation of halite in the deeper troughs. Nevertheless, most of the nodular facies resulted from the burial conversion of gypsum to anhydrite which has been sometimes rehydrated into gypsum. A last phase of gypsum dehydration has occurred at the surface, related to the present hot and dry climatic conditions. The biosiliceous deposits contain either well preserved (opal-A) or diagenetically altered (opal-CT, clinoptilolite, quartz and even clays) diatom frustules. Such diagenetic changes are commonly described in the oceanic biosiliceous deposits. The fossil content of these diatomitic layers implies shallow-marine conditions on the shelves of highs induced by block faulting. The cyclic succession of evaporited and biosiliceous deposits recorded the alternation of high sea level stands associated with high organic productivity, probably enhanced by seasonal input of nutrients and low sea level stands associated with hypersaline conditions and evaporite deposition. Locally, the sharp contact between the diatomites and gypsum argues for a rapid evolution of salinity towards high concentration (up to gypsum saturation and more). The formation of finely laminated diatomitic sediments is known to require either high organic productivity or anoxic conditions in bottom/intermediate waters, and eventually both processes. In the Gebel Zeit and Gemsa areas, a local association of the biosiliceous sediments with diagenetic carbonates and native sulphur, resulting from processes of bacterial sulphate reduction, confirms that anoxic conditions occurred in the deep-water body or in the sediments. Large amounts of organic compounds were involved in these diagenetic processes. Immature organic matter was consumed during an early diagenetic stage of transformation. It is assumed that this organic matter was supplied either by the biosilica-rich interbeds or the organic-rich laminated carbonates. The initial organic content of the biogenic deposits was impoverished as early as the first stages of sedimentation and diagenesis. Although a large part of the organic matter could have been destroyed by these early diagenetic processes and further oxidation in outcrops, these sediments can be considered as potential source rocks in nearby less exposed sequences.

  7. Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4?g/g and 0.032-0.17 ?g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  8. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  9. Book review: Soldiers, spies and statesmen: Egypt’s road to revolt

    OpenAIRE

    Tu?rkmen-dervis?og?lu, Gu?lay

    2013-01-01

    Revolutions are difficult to understand, let alone predict, and the recent revolt in Egypt was no exception. In Soldiers, Spies and Statesmen: Egypt’s Road to Revolt, Hazem Kandil presents the revolt as the latest episode in an ongoing power struggle between the major components of Egypt’s authoritarian regime. Gülay Türkmen-Dervi?o?lu commends the book for its accessible style and content; a must-read for not only those interested in the January 2011 revolution but also f...

  10. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-03-01

    Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources. PMID:24485861

  11. The Tem Plagues of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Wotton, Roger S.

    2007-01-01

    The ten Plagues of Egypt described in the Bible were central to the liberation of the Jewish people from the oppression of the Egyptians. The succession of disasters demoralised the Egyptians and were seen as a victory for Jewish monotheistic beliefs. In this essay, natural explanations for most of the Plagues are proposed and a chronology of events is provided. Could the mythological explanation of these arguably natural phenomena still have a profound influence on the modern world?

  12. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  13. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  14. The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

  15. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  16. Uplift and extension at the Gulf of Suez: indications of induced mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Michael S.

    1985-09-01

    Reconstruction of tectonic movements since the initiation of the Gulf of Suez rift indicates that there has been 25-27 km of extension. The uplift bordering rift indicates that lithosphere heating greatly exceeds that producible by uniform lithosphere extension. I propose that small-scale convection induced by the rifting augments the heating introduced by extensional rifting and produces the broad uplifts flanking the rift.

  17. Early rift structures: a comparison between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Corinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, I.; Eschard, R.; Colletta, B.

    2003-04-01

    Extensional processes may start for various raisons: thinning of the lithosphere by mantellic convection, far field stress, back arc phenomena and affect various crusts. The initial crust is some time rather homogeneous, as in the Gulf of Suez or, at the opposite highly heterogeneous, as in the Gulf of Corinth were the extension affects a former mountain belt. In the Gulf of Corinth, thrusts may be reactivated as decollement level whereas in the Gulf of Suez, except some thin and rather superficial shally beds, the unique decollement level is the brittle/ductile transition in the crust. These characteristics influence the development of the normal fault pattern and therefore the structural feature of the rift. We will document the difference between the two cited examples in term of spacing of the faults, block sizes and tilts. The major causes of the extension in both cases are also different: the Gulf of Suez is clearly related to a deep thermal anomaly, which induce a lithospheric and crustal thinning during the early Miocene (23 to 15 Myr). From 15myr, the extension has been stopped, except in the central southern part, and the main tectonic activity is the uplift of the shoulders and Miocene Gulf borders. At the opposite, the data on the Gulf of Corinth does not evidence any abnormal temperature field below the structure, but the Gulf of Corinth is located in a back-arc position and affected by the Westward propagation of the north Anatolian fault. These regional features induce very different subsidence and uplift histories of both zones. Subsidence, tilting and uplift, when existing, have been recorded by the syn-rift sediments. After a review of the data, we will discuss if the Gulf of Corinth, which is in an early stage of extension may or not represent the evolution of a “classical” rift as the Gulf of Suez, where the main phase of extension has been active.

  18. Wind atlas for the Gulf of Suez. Measurements and modelling 1991-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, N.G. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Said Said, U. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Ministry of Electricity and Energy, Cario (Egypt)

    1996-09-01

    The results of a comprehensive 5-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez and northern Red Sea are presented. The primary purpose has been to establish reliable and accurate wind atlas data for this region. The study employs wind speed and direction measurements taken from 1991 to 1995 at four meteorological stations along a 250-km stretch of the Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea. The 25-m masts were erected specifically for the wind study, but provide information on other climate statistics as well: barometric pressure, air temperature, air temperature gradient, atmospheric stability, wind speed profiles, extreme wind speeds, and gustiness of the wind. Satellite imagery obtained from NOAA 11 AVHRR data are used to map land and sea surface temperatures. The wind data are analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The accuracy of the wind speed measurements have been secured by careful calibration of the cup anemometers. The roughness of the terrain has been assessed from topographical maps and aerial photographs, as well as during site visits. In addition, the roughness lengths of typical desert surfaces are estimated from wind profile analysis. The height variations of the terrain are described in digital terrain models. The Wind Atlas for the Gulf of Suez documents the existence of a widespread and large wind resource in the Gulf of Suez, even larger than was hitherto assumed. With mean wind speeds and energy densities of 8-12 ms{sup -1} and 500-1400 Wm{sup -2}, respectively, estimated at a height of 25 m over roughness class 0 (water), the wind resources are comparable to those of the most favorable regions in NW-Europe. (au) 70 tabs., 66 ills., 48 refs.

  19. Remote sensing, planform, and facies analysis of the Plain of Tineh, Egypt for the remains of the defunct Pelusiac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, Jessica; Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Zalat, Abdel-Fattah A.

    2013-11-01

    The Pelusiac Branch was a distributary river in the Nile Delta that splits off from the main trunk of the Nile River as it flowed toward the Mediterranean. At approximately 25 A.D., it was chocked by sand and silt deposits from prograding beach accretion processes. The lower course of the river and its bifurcation point from the trunk of the Nile have been hypothesized based on ancient texts and maps, as well as previous research, but results have been inconsistent. Previous studies partly mapped the lower course of the Pelusiac River in the Plain of Tineh, east of the Suez Canal, but rapid urbanization related to the inauguration of the Peace Canal mega-irrigation project has covered any trace of the linear feature reported by these previous studies. The present study used multispectral remote sensing data of GeoEYE-1 and Landsat-TM to locate and accurately map the course of the defunct Pelusiac River within the Plain of Tineh. Remote sensing analysis identified a linear feature that is 135 m wide at its maximum and approximately 13 km long. It extends from the Pelusium ruins to the Suez Canal, just north of the Peace Canal. This remotely located linear feature corresponds to the path of the Pelusiac River during Roman times. Planform geomorphology was applied to determine the hydrological regime and paleodischarge of the river prior to becoming defunct. Planform analysis derived a bankfull paleodischarge value of ~ 5700 m3 s- 1 and an average discharge of 650 m3 s- 1, using the reach average for the interpreted Pelusiac River. The derived values show a river distributary similar in discharge to the modern dammed Damietta river. Field work completed in April of 2012 derived four sedimentary lithofacies of the upper formation on the plain that included pro-delta, delta-front and delta-plain depositional environments. Diatom and fossil mollusk samples were also identified that support coastal beach and lagoonal environments of deposition. Measured section columns and a shoreline parallel transect were also constructed to portray the paleogeography of the Mediterranean coastline in the Plain of Tineh at ~ 25 A.D. and indicate that the sampled study area is the downdrift margin of an asymmetric delta with barrier lagoon systems.

  20. Scale deposition in surface and subsurface production equipment in the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hattab, M.I.

    1983-03-01

    Generally the deposition of scale in surface and subsurface oilfield production equipment can cause many operational problems. Scale precipitation has a detrimental effect on fluids, processing equipment, pipelines, and downhole well equipment as a result of corrosion and flow restriction. Scale deposits in wellbores can result in severe production loss. Generally scale problems become more prevalent as oil and gas reserves are depleted and water production increases. Some of the Gulf of Suez oilfields, El Morgan, July, and Ramadan, have been waterflooded by the Gulf of Suez sea water. Compatibility tests have indicated probable deposition of scale on surface and subsurface production equipment. Case histories relating to scale deposition, removal and inhibition in surface equipment are discussed. The paper outlines the physical and theoretical prediction for downhole scale deposition in oil wells. The experience with scale removal and inhibition by the formation squeeze treatment technique is presented along with recommendations that can be applied to similar cases in other fields in the Gulf of Suez.

  1. Subsidence and origin of the Northern Red Sea and Gulf of Suez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John J. W.; Dabbagh, Mohamed E.; Whiting, Brian M.; Widman, Sally A.

    Sedimentary accumulation and subsidence rates in the northern Red Sea and Gulf of Suez can be explained by extreme separation in central areas of rift basins and only minor thinning and tilting of fault blocks around the margins. During the Oligocene, local relief permitted red clastic sediments to be shed from the present area of the Red Sea. Very high rates of crustal thinning in Late Oligocene or earliest Miocene in the central part of the Gulf of Suez and part of the Red Sea trough permitted rapid subsidence of an early Miocene erosion surface. Miocene and younger sediments are thick only in these central areas. Movement on the Dead Sea shear zone began at the same time as subsidence, effectively isolating the Gulf of Suez from further tectonism and allowing thermal subsidence to occur to the present. Extension in the northern Red Sea, south of the shear zone, has either been so extreme as to leave a crust of less than 10 km thickness or has been accomplished by injections of large quantities of mafic magma, forming a crust intermediate between continental and oceanic. All observations are consistent with models of rifting by pure stretching or by detachment faulting.

  2. Synrift sedimentation in the Gulf of Suez rift controlled by eustatic sea level variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Laterally persistent stratigraphic variations in the southern Gulf of Suez rift indicate that eustatic variations in sea level predominate over local tectonic effects in controlling Neogene basin-fill sedimentation. Low sea level allows extensive erosion of tilt-block crests and rift shoulders, sending clastic aprons into the intervening subbasins and allowing evaporite deposition. High sea level minimizes clastic input, allowing marls and shales to build up off structure and reefs to form on and around tilt blocks. Thus variations in sediment character indicate relative sea level. Early rifting events in the upper Oligocene are marked by deposition of continental red beds. Overlying lowest Miocene clastics and evaporites are cut by a lower Burdigalian unconformity, indicating a minor transgression in the Aquitanian. Above a disconformity, laterally varying clastics and evaporites suggest regression followed by intermittent shallow-water conditions. A higher unconformity is overlain by thick cyclic evaporites representing periodic flooding and drying of the rift, a result of sea level remaining close to the height of the Suez sill to the north. A major Messinian unconformity cuts the section, indicating major regression, and is overlain by largely clastic sediments of both continental and marine affinities, showing rapid sea level fluctuations. Regional synrift sedimentation has been controlled more by eustatic sea level change, modified by the Suez sill to the north, than by tectonic movements within the rift.

  3. Possible axial extension in the Gulf of Suez rift (work hypothesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenton, A.; Maccagni, A.

    1988-10-01

    The cross structure (SW-NE) of the Gulf of Suez is well documented through several studies on the rifting in the area, whereas less emphasis has been placed on the structural interpretation along the axial direction of the rift itself. The aeromagnetic data show the presence of two main trends: "clysmic" (N320°) and "cross" trend (N50°). The reflection seismic profiles covering the Gulf of Suez offshore area indicate an alternance of ranges and asymmetrical basins in the axial direction as well as across the rift. Well data demonstrate the presence of structural dips either in NW or SE directions both in the pre-rifting and syn-rifting sedimentary sequences deposited in these asymmetrical basins. In an overall rifting tectonic framework, to explain the structural configuration resulting from the above data along the axial direction would imply a possible extension parallel to the axis of the rifting itself. This extension component occurs along the pre-existing cross trend oblique to the rifting, while the Aqaba trend does not seem to play any role. The axial extension has been active since the time of early rifting and it appears to have been reactivated in more recent times. In a plate tectonic framework, the axial extension of the Gulf of Suez area implies a movement of the Sinai microplate oblique to the axis of the rifting.

  4. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more severely affected ear may be sufficient to control their symptoms. Conclusions Dehiscence of bone overlying the superior semicircular canal can cause a constellation of vestibular and auditory symptoms and signs. These abnormalities can be understood ...

  5. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  6. Seminar on Egypt population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, J F

    1984-01-01

    The information and viewpoints presented at the Seminar on Egypt Population Policy held in Cairo on October 16-18 were summariezed and critically assessed. The seminar was organized by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population's Committee on the Utilization ofDemographic Knowlege in Policy Formulation and Planning for the purpose of assessing the policy making the utility of social science and demographc knowledge with specific reference to Egypt's family planning program. The seminar was attended by demographers, social scientists, and experienced policy makers, and the discussion was highly focused. Seminar papers and discussions sought to clarify Egypt's current demographic situation, attempted to use sample survey data to identifyfertility determinants, analyzed Egypt's policyresponses to the population problem, assessed the national family planning program, identified the type of knowledge available for policy making, and noted areas where policy relevant information is lacking. Evidence presented at the seminar indicated that Egyptian fertility is still high and that corrected the total fertility rate for 1980 was close to 6. Since, 1960, fertility declined in all regions of the country, but between 1976-80 the decline decelerated. This deceleration appears to be a temporary phenonemon. There is evidence that the age at marriage is increasing, that the population is motivated to use contraception when desired family size is reached, that contraceptive use is cost sensitive, and that the overall decline in fertility since the 1960s occurred in all parts of the country. Papers which presented analyses of fertility determinants, based on sample survey data, provided little useful insight for policy formulation. The studies indicate that the impact of family planning services on different segments of the population varies, and that these impacts may be increased if social and economic development persists. The preception of the population problem by the government was revised several times during the last 30 years, and policies through the years reflected these changed perceptions. Until the mid-1960s family growth needed to be controlled, the government did not adopt antinatalist policies. Finally in 166 a national family program was implemented, but the program suffered from poor organization and administration and the apathy of top officials. In 1973 the program was restructured and decentralized. There is still considerable disagreement concerning the relative merits of controlling population growth. Scientific findings can be useful in clarigying preceptions of the causes and consequences of population growth. Findings indicate that the government is justified in its efforts to reduce population growth. If growth is slowed, there will be more resources available for development. The cause of many of Egypt's problems is population growth. There are indications that the population is favorably disposed to accept family planning, but identified numerous deficiencies in the program. There is more relevant knowledge available to policy makers in Egypt than in many other countries; however, there is insufficient information for formulating policies aimed at promoting local participation. A number of questions, which must be answered before effective policies in this area can be formulated, were raised. PMID:12313461

  7. Evaluation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic species of Suez Gulf water along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nabila A; Ahmed, Omayma E; Doheim, Mamdouh M

    2014-02-01

    The Egyptian Red Sea environment especially along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries (Suez) is severely contaminated with organic compounds, as well as overfishing. This may be well contributory to recent serious declines in fish stocks. Fish embryos are also particularly vulnerable to oil exposure, even at extremely low concentrations of less than one part per billion. Consequently, even traces of oil pollution at levels often considered safe for wildlife can cause severe damage to fish. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in ten fish species of aquatic species by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples were measured in order to use them as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollutants in the studied region. The total content of these16 PAHs ranged from 399.616 up to 67,631.779 ng/g wet weight. The data show that these values are considered to be alarmingly high enough to cause lethal toxicity effect by accumulation. All studied aquatic species samples are characterized by relatively high concentrations of the six-membered ring PAHs. The origin of PAHs in the collected samples is either petrogenic, biogenic, or mixed petrogenic and biogenic. PMID:24092254

  8. 3 FIELD SQUADRON, SAEC (PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Van Zyl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1884 when Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal became a member of the French Academy, he was welcomed by Ernest Renan. In his speech Renan remarked that not only had two inland seas been connected, but the site of a future battlefield had been marked. During the Second World War his prediction came true when control of the Middle East became of utmost importance for the continuation of the Allied war effort: the economic blockade of Europe and the defence of Allied oil supplies depended on the Allies retaining Egypt and control of the Suez Canal.

  9. Computed tomography of the thoracic canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 100. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th1, Th2 levels and round at Th3-Th10 and large oval at Th11, Th12. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (authiagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (author)

  10. Approaches to healing in Roman Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Draycott, Jane Louise

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the healing strategies utilised by the inhabitants of Egypt during the Roman period (from the late first century BC to the fourth century AD) in order to investigate how Egyptian, Greek and Roman customs and traditions interacted within the province. It explores the symbiotic relationship between 'professional' and 'amateur' medical practice within Egypt, and examines the ways in which three particularly well-attested health problems - eye complaints, febrile conditions a...

  11. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoono...

  12. Breast cancer in Egypt: a fact sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Zawilla N

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor among women. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women; 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people.

  13. Radiocarbon-based chronology for dynastic Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Fiona Brock; Mr Michael Dee; Prof Christopher Ramsey

    2010-01-01

    The historical chronologies for dynastic Egypt are based on reign lengths inferred from written and archaeological evidence. These floating chronologies are linked to the absolute calendar by a few ancient astronomical observations, which remain a source of debate. We used 211 radiocarbon measurements made on samples from short-lived plants, together with a Bayesian model incorporating historical information on reign lengths, to produce a chronology for dynastic Egypt. A small offset (19 radi...

  14. Report on Highly Skilled Migration in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Badawy, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the relevant laws that cover the migration of highly skilled persons who originate from, or settle in, Egypt. Highly skilled foreign nationals with unique professional skills are given advantages (in investment, property ownership for investors and taxation) that make their settlement in Egypt relatively easy when compared to the treatment given to non-skilled foreign workers. Non-skilled workers usually do not obtain work permits, they are employed in the i...

  15. Application of thorium-normalized airborne radio-spectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sadek, M.A. E-mail: elsadek_eg@yahoo.com

    2002-07-01

    A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt.

  16. Application of thorium-normalized airborne radio-spectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt

  17. Application of thorium-normalized airborne radiospectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sadek, Mohamed A

    2002-07-01

    A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area. North-eastern Desert, Egypt. PMID:12137020

  18. Nuclear desalination in Egypt: activities and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of freshwater resources in Egypt is the River Nile. The Egyptian share of the Nile water was limited to 55.5x109 m3/year in the Nile Water Treaty concluded with Sudan in 1959. Due to the rapid population growth, the annual per capita freshwater resources declined from 2560 m3 in 1955 to 970 m3 in 1995. Consequently, desalination plants of various sizes and technologies have been introduced to Egypt in the past three decades. The Egyptian desalination inventory increased from less than 2000 m3/day in 1970 to almost 175000 m3/day in 1997, of which 54% was seawater desalination. The energy-intensive seawater desalination technologies are expected to play an increasing role in mitigating future potable water deficit in Egypt. Egypt has been considering for a number of years the introduction of nuclear energy to meet the combined challenge of increasing electricity and water demand on one hand and the limited primary energy and water resources on the other hand. In this regard, Egypt has been carrying a number of national, regional and international activities. This paper presents an overview of the Egyptian activities in the field of nuclear desalination including, feasibility studies and Research and Development activities. The results of recent studies are presented regarding: quantification of seawater desalination market in Egypt and preliminary economic assessment of potable water production by various combinations of energy sources and desalination processes proposed for El-Dabaa site. (author)

  19. Uplift and subsidence of the Suez rift: Constraints from fission-track analysis and sediment backstripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckler, M.S.; Omar, G.I.; Buck, W.R. (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (USA))

    1988-08-01

    The Gulf of Suez is a Neogene rift that has evolved as one arm of the Sinai triple junction. The basement uplifts flanking the rift are larger than can be explained by uniform lithospheric extension. The timing of the regional heating required by the uplift has important implications for hydrocarbon maturation for the Gulf of Suez and rifts in general. The local geology indicates that the uplift did not predate rifting. Therefore, a regional subsidence and two-dimensional backstripping of the rift sediments were undertaken in conjunction with fission track analyses of the basement uplift. The initial rift deposits (Nukhul Formation) indicate slow extension during the earliest Miocene. The extension rate increased at the beginning of the deposition of the Rudeis Formation at approximately 19 Ma as the Gulf of Suez entered its main phase of rifting. By the end of the deposition of the Kareem Formation (approximately 14-15 Ma), most of the Africa-Arabia separation had transferred to the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform. In order to determine the onset of the rift flank uplift relative to the rift history, 55 apatite fission track analyses were performed on samples from the basement of the eastern desert, on the western side of the rift. Apatite fission tracks record the thermal history of the samples for temperatures up to 125{degree}c. Apparent ages range from 382 to 11 Ma representing samples that have undergone various degrees of track annealing. Track length distributions clearly show the fading of tracks acquired prior to uplift in more deeply buried samples and the accumulation of long unannealed tracks subsequent to unroofing. The pattern of the track length vs. age distribution indicates that major uplift began simultaneously with the main phase of rifting at 19-20 Ma.

  20. Egypt : Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often viewed as insular disciplines, with their own special history and set of material remains. The kinds of theoretically informed approaches and analyses with which the wider archaeological discipline has engaged over the past decades has often been viewed with scepticism, in terms of what it has to offer to a discipline whose historical materials seem to be so rich and varied. The reason for this study is to challenge such insularity and to demonstrate the utility of integrating theoretical ideas with specific studies of ancient Egyptian material. The chapters in this volume explore a variety of ancient and modern Egyptian material and practices, from a wide range of prehistoric and historical periods, entwining interpretation of source material with explicitly theoretical approaches to provide new perspectives and interpretations of aspects of the Ancient Egyptian past. This volume is one of the first to demonstrate the emerging interdisciplinary nature in Ancient Egyptian studies and the first to suggest new avenues of approach whilst seeking to open a discussion about how the Egyptian past can be known and understood. The book engages with wider trends from the humanities, which have found currency in archaeological studies, such as materiality, performativity, corporeality, embodiment, identity, and popular culture studies. Egyptian material is explored via these themes, to create nuanced and contextual interpretations of particular sites, events, artefacts and practices. Egypt: Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies makes an important contribution to furthering the fields of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology, as well as in the wider context of archaeological theory.

  1. Spit complexes along the eastern coast of the gulf of Suez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneh, A.; Friedman, G. M.

    1984-05-01

    North to south longshore transport of well-sorted ooids in the northern part of the Gulf of Suez and of well-sorted quartz-feldspar particles, peloids and ooids in the southern part, results in the build up of hook-shaped spits. These spits protect coastal lagoons which become a trap for terrigenous mud. At first seasonally flooded sabkhas are formed, and eventually true supratidal sabkhas develop. Contemporaneously, spits are further developed seaward at the rate of several tens of meters during an active season.

  2. Maturation and depositional environments of crude oils from the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sabagh, S.M.; Al-Afaleq, E.I. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-08-01

    Crude oil samples from the major producing fields in the Gulf of Suez were geochemically assessed to evaluate maturity, origin and depositional environmental trends. Multiple analytical parameters used to characterize the petroleum samples included asphaltene content, sulfur content, liquid chromatographic separation, and gas chromatography of the saturated hydrocarbons fractions. From the results obtained, it was suggested that the crude oils are mature. Also, no strong evidence of biodegradation has been observed. Distribution of n-alkanes indicated that the crude oils are derived mainly from marine sedimentary source rocks. Pristane/phytane ratio of the crude oils seemed to be mostly below unity, indicating reducing depositional environments. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Distribution of Different Organotin and Organolead Compounds in Sediment of Suez Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Shreadah, Mohamed A.; Said, Tarek O.; Abd El Ghani, Safaa A.; Ahmed, Abd El Moniem M.

    2011-01-01

    Organotin and organolead compounds were determined in sediments of the Suez Gulf The concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT) ranged from 0.27 to 2.77 with an average value of 1.37 µgg-1; dry wt. However, the concentrations of dibutyltin (DBT) ranged from 0.07 to 2.27 with an average value of 0.58 µgg-1; dry wt. A significant correlation was found between TBT and DBT with r = 0.82, (p = 0.05) indicating that the occurrence of DBT is mainly related to...

  4. Depositional setting and hydrocarbon source potential of the Miocene Gulf of Suez syn-rift evaporites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.; Arthur, M.A.; Quinn, J.S.; Whelan, J.K.; Katz, B.J. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett (USA))

    1988-08-01

    The Red Sea rift basin and its northern continuation, the Gulf of Suez, has experienced continuous deposition of marine evaporites throughout much of its development from the early Miocene to the Pliocene resulting in the accumulation of up to 5 km of evaporite strata in the rift. In this paper, the geologic history of these evaporites are discussed, along with their petroleum source rock potential. The authors hypothesize that rapid deposition of organic matter occurred during episodic storms and freshening events in which a less saline surface layer developed.

  5. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  6. Anterior canal BPPV and apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV: two rare forms of vertical canalolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Califano, L.; Salafia, F.; Mazzone, S.; Melillo, M. G.; Califano, M.

    2014-01-01

    Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent form of BPPV. It is characterized by a paroxysmal positioning nystagmus evoked through Dix-Hallpike and Semont positioning tests. Anterior canal BPPV (AC) is more rare than posterior canal BPPV; it presents a prevalent down beating positioning nystagmus, with a torsional component clockwise for the left canal, counterclockwise for the right canal. Due to the possible lack of the torsional component, it is sometim...

  7. Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.

  8. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ...Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION...Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of...

  9. Rehabilitation of GUPCO's massive and aged pipeline infrastructure in the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaraldi, S.; Abdallah, A.; Attia, A.M.; El-Leil, H.A.; Bedair, S.; Konecki, M.; Lain, A. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-10-01

    The Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company (GUPCO) is an Egyptian General Petroleum Co/BP Amoco plc joint venture oil and gas production company which operates about 1,600 km of pipelines in the Gulf of Suez (GOS). This massive system incorporates 281 individual lines which carry produced oil/water, multi-phase production, injection water, and low/high pressure injection gas between 100 offshore platforms and several onshore processing and waterflood plants. Although a few of the pipelines date back to the 1960s, most were installed in the 1970s and 1980s. The integrity of these pipelines is critical in maintaining GUPCO's current GOS oil production rates of about 300,000 bpd. Following a series of alarming oil trunkline failures, a multi-disciplinary effort was initiated to rectify shortcomings. The resultant findings of this team are discussed, particularly regarding the predominant microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC) failure mechanism. The semi-quantitative risk analysis approach developed to target pipelines for corrective actions is reviewed, along with the subsequent maintenance strategies and tactics adopted for pipeline rehabilitation and integrity assurance. These involve heavy refurbishment pigging, routine pigging/chemical treatments, selective smart pig inspections, and improved condition monitoring. Technical and economic difficulties in enacting the programme are cited and successes to date are discussed. Finally, a possible future role for emerging new de-souring technologies is proposed.

  10. Integrated geophysical analysis of subsalt imaging problems in the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, G.G.; Young, K.T.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated geophysical approach resulted in improved images of subsalt reflectors in the Gulf of Suez. These improvements resulted from an improved understanding of subsalt imaging problems in the Gulf. This understanding allowed us to develop processing techniques which limited the effect of these imaging problems. We analyzed the impact of the following subsalt imaging problems on Gulf of Suez seismic data: (1) strong contamination by multiples, (2) weak subsalt reflection strength, and (3) strong raypath distortion. Seismic modeling was used to simulate these effects for two study areas. In both areas the exploration target is hydrocarbons trapped in tilted extensional fault blocks in the prevaporite section. In the first area, the evaporite section is predominantly horizontally layered and there is a hard water bottom. The major imaging problems in this setting are strong water - bottom related multiples and weak reflection strength. We developed a dip - dependent scaling procedure which enhanced preevaporite reflections for both synthetic and real data. In the second area, there has been significant deformation of the evaporite section to form salt walls. In this setting, raypath distortion is the dominant imaging problem, although both of the other factors are also significant. Here we used prestack depth migration to image preevaporite fault blocks which had not been imaged using other techniques.

  11. Surface expression of an accommodation zone within the Gulf of Suez rift, Egyp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, D.Q.; Schamel, S. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The Gebel Gharamul region in the western Gulf of Suez offers an excellent outcrop example of the structural geometries associated with an accommodation zone termination. The surface expression of the accommodation zone is dominated by a basement promontory, which protrudes from the rift shoulder and underlies the junction of oblique ramps from two adjacent half-grabens, both of which face the Gulf of Suez. The southern half-graben represents the breakaway fault of the southwest-dipping tilt-block domain, and the northern half-graben represents the collapse of the upper plate above the northeast-dipping tilt-block domain. Basement and Nubian rocks in the hanging walls above the opposing low-angle detachments on either side of the accommodation zone are broken by gulf-parallel synthetic normal faults an orthogonal transfer faults, which act as block terminations and incrementally accommodate the large-scale rotation and displacement between adjacent blocks. The prerift and synrift stratigraphic succession is draped over this fault template, resulting in a complex and variable distribution of structures, the product of an inhomogeneous stratigraphic succession with an accommodation zone.

  12. Mid-clysmic event, Gulf of Suez rotational deformation associated with a deep crustal detachment fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigano, P.L.; Patton, T.L. (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, Cairo (Egypt))

    1988-08-01

    Dip relationships at the boundaries of three stratigraphic packages (one prerift and two synrift) in the Gulf of Suez suggest that the early stages of structural development in the Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into two phases. Synrift sediments deposited in the first phase of deformation (prerotation units) demonstrate only minor angular discordance with the underlying pre-Miocene (prerift stratigraphy). Synrift sediments deposited in the second phase of deformation (rotation units) show marked angular discordance and onlapping relationships with underlying units. The authors propose that the prerotation units were deposited during a period of basin-wide, generally vertical subsidence which was accommodated by slip on numerous, oppositely dipping normal faults. As subsidence continued, faults with similar dip directions began to work in unison and dominate the deformation of portions of the rift, causing faults with other orientations to play a lesser role or to become inactive. Minor rotations occurred during this phase of deformation. The rotational phase of deformation initiated as major faults propagated downward to and merged with a major detachment surface at depth. As extension continued, rotation of large, fault-bound blocks along deep seated listric faults resulted in the exposure and erosion of both pre-Miocene and prerotation units along the updip segments of the blocks. Sediments deposited during the rotational phase of deformation transgressed the backs of these rotated blocks and were laid down in angular discordance with the underlying units.

  13. Scale deposition in surface and subsurface production equipment in the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hattab, M.I.

    1985-09-01

    Some of the Gulf of Suez oil fields (El-Morgan, July, and Shoab Ali) have been waterflooded with gulf seawater. Compatibility tests have indicated probable deposition of scale in surface and subsurface production equipment. This paper outlines the physical and theoretical prediction for downhole scale deposition in Gulf of Suez oil wells. It also describes field experience with CaSO/sub 4/ scale removal from the wells and their formations in view of field results of the implemented programs. Scale inhibition programs carried out to control downhole scale deposition by using the formation squeeze technique, along with the field results obtained from the squeezetreated wells, are described. A new improvement in the squeeze treatment technique has been introduced as highmolecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer solutions were incorporated to stage the scale inhibitor squeeze batch to prolong the treatment lifetime. Field results are presented, along with conclusions and recommendations that can be applied to similar problems, especially when wells of highly productive sandstone formations are to be inhibited.

  14. The Role of USAID in Development in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Sayed Moawad

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuses the role of USAID in the development process in Egypt. It discusses the USAID role in Egypt in some sectors with more focus on USAID/Egypt economic growth, more specifically the Technical Assistance for policy Reform II (TAPRII). I will discuss the items of the program that made the environment conducive to trade and investment.

  15. Heat flow measurements in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, P. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces); Blackwell, D.D.; Boulos, F.K.

    1976-12-01

    Temperature measurements in recent mineral exploration boreholes allow the first heat flow estimates to be made for Egypt. Gradients ranging from 15.6 to 32.0 mK m/sup -1/ have been determined from 22 boreholes at 4 locations in the Eastern Desert, and a range of 18.0 to 18.5 mK m/sup -1/ was measured in 3 boreholes at a single locality in the Western Desert. Uncorrected heat flow values have been estimated from these gradients and are considered to be reliable to within +-20 percent. Heat flow values for the localities in the Eastern Desert are as follows: Neweibi (25/sup 0/ 12'N; 34/sup 0/ 31'E) 60 mW m/sup -2/ (1.4 hfu); Abu Dabab (25/sup 0/ 21'N; 34/sup 0/ 33'E) 85 mW m/sup -2/ (2.0 hfu); Sukkari (24/sup 0/ 57'N; 34/sup 0/ 43'E) 55 mW m/sup -2/ (1.3 hfu); Abu Ghalga (-24/sup 0/ 20'N; -34/sup 0/ 55'E) 37 mW m/sup -2/ (.9 hfu). Except Abu Ghalga, these localities are all in granitic Precambrian Basement rocks, and indicate significantly high heat flow in the Precambrian of Egypt bordering the Red Sea. Abu Ghalga is in gabbroic Basement rocks, and estimates indicate that thermal refraction may reduce the heat flow by as much as 20 percent at this site. The high heat flow is associated with microseismic activity and is thought to be related to the opening of the Red Sea. Heat flow at the single locality in the Western Desert (Abu Tartur: 25/sup 0/ 26'N; 30/sup 0/ 02'E) was measured in Palaeocene sediments, and is estimated to be 42 mW m/sup -2/ ( 1.0 hfu). This value is consistent with other heat flow determinations from stable African shield and platform areas, and is in agreement with heat flow values of 42 to 47 mW m/sup -2/ (1.0 to 1.1 hfu) for the northern Western Desert, estimated using temperature data from oil wells.

  16. Thermal history of the eastern margin of the Gulf of Suez, I. reconstruction from borehole temperature and organic maturity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, S.; Kohn, B. P.; Steckler, M. S.; Eyal, M.

    1996-12-01

    The Gulf of Suez is a Tertiary continental rift associated with prominent flank uplift. Despite numerous studies which focused mainly on the western and central parts of the graben, the thermo-mechanics controlling the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Suez is still enigmatic. We have integrated borehole temperatures and organic maturity measurements in the eastern margin of the Gulf of Suez, in order to study rift-related paleothermometry and the present-day thermal regime. The data obtained suggest that the present thermal regime represents the maximum heat flow and temperatures for the sedimentary section in the basin. Furthermore, lateral distributions of geothermal gradient and heat flow in the Gulf of Suez do not correlate, mainly because of extensive variability in lithology and thermal conductivity. Rift-related heat flow increases systematically and subparallel to the rift axis, from about 60 mW/m 2 in the Darag subbasin in the north to about 80 mW/m 2 in the Ras Garra area in the south. Both values are higher than 45 mW/m 2, the average heat flow assumed for the pre-rift stage and the characteristic level for the present-day heat flow away from the rift. The north to south increase in heat flow probably reflects the southward increase of extension as well as lateral transfer of heat flow from the Red Sea. This latter conclusion is supported by the fact that heat flow in the southern Gulf of Suez recorded by the paleothermometric reconstructions and borehole temperature data is somewhat higher than that estimated by model calculations for the extension derived from structural and subsidence reconstruction.

  17. Depositional environments and sequence architecture of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), west central Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Tarek I.; El-Shahat, Adam; Genedi, Adel; Grammer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Cenomanian-Turonian deposits are important reservoirs for many oil fields in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez region of Egypt. Study of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), from five dip-oriented outcrop locations in west central Sinai; indicates deposition of a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system on a ramp setting. The inner ramp facies (bivalve and benthonic foraminiferal wackestone) grades northward to the mid ramp facies (echinoderm calcisphere packstone, and oyster floatstone), and outer ramp facies (planktonic foraminiferal wackestone and calcisphere wackestone). The two studied formations comprise one second-order depositional sequence (duration of approximately 10 Million years). This large scale sequence includes four third-order depositional sequences, three of which are observed in the Raha Formation, with the other one recorded in the Abu Qada Formation. Because west central Sinai was tectonically stable during the Cenomanian and Turonian, the main factor controlling the lateral and vertical distribution of facies tracts is likely due to changes in the relative sea level. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event is known as the largest oceanic anoxic event during the Cretaceous. This global event has been documented in three of the studied sections. The recorded ?13C excursions range from +3.04‰ to +5.24‰. These high positive excursions in ?13C are associated with highly negative values of ?18O (values range from -6.01‰ to -1.38‰).

  18. Iraqi Refugees in Egypt: Socio-Political Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Howaida

    2009-01-01

    (En) In the last two decades, Egypt has become host to many different kinds of migrants from both North and South. In the 1990s, Egypt witnessed a massive inflow from Africa, while the Iraqi migration began after the American-led invasion in 2003. This paper looks at the situation of Iraqi refugees in Egypt, and tackles; first, the causes of Iraqi migration in Egypt and trends within that migration; second, the living conditions of Iraqis in Egypt including the question of access to servic...

  19. Northeast Egypt as seen from STS-58

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This oblique view, looking northeast from central Egypt, shows great expanses of the sand covered and rocky Western Desert in the foreground (bottom). The dark patches bottom right are the Dakhla Oases on the south side of an escarpment. The northern half of Egypt's Nile appears here, from about the latitude of Luxor to the delta. Green colors indicate the small area of crops which feed Egypt's population of 55 million. The Nile Delta is partly obscured by a band of clouds, but can be discerned at the coast as a flattened triangle of green. The smaller triangle close by is the Falyum Basin, a depression irrigated by water from the Nile. The coast of the Mediterranean Sea appears left.

  20. The petromastoid canal on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51±0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57±0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63±0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can ehe images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

  1. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)

  2. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  3. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  4. Geodynamic of the Gulf of Suez-Red Sea rifting and origin of within plate magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, A. I.; El-Kaliouby, B. A.

    1992-04-01

    This study is an attempt to follow up the overall picture of the geologic processes of the "Wilson Cycle" in the Gulf of Suez Red Sea region. A plate-tectonic model is suggested covering the Pan-African collisional tectonics, post-Pan-African magmatism in space and time, and rifting stages in the Red Sea region. Field relations, petrography, and petrochemistry of the Tertiary basalt sheets of Abu Zenima area, Sinai, have been studied and correlated with some petrochemical data of Phanerozoic magmatic activities in the Red Sea region. The sequence of events of the tectonics and magmatic activities in the Gulf of Suez-Red Sea rift system may belong to six stages post Pan-African orogeny: (1) Paleozoic-Cretaceous continental bimodal alkaline magmatism resulting from the sinking of detached subducted oceanic plates, in the late stages of the Pan-African collisional tectonics. Consequently causing convection currents around them and partial melting of a deep undepleted mantle source; (2) Paleogene crustal doming and stretching as a result of asthenosphere upwelling activated by a long period of (? 300 m.y.) within plate alkaline magmatism; (3) Late Oligocene fissure-eruption of transitional (T-type MORBs) plateau basalts, dykes and sills on a regional scale. The transitional character of this basaltic activity is attributed to the soaking of the asthenosphere, during its slow upwelling, in the rising alkaline magmatism; (4) Early Miocene narrow long continental rifting in the Gulf of Suez-Red Sea region, probably due to a thermal contraction process resulting from the eruption of the Tertiary transitional, fissure-eruption basalts in large volumes from the upwelled asthenosphere; (5) Initiation of crustal separation of the very early stage of seafloor spreading, which is most probably characterized by mafic igneous rocks underplating of the crustal faulted blocks by dyke injection and related plutonic rocks; (6) Pliocene oceanic rifting and seafloor spreading generating N-type MORBs in the central parts of the Red Sea axial trough. In this stage, subsidence of the Red Sea passive marging could be due to a second stage of thermal contraction resulting from the extrusion and crystallization of asthenosphere material to construct the new oceanic crust.

  5. Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

  6. Scanning electron microscope observation of canal cleanliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, E; Machtou, P; Friedman, S

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleansing efficiency of three root canal preparation techniques. The distal root canals of mandibular molars, divided into three groups of four teeth each, were prepared according to the following techniques: manual (serial), ultrasonic (Cavi-Endo), and automated (Canal Finder). The canal wall surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope at three levels. No preparation technique was found to result in any characteristic microscopic features that distinguished it from the other techniques. The lack of such differences makes it impossible to establish objective criteria for comparing these techniques in terms of root canal cleanliness. It was established that even canals that appeared to be clean included areas coated with smear layer and having uninstrumented areas and even pulpal tissue debris. PMID:2074426

  7. Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture by using a cadaver vertebra. EMI, CT 5005 scanner was used. Best condition to observe the thoracic canal by CT was nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permited within about 100 in configuration and dimention. Configuration of 10 normal thoracic canals at each vertebral level was assessed and the dimentions of the canal at these levels were measured. In the cases of developmental cervical stenosis, the thoracic canal showed narrow especially in sagittal diameter. On the other hand it did not show marked difference in transverse diameter. In 4 cases of ossification of the yellow ligament treated surgically, 3 cases showed narrow thoracic canal on CT scan and narrow cervical canal in conventional radiographs. (author)

  8. Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Adeyeye, John O; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks governed by Boolean nested canalizing functions, which previously required extensive simulations. Recently, the concept of nested canalizing functions has been generalized to include multistate functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper contains a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. In addition, the concept of nested canalization is further generalized and closed formulas for the number of such generalized fun...

  9. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

  10. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuan; Adeyeye, John O.; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a concept inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular ...

  11. Surgical Approaches to the Hypoglossal Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Gabriel; Isaacson, Brandon; Yoshor, Daniel; Oghalai, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe and illustrate three distinct surgical approaches that permit exposure and resection of extradural, intradural, and transdural lesions involving the hypoglossal canal. Study design: Case series. Setting: University medical center. Patients: Four patients with lesions of the hypoglossal canal were reviewed to illustrate our philosophy when selecting a surgical approach to the hypoglossal canal. Interventions: Three separate surgical approaches were used to approach lesio...

  12. The petromastoid canal on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Weidner, J.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51{+-}0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57{+-}0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63{+-}0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

  13. The petromastoid canal on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombach, G A; Schmitz-Rode, T; Prescher, A; DiMartino, E; Weidner, J; Günther, R W

    2002-11-01

    The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51+/-0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57+/-0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63+/-0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. PMID:12386772

  14. Tumors in the facial nerve canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

  15. The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M.; Silcox, Mary T.; Walker, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are ag...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers

    OpenAIRE

    Vujaškovi? Mirjana; Radosavljevi? Branka

    2006-01-01

    All root canal sealers should have antimicrobial activity so that they could act against any remaining bacteria after root canal obturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five root canal sealers: AH26, a resin based paste; Apexit, calcium hydroxide based paste; Endomethasone and Tubliseal, zinc oxide eugenol based materials and Ketac Endo Aplicap, glass ionomer based sealer. Matherials And Methods: Antimicrobial activity was tested against S. mutans 70C a...

  17. Sedimentological evidence for early Miocene fault reactivation in the Gulf of Suez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, John L.; Thunell, Robert C.; Schamel, Steven

    1988-02-01

    The sedimentary response to early Miocene fault reactivation and marginal uplift in the Gulf of Suez is strikingly evident within the Gemsa half-graben. This mid-Rudeis event occurred in the late Burdigalian (16.5 Ma) approximately 8 m.y. after the onset of rifting. In outcrop, complicated lateral facies transitions reflect the change from a ramped margin to a structurally controlled depositional environment. Angular unconformities and truncation mark this event atop marginal tilt-block crests. Distal downlapping sequences are present in adjacent topographic lows that acted as sand depocenters. Channels draining the rift margins acted as point sources for basinward alluvial-fan development. Sand-ratio isopach maps reveal the presence of four active upper Rudeis Formation fan systems within the Gemsa half-graben.

  18. Prospects for presence of oil in the coastal belt of the northeastern part of Suez Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Zarka, M.K.

    1968-01-01

    Results are given of a study of geological structure, stratigraphy, tectonics, exploration history, and oil prospects for the NE. section of the Gulf of Suez. A study of data from deep exploratory wells indicates that this entire area has favorable oil prospects. Recent discoveries of commercial production indicate that the entire interval from Cretaceous to Miocene may be productive. Especially promising are the Gabal Tanka area on the north and the Abu Kurba area on the south, where numerous shows of crude oil are found at the surface. There is also considerable interest in production from the Miocene, which has not been explored sufficiently. At present time, maximum depth drilled in this area has been 2,440 m. There is need for more deep exploratory drilling in this area.

  19. Gulf of Suez-Rift basin stratigraphy: an interplay of subsidence and Eustatic sea level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.; Arthur, M.A.

    1987-05-01

    The Gulf of Suez and Red Sea rift basin underwent a period of rapid subsidence from the early Miocene to the Pliocene during which time a thick (up to 4 km) series of marine evaporites accumulated within the basin. The evaporitic sequence interfingers with carbonates and clastics over structural highs within and along the margins of the basin. Evaporite deposition was also interrupted basin wide by short periods of normal marine sedimentation. Timing and paleo-oceanographic aspects of evaporite deposition within the rift is controversial. A change over of marine source waters within the basin from the Mediterranean Sea to an opening of the rift to the Indian Ocean occurred sometime between the earliest Messinian and earliest Pliocene. Preliminary data suggests that anhydrites from this evaporite sequence retain original Miocene sea water Sr/sup 87//Sr/sup 86/ values which can be compared to Neogene strontium isotope versus time curves in order to further constrain the age of the nonfossiliferous evaporite group. This, combined with currently accepted biostratigraphies for the normal marine strata, enable us to refine rift stratigraphy in order to examine basin subsidence, evaporite accumulation rates, and the correlation of rift tectonics, sedimentation, and associated paleo-oceanographic events. Initial fragmentation and subsidence propagated from the south to the north in the Gulf of Suez during the Aquitanian to Burdigalian (20-25 Ma), and mixed clastic, carbonate, and evaporitic sediments (Nukhul Formation) up to 700 m thick were deposited in isolated subbasins within the rift. This episode was followed by renewed uplift of the rift shoulders, rapid subsidence, and increased clastic influx (late Rudeis Formation) during the Burdigalian (ca. 20-17 Ma).

  20. Water Resources Management: Alarming Crisis for Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa El Bedawy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important inputs for economic development and sustainable development; as the demandincreases, so too does the importance of water. The future looks miserable if Egypt does not succeed in formulatingand implementing water resources management approach which can match the limited freshwater supply with theincreasing demand. This study intended to shed the light on the future water status in Egypt based on the currentstatus of the available water resources, the water demand, the institutional and legislative frameworks of watermanagement, adding to shed the light on the strategies and policies to rationalize water use and to augment watersupply. This study intended to explore how Egypt will safeguard its water resources in the future, both with respectto quantity and quality and how it will use these resources in the best way. Recommendations to help overcomeanticipated water challenges and to optimize the available opportunities were provided in this worthwhile study asknowledge of Egyptian water resource planning is presently very limited and largely undocumented. Hence, thechallenges and opportunities were discussed in order to support the decision-making process concerned withwater resources management as an essential prerequisite for Egypt sustainable development. The future scenariosthat introduce the future challenges, using the available opportunities, were investigated and recommendations tohelp overcome the future challenges were presented.

  1. Investigating ancient Memphis, Pharaonic Egypt's northern capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jeffreys

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1981 the London-based Egypt Exploration Society has been conducting an archaeological survey of the site of Memphis and its surrounding area. The present field director of the project describes some of the aims and results of the most recent phases of the survey.

  2. Review of parasitic zoonoses in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed I; Uga, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  3. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  4. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  5. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section 550...550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding...basic pay as a Panama Canal Commission employee; (3) The position...

  6. The epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt: Assiut governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammam, H M; Allam, F A; Moftah, F M; Abdel-Aty, M A; Hany, A H; Abd-El-Motagaly, K F; Nafeh, M A; Khalifa, R; Mikhail, N N; Talaat, M; Hussein, M H; Strickland, G T

    2000-02-01

    In the Assiut, Egypt Epidemiology 1, 2, 3 investigation, a sample of 14,204 persons in 10 villages, 31 ezbas (satellite communities), and 2,286 households was drawn from a rural population of 1,598,607. Parasitologic examination of urine and stool were made for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni, and physical and ultrasound examinations were made on a 20% subsample. The overall estimated prevalence of S. haematobium was 5.2 +/- 0.5 (+/- SE). This varied considerably by village and ezba, ranging from 1.5% to 20.9%, with ezbas having a slightly higher overall prevalence than villages. The overall estimated geometric mean egg count was 6.6 +/- 0.5 eggs per 10 ml of urine and was consistently low throughout the communities. Infection with S. haematobium was associated with age (peak prevalence of 10.6 +/- 1.5% in 15-19-year-old age group) males, children playing in the canals, a history of blood in the urine, and reagent strip positivity for hematuria and proteinuria. The prevalence of either hepatomegaly or splenomegaly detected by physical examination was low (4.0% and 1.5%, respectively). The prevalence of hepatomegaly determined by ultrasonography was substantially higher, 24.1%. The prevalence of periportal fibrosis (PPF) was 12.0%, but grade II or III PPF was present in less than 1%. Ultrasonography-determined hepatomegaly, in both the midclavicular line and the midsternal line, increased by age to more than 30%. Periportal fibrosis was more common in the age groups in which infection rates were the highest. At the village and ezba level of analysis, the prevalence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and PPF tended to be higher in communities having the highest prevalence of infection with S. haematobium. PMID:10813503

  7. Immunization and primary health care in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, I Z

    1985-09-01

    The World Health organization's (WHO's) goal for its Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is the immunization of all children by 1990 against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, and measles. During the last 25-30 years considerable attention has been paid by the government of Egypt to aspects of primary health care, and immunization is being integrated into the country's basic health services. Precisely because of the principles of planning and implementation of this program, immunization has been made compulsory in Egypt for all children, and it is free of charge. This compulsory vaccination program was 1 of the reasons for the widespread establishment of basic health services in Egypt. The immunization program encourages the development of primary health care and the development of primary health care leads to better coverage and more perfection in the immunization of children against infectious diseases. An important element of any immunization program are the vaccines used. The vaccines must be potent, effective, safe, and readily available. The system of internal control of vaccines has been reorganized and strengthened in Egypt by the establishment of a national control laboratory for sera, vaccines, and biologicals. Another positive is the availability and production of vaccines. A country with a population of more than 20 or 30 million people may establish its own vaccine production facilities and thus become self-reliant in this respect. A prerequisite is the availability of well trained staff, suitable laboratories, and the presence of control laboratories. Egypt was fourtunate in this respect through the cooperation started in 1976 between the Netherlands government and the Egyptian government. PMID:4071636

  8. 78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ...Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' AGENCY: Department of State...to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The referenced notice is...in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad...

  9. Suez-Gaz de France merger, E.ON's public takeover bid on Endesa... The new energy fight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy sector is in fever. In less than a week (February 21 to 26, 2006), the Europe of energy has fallen into a frenzy of mergers and acquisitions: the German E.ON offered 29.1 billion euros to get the Spanish Endesa, Electricite de France (EdF), who already got the Italian Edison in 2005, is ready for more major acquisitions, the Italian Enel is candidate for the repurchasing of Suez, while Gaz de France (GdF) and Suez have started a surprise merger. The stake of this match between giants is their growing up and the penetration of foreign markets before their complete liberalization in July 2007. The potential victims of these actions are the competition and the clients, the industrial ones first. (J.S.)

  10. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  11. Footbridge over the Bruber canal

    OpenAIRE

    Sinanovic?, Adis

    2013-01-01

    The graduation thesis discusses the calculation and design of the footbridge over The Gruber Canal. The structure was designed by Jaša Sketelj, a graduate of the Faculty of Architecture. The bridge is designed as a steel space frame truss to which a concrete slab is attached, which gives an extra rigidity to the structure. Since the footbridge is very slender and light weight for the design of the footbridge the ultimate limit state is not critical, but serviceability limit state is. Pede...

  12. Hazards influencing coastal plains management along the Eastern stretch of the Gulf of Suez, Using remote sensing and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M. H.; Abdel-kader, O. H.; Kaiser, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    This research aims at to assess the impact of natural hazards on the human activities and development planning held along the eastern coastal stretch of the Gulf of Suez. Change detection technique was used in combined with geologic and topographic maps, GIS and field investigations to specify and categorize environmental hazards along the concerned area. This site is characterized by enormous natural resources, including hot vents in Hammam Faroun and Ayun Mousa, oil exploration and mineral ...

  13. Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt / Monitoramento de cistos parasitarios no cerebro de um rebanho de ovinos no Egito

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shehata, Anwar; Emad, Mahdy; Khalid Ali, El-Nesr; Khaled Mohamed, El-Dakhly; Adel, Shalaby; Tokuma, Yanai.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cistos cerebrais parasitários constituem um grande problema para o gado. Entre estes, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são predominantes. Aqui, um número total de 60 ovelhas obtidas em uma fazenda particular na província Suez, Egito, foram examinadas post-mortem para a detecção de cistos parasitários visív [...] eis e microscopicamente para detectar cistos de pequenas dimensões. A necropsia revelou cistos medindo entre 0,5-6,5 cm de diâmetro, preenchidos com um fluido transparente, contendo um grande número de protoscolices. Por conseguinte, os cistos foram identificados como o metacestóide Coenurus cerebralis. Entre as ovelhas examinadas, 11 animais (7 machos e 4 fêmeas) (18,3%) estavam infectados. A maior parte dos cistos estavam localizados nos hemisférios cerebrais, com números variando de um a três em ovinos infectados. O efeito da presença de cistos no tecido do cérebro foi avaliado. Histopatologicamente, pseudocistos de Toxoplasma gondii foram encontrados em dois animais sem reações inflamatórias detectáveis. Em conclusão, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são graves problemas parasitários que desempenham um papel significativo no manejo de ovelhas no Egito, como resultado do contacto íntimo dos animais com os cães e gatos, que desempenham um papel crítico no ciclo de vida desses parasitas. Abstract in english Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to dete [...] ct small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscolices. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites.

  14. Bilateral ear canal neoplasia in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Gila

    2005-08-01

    Bilateral ear canal infections are common in dogs. Ear canal neoplasia is usually associated with unilateral problems, and is uncommon in dogs. To the best of the author's knowledge, bilateral aural neoplasia has not been reported in dogs, and only four case reports were found in the human literature. This report presents three dogs that had bilateral tumours in their ear canals. They were presented with bilateral otitis externa. All three dogs exhibited tissue proliferation of both ear canals that did not respond to glucocorticoids. Treatment consisted of total ear canal ablation, and tissues were submitted for histopathological evaluation. Case # 1 (a 10-year-old, male cocker spaniel) was diagnosed as ceruminious gland carcinoma. Cases # 2 and 3 were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Case # 1 was diagnosed 4 years earlier as having keratinization disorder, which was causing its chronic ear problems. Case # 2 (a 5-year-old, female French bulldog) was diagnosed 4 years earlier as having atopic dermatitis, which did not respond to hyposensitization, and only partially responded to glucocorticoids therapy. Case # 3 (a 9-year-old, male German shepherd) was diagnosed by the referring veterinarian as having unilateral ear canal proliferation 2 months prior to presentation. However, otoscopic examination showed bilateral proliferation that obstructed both canals. In summary, bilateral ear canal neoplasia should be considered in cases of nonresponsive, proliferative aural pathology. PMID:16101799

  15. CANAL AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION AT MSIDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new canal automation system, known as SACMAN (Software for Automating Canal MANagement), has been developed at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in cooperation with Automata, Inc. through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. SACMAN works with a commercial Supervisory Control And ...

  16. Coupled effects of canal lining and multi-layered soil structure on canal seepage and soil water dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Liqiang; Feng, Shaoyuan; Mao, Xiaomin; Huo, Zailin; Kang, Shaozhong; Barry, David Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Ponding tests were conducted in the Shiyang River Basin in Northwest China to assess canal leakage characteristics. Four anti-seepage constructions (concrete lining, pebble lining, clay lining plus compacted canal bed, compacted canal bed only) were performed on four canal sections, which were situated in multi-layered soils. The canal sections were tested using a two-stage approach; first a stable water level was maintained followed by a stage where the water level in the canal section was p...

  17. Carcinoma of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many unresolved issues in the management of epidermoid anal canal cancer, although substantial progress has been made in gaining acceptance of techniques that preserve anal function. Resolution of the most basic questions would require formal comparisons of radical surgery, radiation therapy alone, and combined modality therapy. However, patients are unlikely to participate in studies in which one or more options would offer a chance to avoid a colostomy. Informal comparisons of published series suggest that modern radiation therapy and combined modality therapy give survival rates similar to those reported following radical surgery. Other questions being addressed include identification of optimal radiation techniques, detailed exploration of the mechanisms, efficacy, and toxicity of drug and radiation combinations, and identification of effective systemic chemotherapy. All studies are made difficult by the relative rarity of this tumor. Even without formal clinical trials, however, the series reported the use of either radiation therapy alone or combined modality therapy as the initial treatment for epidermoid anal canal carcinoma, thereby preserving anal function whenever possible and reserving radical surgery for the patient with residual carcinoma

  18. The labyrinthine portion of the facial canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variational radiographic anatomy of the labyrinthine portion of the facial canal was investigated in 200 plastic and silicone casts of unselected temporal bone specimens by means of multidirectional and computed tomography in different projections. The labyrinthine portion of the canal varied considerably in shape and size; in some specimens the cross-section was circular, but often the canal was crumpled and flattened in its passage above the cochlea. The medial part of the labyrinthine portion was narrowest, the lowest cross-sectional area being 0.5 mm2. In spite of optimal positioning of the specimen it was not always possible to reproduce the entire labyrinthine portion of the canal completely. Most difficult to reproduce were specimens with extremely small vertical diameters and marked caudal sloping of the canal. (orig.)

  19. Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sebaity DM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalia M El-Sebaity1, Wael Soliman1, Asmaa MA Soliman2, Ahmed M Fathalla11Department of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, EgyptPurpose: To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt.Methods: All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalmology Department of Assiut University between July 2009 and July 2010 were included in the study. The demographic data of all patients and characteristics of the injury events were determined. The initial visual acuity and final visual acuity after 3 months follow-up were recorded.Results: One hundred and fifty patients were included. The majority of injuries occurred in children aged 2–7 years (50.7%. There were 106 (70.7% boys and 44 (29.3% girls. The highest proportion of injuries occurred in the street (54.7% followed by the home (32.7%. Open globe injuries accounted for 67.3% of injuries, closed globe for 30.7%, and chemical injuries for 2%. The most common causes were wood, stones, missiles, and glass. LogMar best corrected visual acuity at 3 months follow-up was: 0–1 in 13.3%; <1–1.3 in 27.3%; <1.3–perception of light (PL in 56%; and no perception of light (NPL in 3.3%.Conclusions: Pediatric ocular trauma among patients referred to our tertiary ophthalmology referral center in Upper Egypt over a period of 1 year was 3.7%. Of these, 67.3% of cases had open globe injury, 30.7% had closed injury, and only 2% had chemical injury. In Upper Egypt, socioeconomic and sociocultural status, family negligence, and lack of supervision are important factors in pediatric eye injuries, as 92% of children were without adult supervision when the ocular trauma occurred. Nearly 86.6% of children with ocular trauma end up legally blind. Modification of these environmental risk factors is needed to decrease pediatric ocular morbidity.Keywords: ocular trauma, pediatric, epidemiology

  20. Using ArcGIS to Study the New Lakes in the Toshka Basin in Egypt and Evaluate Egypt's New Valley Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb Tewksbury

    In 1978, the Egyptians constructed a canal known as the Toshka Spillway from Lake Nasser into a low area to the west to allow spillover of Lake Nasser water. Despite the fact that the spillway was created in 1978, it wasn't until the late 1990s that Lake Nasser actually filled up to the level of the spillway canal and the overflow lakes began to form. In November of 1998, US astronauts orbiting in the Space Shuttle noticed the lakes filling for the first time, and they have had water in them ever since. Egypt has embarked on a long-term and far-reaching irrigation plan to create habitable land away from the Nile River Valley. The Toshka Lakes are not, however, a formal part of the project. One of the main points of the exercise is to have students use both their knowledge of Saharan hydrogeology and GIS analyses to evaluate whether the Egyptians are wise not to use the lakes as part of the proposed system of water distribution. In this exercise, students download and prepare their own SRTM DEMs and learn how to determine areas and volumes using ArcGIS. They can then ask questions and use ArcGIS to determine the answers. How much water is in the Toshka Lakes? What happens if Lake Nasser rises and more water flows down the canal? Will more lakes form, or will the lakes that are there just get bigger? How much water might be evaporating from the lake surfaces? How much water has to flow down the canal to keep the lakes at a particular level? What might happen as the annual Nile flood fluctuates from year to year? The document posted for downloading contains two homework assignments, two in-class activities, and a wrap-up assignment. You can also download a GIS Primer (Acrobat (PDF) 1.2MB Mar30 10) that we have written, which is a simple GIS "how-to" manual for tasks including those used in this exercise.

  1. Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Source Rock Evaluation of the Lower Miocene Rocks Based on Well Logs: October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Aref Lashin; Saad Mogren

    2012-01-01

    October oil field is one of the largest hydrocarbon-bearing fields which produces oil from the sand section of the Lower Miocene Asl Formation. Two marl (Asl Marl) and shale (Hawara Formation) sections of possible source enrichment are detected above and below this oil sand section, respectively. This study aims to identify the content of the total organic carbon based on the density log and a combination technique of the resistivity and porosity logs (?log R Technique). The available geoche...

  2. Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2013-07-15

    Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE-SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa-Hurghada coastal zone. PMID:23688834

  3. Coupled effects of canal lining and multi-layered soil structure on canal seepage and soil water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liqiang; Feng, Shaoyuan; Mao, Xiaomin; Huo, Zailin; Kang, Shaozhong; Barry, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryPonding tests were conducted in the Shiyang River Basin in Northwest China to assess canal leakage characteristics. Four anti-seepage constructions (concrete lining, pebble lining, clay lining plus compacted canal bed, compacted canal bed only) were performed on four canal sections, which were situated in multi-layered soils. The canal sections were tested using a two-stage approach: First, a stable water level was maintained; second, a stage where the water level in the canal section was permitted to drop. The canal seepage rate and the soil water content near the canal bed were monitored during each stage and in each canal section. Soil texture, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity were determined in each canal section and soil layer. Double ring infiltration tests were performed to investigate infiltration behaviour from the canal sections. The saturated-unsaturated flow model HYDRUS-2D was applied to simulate canal seepage and the local soil water response. The simulation results compared well with the monitored data, indicating that the model can reliably simulate canal seepage under these complex soil structures and different canal liners. Both experimental results and numerical modelling show that the clay lining plus compacted canal bed provides the best anti-seepage performance, followed by compacted canal bed only, then pebble and concrete lining. Simulation results also predicted that the soil water content was discontinuous at the interface of distinct soil layers, and that the range and form of wetting front varied greatly in the four canal sections, with a larger wetted area for the more permeable canal. Simulations were performed to study the sensitivity of canal seepage to the permeability of each soil layer and canal liner. The results, confirmed by the double-ring infiltration tests, indicated that the canal lining is not the only factor affecting canal seepage: The soil permeability can also influence the seepage, especially where there is a low permeability layer (e.g., compacted soil layer) close to the canal.

  4. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department...States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

  5. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  6. Controls on erosional retreat of the uplifted rift flanks at the Gulf of Suez and northern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Michael S.; Omar, Gomaa I.

    1994-06-01

    The Gulf of Suez and Red Sea rifts are currently bordered by large asymmetric uplifts that are undergoing erosion. We find that the amount and timing of erosion vary systematically along the strike of the margin and have been controlled by variations in the prerift stratigraphy. The prerift strata are composed of cliff-forming Eocene-Cretaceous carbonates overlying the easily eroded Cretacous-Cambrian "Nubian" sandstone. This lithologic succession promotes scarp retreat of the sedimentary section, followed by dissection of the underlying basement. The prerift section thins from over 2000 m at the northern end of the rift to less than 400 m at its junction with the Red Sea. Thus, at the northern part of the Gulf of Suez, the Nubian sandstone is minimally exposed, and the carbonates form a scarp at the rift border fault. Farther south, undercutting of the carbonates by erosion of the sandstone has resulted in scarp retreat. The escarpment cuts diagonally away from the border fault and is over 100 km inland from the border fault at the southernmost Gulf of Suez. The amount of retreat varies inversely with the sediment thickness. Exposure and erosion of basement are initiated by the retreat of the escarpment, and the depth of erosion, as indicated by fission track ages, increases with distance from the escarpment. These observations are explained by a model in which erosion along the Gulf of Suez is initiated as rift flank uplift becomes sufficiently large to expose the friable sandstones. Undercutting of the escarpment and exhumation of basement has been propagating northward and westward for at least 20 m.y. The average rate of scarp retreat has been 6 km/m.y. and the along-strike propagation of the erosion has been 12 km/m.y. The diachronous erosion of the the rift flanks at the Gulf of Suez highlights the importance of distinguishing between the timing of uplift and of erosion. Both thermochronometric and stratigraphic data primarily indicate the timing of erosion, which may differ significantly from the timing of the uplift that initiates it. They must be interpreted carefully to avoid erroneous conclusions about rift tectonics.

  7. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  8. Comparison of minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy and conventional thyroidectomy: a single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gouda Mohamed El-labban

    2010-01-01

    Gouda Mohamed El-labbanDepartment of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAim: We aimed to test the hypothesis that minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) affords comparable safety and efficacy as open conventional surgery in patients with unilateral thyroid nodules or follicular lesions in terms of cosmetic results, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative pain, and hospital stay.Methods: A single-blinded randomized...

  9. Retinopathy and risk factors in diabetic patients from Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sisi A; Shawky N; Mf, El-bab; Akhtar M

    2012-01-01

    Mohamed F El-Bab1, Nashaat Shawky2, Ali Al-Sisi3, Mohamed Akhtar31Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Faculty of Medicine, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, Egypt; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ohud Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by chronic and dangerous microvascular changes affecting most body systems, es...

  10. School effects on educational attainment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Menshawy

    2012-01-01

    Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data for Egypt in 2007, this paper examines the determinants and gender inequality of educational attainment (test scores in Mathematics and Science). The complicated structure of the data is carefully addressed during all stages of the analysis by employing plausible values and jackknife standard error technique to accommodate the measurement error of the dependant variable and the clustering of students in classes and schoo...

  11. Biosystematic studies on Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Khalik, K. N. E.

    2002-01-01

    The present work deals with a systematic investigation of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of the tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of the family Brassicaceae from Egypt. This work is largely based on herbarium material received on loan from B, BM, BR, E, HUJ, K, KSU, L, LY, NMGM, OXF & FHO and W, and collections kept in the following herbaria; B, CAI, CAIM, WAG and Sohag University Herbarium (SHG, proposed abbreviation). In addition, fresh materi...

  12. MERS coronaviruses in dromedary camels, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Daniel K W; Poon, Leo L M; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S; Siu, Lewis Y; Guan, Yi; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Peiris, Malik; Kayali, Ghazi

    2014-06-01

    We identified the near-full-genome sequence (29,908 nt, >99%) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a nasal swab specimen from a dromedary camel in Egypt. We found that viruses genetically very similar to human MERS-CoV are infecting dromedaries beyond the Arabian Peninsula, where human MERS-CoV infections have not yet been detected. PMID:24856660

  13. Inequality of Educational Opportunities in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire; Gignoux, Je?re?mie

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents inequalities in access to education and educational achievements at basic and secondary education levels in Egypt. Examination of three cohorts suggests that, although basic education has democratized, some inequities in access to general secondary and college education have persisted over the past two decades. The analysis of test-scores from TIMSS and national examinations over time shows that more than a quarter of learning outcome inequality is attributable to circums...

  14. Hezbollah’s Man in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Levitt

    2014-01-01

    In November 2008, Egyptian authorities broke up what they said was a Hezbollah network plotting attacks in Egypt. While some of the charges appear to have been exaggerated, and it is clear that not all those arrested were in fact Hezbollah operatives, a careful examination reveals that a Hezbollah network was, in fact, operating on Egyptian soil. That it was originally tasked with carrying out neither surveillance nor attacks makes the case all the more intriguing, especially when compared wi...

  15. Ophthalmic medicolegal cases in Upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Wasfy Ismail A; Ia, Wasfy Ehab; Aly Tarek A; Abd-Elsayed Alaa A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To describe the pattern of ophthalmic medicolegal cases with emphasis on cases of assault, and to acquaint ophthalmologists with rules pertaining to expert testimony and medical reports. Methods A retrospective study was carried out to review files of 247 medicolegal cases from Upper Egypt seen by the senior author in 8 years. These were classified categorically and were analyzed from various characteristics and aspects. The scheme for examination of subjects and for formulat...

  16. Typical solar radiation year for Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, M.A.M. (National Research Inst. of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)); Tadros, M.T.Y. (Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-01-01

    The Typical Solar Radiation Year (TSRY) for Egypt is generated by using daily data of global solar radiation obtained by measurements at 10 stations for long periods. Also, the hourly values of different components of solar radiation (direct, diffuse and global) over these 10 stations are estimated for the typical day (midday) of each month by applying empirical models and using the standard meteorological data for each station. (author)

  17. Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

  18. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. Rosalie, David.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Comprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que ac [...] tualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades Abstract in english The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are current [...] ly being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseases

  19. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosalie David

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are currently being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseasesComprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que actualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades

  20. Rinderpest surveillance in Egypt 1992/1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest control in Egypt has focussed for many years on the annual vaccination of all animals. In 1992 it was decided to vaccinate adult animals only twice and to cease vaccination of animals under the age of one year in an attempt to detect any circulating rinderpest virus. A national serological survey was undertaken to determine the level of immunity of cattle to rinderpest, linked with a serological and clinical survey of cattle and buffaloes under one year of age to determine if rinderpest virus was circulating in this population. At the same time a survey was undertaken of sheep and goats to determine if any serological evidence could be found of rinderpest virus in this group. The results show that levels of immunity in cattle are around 70% and in buffaloes around 50%. No substantive evidence could be found indicating the presence of rinderpest virus in cattle, buffalo, sheep or goats in Egypt. Based on the above it is appropriate that Egypt cease rinderpest vaccination and make the OIE declaration of provisional freedom from rinderpest. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  1. Anterior canal BPPV and apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV: two rare forms of vertical canalolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, L; Salafia, F; Mazzone, S; Melillo, M G; Califano, M

    2014-06-01

    Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent form of BPPV. It is characterized by a paroxysmal positioning nystagmus evoked through Dix-Hallpike and Semont positioning tests. Anterior canal BPPV (AC) is more rare than posterior canal BPPV; it presents a prevalent down beating positioning nystagmus, with a torsional component clockwise for the left canal, counterclockwise for the right canal. Due to the possible lack of the torsional component, it is sometimes difficult to identify the affected ear. An apogeotropic variant of posterior BPPV (APC) has recently been described, characterised by a paroxysmal positional nystagmus in the opposite direction to the one evoked in posterior canal BPPV: the linear component is down-beating, the torsional component is clockwise for the right canal, counter-clockwise for the left canal, so that a contra-lateral anterior canal BPPV could be simulated. During a 16 month period, of 934 BPPV patients observed, the authors identified 23 (2.5%) cases of apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV and 11 (1.2%) cases of anterior canal BPPV, diagnosed using the specific oculomotor patterns described in the literature. Anterior canal BPPV was treated with the repositioning manoeuvre proposed by Yacovino, which does not require identification of the affected side, whereas apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV was treated with the Quick Liberatory Rotation manoeuvre for the typical posterior canal BPPV, since in the Dix-Hallpike position otoliths are in the same position if they come either from the ampullary arm or from the non-ampullary arm. The direct resolution of BPPV (one step therapy) was obtained in 12/34 patients, 8/23 patients with APC and 4/11 patients with AC; canalar conversion into typical posterior canal BPPV, later treated through Quick Liberatory Rotation (two-step therapy), was obtained in 19 patients,14/23 with APC and 5/11 with AC. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Considering the effects of therapeutic manoeuvres, the authors propose a grading system for diagnosis of AC and APC: "certain" when a canalar conversion in ipsilateral typical posterior canal BPPV is obtained; "probable" when APC or AC are directly resolved; "possible" when disease is not resolved and cerebral neuroimaging is negative for neurological diseases. Our results show that the oculomotor patterns proposed in the literature are effective in diagnosing APC and AC, and that APC is more frequent than AC. Both of these rare forms of vertical canal BPPV can be treated effectively with liberatory manoeuvres. PMID:24882928

  2. Anesthesia following overfilling of a root canal sealer into the mandibular canal: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseo?lu, Banu Gürkan; Tanrikulu, Sinasi; Sübay, Rüstem Kemal; Sencer, Serra

    2006-06-01

    The surgical treatment of a case of anesthesia that occurred with the extrusion of Endomethasone root canal sealer into the mandibular canal is presented. Endomethasone is a neurotoxic root canal sealer containing paraformaldehyde and eugenol. The literature indicates immediate surgical decompression on the extrusion of Endomethasone into the mandibular canal. In our case, the decompression surgery was done 3 weeks after the endodontic mishap. The nearly complete resolution of anesthesia 4 months following the decompression surgery suggests that the neurotoxic effects of Endomethasone are still reversible after 3 weeks. PMID:16731404

  3. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  4. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  5. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  6. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  7. Miocene sandstone provenance relations in the Gulf of Suez: Insights into synrift unroofing and uplift history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.L. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Time-compositional relations inferred from point counts of 46 upper Oligocene to middle Miocene syn-rift sandstones from Gulf of Suez outcrops are used to further constrain the uplift and unroofing history of this Neogene continental rift. Although earliest rifting began by approximately 24 Ma, as evidenced by minor basaltic volcanism, the main phase of crustal extension, tectonic subsidence of the axial trough, and rift-margin uplift began approximately 19 Ma. Oligocene and basal Miocene (Nukhul Formation) sandstones are dominated by monocrystalline quartz and clasts derived from only the youngest prerift strata (Eocene), indicating that relief was probably less than 200 m until 20 Ma. The lower Miocene Rudeis Formation records both major subsidence in the axial trough and peak unroofing of the prerift sedimentary sequence from 19-16 Ma. Middle Miocene sandstones derived from the Kareem and Belayim formations are increasingly dominated by crystalline basement-derived detritus, recording rapid increase in rift-margin relief after approximately 14 Ma. Diachronism in the first appearance of unroofed basement detritus across the rift indicates uplift of the western margin may have preceded that of the eastern margin by as much as 2 m.y. Once rapid uplift began, between about 20-17 Ma, unroofing of a maximum of 1000 m of the prerift strata occurred in less than 2 m.y. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The Precambrian basement. A major reservoir in the rifted basin, Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, M.G.; Alsharhan, A.S. [Faculty of Science, UAE University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    1998-03-12

    The expected instructions from an exploration manager, to stop drilling and abandon a well where the bit hits the Precambrian basement, no longer applies. The fractured and altered Precambrian basement rocks are the most prolific reservoirs in the southern Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea rifts where hydrocarbons are produced from 8 fields, with porosity and permeability values up to 15% and 300 millidarcy, respectively. The surface and subsurface Precambrian basement rocks are related to the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian Shield and are composed of quartz-diorite, granodiorite, syenogranite, alkali granites and andesite porphyry, dissected by means of dykes, fractures and joints. Three main directions of fractures, northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest and east northeast-west southwest have been detected in the study area. The porosity and production rates of this reservoir, as well as the oil-water contact movement, depend mainly on the age, intensity and direction of the fractures, diagenetic processes and the dip and direction of the dykes and brecciated zones. The alteration processes reach their maximum intensity in the topmost section, known as the basement cover, where the solution and leaching has led to the enlargement of the fractures and vertical communications. The underlying fracture zone has been affected by differential alteration processes, creating zones of high and low vertical porosity and permeability. Thus, the reservoir potential of the Precambrian basement has been greatly underestimated

  9. Listeria spp. in the coastal environment of the Aqaba Gulf, Suez Gulf and the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawy, Moustafa A; El-Shenawy, Mohamed A

    2006-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important pathogen which causes an infection called listeriosis. Because of the high mortality rate (~30%) associated with listeriosis, and the widespread nature of the organism, it is a major concern for food and water microbiologists since it has been isolated from various types of foods, including seafood, as well as from the aqueous environment. To investigate the prevalence of this pathogen in the Aqaba Gulf (12 sites), Suez Gulf (14 sites) and Red Sea (14 sites), 200 water samples (collected during five sampling cruises in 2004), 40 fresh fish samples and 15 shellfish samples were analysed using the enrichment procedure and selective agar medium. All water samples were also examined for the presence Listeria innocua which was the most common of the Listeria spp. isolated, followed by L. monocytogenes, with a low incidence of the other species. During the whole year, the percentage of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in 200 water samples was 20.5% (41 samples) and 13% (26 samples) respectively. In fresh fish (40 samples) it was 37% (15 samples) and 17.3% (7 samples) and in shellfish (15 samples) 53% (8 samples) and 33% (5 samples) respectively. In water samples, there was an association between the faecal contamination parameters and the presence of the pathogen; however, water salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH did not influence the occurrence of this bacterium. These results may help in the water-quality evaluation of the coastal environments of these regions. PMID:16371177

  10. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Gulf of Suez and the northwestern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenat, Christian; Ott D'Estevou, Philippe; Purser, Bruce; Burollet, Pierre-Félix; Jarrige, Jean-Jacques; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne; Philobbos, Eimad; Plaziat, Jean-Claude; Prat, Philippe; Richert, Jean-Paul; Roussel, Nicolas; Thiriet, Jean-Paul

    1988-10-01

    The structural pattern of the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea Rift is inherited from the basement tectonics. N140 faults (clysmic direction), parallel to the regional elongation of the rift, are associated with submeridian (Aqaba direction) and sub-E-W faults (Duwi direction) that also play an important role in the rifting processes. The pre-rift sedimentary cover includes Cretaceous and Eocene platform deposits. It was slightly deformed prior to rifting. The syn-rift sedimentary sequence comprises four major units (groups A to D) delimited by unconformities: Group A (Oligocene to Early Burdigalian), continental to restricted subaquatic deposits; Group B (Burdigalian to Middle Miocene), open marine sediments; Group C (Middle to Upper? Miocene), major evaporitic episode; and Group D (Plio-Pleistocene) which returns to an open marine environment. Four majors stages of structuration are recorded: an initial stage of compressive deformation (direction of shortening close to NW-SE) characterized by strike-slip movements and associated drag folds (early Group A); a tilted block stage (late Group A) corresponding to the period of highest extensional rate; a horst and graben stage (Group B) resulting in the cutting out of the tilted blocks by numerous synthetic faults; Group B corresponds to the period of highest subsidence rate when a flexuration stage of the margin, expressed by a centripetal evolution of the subsidence, is associated with major periferal uplift.

  11. Experimental and analytical models of extensional forced folds: applications to Gulf of Suez and offshore Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, J.E.; Withjack, M.O.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have studied the structural development of extensional forced folds (i.e., folds that form above normal faults) using single-layer and multilayer clay models and analytical models of dislocations in an elastic half-space. The single-layer clay models and dislocation models show that extensional forced folds are narrow, monoclinal flexures with steep limb dips near the tip of the underlying master normal fault. Folds widths increase and limb dips decrease upward. Secondary faults initiate at the tip of the master normal fault, are subparallel to it, and curve 25/degree/-35/degree/ into its hanging wall as they propagate upward. Consequently, secondary fault patterns depend on the dip of the master normal fault. If the dip is less than 60/degree/, secondary normal faults near the tip of the master normal fault become high-angle reverse faults at shallow depths. The propagation and eventual linkage of these secondary faults terminates the development of extensional forced folds. Less folding occurs prior to fault linkage if the master normal fault is gently rather than steeply dipping. In multilayer clay models that allow interlayer slip, extensional forced folds are wider and limb dips are gentler than those in the single-layer models. These modeling results provide guidelines for interpreting seismic, well, and field data from extensional forced folds in the Gulf of Suez and offshore Norway.

  12. Infected hydrocele of the canal of nuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandhan, Parkash; Raouf, Zaid; Bhatti, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in children is rare. It may present as incarcerated inguinal hernia and necessitates emergency exploration. Risk of infection in hydrocele of the canal of nuck is very rare. We present a case report of a 5-year-old girl who presented with a left tender inguinolabial region swelling with fever, tachycardia, and mild dehydration. The clinical features were suggestive of strangulated left inguinal hernia and further imaging and surgical exploration revealed it to be an infected hydrocele of the canal of Nuck. High ligation and hydrocelectomy were performed. Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in a female child presenting with an inguinal swelling should be considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:24368964

  13. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

  14. Infected Hydrocele of the Canal of Nuck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandhan, Parkash; Raouf, Zaid; Bhatti, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in children is rare. It may present as incarcerated inguinal hernia and necessitates emergency exploration. Risk of infection in hydrocele of the canal of nuck is very rare. We present a case report of a 5-year-old girl who presented with a left tender inguinolabial region swelling with fever, tachycardia, and mild dehydration. The clinical features were suggestive of strangulated left inguinal hernia and further imaging and surgical exploration revealed it to be an infected hydrocele of the canal of Nuck. High ligation and hydrocelectomy were performed. Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in a female child presenting with an inguinal swelling should be considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:24368964

  15. Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

  16. The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

  17. NMDA receptors in frog semicircular canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, G; Akoev, G N; Maracci, A; Valli, P

    1993-04-01

    The effects of competitive (2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid) and noncompetitive (Mg2+, ketamine and kynurenic acid) NMDA receptor antagonists were tested in isolated semicircular canals of the frog. All these antagonists reduced the resting firing rate recorded from the whole ampullar nerve of the posterior canal. This suggests that NMDA receptors are present at the cytoneural junctions between hair cells and afferent nerve terminals in frog vestibular organs. PMID:8499597

  18. Fallopian canal dehiscence: can it be pridicted

    OpenAIRE

    Jaswal, Abhishek; Jana, Avik Kumar; Sikder, Biswajit; Sadhukhan, Sanjoy Kumar; Jana, Utpal; Nandi, Tapan Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to give an idea about true incidence and most common location of fallopian canal dehiscence and to identify predictive factors associated with fallopian canal dehiscence based on preoperative and peroperative clinical correlates so as to facilitate preemptive prediction of the condition. The study design pertains to a prospective study. The setting of the study was tertiary referral hospital and a total of 146 patients underwent radical and modified radical mastoidecto...

  19. Genetics of microenvironmental canalization in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Megan C.; Dworkin, Ian; Ungerer, Mark C.; Purugganan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Canalization is a fundamental feature of many developmental systems, yet the genetic basis for this property remains elusive. We examine the genetic basis of microenvironmental canalization in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, focusing on differential developmental stability between genotypes in one fitness and four quantitative morphological traits. We measured developmental stability in genetically identical replicates of two populations of recombinant inbred (RI) lines and one populati...

  20. Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kadelka, Claus; Li, Yuan; Adeyeye, John O.; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks govern...

  1. First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt (Cairo, Egypt, May 21, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gara, Chloe

    This document is comprised of the papers presented at the First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt in May 2001. Participating in the symposium were representatives from the World Bank, the Amsterdam Institute for International Development, the Children's Project, and the Academy for Educational Development. The symposium opened with an…

  2. Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asnaashari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the aforementioned articles indicate that this laser is effective in combination with a rinsing solution such as sodium hypochlorite.Results from studies including several types of the different Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in disinfecting canals showed that all wavelengths used in disinfection for different thicknesses of dentin were efficacious without damaging thermal effect. Considering that use of different lasers in canals can be accompanied with temperature increase which can sometimes lead to damages to teeth and surrounding tissues, thus the use of photochemical phenomenon for elimination of microorganisms have attracted attention of many researchers. Studies in this field imply the efficacy of this method in reducing canal bacterial count and recommend its use as an adjunctive after biomechanical preparation of canals. Results from performed studies show removal of intra canal debris and smear layer by different lasers and particularly the Erbium laser family. Furthermore various laser wavelengths, particularly of Diode and Nd:YAG lasers can be effective in reducing intra canal microbial count. Maximum effect is obtained when laser light is used in canals in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating substance in appropriate concentration. Therefore use of laser energy can improve success rate of root canal treatments.

  3. Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Adel Nakhla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to the expected detrimental impacts on coastal zones, agriculture, water security as well as indirect social and health impacts. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Although Egypt is a non-annex I country not requiring any specific emission reduction or limitation targets under the Kyoto protocol, its National plans have included mitigation measures to reduce its greenhouse gases. The main sectors contributing to climate change in Egypt are energy, industry, agriculture and waste. Waste, on the other hand, has been accumulating in the streets of Egypt and along its water banks causing considerable air, soil and water pollution and indirect detrimental health impacts. However, this waste which is composed of organic municipal waste, agricultural residues, agro-industrial waste, animal manure and sewage sludge are valuable biomass resources. Utilizing the waste resources of Egypt especially the biomass or the organic component of this waste will not only solve some of the pressing economic needs of Egypt such as animal fodder, fertilizer and fuel but will also alleviate environmental burdens through decreasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in the sector of waste as well as those of energy, industry and agriculture. This paper quantifies the biomass resources in Egypt generated from different waste resources. Then it demonstrates the efforts that Egypt made to contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions reductions through the Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism (CDM. The projects in the waste sector already established in Egypt and approved as CDM projects are listed, which are related to waste management facilities and those which are waste to energy projects. Finally, a list of mitigation projects as proposed by the Egyptian government to decrease GHGs as related to the waste sector are enumerated.

  4. Model equations for Calculating Rn-gas Concentrations in Air of Uranium Exploratory Tunnels, Allouga, West-Central Sinai , Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Allouga area is located some 40 km due east from Abu Zenima town on the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, West-Central Sinai, Egypt. A network of exploratory tunnels totaling 670m in length and approximately 2x2 m in cross section, were excavated within a paleosol clayey bed. They host (Fe, Mn)-, Cu-, and U-mineralizations. Portions of the tunnels are naturally ventilated and others portions are non-ventilated and show ground water seepage through fractures. Model equations were developed for calculating the Rn-gas concentrations in the air of the tunnels under dry conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by air flow through porous media as well as for wet conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by ground water flow into the tunnels. Under dry conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations(15.2-60.6 PCi/1) are consistent with measured values by active techniques (3.26-22.85 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (19-69.1 pCi/1) when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha= 0.05-0.2), the emanating rock thickness (X=10 cm) and U-concentration averages 30 ppm. Under wet and non-ventilated conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations (159-1248 pCi/1) are consistent with the measured values by active techniques (231-1348 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (144-999pCi/1), when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha=0.1-0.25), the ground water flow (F=0.04-0.10 ml/s-1cm-2) and U-concertrations (100-250ppm)pm)

  5. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid agitation using a closely fitting instrument or by sonic or ultrasonic activation. This review highlights a way forward by understanding the physical processes involved through physical models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. (topical review)

  6. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Mauro; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of group 1 were filled with Schilder's technique, canals of group 2 were filled with vertical compaction with apical backfilling. Stereomicroscopic analysis of lateral canal filling revealed lower filling rates in apical canals compared to coronal ones and higher filling rates with "vertical compaction with apical backfilling" compared to Schilder's group. The tested procedure appears to be a reliable technique to obtain standardized lateral canals and to compare filling procedures. PMID:16306822

  7. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and ? Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  8. Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Eric

    2008-01-01

    in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

  9. A radiographic study of mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

  10. A radiographic study of mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

  11. Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Akiko; Okuno, Hideji; Noguchi, Keisuke; Komatsuzaki, Atsushi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

  13. Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms in the southern Gulf of Suez: August 1994 through December 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H. M.; Marzouk, I.; Moustafa, A. R.; Hurukawa, N.

    2006-05-01

    This paper shows an evaluation of the seismic activity in the entrance of the Gulf of Suez using the data recorded by Hurghada Seismological Network (HSN), in the period between August 1994 and December 1997 and represents an extension for the work published by the previous investigators. Hypocentral locations were determined for 180 earthquakes (duration magnitude ranged between 1.6 and 4.3) selected from 300 recorded events. All these events are located with epicentral error and depth error of less than 2 km. The spatial distribution of these earthquakes indicates the presence of three active areas. These are Shadwan Island, Gubal Island and the area adjacent to the southern tip of Sinai Peninsula. Such pattern of activity implies a localization of stress below these areas. The concentration of the stress field in these areas may have been strongly controlled by ductile necking and or intrusion. Composite fault plane solutions were also constructed for each of the three active areas. The data for each area was divided into groups, according to geographical position and uniformity of polarity data. In Shadwan Island, the composite fault plane solution of 15 events shows almost pure dip-slip motion. The composite fault plane solutions in Gubal Island and the area adjacent to the southern tip of Sinai Peninsula indicate a mixed regime of both strike-slip and extensional faulting mechanisms. The stress regime obtained from the fault plane solutions in this study is predominantly NNE-SSW tensional stress field. This result is consistent with the present day stress field, which has a 010° ± 18° orientation. The overall results are correlated with the structural setting of the area known from other sources.

  14. Tectonic control on carbonate platform facies distribution and sequence development: Miocene, Gulf of Suez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchette, Trevor P.

    1988-10-01

    Mid-Miocene deposition in the southwestern Gulf of Suez was governed by an extensional fault-block topography. Shallow marine carbonates and clastics were deposited around the exposed block crests and in marginal half-grabens of the rift, while central troughs were filled by slope aprons and turbiditic and pelagic mudstones. Fan deltas developed at points along the fault-block escarpments. Syn-rift platform carbonates from one block crest, Esh el Mellaha, are described here. The platform evolved in three stages, generating three sedimentary sequences. Sequences 1 and 2 were separated by boundary fault reactivation, sequences 2 and 3 by sea-level drawdown, exposure and karstification. The sediments comprise six lithofacies associations (LA 1- 6). Reef (LA 1), fore-reef (LA 2) and back-reef/embayment (LA 3) sediments form a small reef-rimmed platform in sequence 1 at the southern end of the block. Fringing reefs and reef-lagoon systems also developed along the footwall escarpment and on fan deltas which bridged the block-bounding fault. Fringing reefs in sequence 2 generated a carbonate talus veneer (LA 4) along the whole 80 km length of the Esh el Mellaha fault scarp. Carbonate slope and reefal sediments preserved on the footwall exhibit abundant evidence of syndepositional fault movements, with truncation of escarpment-fringing sequences and repeated generation of reefal wedges. Minor drowning at the sequence 1-2 boundary caused deepening of lagoons, progradation of leeward reefal margins (with lagoonal patch-reef development), and back-stepping and vertical accretion of the reefal rim. Platform development was followed by algal-laminated dolomitic sediments (LA 5) in the area of the old platform interior (sequence 3). Much of the Esh el Mellaha ridge remained exposed during platform growth and shed coarse alluvial clastic sediments (LA 6) into the peripheral marine environments. The relationships demonstrated between Miocene sedimentation and structural setting have parallels in the modern environments of the Zeit Bay area.

  15. Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Mohamed A.; Emara, Ahmed M.

    2006-05-01

    Levels of the heavy metals Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) were determined in coastal water, sediments and soft tissues of the gastropod limpet, Patella caerulea, and the bivalve, Barbatus barbatus, from seven different stations in the western coast of the Gulf of Suez. The concentrations of heavy metals in water ranged between 3.37-4.78, 18.83-21.46, 2.75-3.17, 0.22-0.27, 0.99-1.21, 2.69-3.65, 3.75-4.56 ?g L - 1 and 23.82-32.78 mg g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The corresponding concentration values in the sediments were 8.65-12.16, 51.78-58.06, 36.52-42.15, 3.23-3.98, 9.03-12.75, 34.31-49.63, 3.28-4.56 and 64.20-70.22 ?g g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The highest accumulated metals were Fe, Zn and Mn in both P. caerulea and B. barbatus, while the lowest one was Cd. The accumulation of metals was more pronounced in P. caerulea than B. barbatus. The highest concentrations of all metals in water, sediments and mollusca were recorded at Adabiya harbour north of the Gulf, while the lowest concentrations were recorded at Gabal El-Zeit and Hurghada. Land based activities and ships awaiting berth are the main source of metal pollution in the northern part of the Gulf.

  16. Fault-block tilting: the Gebel Zeit example, Gulf of Suez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, I.; Colletta, B.

    The Gebel Zeit consists of the eroded crest of a tilted block in the southern part of the Suez rift. The Zeit block displays a typical asymmetrical geometry: it is bordered to the east by a 35-45° E-dipping normal fault with kilometric throw and has a 30° SW-dipping homoclinal flank. Part of the pre-rift sedimentary sequence has been preserved on this flank and is unconformably covered by Upper Burdigalian (NN4) Globigerina marls. In the southern part of the block crest, the complete pre-rift series has been eroded and evaporites of Langhian age (NN5) rest directly on the Precambrian basement. Field evidence indicates alternations from erosion to sedimentation at the crest of the Zeit block. In an attempt to characterize its tilting, subsidence curves were computed along a cross-section with the backstripping method. Results indicate three stages in the evolution of the block: (1) a rapid subsidence between 22 and 16 My; (2) a pause between 16 and 10 My; and (3) a slow subsidence until present time. During the tectonic quiescence, the sedimentary loading effect alone produced an increase of 8° in the tilt angle. A simple kinematic model of tilting along a circular fault is proposed to quantify the Zeit rotation. Depth of the brittle-ductile transition is estimated at 10 km to explain the tilting. Strong driving of the tilting by the listric fault induces conjugate movements between the crest and trough of the block and explains the discrepancy between the Zeit and regional tectonic subsidence.

  17. Seismic study of the crust of the northern Red Sea and Gulf of Suez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, J. M.; Le Pichon, X.; Lyberis, N.; Avedik, F.; Geli, L.; Moretti, I.; Deschamps, A.; Hafez, Salah

    1988-10-01

    We report the results of fifteen Expanding Spread Profiles (ESP's), and a seismic wide angle reflection-refraction Une, performed during March-April 1986, in the Gulf of Suez and the Egyptian part of the northern Red Sea area (north of 25°N). Four 16.4 air guns were used as a sound source on board R.V. "Le Suroit" and a 96-channel 2.4-km long streamer was towed by a supply vessel, the "Whity Tide". Most of the profiles show good crustal reflection and refraction arrivals and often good Moho arrivals obtained for a distance of 80 to 100 km. We present the results of X- T and ?- p analysis, obtained by a velocity inversion performed in the ?- p plane and by ray-tracing modeling of both the ?- p and the X- T sections. The velocity models are computed for planar and linear gradient velocity layers. The northernmost part of the Red Sea appears to be characterized by a continental type crust, extremely thinned (? ? 4), lying at a mean depth of 7-8 km, whereas the Moho is at a mean 14-15 km depth. The southern part shows a seismic velocity structure of an oceanic type, except in the 40 km closest to the coastline. In both parts, seismic waves progressively get more attenuated with distance from the shore to the axial zone, which is presently tectonically active. The difference between the northern continental and southern oceanic zone is related to the termination of the Levant Fault. The northern continental area appears to represent the termination of the Levant Fault as a zone of distributed deformation.

  18. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

    2012-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions. PMID:22224784

  19. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth – MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 × Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 × Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  20. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. PMID:24920149

  1. Contemporary diagnostic imaging of spinal canal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal canal tumors occur relatively rarely in comparison with intracranial mass lesions. Because of their unspecific clinical symptoms the imaging methods play fundamental role in diagnosis of these tumors. New imaging methods - computed tomography (CT) and especially magnetic resonance (MR) - the imaging procedure of choice in diagnosis of spinal canal tumors - markedly reduced the significance of the older ones, like plain X-ray films, myelography and angiography, which are used nowadays occasionally. MR should be performed as soon as possible in any patient in whom a spinal canal neoplastic pathology is clinically suspected. Very good results in evaluation of staging of neoplastic processes are obtained with positron emission tomography (PET). Biopsy of the tumor, which can be performed under CT guidance or in open MR units, makes possible the definitive diagnosis. According to the space of origin spinal canal tumors are divided into extradural, intradural extramedullary and intramedullary. The most frequent neoplasmatic lesions in the spinal canal, which can localize in each of the spaces mentioned above are metastases. The most uncommon are intramedullary tumors. Some lesions occupy two of neighbouring spaces, most often neurinomas, which as '' dumbbell '' tumors, involve extradural and intradural extramedullary spaces. (authors)

  2. Avian influenza vaccination in Egypt: Limitations of the current strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Peyre, Marisa; Samaha, Hamid; Makonnen, Yilma Jobre; Saad, Ahmed; Abd-elnabi, Amira; Galal, Saber; Ettel, Toni; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Lubroth, Juan; Roger, Franc?ois; Domenech, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination of domestic poultry against avian influenza (AI) has been used on a large-scale in South East Asia since 2003 and in Egypt since 2006 to fight H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics. The decision to use mass vaccination against HPAI in Egypt was taken as an emergency measure based on positive impact of such control measures in Vietnam and the People's Republic of China. However, three years on, the impact on disease control of AI vaccination in Egypt has been very...

  3. Canalization and maintaining the patency of external auditory canal in a congenital aural atresia patient: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Guruprasada

    2013-06-01

    This clinical report describes the role of a prosthodontist in rehabilitating a patient with congenital aural atresia. The external auditory canal and structure in the middle ear fail to develop completely in cases of congenital aural atresia. Canalization procedure to establish the communication between the external ear and middle ear, and maintaining the patency of the created canal plays an important role in the success of treatment in selected patients. Post Operative external auditory canal restenosis is the most common complication after congenital aural atresia surgery. The prosthodontist has an important role in assisting ENT surgeons in canalization procedure and also maintaining the patency of the canal during healing phase. PMID:24431722

  4. Environmental and Irradiation Effect on the Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Some Local Bacterial Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty eight bacterial isolates were isolated from The Suez Gulf sea water from the coast of the El-Nasr Petroleum Company on Suez Canal and formation water from overhead of an oil well in western desert of Egypt named (M68). Sixteen bacterial isolates were obtained from The Suez Gulf sea water. Twelve bacterial isolates were obtained from formation water (M68). The bacterial isolates were screened for bio surfactant production by using emulsification activity and haemolytic activity. The most potent two isolates N8 and S8 were selected according to three parameters; the ability of isolate to grow and produce surfactant on wide range of ph, temperature and salinity. The most promising bacterial isolates were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve their abilities for bio surfactant production which resulted in a passive effect on bio surfactant production

  5. Distribution and statistical analysis of leachable and total heavy metals in the sediments of the Suez Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nemr, Ahmed; Khaled, Azza; el-Sikaily, Amany

    2006-07-01

    The concentrations of nine heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pd and Zn) in the labile and total fractions of muddy and sandy sediment samples collected from twelve sites in Suez Gulf during April 1999 were studied to evaluate the pollution status of the Suez Gulf. The enrichment factors (EF) for each element were calculated. There are extremely high concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and slightly concentration of Cr and Cu in both muddy and sandy sediments. The concentration of Zn was moderately high and can be considered as seriously contaminate Metal pollution index (MPI) shows high values ranged between 46 to 156 and 40 to 232 for both sandy and muddy sediments, respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals were normalized against iron for total fraction in both of sandy and muddy sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) was studied on the data matrix obtained and represented three-factor model explaining 92.22% for labile and 88.82% for total fractions of muddy sediment. The main source of contamination is the offshore oil fields and industrial wastes. This is largely a result of ineffective and inefficient operation equipment, illegal discharge of dirty ballast water from tankers and lack of supervision and prosecution of offenders. PMID:16897536

  6. Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Kh A; Seddeek, M K; Elnimr, T; Sharshar, T; Badran, H M

    2011-06-01

    This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of ¹³?Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of ²²?Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The ²²?Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg?¹ for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg?¹ for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l?¹ for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, ²²?Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ?14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the ²³²Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while ¹³?Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place. PMID:21148168

  7. Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, Southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of 137Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of 226Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The 226Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg-1 for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg-1 for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l-1 for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, 226Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ?14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the 232Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while 137Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place. (authors)

  8. Interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patond K

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Opinion is still divided over a standard surgical procedure to decompress lumbar canal stenosis. Both, laminectomy with or without facetectomy and foraminotomy and interlaminar fenestration have been advocated. In the present communication interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis has been discussed. Sixteen consecutive patients (7 males and 9 females with clinical, neurological and radiological features of lumbar canal stenosis were treated by interlaminar (fenestration decompression. The age of onset of symptoms ranged between 22-57 years. Adjoining lamina around interlaminar space of involved segment along with ligamentum flavum and part of facet joint (undercutting facetectomy, extending laterally (foraminotomy were removed at single or multiple levels. Follow-up response (93.7% over a period of two and half years showed the results as good in 73.3% and fair in 26.7% of cases, with uniformly uneventful post-operative period.

  9. Madrid y el Canal de Isabel II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonet Correa, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    La construcción del Canal de Isabel II, inaugurado en 1858, vino a solucionar la sed secular de Madrid en la época del estío y ala vez hacer posible el ensanche de la ciudad. La presa del Pontón y la traída de agua del río Lozoya, obras del ingeniero Lucio del Valle, supusieron un avance en la modernización de la capital de España. La creciente necesidad de agua según fue aumentando el índice demográfico de Madrid hizo necesario que se aumentasen las obras del canal con nuevas presas. En 1865 se construyó un Segundo Depósito y en 1915 un Tercer Depósito. También importante tanto desde el punto de vista ingenieril como arquitectónico es el Depósito elevado de la calle de Santa Engracia. A lo largo del siglo XX el canal no ha cesado de ampliar su red y de aplicar nuevas tecnologías para suministrar agua a Madrid.

  10. Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture of thoracic spinal canal using a cadaver vertebra. EMI CT 5005 scanner was used and 13 mm thick slice of cadaver vertebra was obtained. After obtaining of CT picture, we made a same thick specimen of cadaver vertebra and compared CT picture to softex x-ray picture. The best condition of thoracic spinal canal by CT showed nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle of thoracic spinal cannal was permitted within 100 in measurement and in configuration. The precise location of being scanned was known by using different length of radiopaque catheter markers taped on a patient's back and comparing CT pictures to x-ray picture. Normal thoracic spinal canal was examined and we observed normal thoracic spinal configurations and confirmed that the ratio of frontal diameter to sagittal diameter had a pattern. (author)

  11. Examinations of spinal canal by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT of the spinal canal as a method of neuroradiological examination has increasingly gained significance. So far, it has been used in addition to conventional X-ray of the spine and to myelography; however special indications have been established to make it the method of choice in certain instances. Besides invasive secondary or primary CT myelography, noninvasive CT is applied in tumor diagnosis and traumatology; also in order to demonstrate dysraphic formative anomalies, degenerative changes as well as conditions which obstruct the spinal canal and compress spinal cord and nerve roots. CT has the advantage of better soft-tissue-visualization while the spinal canal is equally well outlined; it has no disadvantages. With even more efficient scanners available, especially primary CT diagnosis of the spine will gain further significance. (orig.)

  12. Computed tomography in lumbar canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative CT was done in 39 patients with lumbar canal stenosis. Marked symmetrical narrowing of the whole vertebral canal was seen in the group with nervous symptoms in the cauda equina. Deformed bilateral intervertebral joints were seen in the group with both nervous symptoms in the cauda equina and radicular sciatica. The lateral recess on the affected side was markedly narrowed by the projection of the upper and lower joints and herniation. In the group with radicular sciatica, the vertebral canal itself was not so narrowed, but the unilateral intervertebral joint was extremely deformed, causing a narrowing of the lateral recess. There were large differences in the angle of the left and right intervertebral joints. (Namekawa, K)

  13. Struggles of Distinction: Young Women Constructing Their Class Identity in Egypt’s Americanized Milieu

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Birkholz

    2014-01-01

    In urban Egypt, class is omnipresent in in structuring people's lives and the social sphere, and it matters for self-description. For understanding an individual's position, however, the usual distinction of three classes needs to be refined. Based on biographical interviews, I show how those belonging to “the Americanized Society”, a social space marked by its “Westernization”, construct their identity as upper middle class. The norms of their social world are at odds with the values...

  14. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das soluções introduzidas no espaço peridural.

  15. 33 CFR 117.494 - Schooner Bayou Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Schooner Bayou Canal. 117.494 Section 117.494 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.494 Schooner Bayou Canal. The draw of the...

  16. Individual Differences and the Canalization of Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, Eric; Gottesman, Irving I.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that psychologists' interest in behavioral development concerns individual differences in behavior. Explores complexities of genetic and environmental determination of development, and of canalization. Intelligence is considered as an example of the canalization of human behavior. (BC)

  17. Evaluation and Analysis of Oil Shale in Quseir-Safaga and Abu-Tartur Western Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abbas Moustafa; Ahmed Noah; Adel Salem

    2014-01-01

    Seeking ways to diminish Egypt’s dependency on foreign oil imports, we had to look for the obvious resources to exploit. Oil shale is one of Egypt’s resources that are left abandoned and not used. This project is aiming at introducing both experimental analysis for oil shale in Egypt and the best production technique for it. This study is about experimentally analyzing different samples of potential oil shale fields in Egypt. Samples that are analyzed in this projec...

  18. Economic evaluation of radiation inhibition of potato sprouting in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reviews the status of potato cultivation in Egypt, annual production, local consumption and export volume during the period 1976-1978. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual crop loss due to sprouting, fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of potatoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of potatoes harvested in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of potatoes for sprouting inhibition has always been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Extensive studies have been carried out in Egypt since the 1960s to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated potatoes. Nevertheless, not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. This is the objective of the paper. (author)

  19. 75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...five percent from 2009 to 2010. The financial sector escaped many negative impacts of the global financial crisis, due to Egypt's improved banking supervision...September 21, 2010. Anne Novak, Global Trade Programs, Commercial...

  20. U.S. in the World: Arizona/Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Reference Bureau

    Residents of Arizona and Egypt face a daily challenge: living in increasing numbers and concentrations in desert ecosystems. Read about how both face surprisingly similar conflicts and issues over water, land and industry.

  1. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  2. Correlation of global solar radiation with meteorological parameters over Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabea, A.A. [Suez Canal University, Al-Arish (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Shaltout, M.A.M. [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-10-01

    Global solar radiation measurements on a horizontal surface (G{sub m}), mean daily maximum temperature (T), mean daily relative humidity (RH), mean daily sea level pressure (MSL), mean daily vapor pressure (V) and hours of bright sunshine (S) are presented, analyzed, arranged in tables and graphs and discussed for five selected locations over Egypt. The locations chosen represent the different weather conditions of Egypt. Matrough and AI Arish are in the north, Cairo in the middle and Kharga and Aswan in the south of Egypt. A correlation between the measurements of global solar radiation and the meteorological parameters were given for the considered locations. The common relationship for all Egypt was also estimated. The correlation and the regression coefficients and the standard errors of estimate are listed in Table 1. The values of correlation coefficients vary from 89% to 99% and the errors of estimation are between 0.01 and 0.04. (author)

  3. Laparoscopic excision of cyst of canal of Nuck

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Nafees Javed; Lakshman, Krishnaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in females. It results from the failure of obliteration of the distal portion of evaginated parietal peritoneum within the inguinal canal which forms a sac containing fluid. Patients generally present with inguinal swelling. We present a case of left sided cyst of canal of Nuck with left inguinal hernia in a 28-year-old female, which was diagnosed on ultrasonography. Patient underwent laparoscopic excision of cyst of canal of nuck with hernio...

  4. Adaptive Predictive Controller Applied to an Open Water Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Rato, Lui?s; Salgueiro, Pedro; Lemos, Joa?o Miranda; Rijo, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns to the application of adaptive control to a large scale water canal experimental plant. Water canals are complex spatially distributed systems which aim at distributing water either for irrigating, or domestic, or industrial purposes. In this paper a predictive adaptive control algorithm (MUSMAR) is applied to a large scale experimental water canal prototype. The experimental facilities with a fully instrumented canal, a PLC network and a SCADA system, are br...

  5. Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Objective?Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structur...

  6. Pattern of mantle thinning from subsidence and heat flow measurements in the Gulf of Suez: Evidence for the rotation of Sinai and along-strike flow from the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Michael S.; Feinstein, Shimon; Kohn, Barry P.; Lavier, Luc L.; Eyal, M.

    1998-12-01

    We have undertaken a combined analysis of tectonic subsidence, heat flow and uplift data for the Gulf of Suez. Results show significant differences along the length of the rift. The heat flow and subsidence in the northern Gulf of Suez can be fitted by close to uniform extension in the early Miocene with minimal extension since the middle Miocene. In contrast, the southern Gulf of Suez requires that the early Miocene extension is followed by both continuous slow (˜1 mm/yr) extension and mantle thinning greatly in excess of the crustal thinning. The continued extension of the southern Gulf of Suez is interpreted as indicating a counterclockwise rotation of the Sinai Peninsula that allows the southern Gulf of Suez to accommodate 10-15% of the motion of the Dead Sea transform. Our best estimate of the net crustal and mantle extension factors for southern Suez are ?=1.4-1.5 and ?=2.2-2.6, respectively. While these values are approximate, they indicate a significant input of heat into the southern Gulf of Suez rift that is in excess of that directly advected by extension. Modeling indicates that while ˜1/2 of the extension occurred in the early Miocene, most of the lithospheric thinning, and virtually all of the excess thinning of the mantle lithosphere, developed since then. In addition, the Gulf of Suez is bordered by large and growing rift flank uplifts, particularly on the Sinai Peninsula. The geometry of the motions at the Sinai triple junction region has created a large contrast in extension between the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez-Sinai since the middle Miocene. These lateral temperature gradients drove the flow of hot material that is responsible for the extra heating beneath southern Suez and Sinai. The rift flank uplift along most of the Gulf of Suez is interpreted as resulting from a combination of secondary convection and flexure. The much greater uplift in southern Sinai is produced by the additional convective flow from the Red Sea.

  7. Observations on rift valley fever virus and vaccines in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Kamal Samia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV, genus: Phlebovirus, family: Bunyaviridae), is an arbovirus which causes significant morbidity and mortality in animals and humans. RVFV was introduced for the first time in Egypt in 1977. In endemic areas, the insect vector control and vaccination is considering appropriate measures if applied properly and the used vaccine is completely safe and the vaccination programs cover all the susceptible animals. Egypt is importing livestock and camels from the ...

  8. Seed Diversity among Certain Species of Caryophyllaceae in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zareh, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, data are used to re-asses the relationships between certain weed species of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt. Seed diversity of fourteen species belonging to five genera of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. These genera are Dianthus, Vaccaria, Silene, Stellaria and Spergula. Macromorphological criteria concerned with vegetative and reproductive organs were investigated. NTSYS-pc program was used for an...

  9. Perceived stress among tomorrow’s attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Amr; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Few data are available on the level and sources of stress among law students in the Middle East generally and in Egypt specifically. We conducted this study to identify the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among law students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study covered 426 law students selected through a stratified cluster sampling method. The questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items on sources of...

  10. Influences of Ancient Egypt on architecture and ornament in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, John Aidan

    2012-01-01

    This work seeks to identify the forms and origins of Ancient Egyptian architecture and the complex historical progress which brought these to Scotland, identifying the affinities shared by both countries and their evolving role from their first arrival to the present day. The thesis follows Egypt’s first appearance in Scottish legend and its later influence, at the close of the 16th century, in the practices of organised Freemasonry, to be followed, from the second quarter of ...

  11. Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Abouzeid, Abdel-zaher M.; Khalid, Abdel-aziz M.

    2011-01-01

    This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies...

  12. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone...this section of an employee who: (i) Is a preference eligible;...

  13. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal aor portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present

  14. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present.

  15. Dealing with the Increasing Public Debt in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Massoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the magnitude of the public debt problem in Egypt and to provide some guidelines for policymakers in dealing with the increasing public debt. In the paper, the issue of public debt is looked at as a result of the interaction of fiscal policy and the economic performance, and not as a statistical concept only. It consists of four sections and an introduction. Section (1 provides an identification of the magnitude of the public debt problem in Egypt. Section (2 presents a forecast of the level of public debt in Egypt till the year 2020 using a VAR model. Section (3 provides a forecast for the size of the public debt in Egypt under various scenarios where both economic growth and fiscal policy were considered. Section (4 summarizes the findings and policy recommendations that came out of this study. The conclusions drawn from this research may be summarized as follows. (1 Based on the model used in the paper and public debt indicators, public debt in Egypt is expected to be sustainable till the year 2020. (2 Economic growth has a very strong impact on reducing public debt in Egypt. (3 Fiscal consolidation is very important in reducing public debt because of its impact on economic growth. However, in the process of fiscal consolidation, the Egyptian government has to consider rationalizing spending and not to cut investment spending.

  16. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective. PMID:24970660

  17. Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    While ancient Egyptian civilization has captured the public interest and imagination in recent decades, this well-designed site from the National Geographic Society places its focus on the pyramids created several millennia ago. In the site's most compelling feature, titled Explore the Pyramids, visitors can scroll across the different pyramids, revealing their interior organization and a number of facts about their construction and so on. A brief timeline also gives some information about each of the different Egyptian dynasties. Educators will find much to enjoy here, as the site provides different lesson plans for students, complete with critical questions for discussion and lesson objectives. Finally, there is an online journal written by National Geographic reporter Nancy Gupton that documents her own personal experiences traveling around the pyramids of Egypt.

  18. Math Around the World (Part 1): Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr. Hoskins

    2005-11-20

    Throughout the week, we will be studying Math in different cultures around the world incuding African, Indian, Babylonian, Mayan and others. Our first area of study will be Egypt, home to some of the greatest mathematical-based structures in the world. Any guesses to what those might be? _ _ R _ _ _ D S Today\\'s lesson will focus on several aspects of Egyptian Math. First, let\\'s learn where Math came from. After reading the information from the link below, please write down your opinion and reasoning on a separate sheet of paper. Was Mathematics Invented or Discovered? Now let\\'s read about the History of Egyptian Math: History of Egyptian Math Overview of Egyptian Math For the rest of today\\'s ...

  19. Imported malaria as a threat to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Dabbous, Hesham Kh; Morsy, Tosson A

    2010-12-01

    This work evaluated the clinical and parasitic status of malaria as a cause of fever among patients admitted to the Military fever hospitals. Thirty six patients were included twenty already diagnosed as malarial patients, who were recruited from Peace Keeping Mission Forces in Africa and sixteen cases presented with prolonged fever coming from different locations in Egypt. The results showed that El-Gabal El-Ahmar area (Cairo) was the most extensively infested region (37.4%). This might be due to change of its ecolo-gical pattern since the year 2003 and the environmental conditions favoured by breeding and flaring mosquitoes. El-Sharkia and El-Fayoum Governorates (G.) were next in order (18.7%) and (12.5%) and this might be due to increased rural areas and agricultural projects and re-establishment. Plasmodiumn vivax was the main species among locally acquired patients (81.25%), while the imported patients coming back to Egypt from Africa especially (Sudan) had P. falciparumn (100%). However, P. falciparum was also present in 6.2% of cases from El Fayoum Governorate while P. ovale and P. malariae were not encountered. Of interest, was a case recruited from Ard-El-Golf, Heliopolis, an area with high social and hygienic standard, and the same condition applied to that from El-Nozha El-Gidida. Such cases included the "runway" or "airport" malaria, in which local transmission of disease has been attributed to an infected mosquito that was transported on a long haul flight. The two locally acquired cases were malaria positive by bone marrow smears and negative by peripheral blood examination. However, the thick blood film was the most sensitive (97.2%). The patients (75%) were clinically and parasitologically cured, but one patient died. The best therapeutic response for locally acquired malaria infection was the monotherapy-based one such as Chloroquine or Mefloquine. PMID:21268544

  20. Structural characteristics and tectonic evolution of the east-margin blocks of the Suez rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Adel R.

    1993-08-01

    Detailed field study of the east-margin blocks of the Suez rift indicates that rift initiation was marked by 22-24 Ma old volcanicity followed by second-order (relatively small) extensional faulting without block rotation. Slight rotation of first-order (large) rift blocks took place shortly before or during the deposition of the earliest rift sediments (Nukhul Formation). The shallow-water environment of deposition of the Nukhul Formation became deeper during the deposition of the overlying Rudeis Formation in response to rapid tectonic subsidence. A major event (mid-clysmic, 17 Ma ago) led to the rejuvenation of many faults bounding the large rift blocks, the development of several intra-block faults, and an abrupt change in the environment of deposition. At that time, tectonic deformation increased towards the rift axis where the width of the active part of the rift decreased. As a result of this mid-clysmic event, coarse elastics were deposited close to the major faults; later these deposits were faulted in a younger event. NW-NNW (clysmic) and N-NNE (transfer) faults are the two predominant normal fault sets in the east-margin blocks and link up in a characteristic zig-zag pattern. Block rotation is related to slip on NW-NNW listric faults. Fault plane slickenside lineations indicate predominant NE-SW extension as well as a subordinate E-W to ESE-WNW extension. The latter is perhaps related to post-Miocene mild deformation. Slip on the major faults of the rift is associated with drape folding and footwall deformation. Both lead to the development of rift-facing monoclines. The deformed parts of the footwall are spindle-shaped and link to the main faults via N-NNE transfer faults. Footwall deformation also results where a major fault bends out leaving a protrusion of the footwall. Rift extension is transferred beyond the rift boundary via some transfer faults and affects some parts of the shoulder.

  1. Ultrasonic disinfection of the root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H

    1976-07-01

    The use of ultrasonics to increase the bactericidal efficiency of endodontic irrigation was tested on four microorganisms. Ultransonics alone had a reducing effect but coupling it with a biocidal agent led to a more efficient bactericidal synergism. A sonosynergistic system of cleaning and disinfecting the root canal system has been described. PMID:821029

  2. Experiential Canalization of Behavioral Development: Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1991-01-01

    In contrast to earlier notions, a systems view of an organism's development sees genes as only one component in a hierarchy of influences that produces finished traits and differentiation. Developmental canalization proceeds from genes, behavior, and environment as well as from the coaction of these factors. (BC)

  3. Love Canal aftermath: learning from a tragedy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaubinger, R.S.; Kohn, P.M.; Remirez, R.

    1979-10-22

    Under the two-year Love Canal Remedial Action Project, funded by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) and engineered by Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, the construction of a unique system for the containment, collection, and treatment of contaminated leachate is under way at Love Canal, the abandoned chemical dump of Hooker Chemical Corp. By the end of the project, scheduled for 6/15/80, the total construction cost may reach $12 million. The leachate will be collected by a tile barrier drain system and sent to a $1.6 million activated-carbon treatment plant, to start up on 12/15/79. Over 200 components have been identified in the Love Canal leachate, including 27 on the EPA list of priority pollutants, such as phenol, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene. A continuous impermeable clay cap will be installed (by 5/1/80) to prevent infiltration of rain water into the Canal. A total of 70 wells will be dug to monitor leachate migration through the clay beds and into bedrock. According to DEC, no evidence of groundwater contamination has been found.

  4. APPLICATION OF CANAL AUTOMATION IN CENTRAL ARIZONA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD) and the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District (MSIDD) were constructed in the late 1980s with the promise of automatic control. All check structures on main and lateral canals were equipped with motorized gates, RTUs, radios,...

  5. In vitro evaluation of root canal preparation using oscillatory and rotary systems in flattened root canals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Cardoso, Rasquin; Fabíola Bastos de, Carvalho; Regina Karla de Pontes, Lima.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation of flattened root canals using the following systems: Endo-Eze AET stainless steel oscillatory instruments (Ultradent) and RaCe rotary NiTi instruments (FKG Dentaire). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human mandibul [...] ar incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 - Instrumentation with oscillatory Endo-Eze AET files (oscillatory technique); Group 2 - Instrumentation with rotary NiTi RaCe files (rotary technique). The teeth were decoronated, had their apices and coronal openings sealed with sticky wax and were embedded in crystal-clear orthophtalic polyester resin. The roots were sectioned transversally with diamond discs at 10 mm (middle third) and 5 mm (apical third) from the apex and the segments were reassembled for instrumentation. The sections were photographed before and after root canal instrumentation and evaluated with respect to whether the original root canal shape was modified by instrumentation. To evaluate the differences in the root canal shape before and after biomechanical preparation, scores were given regarding the instruments touch on the intracanal walls. RESULTS: In middle third of the root canals instrumented with the rotary system, there was a change in the original canal anatomy (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Under the tested conditions, Endo-Eze oscillatory system yielded the instrumentation of all flattened root canal walls, maintaining the canal original shape throughout the biomechanical preparation, and was more effective than RaCe rotary system.

  6. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  7. Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective?Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods?Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results?Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion?Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students. PMID:23730547

  8. 76 FR 73759 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Egypt-Art and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures From the Foundation Gandur...that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures from the Foundation...

  9. Egypt v literatu?e p?ed polovinou 19. století.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ba?urová, Anežka

    -, ?. 4 (2013). ISSN 1805-2800 Keywords : egypt ian literature * literature * Week of science and technology 2013 http://www.lib.cas.cz/casopis-informace/ egypt -v-literature-pred-polovinou-19-stoleti/

  10. 77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1)(C) of the Department...with respect to the provision of Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

  11. Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular / Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iván Claudio, Suazo Galdames; Carlos Andrés, Morales Herrera; Mario Gonzalo, Cantín López; Daniela Alejandra, Zavando Matamala.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la im [...] plantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C). Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegrados Abstract in english The mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the pr [...] esent study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtained of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C). The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

  12. Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la implantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C. Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegradosThe mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the present study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtained of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C. The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

  13. Mandibular First and Second Molars with Three Mesial Canals: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminsobhani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canal system are mandatory for successful root canal treatment. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for the practitioner. The occurrence and location of the third mesial canal (Middle Mesial Canal in mandibular first and second molars in relation to other two mesial canals that were treated in private practice were studied. In 27 clinical cases, the presence of a middle mesial canal was demonstrated. The third canal was located in the middle of the distance between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals. This canal configuration was found in six second lower molars and twenty one first molars. Middle mesial canal in all of our cases joined to mesiobuccal or mesiolingual canals. None of the teeth consisted of three independent canals with three apical foramina. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth.

  14. Presence of some local source sediments within the oil- producing eocene limestones in the Western Coast of Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgis, G.F.; Faris, M.I.

    1970-01-01

    Eocene fractured limestones are oil producing in the area of Bakr, Kareem, and Rahmi fields in the W. Coast of Gulf of Suez. The stratigraphic relations, the lithology, microscopic characters, general depositional conditions and occurrence of oil in these rocks are discussed. These Eocene limestones are of source facies and the production is occurring via fracture systems within. Oil-generating organic materials are found in local parts in the producing Eocene limestone, mainly in Bakr field. The rest of producing limestones in the total area are barren of any source sediments inspite of being of source facies. Therefore, amount of production from Eocene limestones of the fields mentioned could be explained by oil migrated from sources other than Eocene limestones in addition to the Eocene source sediments.

  15. Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses / Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    , Sumayya; Nafis A, Faruqi; Mohd Salahuddin, Ansari; Farah, Ghaus.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los def [...] ectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V) sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M)). Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en todos los niveles. Las alturas de los primeros dos cuerpos vertebrales lumbares mostraron variabilidad en los grupos adyacentes. Lo mismo se observó en los tres siguientes, que crecieron constantemente con el crecimiento de los fetos. El canal sacro mostró un crecimiento variable en longitud en los diferentes grupos. El crecimiento constante en la longitud y el diámetro del canal lumbar pueden ser utilizados para determinar la edad aproximada de los fetos por razones médico-legales. Abstract in english Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an [...] accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V) based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were anal

  16. The role of judiciary in Egypt´s failed transition to democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    This essay illustrates the inter-institutional dynamics and the fundamental role a constitutional court can play in a transition, the challenges when the court is heavily involved or alternatively when it plays a more reserved role. The essay deals with the role that judges and more precisely the Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) of Egypt played in the transitional moment, i.e. from the aftermath of authoritarian regime of Hosni Mubarak to the current judicial activity under the mandate of Abdelfatah al Sisi. The first section is an analysis of the conceptualization of transitions and transitology, the time interlude between two different political regimes. The section also provides a definition of post-revolutionary transitional moments as “constitutional moments” and the legal and political implications that this characterisation implies in terms of political governance and stability. The distinct nature of a transitional period is characterized by a legal and political uncertainty that places judges as guardians of constitutionalism and human rights in an uncharacteristic position. Because of this concrete casuistry, the dilemma between judicial activism and judicial restraint and the repercussion of judicial activity in transitional periods seem to be more transcendent. The second section explores the specific nature of the judiciary in Egypt in three different stages, based on a limited independence under Mubarak, an open conflict against Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood and connivance and co-participation with Sisi´s legal and political repression. The third section explores the political role and activism that the SCC has been playing in Egypt since its creation in 1979, even though constitutional control was established since 1969 by the Supreme Court. In the conclusion, the essay advocates for judicial restraint in transitional periods as a way to safeguard the transition and preserve some legal certainty and stability. A temporal restraint that as the period of transition has a term of expiration, oncethe transition is over the judiciary may be an active guardian of constitutionalism and human rights.

  17. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  18. The Egyptian legislation for safe transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian legislation related the safe transport of radioactive materials, a licence is required for the transport, import and or export these materials. The licence is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the NCNSRC-AEA licence to handle/ transport radioactive materials/wastes have been developed according to the international and Egyptian legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or to refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Suez Canal, in the Egyptian regional waters, in the sea harbours or in the exclusive economic zones of Egypt according to the national and international regulations. (author)

  19. Uranium resources and reserves in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resources and reserves of radioactive raw materials in Egypt include some conventional and nonconventional types discovered at some localities in the Eastern Desert, Sinai and the Western Desert. The conventional-type uranium and/or thorium include replacements in granitic rocks, and in alkaline dikes and sills. The nonconventional-types comprise marine phosphorites and black sand concentrations along the Mediterranean. Latent resource include some anomalous areas in carbonaceous shales, clays and phosphatized sandstones in the Western Desert. Some target areas are by now under development. In one locality some 3,000 tons of ore assayed at 0.108% U are proved through drilling and drifting. Marine phosphorites represent potential resources for uranium. The total estimated reserve and potential reserve of phosphatic rocks in Egypt amounts approximately to 2.5 billion tons. Assuming an average of 100 gm U3O8/ton, the above reserve contains as much as 250,000 tons U3O8. The economic potentiality of black sands with respect to uranium and thorium content must be viewed in terms of industrialization of the whole products coming out from black sands. Nevertheless, the estimated reserve of heavy minerals amounts to over 30 million tons in the top meter and over 600 million tons with 27% heavy minerals to a depth of 20 meters in the area of Damietta East, Rosetta East and West. Some other 42.6 million tons grading about 9% heavy mine6 million tons grading about 9% heavy minerals are proved to a depth of 20 meters east and west of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. Assuming an annual production of 12,000 tons monazite (this amount yields 54 tons U3O8, 720 tons Th O2 7,500 tons RE and 3,360 tons P2O5) and marketing of the other products coming out of black sands, it is estimated that the production cost of one pound. U3O8 amounts to $15 to $30. 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. The electrical power equipment and services market in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a market overview of the electrical power equipment and services in Egypt and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Between 1997 and 2001, energy consumption in Egypt increased by 17 per cent. Electricity demand is expected to rise rapidly due to population and economic growth. Plans are underway to add 8,000 MW of installed energy capacity to Egypt's current 15,200 MW by 2010. Priority will be on providing universal access to electricity and reliability in rural areas. Egypt is also taking part in many international projects to link its electricity grid with nearby countries. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Recent legislation exempts foreign companies from corporation tax and from tax on income from movable capital for 5 to 10 years. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve electric power generation and transmission projects. Considerations for market-entry in Egypt were outlined. 29 refs., 3 tabsabs

  1. Assessment of Urban Sprawl on El Minya Archeological Sites, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. El-Bayomi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, thousands of known and unknown archaeological sites are at risk of destruction from urban sprawl and expanding development. Population growth is the main factor driven urban sprawl, Egypt’s population has witnessed a remarkable increase over the previous decades. The population rose from 35.3 million in 1970 to around 90 million today, doubling in less than 40 years. Hence, population issues are of the highest priority to the Government of Egypt. El Minya Governorate have a high population growth (i.e., 3.1% per year and hence the urban sprawl over the archeological sites in the desert fringes of the Nile valley is expected. Remote sensing and GIS are now providing new tools for advanced ecosystem management. The collection of remotely sensed data facilitates the synoptic analysis of earth’s system function patterning and change at local, regional and global scales. Overtime such data also provide an important link between intensive localized ecological research and regional, conservation and management of archeological areas. The basic premise in using remote sensing data and GIS for change detection is that the process can identify change between two or more dates that is uncharacteristic of normal variation. This research aims to assess the extent of urban sprawl and its impact on archeological sites in El Minya Governorate, Egypt.

  2. Mine detection in Egypt: Evaluation of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the central geographical location between Africa, Asia and Europe, Egypt was location for many battles. As a result of these battles, Egypt often cites a figure of twenty three million landmines and UXO emplaced in the country as a result of many wars since the World War II. The presence of such active mines caused many problems to Egypt. First, it obscures the development in the locations where it had been planted. Beside, many civilians and soldiers have been killed or maimed because of its unknown zones. Recently with the advances of geophysical techniques it becomes possible to use them in detecting landmines and UXO. Geoelectrical resistivity technique as a low cost, simple technique was used successfully to model the buried landmines and UXO objects in 2D. The technique was tested in Egypt using a newly adopted array of electrodes proposed by Kyushu University Mine Action Group (QMAG). The results are promising for future application using this tool in Egypt. Moreover, a new Advanced Landmine Imaging System (ALIS) developed at Tohoku University was also successfully evaluated at the Egyptian environment. The results show high efficiency for detecting both AP and AT mines. Accordingly, a new proposal for adopting both systems with robotic facility, to be applicable for wide area survey that can meet the Egyptian demand to solve the landmines problem there, is considered. (author)

  3. Solar energy distribution over Egypt using cloudiness from Meteosat photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M.A.; Hassen, A.H. (National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Cairo (Egypt))

    1990-01-01

    In Egypt, there are 10 ground stations for measuring the global solar radiation, and five stations for measuring the diffuse solar radiation. Every day at noon, the Meteorological Authority in Cairo receives three photographs of cloudiness over Egypt from the Meteosat satellite, one in the visible, and two in the infra-red bands (10.5-12.5 {mu}m) and (5.7-7.1 {mu}m). The monthly average cloudiness for 24 sites over Egypt are measured and calculated from Meteosat observations during the period 1985-1986. Correlation analysis between the cloudiness observed by Meteosat and global solar radiation measured from the ground stations is carried out. It is found that, the correlation coefficients are about 0.90 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regressions. Also, the correlation coefficients for the cloudiness with the diffuse solar radiation are about 0.80 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regression. Models and empirical relations for estimating the global and diffuse solar radiation from Meteosat cloudiness data over Egypt are deduced and tested. Seasonal maps for the global and diffuse radiation over Egypt are carried out.

  4. Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  5. Egypt's Policy Concerning Food Irradiation Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypt's policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  6. Variaciones Anatómicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo H Oporto V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interacción entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimático subyacente durante la Odontogénesis. La interacción anormal de estos tejidos podría resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupción de un diente anómalo, ectópico o con variación anatómica. El presente reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatómicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnóstico en los tres casos se efectuó por medio del análisis de radiografías. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos raíces y dos canales, el premolar maxilar presentó tres raíces y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este último, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitación. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatómicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologías que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicación de exámenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatómicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento.Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was performed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

  7. Variaciones Anatómicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales / Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo H, Oporto V; Ramón E, Fuentes F; Camila C, Soto P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interacción entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimático subyacente durante la Odontogénesis. La interacción anormal de estos tejidos podría resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupción de un diente anómalo, ectópico o con variación anatómica. El prese [...] nte reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatómicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnóstico en los tres casos se efectuó por medio del análisis de radiografías. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos raíces y dos canales, el premolar maxilar presentó tres raíces y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este último, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitación. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatómicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologías que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicación de exámenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatómicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento. Abstract in english Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report [...] shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was performed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

  8. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Young-Kyu; Zhu, Qiang; Shon, Won Jun; Lee, Woo Cheol; Kum, Kee Yeon; Baek, Seung Ho; Lee, In Bog; Lim, Bum-Soon; Bae, Kwang Shik

    2015-03-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n=5) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n=5). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman's correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (?=-0.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order: AH Plusrheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers. PMID:25059248

  9. On the canalization of seismic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. CALOI

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available Tlie paper shows how the velocities of the channel waves
    Pa and 8a, as thus far calculated, are apparent velocities. From such apparent
    values it is easy to calculate the real velocities, which coincide with the
    minimum velocity of longitudinal and transversal waves, calculated by
    15. Gutenberg and by Miss I. Lehmann for the astenospliere.
    The canalization of seismic energy is a general phenomenon which, in
    the case of strong earthquakes with focus ca. 100 km deep, may involve not
    only the astenospliere, but also tlie earth crust channels. Important examples
    are alleged.
    The paper finally shows that also tlie energy developped by deep earthquakes
    (600 km deep and more undergoes remarkable canalization. However,
    this concerns to a significant extent only the astenospliere.

  10. Dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peress, Lilia; Telian, Steven A; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a condition of the inner ear wherein the temporal bone adjacent to the vestibular apparatus thins or erodes completely. It has no clear epidemiological predisposing factors that have been identified to date. Its diagnosis is made difficult by a clinical presentation that often overlaps with other pathologies of the ear. Symptoms of SCD are believed to result from a "third-window" phenomenon, which disrupts the transmission of acoustic energy in the inner ear. Symptoms, when present, may change or worsen over time, confounding the diagnosis. We present a case of SCD of the posterior canal that mimicked Meniere's disease for several decades. We also discuss the clinical findings that may steer clinical suspicion towards this diagnosis. PMID:25241030

  11. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5?kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like ? propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the environment shapes the genome. PMID:21248857

  12. Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Dillehay, Tom D.; Eling, Herbert H.; Rossen, Jack

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important developments in the existence of human society was the successful shift from a subsistence economy based on foraging to one primarily based on food production derived from cultivated plants and domesticated animals. The shift to plant food production occurred in only a few independent centers around the world and involved a commitment to increased sedentism and social interaction and to permanent agricultural fields and canals. One center was Peru, where early civili...

  13. Lesions in the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatra, Priyank S

    2011-10-01

    The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC. PMID:22223939

  14. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    OpenAIRE

    Chatra, Priyank S.

    2011-01-01

    The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  15. Waddington's canalization revisited: Developmental stability and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Mark L.; Bergman, Aviv

    2002-01-01

    Most species maintain abundant genetic variation and experience a range of environmental conditions, yet phenotypic variation is low. That is, development is robust to changes in genotype and environment. It has been claimed that this robustness, termed canalization, evolves because of long-term natural selection for optimal phenotypes. We show that the developmental process, here modeled as a network of interacting transcriptional regulators, constrains the genetic system to produce canaliza...

  16. Epidermoid Cancer of the Anal Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Shawn P.; Lee, Chong S.

    2011-01-01

    Anal canal cancer is a rare cancer with incidence that continues to rise. This has been in large part due to increased prevalence of immunosuppressed conditions such as organ transplantation and human immunodeficiency virus along with transmission of the human papillomavirus. Identification of high-risk groups and close monitoring of these groups can help to detect earlier stages of cancer. Chemoradiation therapy remains the mainstay of treatment with excellent outcomes. Surgery for anal cana...

  17. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  18. Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

  19. Antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaškovi? Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All root canal sealers should have antimicrobial activity so that they could act against any remaining bacteria after root canal obturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five root canal sealers: AH26, a resin based paste; Apexit, calcium hydroxide based paste; Endomethasone and Tubliseal, zinc oxide eugenol based materials and Ketac Endo Aplicap, glass ionomer based sealer. Matherials And Methods: Antimicrobial activity was tested against S. mutans 70C and L.casei ATCC 27773 using ADT (agar diffusion inhibitory test on TYC SB, blood and MRS agars. Freshly prepared paste or cement was placed in grooves of 4 mm in diameter in agar plates. Prepared agar plates were incubated at 37ºC in GAS PAC system for 24hours. The antimicrobial effect was determined according to the diameter of growth inhibition zone around tested materials. Three measurements were done for each material and values were recorded in millimeters. Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney test. The results confirmed that epoxy resin and zinc oxide eugenol based sealers had the greatest antimicrobial effect. Calcium hydroxide and glass ionomer based sealers showed significantly lower antimicrobial activity compared to AH26, Endomethasone and Tubliseal. Conclusion: The greatest antimicrobial activity was found for epoxy resin based sealer (AH26 for both tested microorganisms.

  20. Atom Trap, Krypton-81, and Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    2003-10-01

    We are developing the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method for the analysis of two long-lived rare krypton isotopes, ^81Kr (t_1/2=2.3 × 10^5 years, I.A. ˜ 10-13) and ^85Kr (t_1/2=10.8 years, I.A. ˜ 10-11). ^81Kr analyses can be used to determine the ages of old ice and groundwater in a range (5 × 10^4 - 2 × 10^6 years) beyond the reach of radio-carbon dating; Analyses of ^85Kr , a fission product of uranium and plutonium, can serve as a means to help verify compliance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In ATTA, individual atoms of the desired isotope are selectively captured into a laser trap and detected by observing the fluorescence of trapped atoms. The first application of ATTA is dating the ancient groundwater of the Nubian Aquifer underneath the Western Desert of Egypt. This is one of the largest aquifers in the world. The residence time of its water are of great interest in fundamental geology as well as for utilitarian reasons. This work marks the beginning of a useful tool in Earth sciences. * This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Nuclear Physics, under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  1. Flavonoids from Albizia chinensis of Egypt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neveen S., Ghaly; F. R., Melek; Nayera A. M., Abdelwahed.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se llevo a cabo el aislamiento de los flavonoides Kaemferol-3-O-?-L-ramnopirano-sida, quercetina-3-O-?-L-ramnopiranosida, luteolina, kaemferol y quercetina, del extracto metanolico de las hojas de Albizia chinensis colectada de Egipto. La identificación de los compuestos se llevo a cabo mediante el [...] análisis espectroscópico. Se valoro la actividad antimicrobiana de los tres primeros compuestos mostrando actividad moderada contra bacterias gram-positivas y gram-negativas. No se observo actividad antifungicida de estos compuestos. Abstract in english The flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside together with luteolin, kaempferol and quercetin, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Albizia chinensis collected from Egypt. Identification of the flavonoid constituents was carried by anal [...] ysing their spectroscopic data and/or by comparing these data with those reported in the literature. The first three isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity and the results revealed that the tested compounds exhibited moderate inhibiting activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria while no antifungal activity was observed.

  2. Low Job Satisfaction Among Physicians in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Gamal Abdel-Rahman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: Physician?s job satisfaction is a cornerstone for improving the quality of health care, and its continuity. To identify the extent of job satisfaction and explain its main components among physicians, together with finding out the main indicators for job satisfaction. METHODS: We randomly selected physicians from the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population Hospitals. All participants were asked to fill a self administrated questionnaire which included data pertaining socio-demographic characteristics and job satisfaction regarding salaries/incentives, monitoring, administration system, management, career satisfaction, relationship with colleagues, social support, opportunities for promotion, and job responsibilities. Satisfied was defined as satisfaction of>60%. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty eight physicians participated in this study; with mean age of 37.1+ 9.4 years, and 70.2% were males. Only 42.9% of the physicians? reported job satisfaction. Relationship with colleagues was the most important component of satisfaction with mean of 81.3+19.6 while, salaries/incentives were the least one with mean of 16.2+ 14. The overall current satisfying domains were not significantly associated with marital status or educational level, however it was significantly associated with specialty. Neither age nor gender was significantly associated with the degree of job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Our results call for paying more attention to improve physicians? job satisfaction in Egypt, to meet needed higher standards in health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 91-96

  3. Low Job Satisfaction Among Physicians in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Gamal Abdel-Rahman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: Physician?s job satisfaction is a cornerstone for improving the quality of health care, and its continuity. To identify the extent of job satisfaction and explain its main components among physicians, together with finding out the main indicators for job satisfaction. METHODS: We randomly selected physicians from the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population Hospitals. All participants were asked to fill a self administrated questionnaire which included data pertaining socio-demographic characteristics and job satisfaction regarding salaries/incentives, monitoring, administration system, management, career satisfaction, relationship with colleagues, social support, opportunities for promotion, and job responsibilities. Satisfied was defined as satisfaction of>60%. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty eight physicians participated in this study; with mean age of 37.1+ 9.4 years, and 70.2% were males. Only 42.9% of the physicians? reported job satisfaction. Relationship with colleagues was the most important component of satisfaction with mean of 81.3+19.6 while, salaries/incentives were the least one with mean of 16.2+ 14. The overall current satisfying domains were not significantly associated with marital status or educational level, however it was significantly associated with specialty. Neither age nor gender was significantly associated with the degree of job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Our results call for paying more attention to improve physicians? job satisfaction in Egypt, to meet needed higher standards in health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 91-96

  4. Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  6. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  7. Root canal therapy of a maxillary first molar with five root canals: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amauri, Favieri; Fabiana Gama Benevides de, Barros; Luís Claudio, Campos.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo relata o caso clínico de um primeiro molar superior esquerdo que apresentava um terceiro canal na raiz mésio-vestibular. O tratamento endodôntico e o manejo do caso são descritos. Fatores como amplo acesso coronário diferenciado, iluminação adequada, além do uso de instrumentos explorado [...] res foram essenciais para o sucesso do tratamento endodôntico. Abstract in english This paper reports the case of a maxillary left first molar that presented three root canals in the mesiobuccal root. Root canal therapy and case management are described. Features like wide crown access, adequate illumination and use of exploring files where important for successful completion of t [...] he endodontic treatment.

  8. Root canal preparation techniques using nickel-titanium rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkani? Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The main purpose of endodontic treatment is to clean the root canal system, eliminate the infected and toxic contents, and shape it in order to get a tridimensional obturation. The aim of this paper is to inform dental practitioners about crown-down techniques for root canal preparation using nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Root canal preparation Today most endodontists believe that root canal preparation is more officious, cleaning and shaping are better, if pre-enlargement of coronal two thirds is performed first, and shaping of the apical part later. Machine driven rotary instruments provide much quicker and better root canal preparation. Conclusion Contemporary endodontic rotary files vary in regard to their taper, cutting blades, guiding tip and material they are made of. The usage of rotary nickel-titanium files adds a new quality to root canal preparation.

  9. Joint inversion of VES and TEM data for investigation of geothermal resources and sea water intrusion at Hammam Mousa hot spring, Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Geoelectrical methods are pioneer in geothermal resources exploration. With the advent of computing technology, it has become convenient to apply sophisticated data analysis and joint inversion to different field data sets. Numerous studies have shown that, the joint interpretation of galvanic and inductive data, where a single model satisfies both data sets, will generally enhance the resolution of the subsurface resistivity structure. Thus, the inclusion of inductive data in the VES data set is expected to reduce problems with layer suppression, reduce the low and high resistivity equivalences that may be encountered with this method. In this work, DC resistivity and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at Hammam Mousa area, Sinai, Egypt to explore the geothermal resources, groundwater aquifer and the effect of sea water invasion on this aquifer. The field survey comprises 19 DC resistivity soundings (VESes) with AB/2 up to 1000m and 27 transient electromagnetic (TEM) stations using a square loop of 25 m side length. Both data sets were firstly inverted in 1-D scheme using a nonlinear least-squares method and gave a layered-earth resistivity model. Besides, the joint interpretation of both VES and TEM data, using the available geological information as a constraining factor, could successfully enhance the inversion results. The geoelectrical cross section resulted from the inversion process shows the effect of the Suversion process shows the effect of the Suez Gulf water intrusion in the western part of the study area. Meanwhile, hot water reduces the resistivity values drastically near the hot spring.

  10. An Inflation Targeting Regime in Egypt: A Feasible Option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Ghalwash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses first whether scientific evidence—theoretical and empirical—exists to support the inflation targeting regime and, secondly whether inflation target is worthwhile for Egypt. The method in this paper builds on a literature review of the theoretical and empirical research in the field of economics. Our conclusion shows that there is incomplete evidence from a number of countries supporting the inflation targeting regime as an effective monetary policy framework for the achievement of macroeconomic stability. The paper concludes that the Central Bank of Egypt and the Egyptian economy is not yet ready for the implementation of an inflation targeting regime.

  11. Development of radon daughter measurement programme in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon daughter measurement programme in Egypt is an important part of the radiation safety programme. It aims at risk evaluation, equipment calibration, establishment of techniques and personnel training. Measurements during this programme indicated that there is no radon environmental problem in Egypt, however, a potential problem may exist in occupational practices in underground mines. This work involved general consideration about the programme, monitoring methods for radon gas and its decay products as well as monitoring probable errors, other methods of monitoring and objectives of the programme as well as the main achievements

  12. Mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar del adulto cubano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Expósito Rodríguez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar en estudios radiográficos simples de la columna lumbosacra en las vistas anteroposterior y lateral, en 200 adultos sin antecedentes de dolor y afección lumbar o ambos. Se utilizó la técnica recomendada por Eisenstein en 1976 para definir el margen posterior del canal. Se corroboró la importancia del diámetro sagital como parámetro esencial para determinar la estenosis del canal estando los límites de la normalidad entre 14,7 y 21 mm. Se establece como límite inferior de la distancia interpedicular 22,6 mm. El canal de las mujeres es menor que el de los hombres, y el canal de la raza negroide es menor al de la raza caucasiana y los mestizos en su diámetro sagital. Se recomienda este método con el fin de establecer un diagnóstico precoz de la estenosis del canal en el sector lumbar.Measurements of the lumbar spinal canal were made in simple radiographic studies of the lumbosacral column in the anteroposterior and lateral view in 200 adults with no antecedents of pain or lumbar affection. The technique recommended by Eisenstein in 1976 to define the posterior edge of the canal was used. The importance of the sagittal diameter as an essential parameter to determine the stenosis of the canal was corroborated. Normal limits are between 14.7 and 21 mm. An inferior limit of the interpedicular distance of 22.6 mm is established. The women's canal is smaller than that of men, whereas the canal of the black persons is lower than that of Caucasians and mestizos in its sagittal diameter. This method is recommended in order to made an early diagnosis of the stenosis of the canal in the lumbar sector.

  13. Mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar del adulto cubano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz, Expósito Rodríguez; José H., Salas Rubio.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar en estudios radiográficos simples de la columna lumbosacra en las vistas anteroposterior y lateral, en 200 adultos sin antecedentes de dolor y afección lumbar o ambos. Se utilizó la técnica recomendada por Eisenstein en 1976 para definir el margen p [...] osterior del canal. Se corroboró la importancia del diámetro sagital como parámetro esencial para determinar la estenosis del canal estando los límites de la normalidad entre 14,7 y 21 mm. Se establece como límite inferior de la distancia interpedicular 22,6 mm. El canal de las mujeres es menor que el de los hombres, y el canal de la raza negroide es menor al de la raza caucasiana y los mestizos en su diámetro sagital. Se recomienda este método con el fin de establecer un diagnóstico precoz de la estenosis del canal en el sector lumbar. Abstract in english Measurements of the lumbar spinal canal were made in simple radiographic studies of the lumbosacral column in the anteroposterior and lateral view in 200 adults with no antecedents of pain or lumbar affection. The technique recommended by Eisenstein in 1976 to define the posterior edge of the canal [...] was used. The importance of the sagittal diameter as an essential parameter to determine the stenosis of the canal was corroborated. Normal limits are between 14.7 and 21 mm. An inferior limit of the interpedicular distance of 22.6 mm is established. The women's canal is smaller than that of men, whereas the canal of the black persons is lower than that of Caucasians and mestizos in its sagittal diameter. This method is recommended in order to made an early diagnosis of the stenosis of the canal in the lumbar sector.

  14. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditional endodontic therapy cannot make the root canal system completely free of bacteria. Moreover, it may not always result in complete healing of apical periodontitis, highlighting the need of optimizi...

  15. Canalization and Symmetry in Boolean Models for Genetic Regulatory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Bassler, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    Canalization of genetic regulatory networks has been argued to be favored by evolutionary processes due to the stability that it can confer to phenotype expression. We explore whether a significant amount of canalization and partial canalization can arise in purely random networks in the absence of evolutionary pressures. We use a mapping of the Boolean functions in the Kauffman N-K model for genetic regulatory networks onto a k-dimensional Ising hypercube to show that the f...

  16. Endodontic treatment of lower anterior teeth with multiple canals

    OpenAIRE

    Vujaškovi? Mirjana; Stojanovi? Nikola; Vujaškovi? Goran

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Knowledge of root canal morphology is one of the main prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. We present the case of a patient with multiple canals in lower anterior teeth which were treated endodontically. Case Report. To a 45-year-old patient endodontic treatment was applied on lower left lateral incisor, lower right central and lateral incisor and lower right canine. These teeth were previously prepared for prosthetic crowns. All involved teeth had two canals...

  17. SCADA system with predictive controller applied to irrigation canals

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Joa?o; Botto, Miguel; Rijo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies a model predictive controller (MPC) to an automatic water canal with sensors and actuators controlled by a network (programmable logic controller), and supervised by a SCADA system (supervisory control and a data acquisition). This canal is composed by a set of distributed sub-systems that control the water level in each canal pool, constrained by discharge gates (control variables) and water off-takes (disturbances). All local controllers are available through an industria...

  18. Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients with exclusively or predominantly intracanalicular neuromas and 5 with presumably normal internal auditory canals were examined with prototype 1.4- or 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. MR images showed the 7th and 8th cranial nerves in the internal auditory canal. The intracanalicular neuromas had larger diameter and slightly greater signal strength than the nerves. Early results suggest that minimal enlargement of the nerves can be detected even in the internal auditory canal

  20. Evaluation of root canal preparation with two automated endodontic handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, D T; Brayton, S M

    1975-02-01

    An evaluation of automated low-speed handpiece preparation of canals was made by a silicone injection technique. These preparations were compared and rated with canals prepared by conventional hand instrumentation. Canals were graded on the criteria of shape, smoothness, elimation of morphologic aberrations, and apical preparations. Conventional hand istrumentation proved to be superior and required approximately the same amount of time as automated ins-rumentation in this vitro study. PMID:1090871