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Sample records for suez canal egypt

  1. ASTER Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  2. Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal beaches, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal

  3. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certificated under the system prescribed in 35 CFR part 135. (b) All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of... certificates issued under this part. (d) Tonnage measurement services for Panama Canal and Suez...

  4. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  5. Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Analyses Techniques For Optimum Land Use Planning, West of Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study aims at using remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for optimum landuse planning of the area located north Ismaillia - south Port Said Governorates on the western side of Suez Canal. It is bounded by longitudes 32 degree 10 and 32 degree 20 E and latitudes 300 4 rand 31 0 00' N. Great part of this area is under reclamation and suffering from improper landuse. Ten geomorphologic units were recognized i.e. clay flats, decantation basins, overflow basins, sand sheets, gypsiferous flats, old river terraces, sand flats, turtle backs, lake beds, and recent river terraces. Using US Soil Taxonomy, two soil orders could be identified; Entisols and Aridisols which are represented by ten great groups: Typic Haplosalids, Typic Haplogypsids, Typic Toriorthents, Vertic Argigypsids, Vertic Torrijluvents, Vertic Natrargids ,Typic Torripsamments, Typic Torrifluvens, Aquic Torriorthents and Typic Psammaquents. Surface and ground water with respect to salinity and alkalinity hazards were investigated ,where surface water of the main canals was classified as C2-S 1, C3-S 1 ,C4-S2 and C4-S4, meanwhile the ground water was classified as C3-S 1, C3 -S 1 ,C4-S2 ,C4-SI and C4-S4 .Optimum landuse planning of the studied area includes three approaches i.e., physical planning, optimum cropping pattern and other uses. Physical planning includes designing of three geospatial models. I-treatment plant site selection model. 2-central village site selection model and 3- shortest path for new Canal model. Current cropping pattern was obtained by matching the crop requirements with soil characteristics, where soils of high sand flats and low gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, alfalfa and cotton, soils of low sand flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for olive, citrus and melon, soils of low recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, cotton, corn and rice ,soils of moderately recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, potato and rice, soils of high recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, rice and cotton, soils of high gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for corn, cotton, and citrus, soils of decantation basins are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, rice, corn, cotton, soils of turtle bake are currently highly suitable (S2) for melon, potato, cotton, soils of overflow basins are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus, peach, soils of sand sheets and old river terraces are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus

  6. A review of potential tsunami impacts to the Suez Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkl, C.; Pelinovsky, E.

    2012-04-01

    Destructive tsunamis in the eastern Mediterranean and Red seas, induced by earthquakes and/or volcanic activity, pose potential hazards to docked seaport shipping and fixed harbor infrastructure as well as to in-transit international shipping within the Suez Canal. Potential vulnerabilities of the Suez Canal to possible tsunami impacts are reviewed by reference to geological, historical, archaeoseismological, and anecdotal data. Tsunami catalogues and databases compiled by earlier researchers are perused to estimate potential return periods for tsunami events that could affect directly the Suez Canal and its closely associated operational infrastructures. Analysis of these various records indicates a centurial return period, or multiples thereof, for long-wave repetition that could generally affect the Nile Delta. It is estimated that tsunami waves 2 m high would have a breaking length about 5 km down Canal whereas a 10 m wave break would occur about 1 km into the Canal. Should a tsunami strike the eastern flanks of the Nile Delta, it would damage Egypt's maritime infrastructure and multi-national commercial vessels and military ships then using the Canal.

  7. Heavy metals and hydrocarbon concentrations in water, sediments and tissue of Cyclope neritea from two sites in Suez Canal, Egypt and histopathological effects

    OpenAIRE

    Sharaf, Hesham M.; Shehata, Abdalla M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals and hydrocarbons are of the most common marine pollutants around the world. The present study aimed to assess the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in tissues of the snail cyclope neritea, water and sediments from two sites of the study area (Temsah lake and Suez canal) represent polluted and unpolluted sites respectively. The results showed that, the levels of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Mg and Zn) in the polluted area have reached harmful limits recorde...

  8. Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the Suez Canal Bank is going to be highlighted. (author)

  9. Heavy metals and hydrocarbon concentrations in water, sediments and tissue of Cyclope neritea from two sites in Suez Canal, Egypt and histopathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Hesham M; Shehata, Abdalla M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals and hydrocarbons are of the most common marine pollutants around the world. The present study aimed to assess the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in tissues of the snail cyclope neritea, water and sediments from two sites of the study area (Temsah lake and Suez canal) represent polluted and unpolluted sites respectively. The results showed that, the levels of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Mg and Zn) in the polluted area have reached harmful limits recorded globally. Lead in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached to 0.95 ppm, 4.54 ppm and 7.93 ppm respectively. Cadmium reached 0.31 ppm, 1.15 ppm and 3.08 ppm in the corresponding samples. Cobalt was not detected in water, but it reached 1.42 ppm and 10.36 ppm in the sediment and snails tissue respectively. Magnesium in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached 3.73 ppm, 9.44 ppm and12.6 ppm respectively. Zinc reached 0.11 ppm, 3.89 ppm and 12.60ppm in the corresponding samples. Meanwhile, hydrocarbons in the polluted area (site1) reached 110.10 ?g/L, 980.15 ?g/g and 228.00 ?g/g in water sediment and digestive gland tissues of the snails respectively. Whereas, hydrocarbons in the unpolluted area (site2) were estimated as 14.20 ?g/L, 55.60 ?g/g and 22.66 ?g/g in water, sediment and tissue of the snails respectively. The combination of histopathological image with monitoring of the metal level in the digestive gland of the present snail provides an important tool for early detection of impending environmental problems and potential public health issues. Petroleum hydrocarbons are toxic to the marine fauna when present above certain limit in the marine water. The major detoxification organ in molluscs is the digestive gland, which has been used as a bioindicator organ for toxicity assessment. The effect of high crude oil on the digestive gland tubules of exposed snails when examined microscopically reveals a series of histological changes which indicates that the cellular compensatory mechanism is activated by hydrocarbons. These changes include vacuolation and presence of pyknotic nuclei. PMID:25878794

  10. Assessment of the impact from transporting radioactive materials in the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study in Egypt, carried out as the subject of an IAEA research contract, has used the INTERTRAN Code to provide an assessment of doses to handlers and the collective dose to the population, due to transport of radioactive material through the Suez Canal. Calculations were carried out using the data appropriate to the Canal, based on actual statistics and observations and default data built into the Code. The average collective dose per year was calculated to be 4.5 man rem and doses to handlers under normal transport conditions represented 97% of the total. Use of built-in default data gave results 106 times higher. 11 refs, 16 tabs

  11. La crisis del Canal de Suez en 1956: el fin de una época en el Medio Oriente y el comienzo de otra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Davidi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La crisis del Canal de Suez (o Campaña de Suez, Guerra de Suez u Operación Kadesh fue una guerra que estalla en 1956 en territorio egipcio. El conflicto que opone a Egipto a una alianza formada por Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel se produce a consecuencia de la nacionalización del Canal de Suez por el dirigente egipcio Gamal Abdel Nasser. Esta alianza entre dos estados europeos e Israel respondió a intereses comunes: económicos, comerciales y políticos. Durante el curso del mes que siguió a la nacionalización del Canal, un acuerdo secreto fue firmado en Sèvres, en las afueras de Paris, en el cual se selló la cooperación militar de Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel contra Egipto.______________________ABSTRACT:The Suez Crisis (the Suez War, the Kadesh Operation, or the Suez Campaign is a war on Egyptian territory what started with a tripartite aggression by Great Britain, France and Israel against Egypt in 1956, after the nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser. The war plot against Egypt was hatched towards the end of October 1956 in a secret meeting in Sèvres, near Paris. The discussions culminated in the signature of the Protocol of Sèvres.

  12. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF6 packages traversing the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF6 shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF6 on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

  13. Evaluating the atmospheric dispersion characteristics of Suez Canal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric dispersion characteristics of Suez Canal area were determined for subsequent estimation of the environmental impacts of transporting radioactive or hazardous material through the Suez Canal and for the study of environmental pollution resulting from fossil power plants. The atmospheric stability classes were determined at three stations: Port Said, Ismailia and Port Tawfiek (Suez). For achieving this purpose, a computer program was developed through which the atmospheric stability classes A - F and insolation were determined by combining the measured meteorological parameters and the sun elevation which was calculated by another developed computer program with the help of astronomical tables. The results show that the most frequent stability class at Port-Said and Suez is stability class D (neutral condition), whereas at Ismailia area the moderately stable class F, which is the inversion condition with unfavourable dispersion characteristics, is prevailing. The determination of the frequency of stability classes will make it possible to calculate the concentration of a pollutant at a given distance from the source and therefore will be used in dose assessment

  14. Egypt's first subsea completion: A Gulf of Suez case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.'s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt's first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations

  15. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF{sub 6}) packages tracking Suez Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF{sub 6}) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF{sub 6}) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF{sub 6}) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested.

  16. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF6) packages tracking Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF6) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF6) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF6) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested

  17. Suez's Culture of Resistance, its causes and its future.

    OpenAIRE

    Sélégny, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Suez is a seaport city which is one of the two gates of the Suez Canal. Most media talked about Tahrir Square in Cairo as the epicenter of the Arab Spring in Egypt. However the truth is that Suez was genuinely the center of the unprecendented uprising, as it was the first city to rise up against Hosni Mubarak. Likewise, Suez was also sadly known for being the city where the first protester was killed in Egypt during the January 2011 uprisings. Therein, Suez was renowned across Egypt for carry...

  18. Analysis of compressed air energy storage for large-scale wind energy in Suez, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramadan, O.; Omer, Siddig; Jradi, Muhyiddine; Sabir, H; Riffat, S

    2015-01-01

    renewable energy sources, in particular wind and solar, there are major concerns with the large integration of these technologies in many of the current grid systems. This paper presents a parametric analysis of sizing a large-scale energy storage system that may help to stabilize energy supply based on...... large-scale grid integration in Suez area in Egypt. The system is based on a Compressed Air Energy Storage, which has the ability to accommodate a large volume of energy from large-scale wind energy integration to the Suez electricity grid system. The paper analyses the characteristics of Suez grid...... system and the expected wind generation, based on the current integration projections. The results show how compressed air energy storage could add value to the installation of large-scale wind farms in the Suez area in Egypt and indicate the technical ability and successful operation of the proposed...

  19. Slim-hole drilling in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the economical, operational and environmental aspects of the reduced hole size drilling now used in offshore operations in Gupco and other major petroleum companies operating in the Gulf of Suez Area Egypt. The results demonstrate that reduced hole size drilling saves cost: use of slim hole reduces time related intangible savings, fixed tangible savings, and tangible equipment savings. The advantages of small hole size and the reduction in the volume and size of oil wet drilling cuttings help minimize the environmental impact associated with the use of oil base mud. The reduction in drilling fluid volume and treatment cost, higher rates of penetration, better hole cleaning capabilities, savings in consumables (such as bits, mud, cement and diesel oil), less tangible cost, and easier equipment mobilization are interacted to produce significant operational gains. This results in savings to 40 to 50 percent of well costs versus the cost of conventional wells drilled in the same area. Although substantial savings were realized, there are elevated risks with the major one being the lack of a good contingency in the event unexpected hole condition or geological condition require an extra casing to be run prior to reaching the total depth. Effective preplanning between the drilling, exploration, and engineering to accurately define possible geologic targets and their potential drilling problems can minimize these risks associated with drilling slim holes and provide higher levels of success in meeting objectives

  20. Superposed deformation in the northern Suez Rift, Egypt: relevance to hydrocarbons exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, A.R. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Geology; Khalil, M.H. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-07-01

    Detailed subsurface studies of the northern part of the Suez Rift and adjacent areas indicate the superposition of two different episodes of deformation. During the earlier (Late Cretaceous) phase of deformation, folds with NE-SW oriented axes were formed in northern Egypt as a result of convergence between Africa and Eurasia and the closure of the Neotethys. During the later (early Miocene) deformation, NW-oriented normal faults were formed as a result of the opening of the Suez Rift. Borehole data have shown that a belt of NE en echelon folds with NE-SW axes exists in the subsurface in the northernmost part of the rift, between Ayun Musa and the Sukhna-1 well, south of Gebel Ataqa. This fold belt represents the SW continuation of the en echelon folds exposed in the Mitla Pass, to the NE of the rift. Another pre-rift structure is the offshore extension of the Wadi Araba structure as a SE-facing monocline. This offshore structure also represents the continuation of the Gebel Somar structure, on the eastern shoulder of the Suez Rift. The Gebel Somar and Wadi Araba structures represent the southernmost pre-rift folds in northern Egypt. Pre-rift folds in the study area stood high above sea-level during the Palaeocene and early Eocene. Upper Cretaceous and/or older rocks in the cores of these folds were later uncomfortably covered by middle Eocene rocks. The presence of Late Cretaceous folds should be taken into consideration when exploring for hydrocarbons in this part of the Suez Rift. Borehole data in NE Egypt also indicate the presence of Late Cretaceous folds underneath the almost flat-lying Tertiary rocks in the northern part of the Eastern Desert. These folds are considered to be potential hydrocarbon traps in this relatively poorly-explored area. (Author)

  1. Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.

  2. Bio indicator for monitoring radioactive pollution in Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elseredie or pinctada radiatata bivalve oyster used as a food stuff in town of Suez; was found to be a good bio indicator for Co-60 and Cs-134. This laboratory study; under similar marine environment including ph, salinity and temperature; indicated that these oysters concentrate Cs-134 in the soft tissue higher than in the shell. This may be due to similarity between Cs and K. Contrary to Cs, co was concentrated in the shell more than in the soft tissue. This was attributed to physico-chemical adsorption of Co by shell. The release (loss) of Co-60 and Cs-134; carried out under the same conditions of the field environment; was found to follow the same trends of their uptake. Release of Cs-134 was fast and di phasic reaction whereas in case of Co-60 it is slow continuous and monophasic reaction

  3. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using ? spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238U series, 232Th series and 40K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238U series and 40K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq l-1 for stream water. (author)

  4. La crisis del Canal de Suez en 1956: el fin de una época en el Medio Oriente y el comienzo de otra

    OpenAIRE

    Efraim Davidi

    2006-01-01

    La crisis del Canal de Suez (o Campaña de Suez, Guerra de Suez u Operación Kadesh) fue una guerra que estalla en 1956 en territorio egipcio. El conflicto que opone a Egipto a una alianza formada por Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel se produce a consecuencia de la nacionalización del Canal de Suez por el dirigente egipcio Gamal Abdel Nasser. Esta alianza entre dos estados europeos e Israel respondió a intereses comunes: económicos, comerciales y políticos. Durante el curso del mes que siguió a l...

  5. Turismo de eventos: los cruceros espaoles en la inauguracin del canal de suez de 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Cerchiello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El 17 de noviembre de 1869 tuvo lugar el solemne acto de inauguracin del Canal de Suez. Largamente celebrado por los medios de informacin, el histrico acontecimiento atrajo visitantes de toda Europa, generando asimismo la promocin de varios viajes organizados. Tras una breve introduccin sobre los principales hechos que condujeron a la apertura de la nueva ruta martima, este artculo se ocupa de dos singulares proyectos de cruceros tursticos espaoles, en una poca en la que los viajes de recreo al extranjero, y el turismo en general, slo proliferaban entre las lites forneas. Su estudio ayuda a esclarecer, por otra parte, algunos rasgos diferenciales de las primeras experiencias crucersticas en Espaa, que haban empezado a llevarse a cabo desde mediados del siglo XIX.

  6. Use of the INTERTRAN code for risk assessment of radioactive materials being transported through the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INTERTRAN computer code developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency was used to predict the radiological risks resulting from the transport of radioactive materials through the Suez Canal under both normal and accident conditions. Large amounts of input data were used, including the actual statistical accident rates, standard shipment data for the period 1980-1985, population density data, and meteorological dispersion parameters based on analysis of actual data from the Ismailia region during the year 1986. The results indicate that there has been a considerable increase in the transport of radioactive materials through the canal since 1980. The increase in 1984 and 1985 was 7 and 11 times that of 1980, respectively. The average collective dose per year was found to be 4.5 man·rem, which is negligible value if the high population density within the Suez Canal zone is considered. Low specific activity materials such as uranium and thorium make the most significant contribution to the total collective dose to the public. In general, of the different population subgroups involved, handlers receive more than 97% of the total dose. The radiological risks calculated from actual input data were found to be lower by a factor of 106 than those calculated from default input data. This can be attributed to the low accident probability in the Suez Canal compared with that in the open sea. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  7. Biomarker characteristics of the Turonian–Eocene succession, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Sh. El Diasty

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Detailed geochemical methods, including liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, are used to characterize organic-rich facies of the Turonian–Eocene deposits. Crude oil samples are analyzed using C7 and stable carbon isotopes, in addition to analysis of the extracts, in order to throw light on the organic matter source, composition, and thermal maturity. The source rocks are mainly derived from algae and bacteria deposited under normal saline and reducing palaeoenvironmental conditions, with a minimal contribution from terrestrial organic and mainly clay-poor source rocks. This is evidenced by the n-alkane distribution, the pristane/phytane, homohopane, gammacerane index, the high concentration of cholestane, the presence of the C30 n-propylcholestanes and low diasteranes ratios. The source rock extracts range from immature to marginally mature, based on biomarker maturity-related parameters. A similar scenario is envisaged from the crude oil samples which showed a partial positive correlation with the source rocks of the Eocene Thebes Formation, and the Upper Cretaceous Brown Limestone. Our data suggest that Turonian–Santonian Matulla Formation samples may signify the presence of some oil in the study area.

  8. Distribution of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia thurstoni Herdman, 1890 (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae along Suez Canal and Egyptian Red Sea coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecteinascidia thurstoni is a colonial sea squirt. It has a seasonal rhythm and a tropicaland subtropical distribution; it is usually present during the summer months.It synthesizes a group of molecules called ecteinascidins. One of these is ET-743, a compound that has a most original anti-tumoral activity and is today considered to be one of the most promising substances effective against various solid-type tumors (currently sold under the trade name of Yondelis for the treatment of sarcomas and related tumors; it is undergoing phase II/III clinical trails for other kinds of tumors.Worldwide, Ecteinascidia species represent the only available source of this bioactivecompound, which was first discovered in E. turbinata.During the present study, the ecology of E. thurstoni along the Suez Canal and Red Seawas investigated. Its populations were observed to be highly gregarious due in partto their low larval dispersal, which is very localized; larvae therefore tendto settle close to their parent colonies. It is only recorded in shallow waters (0.5-1.5 mas an epiphyte on the pneumatophores of mangroves by the Red Sea, on the pilings of jetties,and the metal or cement banks of the Suez Canal. The morphometric characteristics(zooid length, zooid weight, colony weight of the Suez Canal population differsignificantly from those of the Red Sea. Studying the distribution of this speciesand locating its different populations along the Suez Canal and Red Sea could helpto characterize their genetics, chemistry and bacterial communities at differentisolated locations.Ultimately, this will help to define the sources of ET-743 and hence promote itsbiosynthesis on a commercial scale.

  9. Petroleum biomarkers as environment and maturity indicators for crude oils from the Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Moharrem Bek, Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ (Egypt); Hegazi, A.H. [Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster Univ. (Germany); El-Gayar, M.S. [Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Andersson, J.T. [Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Depositional environment and maturation assessments of source rocks from the central Gulf of Suez, Egypt were evaluated utilizing the biomarker distributions in nine crude oils derived from a syn-rift tectonic sequence of the central Gulf of Suez province. No obvious variations were observed amongst the studied crude oils, suggesting that these oils are all of the same genetic type. These oils feature a predominance of oleanane, reaching 24%, and a relatively low gammacerane concentration of 10%, suggesting that these oils were derived from a terrigenous organofacies source rock with a significant angiosperm higher land plants input deposited within the marginally mature syn-rift shale of Lower Miocene Nukhul, Rudeis and Kareem formations of mixed kerogen types II-III. Maturity parameters based on various sterane isomerisation distributions, i.e. C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}). C{sub 29}{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}20S/(S+R) and TAS/(TAS+MAS) and aromatic sulfur compounds such as 4-MDBT/ 1-MDBT, 4,6/-1,4-DMBT, 2,4/-1,4-DMDBT and the DBT/phenanthrene indicate a low thermal maturation level for the generated hydrocarbons within the syn-rift lithostratigraphic succession. These similarities in geologic occurrences and biomarker characteristics suggest the possibility that the hydrocarbon expulsion could have been initiated from deeply buried Miocene source rocks and trapped within the syn-rift structures throughout the extensional faults of the central Gulf of Suez province. (orig.)

  10. Desorption of Sr 89, Co 60 and Cs 134 from Suez Canal bottom sediments (Port Tawfeek Area)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and physical properties of Suez Canal Bottom Sediments (S.C.B.S) and seawater at Port Tawfeek, the south entrance of Suez Canal, were studied. The (S.C.B.S) was separated into its size fractions (natural sediment, sand, silt and clay). These different sediment fractions were allowed to be in equilibrium with Strontium 89, Cobalt 60 and Cesium 134 solutions. Desorption studies were carried out on these contaminated sediments. The release of Strontium 89 and Cesium 134 was found to be identical and the sequence of this release was as follows : sand> silt> natural sediment> clay. The effect of seawater is 6-8 times that of bidistilled water. In case of Cobalt 60 the above sequence was disturbed and the salinity effect was only 2 times that of bidistilled water. It was also found that Strontium and Cobalt were more easily desorbed from the sand fraction a behaviour which can be explained by their loose attachment to the crystal surface

  11. Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric parameters, the frequency of occurrence, abundance and density analyses, the seaweed C. prolifera is more frequent, abundant and dense in Suez Canal than the seagrass H. stipulacea, which is very rare. Instead C. prolifera forming extended dense meadows with percentage cover nearly 100% m–2 at many sites. This mainly happened; due to the competitive success of C. prolifera which seems to be related to its big size, high density, rapid growth, high efficiency in dim light conditions, high tolerance to severe nutrient limitation and salinity and temperature fluctuations and to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. The presence of these toxic secondary metabolites explains why C. prolifera is avoided by many of macro invertebrates as a habitat or feeding grounds.

  12. Multiphase flowmeter successfully measures three-phase flow at extremely high gas-volume fractions -- Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.B.; Borling, D.C. [Amoco Egypt Oil Co., Cairo (Egypt); Powers, B.S. [Amoco Sharjah Oil Co. (United Arab Emirates); Shehata, K. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co. (Egypt); Halvorsen, M. [Fluenta A/S (Norway); AboElenain, A. [Cross-Countries (Egypt)

    1998-02-01

    A multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) installed in offshore Egypt has accurately measured three-phase flow in extremely gassy flow conditions. The meter is completely nonintrusive, with no moving parts, requires no flow mixing before measurement, and has no bypass loop to remove gas before multiphase measurement. Flow regimes observed during the field test of this meter ranged from severe slugging to annular flow caused by the dynamics of gas-lift gas in the production stream. Average gas-volume fraction ranged from 93 to 98% during tests conducted on seven wells. The meter was installed in the Gulf of Suez on a well protector platform in the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co. (Gupco) October field, and was placed in series with a test separator located on a nearby production platform. Wells were individually tested with flow conditions ranging from 1,300 to 4,700 B/D fluid, 2.4 to 3.9 MMscf/D of gas, and water cuts from 1 to 52%. The meter is capable of measuring water cuts up to 100%. Production was routed through both the MPFM and the test separator simultaneously as wells flowed with the assistance of gas-lift gas. The MPFM measured gas and liquid rates to within {+-} 10% of test-separator reference measurement flow rates, and accomplished this at gas-volume fractions from 93 to 96%. At higher gas-volume fractions up to 98%, accuracy deteriorated but the meter continued to provide repeatable results.

  13. Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Frank, Helmut Paul; Georgy, Laila; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Akmal, Mohamad; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Abdel Salam, Ashour

    2003-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installatio...

  14. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

  15. Subsurface Structural Imaging Of Esh El Mallaha Area, Gulf Of Suez, Egypt Using Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, E.; Salem, A. S.; El-Bohoty, M. E.; Ushijima, K.

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a case study on the subsurface structural imaging of Esh El Mallaha area. Esh EL Mallaha area is located on the western flank of the Gulf of Suez and it has a great importance due to its hydrocarbon resources. In 1994 the area was covered by aeromagnetic survey conducted by Aero Service Division, Western Geophysical Company of America. The main object of this work to delineate the subsurface structural framework of the area that may assist in hydrocarbon exploration. A 3D analytic signal technique was applied to the aeromagnetic data. One of the most advantages of the analytic signal is that it produces a maximum value over a 2D magnetic source and as a result it enables more accurate location of the magnetic sources. It is also straight forward to determine the depth to the magnetic contacts using a simple formula derived from the analytic signal. Generally, Esh EL Mallaha area is characterized by two basinal structures taking the direction of the NW-SE parallel to the Red Sea rift. Those two basins are separated by long dike igneous rocks bounded by two major faults and taking the direction of NW-SE.

  16. Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil and Beach Samples of the Western Coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two soil samples from six main coastal regions, Ain Sokhina, Al Zafrana, Ras Gharib, Ras Shokeir, Gebel El Zeit and Hurghada (all lie along the Western Coast of the Gulf of Suez ) were collected and investigated. The specific activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K as well as the anthropogenic radionuclide of 137 Cs in the samples were determined using HPGe ? - ray spectrometry. The average specific activities (range) of natural radionuclides in all samples are 9.90.8 ( 2.25-30.58 ) Bq kg-1 for 226 Ra, 6.60.9 (1.18-24.37) Bq kg-1 for 232 Th and 172.155.4 (5.4-587.3) Bq kg-1 for 40 K. For 137 Cs, the specific activity concentration results in most of the soil samples were below detection limits. Moreover, the radiation hazard parameters such as, absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index are also calculated

  17. Modeling petroleum generation and geochemistry of crude oils in Ras Budran field, northern gulf of Suez, Egypt: implications for prospectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A. [Geology Dept., Alexandria Univ. (Egypt)

    2005-12-01

    Petroleum generation modeling of the pre-rift succession in Ras Budran Field, which is located in the northern Gulf of Suez province in Egypt, showed that the best oil prone source rocks identified are the carbonate dominated one in the Upper Cretaceous and the Middle Eocene. These source rocks contain type-II kerogen (liptinitic materials) and progressively increase in their peak of oil generation from 0.63 and 0.83 vitrinite reflectance at a depth of about 3000 meters during the early of middle Miocene age and could have charged traps during the intra Rudeis tectonic phase. Crude oil and source rock extract interrelationships display a great similarity in their geologic occurrences and biological marker distributions. The biomarker characteristics indicate a low relative abundance of oleanane index around 5% pristane/phytane ratio<1, higher C{sub 35}/C{sub 34} homohopanes>1 and higher gammacerane indices >30%, suggesting a typical marine organic matter with source rock deposition under reducing conditions, Marginally mature stage of oil generation is indicated by the relatively low sterane isomerization of C{sub 29} {alpha}{alpha}{alpha} 20S/(S+R) and C{sub 29}{alpha}{beta}{beta}/({alpha}{beta}{beta}+{alpha}{alpha}{alpha}) of about 06 and relatively low aromatic sulfur compound rations. Crude oil geochemistry and related source rock potential define genetically related oils which ware generated from marginally mature and organic-rich carbonate source rocks, most probably from the pre-rift Duwi and Thebes formations. The best oil prone for future prospectivity would be oriented west of Ras Budran Field toward the deep marine of the Gulf, where the undiscovered reserves are expected to be accumulated within the pre-rift reservoirs in the footwalls of the normal faulted blocks. (orig.)

  18. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Rudies sandstone (Lower Miocene), Warda Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2012-05-01

    The Lower Miocene Rudies sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southeastern part, Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their provenance and diagenesis and their impact in reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Warda field, representing the Lower and Middle Rudies, were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rudies sandstones have an average framework composition of Q85F7.2R7.8, and 83% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Middle Rudies sandstones are only slightly more quartzose with an average framework composition of Q90F7R3 and 86% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. Rudies sandstones are mostly quartz arenite with subordinate subarkose and sublithic arenites and their bulk-rock geochemistry support the petrographic results. The modal analysis data of studied samples suggest influence of granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks. The geochemical data interpretation on the basis of discriminate function diagrams reveal the source material was deposited on a passive margin. Textural attributes possibly suggest long-distance transport of grains from the source region and indicates a cratonic or a recycled source. Tectonic setting of Rudies Formation reveals that the lower Rudies sandstones are typically rift sandstone and their deposition constrained the beginning of the faulting, while the middle Rudies sandstones were transported from the far along the rift. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

  19. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and reservoir quality of the sandstones of the Kareem Formation, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2013-09-01

    The Middle Miocene Kareem sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their diagenesis and provenance and their impact on reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Zeit Bay Oil Field, and the East Zeit Oil Field represent the Lower Kareem (Rahmi Member) and the Upper Kareem (Shagar Member), were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rahmi sandstones have an average framework composition of Q95F3.4R1.6, and 90% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Upper Shagar sandstones are only slightly less quartzose with an average framework composition of Q76F21R3 and 82% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. The Kareem sandstones are mostly quartzarenite with subordinate subarkose and arkose. Petrographical and geochemical data of sandstones indicate that they were derived from granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks and deposited in a passive continental margin of a syn rift basin. The sandstones of the Kareem Formation show upward decrease in maturity. Petrographic study revealed that dolomite is the dominant cement and generally occurs as fine to medium rhombs pore occluding phase and locally as a grain replacive phase. Authigenic quartz occurs as small euhedral crystals, locally as large pyramidal crystals in the primary pores. Authigenic anhydrites typically occur as poikilotopic rhombs or elongate laths infilling pores but also as vein filling cement. The kaolinite is a by-product of feldspar leaching in the presence of acidic fluid produced during the maturation of organic matter in the adjacent Miocene rocks. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

  20. Mapping Geological Structures In Wadi Ghoweibaarea, Northwest Gulf Of Suez, Egypt, Using Aster-Spot Data Fusion And Aster DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical and economical constraints prompt the need of obtaining lithological and structural information for development of desert areas with reduced field effort. The fusion of multi-sensor satellite data is an effective mean of exploiting the complimentary nature of different data types. This technique allows fusion of spectral-spectral information of multi-source data with high accuracy. In the present study, fusion of SPOT and ASTER data was applied to test the potentiality of this technique in mapping geological formations and structural lineaments in Wadi Ghoweiba area, to the west of the northwestern tip of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. ASTER data is characterized by a wide range of spectral bands (14 bands), while SPOT panchromatic data is characterized by high (10 meters) spatial resolution. Based on spectral characteristic analysis (SCA) of the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands of ASTER data, two false-color band-ratio images (1/3, 2/5, and 4/ 9) and (1/5, 8/9, and 4/6) in R, G, B were produced for better lithological discrimination. SPOT panchromatic image data was fused with ASTER band ratio images data using principal component (PC) and color normalization or Brovey transformation techniques. The fused images proved to be excellent for lithological discrimination. ASTER data includes bands 3N (Nadir) and 3B (Backward) that are acquired in the spectral range of near infrared region (from 0.78 to 0.86 microns) allowing extraction of digital elevation model (DEM). Three-dimensional perspective views were generated by draping SPOT-ASTER ratio fused images over ASTER DEM. This technique was used to enhance morphologically-defined structures. The fused images and the 3D perspective views were interpreted to produce a photo geological-structural map that was verified using the available geological maps and subsequent field check. The produced photo geological map indicates that fusion of SPOT and ASTER ratio image's data is a reliable technique for geological mapping especially in remote and inaccessible areas

  1. Master's and doctoral theses in family medicine and their publication output, Suez Canal University, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nour-Eldein, Hebatallah; Mansour, Nadia M.; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The completion of a thesis is a significant requirement for both a Master's and a doctorate degree in general practice/family medicine (GP/FM). A postgraduate thesis is a well-planned, time-intensive activity carried out over several years. The quality of the theses can be judged by the proportion of published papers. Objective: This study aimed to describe Master's and doctoral theses in family medicine and their publications between 1982 and 2014. Materials and Methods: GP/FM de...

  2. Bioaccumulation of mercury in some marine organisms from Lake Timsah and Bitter Lakes (Suez Canal, Egypt)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Moselhy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present work is devoted to determine the level of total mercury in the different tissues of fish Mugil seheli, crab Portunus pelagicus, shrimp Metapenaeus stebbingi, and bivalves Paphia undulata and Gafrarium pectinatum collected from Lake Timsah and Bitter Lakes during spring 2003. In addition, factors affecting the accumulation of mercury in these organisms were studied. Levels of Hg in the edible parts of the investigated organisms showed the ranges 2.62 25.45 and 0.94 7.94 ng/g we...

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of family physicians regarding diabetic neuropathy in family practice centers: Suez Canal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mabrouk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic neuropathy (DN can affect any part of the nervous system and should be suspected in all patients who have had diabetes for more than 5 years. Family physicians (FPs can play an important role with the care and education of people with diabetes. They can augment the knowledge and motivate the diabetics to acquire a healthy life style, which would further lead to a good glycemic control providing protection from the chronic complications. Lack of compliance with the guidelines on the part of the diabetic subjects, indicates deficiencies in the FPs' knowledge, implementation techniques, and attitude problems. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess FPs' knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding DN for further educational interventions that will improve their quality of care for diabetic patients in family practice centers. Materials and Methods: The study population was 60 FPs working in family practice centers affiliated to Suez Canal University Hospitals. The questionnaire composed of three groups of questions to collect data for evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice; two written patient problems to assess their practice and two questions to assess barriers and recommendations of physicians. To pass the evaluation; 50, 80, and 60% were the cut off points to pass the evaluation for knowledge, attitude, and practice, respectively. Results: 48.3, 66.7, and 43.3% of the evaluated FPs passed the knowledge, attitude, and practice assessment, respectively. Eighty-five percent of physicians felt that they need more knowledge and training in DN management. Physicians' qualification (P = 0.037 was a significant variable in passing the knowledge test, but qualification and experience years (P = 0.007 and 0.035, respectively were significant variables in passing the practice test. There was a positive significant (P = 0.021 correlation between practice and knowledge score. Postgraduate knowledge accounts the majority (78.3% as a source of information about DN. Providing physicians with standardized guidelines (81.7%, continuous medical education seminars (76.7% and training courses (76.7% came at the top of physician's recommendations to improve DN care by FPs. Conclusion: This study has identified the need for improvement in family medicine physician practices for treating and educating diabetics and recommended that awareness and educational programs are necessary to update the FPs on screening, effective treatment of diabetes and prevention of DN.

  4. Seismic Resolvable Frequency Band For The Pre-Miocene Oil Targets Ras Budran, Gulf Of Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sakr, M. M. E. [محمد محمد عزت صقر; El-Hefnawy, M. A.; Refai, E.

    1988-01-01

    Seismic attenuation problem in Ras Budran area, Gulf of Suez was tackled by defining the resolvable frequency band. This band can transmit through the Miocene evaporitic cyclic section and hit pre-Miocene oil targets. This resolvable frequency band, which suffer minimum attenuation, was defined by using the area V.S.P. and its frequency-energy analysis. Also, the attenuation rates, through the Miocene evaporitic section, were defined. These results can serve for an accurate frequency processi...

  5. Geochemical studies using trace elements analysis of source rocks and related crude oil in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Younes, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of trace elements in source rocks and crude oils is used to asses the process of geochemical exploration. Rock and crude oil samples representing the giant fields of the Gulf os Suez province were collected and analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Ti, V, Zn, and Zr. The analyzed data were treated statistically to find some factors and clusters concerning the interrelation between the source rock and crude oils. The application of both factor...

  6. Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. σ 13C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of time during the burial history, where the oil kitchens are deep and thermally high that are capable for generating highly mature oil. This could enhance segregation of light hydrocarbon from the heavier oil molecules prior oil expulsion and hydrocarbon generation. These constant differences in burial history and organic matter influx specifying each area are the reason of the restricted isotopic results for each one. The deviation of oil characteristics from one environmental condition to the other reflects a mixing of those cases. This clear evidence of 13C isotopic signature implies easier specification of oil origin that could be used in other locations

  7. Hydrocarbon potential, structural setting and depositional environments of Hammam Faraun Member of the Belayim Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabawy, Bassem S.; El Sharawy, Mohamed S.

    2015-12-01

    The Middle Miocene Belayim Formation is one of the most prolific formations in the Southern Gulf of Suez. It consists of four members; two members are evaporitic (Baba and Feiran) and the other two members are prospective, mostly clastics (Hammam Faraun and Sidri). The hydrocarbon potential and depositional environment of Hammam Faraun Member, the target of the present study, have been studied in 11 wells distributed in the southern province of the Gulf of Suez. The traditional well log data, as well as the Spectral Gamma-Ray logs 'SGR' and dipmeter data were used to evaluate the petrophysical properties and distribution of the Hammam Faraun Member in the Southern Gulf of Suez. It varies greatly in thickness with the greatest thicknesses in GS 365 (372 ft) and GS 373 (430 ft) fields in the central parts and the thinnest at the basin margins of the studied area at GH376 (65 ft) and Ras El Bahar (67.5 ft) fields. It is composed of clastic rocks, mainly shales and sometimes reef carbonates. The very good petrophysical properties of the studied sequence indicate a good reservoir in some fields with good to very good porosity (13.5 ≤ ∅ ≤ 25.0%). The shale volume of this reservoir sequence is less than 33% and the water saturation is less than 42.3%, while the net-pay thickness is up to 58 ft. The SGR and Pe logs indicate that, the studied rocks were deposited mostly in lagoonal to shallow marine environments, with illite and montmorillonite as dominant clay minerals. The dipmeter data obtained in some wells indicate slightly tilted beds, mostly less than 20° with an overall dip direction towards the SW, which represents the regional dip in the Southern Gulf of Suez. Based on dipmeter data, two major angular unconformities can be detected; one at the top of the sequence, separating it from the overlying South Gharib evaporates, and another one at the base of the sequence, separating it from the underlying Feiran Member.

  8. Egypt & Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    MANSOUR, Tamer Abdel-Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

  9. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined. PMID:7058982

  10. Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f0) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A0) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest

  11. Facies and depositional environment of the Holocene evaporites in the Ras Shukeir area, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, M. A. M.; Attia, O. E. A.; Wali, A. M. A.

    1997-05-01

    The Holocene evaporite sequence in the Ras Shukeir area conformably overlies marine shell banks and cross-bedded to graded-bedded beach sands and gravels. The evaporite sequence is represented by gypsum-anhydrite layers that are interbedded with mudstone layers. Field and petrographic investigations of the evaporite deposits revealed two facies types, laminated evaporite facies (primary) and nodular to enterolithic anhydrite facies (diagenetic). The laminated evaporite facies is subdivided, from the bottom to top, into regular laminated evaporite, chevron gypsum-algal micrite laminations and wavy algal laminated evaporite. Based on their textures and fabrics, the regular and wavy laminated evaporite facies are interpreted as primary deposits in a coastal lagoon and salina environment. The chevron gypsum-algal micrite facies formed by the growth of chevron gypsum at the sediment-water interface within a shallow subtidal lagoonal environment that was characterized by extensive benthic algal mats. The nodular to enterolithic anhydrite facies is secondary and formed diagenetically within a siliciclastic supratidal sediment. Some of the laminated evaporite facies have been diagenetically altered in a supratidal sabkha environment as evidenced by the following: (1) the partial formation of nodular evaporite instead of laminated evaporite; (2) disruption of gypsum laminations by plant roots and rootlets as well as by precipitation of lenticular gypsum on the root wall; and (3) partial dissolution of halite laminae and the formation of wavy anhydrite laminae. Consequently, the Holocene evaporites in the Ras Shukeir area were deposited in a shallow semi-closed to closed basin that was separated from the Gulf of Suez trough. Changing sea level led to progradation of the evaporite facies from subtidal to intertidal lagoon and salina to a supratidal sabkha.

  12. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt) and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various...

  13. The Procedures for Transit of Ships Carrying Radioactive Materials in Regional Waters and Sea Ports of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian Legislation related to the safe transport of radioactive materials, a license is required for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Egyptian territorial water and sea harbors of Egypt including Suez Canal. The License is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the license have been developed according to the International and Egyptian Legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive material in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive material in the Egyptian territorial water and its sea harbors including Suez Canal according to the national and international regulations

  14. Excavation of a Qattara Canal in Egypt: two-dimensional nuclear cratering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of single-charge nuclear cratering calculations were performed. Results from these calculations are being used in a study of the technical feasibility of the Qattara Project. The project would use nuclear explosives with yields ranging between about 200 and 1750 kilotons to excavate a canal about 73 km long connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the below sea-level Qattara Depression in northwestern Egypt. Computer simulations of explosive excavations were carried out at four locations near the proposed Qattara alignment. Holes were drilled in Egypt at these locations to depths of 372, 514, 632, and 701 m, respectively, to provide geophysical information needed to properly characterize each site for computer calculations. The calculated results for ground motion, particle velocity, and crater dimensions for these nuclear excavations are presented

  15. Wind farm planning at the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, N.E.; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Clausager, I. [Hedeselskabet A/S, Viborg (Denmark); Pagh Jensen, F. [National Environmental Res., Copenhagen (Denmark); Georgy, L.; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt, (Egypt)

    2004-11-01

    The Wind Atlas for Egypt project is an element in a national effort to provide the best possible basis for planning of future environmentally sustainable development and utilization of wind energy resources and technology in Egypt. The present report compiles the data, information and recommendations available for planning of wind farm projects in the Gulf of Suez. (au)

  16. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

  17. Coastal development and pollution impact on the distribution of macrobenthic communities along the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez (Egypt)

    OpenAIRE

    EI-Komi, Mohamed M.

    1996-01-01

    The configuration for the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez was studied over 241 km from Ras Mohammed to Ras Sudr including 35 station. Litters, tar balls and aged oil patches aggregated in considerable amounts on the beach and shore line of the middle part due to the oil spills from off-shore oil wells. A large reef flat in the shallow intertidal waters exists at stations 1 and 2 (Ras Mohammed, Protected area) and spars coral patches are less frequent at the Stations from 7 to 13. Density and...

  18. A new cascaded hydropower plants in El Sheikh Zayed Canal in the new valley in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosny Fahmy, Faten [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    With the streaks of the light looming in the horizon, heralding the dawn of the 21st century and the closing of the 20th century, the whole people of the world specially the sons of Egypt are full of hopes and dreams. The south Egypt development project is translation of this concept viewed from comprehensive strategic vision embracing a number of development fields covering activities in the field of agriculture, industry, transport, communication and roads as well as social aspects services such as health and education that would drive Egypt to the horizons of the 21st century. This new projects are: Toshka, New Valley or New Delta, Sheik Zayed which will feed more than a million feddans, transforming the desert into a green carpet, turning the wheels of industries and shedding off the stiffing nightmare of the choking narrow valley. This paper presents a new idea and application to know to use the water flow from the Nasser lake after raising and pumping with certain speed according to the ground slope. A series of hydro power plants are designed on certain interested points on El Sheikh Zayed Canal to generate electrical energy which will be required to feed several projects in this new valley. The results show the comparison between these eight hydro power plants w.r.t: it's generated electrical energy water release, water contents and the head of water inside each one. Also, the study contains the mathematical models of each hydropower station and the mathematical description of each reservoir, barrages and power stations. [Spanish] Con los rayos de luz asomandose en el horizonte, anunciando el amanecer del siglo XXI y el ocaso del siglo XX, todas las personas del mundo, especialmente los hijos de Egipto, estan llenos de suenos y esperanza. El proyecto de desarrollo del sur de Egipto traduce este concepto desde una vision estrategica integral que incluye un gran numero de areas de desarrollo que abarcan actividades en el campo de la agricultura, la industria, el transporte, las comunicaciones y los caminos, asi como servicios sociales salud y educacion, los cuales dirigiran a Egipto a los horizontes del siglo XXI. Estos nuevos proyectos son los de Toshka, Nuevo Valle o Nuevo Delta y Sheikh Zayed que alimentaran mas de un millon de almas, transformando el desierto en una alfombra verde, moviendo las ruedas de las industrias y despojandose de la pesadilla de muerte sobre un asfixiante valle estrecho. Este articulo presenta una nueva idea y aplicacion para saber utilizar el flujo del agua desde el lago Nasser despues de elevar y bombear a cierta velocidad de acuerdo al declive del suelo. Una serie de plantas hidroelectricas estan disenadas en ciertos puntos de interes en el Canal El Sheikh Zayed para generar energia electrica que se necesitara para alimentar varios proyectos en este nuevo valle. Los resultados muestran la comparacion entre estas ocho plantas hidroelectricas o sea: Su generacion electrica, su liberacion de agua por energia electrica generada, almacenamiento de agua y carga hidraulica de cada una. El estudio contiene tambien modelos matematicos de cada planta hidroelectrica y la descripcion matematica de cada embalse, represas y planta electrica.

  19. Aqaba-Levant transform-related faults in the Gulf of Suez rift: The Durba-Araba fault, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Abdelmaksoud, Ashraf S.

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf of Suez rift is dominated by NNW- to NW-striking Clysmic faults trending parallel to the rift. In addition there are NNE- and WNW-striking (oblique) faults that trend at an angle to the rift. The Durba-Araba fault (DAF) in southwestern Sinai represents one of several NNE-striking faults. It separates the Durba fault block on its NW from the Araba fault block on its SE. Detailed (1:20,000 scale) field mapping and structural studies of the DAF and the onshore area to the east of Belayim Bay (eastern margin of the central Gulf of Suez rift), indicate that the exposed part of the DAF extends for 7.5 km NNE from the mouth of Wadi Araba, at which point it bends and splays into three N- to NNW striking faults, forming a horse tail structure. The fault shows 4 km of pure sinistral strike-slip displacement. Northerly plunging fault propagation folds in the Phanerozoic rocks adjacent to the DAF accommodated the sinistral displacement. These folds are cut and displaced by the splay faults. Near its northern end, the middle splay fault affects the Pliocene El Qa'a Formation. At Gebel Qabeliat a group of en echelon left-stepping NNE- to N-striking faults overlaps the DAF generating a pull-apart (rhomb) graben, in which Pliocene and Quaternary sediments are downthrown against the Upper Miocene rocks. Kinematic indicators on most of these faults show major sinistral strike-slip movement. Palaeostress analysis of slip striae indicates sub-horizontal ENE to NNE extension, comparable to the present day stress regime. Cross-cutting relationships indicate that the NNE- to N-striking oblique faults are younger than the NW-striking Clysmic faults. These faults are probably presently active since they affect Pliocene and Quaternary sediments. It is proposed that these faults are related to the Aqaba-Levant transform that has been active since the Middle Miocene.

  20. Characterization of Oligocene Sands and Gravels, Wad Ghoweiba, Northwest Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Using Spectral Signature and Principal Component Analysis of Terra Aster Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multi-spectral imager that was launched on board NASA's TERRA Spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER covers a wide spectral region with 14 bands from the visible to thermal infrared with high spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions. An additional backward looking near-infrared band provides stereo coverage. The spatial resolution varies with wavelength; 15 m in the visible and near infrared (VNIR, 3 bands), 30 m in the short wave infrared (SWIR, 6 bands), and 90 m in the thermal infrared (TIR, 5 bands). Each ASTER scene covers an area of 60 X60 km. In the present study the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands have been used to discriminate the Oligocene sands and gravels from the surrounding rock units that are exposed near the mouth of Wadi Ghoweiba, at the northwestern side of the Gulf of Suez. Spectral reflectance curves of 9 rock units were extracted from ASTER data and were subsequently examined. The spectral reflectance curve for the Oligocene sands and gravels shows a spectacular unique behavior compared to the spectral reflectance curves of the other 8 rock units. Based on the spectral reflectance behavior, ASTER bands 1, 2 and 5 are found to be the most suitable bands for discriminating the Oligocene sands and gravels from the surrounding 8 rock units. Therefore, the highest percentages of information of these bands were quantitatively extracted from the principal component (PC) analysis using Eigen matrix. The highest percentages of information contributed by bands 1,2 and 5 were found to be in PC2, PC6 and PC9, respectively. A principal component color image (PC2, PC6 and PC9 in B, G, R) showed the Oligocene sands and gravels in a characteristic orange color. This result was verified using the available geological maps followed by field check. The method used here is effective for exploring new sites of the Oligocene sands and gravels that are being extensively used as raw materials for concrete and other building purposes

  1. Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Peter; Laursen, Thomas; Robertson, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the short- and long-run economic impact of Egypt's energy subsidy reform in July 2014 (without and without compensating transfers for the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution) and the decline in global energy prices, as well as the long-run impact of phasing out the energy subsidies over a 5 year period. The analysis uses a Computable General Equilibrium model w...

  2. Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often...... Histories, Modern Archaeologies makes an important contribution to furthering the fields of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology, as well as in the wider context of archaeological theory....

  3. Vegetation Analysis along Irrigation and Drain Canals in Damietta Province, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Mashaly; E.F. El-Halawany; G. Omar

    2001-01-01

    The present study provides an investigation of the vegetation analysis, a quantitative assessment of the main soil characteristics and an evaluation of the relationships between the major identified vegetation groups and environmental attributes along the canals and drains in Damietta Province. Vegetation and soil were sampled in 65 stands representing the net of canals, drains and the shoreline of Lake Manzala at the borderland of Damietta area. Relative values of cover and density were dete...

  4. Volcano-sedimentary characteristics in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez District, Egypt: Example of dynamics and fluidization over sedimentary and volcaniclastic beds by emplacement of syn-volcanic basaltic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, E. A.; Abdel Motelib, A.; Hammed, M. S.; El Manawi, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the Neogene lava-sediment mingling from the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez district, Egypt. The lava-sediment interactions as peperites have been identified for the first time at the study area and can be used as paleoenvironmental indicators. The identification of peperite reflects contemporaneous time relationship between volcanism and sedimentation and this finding is of primary importance to address the evolutional reconstruction of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Characterization of the facies architecture and textural framework of peperites was carried out through detailed description and interpretation of their outcrops. The peperites and sedimentary rocks are up to 350 m thick and form a distinct stratigraphic framework of diverse lithology that is widespread over several kilometers at the study area. Lateral and vertical facies of the peperites vary from sediment intercalated with the extrusive/intrusive basaltic rocks forming peperitic breccias to lava-sediment contacts at a large to small scales, respectively. Peperites encompass five main facies types ascribed to: (i) carbonate sediments-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (ii) lava flow-hosted blocky peperites, (iii) volcaniclastics-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (iv) sandstone/siltstone rocks-hosted blocky peperites, and (iv) debris-flows-hosted blocky peperites. Soft sediment deformation structures, vesiculated sediments, sediments filled-vesicles, and fractures in lava flows indicate that lava flows mingled with unconsolidated wet sediments. All the peperites in this study could be described as blocky or fluidal, but mixtures of different clast shapes occur regardless of the host sediment. The presence of fluidal and blocky juvenile clasts elucidates different eruptive styles, reflecting a ductile and brittle fragmentation. The gradual variation from fluidal to blocky peperite texture, producing the vertical grading is affected by influencing factors, e.g., the viscosity, magma temperature, confining pressure, sediment fluidization, and vapor film at the magma-sediment interactions. Peperites in the study area record deposition within a shallow marine and fluvio-lacustrine environment accumulated in a rift-related basin developed during pre- to syn-rift phase, respectively. The facies transitions (peperites) in this area resulted from the explosive and sediment depositional processes, which were mingled separately by volcanism under contrast geological conditions. The development of such contrast in the depositional sequences reflects variation in the accommodation to sediment supply in the same accumulation space inside the depocenters during the rifting of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Hydrothermal mineralizations comprising quartz and carbonate are restricted to peperites and lava flows.

  5. Habitat and Plant Communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt II. Irrigation and Drainage Canal Bank Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Mashaly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides quantitative analysis of the vegetation and spatial variations of environmental factors controlling the abundance and distribution of vegetation in canal and drain banks in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Five vegetation groups have been recognized: group A codominated by Arundo donax and Polygonum equisetiforme, group B codominated by Rumex dentatus and Polypogon monspeliensis, group C dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, group D codominated by Phragmites australis and Echinochloa stagnina and group E dominated by Typha domingensis. The total number of weeds recorded in the study area is 113 species belonging to 36 families. Therophytes (48.67% and geophytes (14.16% are the most frequent life-forms. The major chorotypes in the study area are Mediterranean (42.48%, Cosmpolitan (19.47%, Pantropical (13.27% and Palaeotropical (12.39%. The relationships between the vegetation gradients and edaphic factors showed that, potassium and sodium cations, potassium adsorption ratio, chlorides, sodium cation adsorption ratio, pH value and water-holding capacity are the main controlling edaphic factors.

  6. Vegetation Analysis along Irrigation and Drain Canals in Damietta Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Mashaly

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides an investigation of the vegetation analysis, a quantitative assessment of the main soil characteristics and an evaluation of the relationships between the major identified vegetation groups and environmental attributes along the canals and drains in Damietta Province. Vegetation and soil were sampled in 65 stands representing the net of canals, drains and the shoreline of Lake Manzala at the borderland of Damietta area. Relative values of cover and density were determined for each species and were summed up to provide an estimate of its importance value. The physical and chemical characteristics of soil samples were determined for each stand. The classification (TWINSPAN and ordination (DCA techniques of the stands led to recognition of four vegetation groups, namely: group A dominated by Cynodon dactylon, group B dominated by Phragmites australis, group C codominated by Arthrocnemum macrostachyum- Phragmites australis and group D dominated by Phragmites australis. The light was thrown on the main factors influencing the vegetational group using Canonical Correspondence Analysis [CCA]. The percentages of clay,moisture content, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, chlorides, sodium,calcium and potassium are the most effective environmental variables which showed significant correlations with the first and second ordination axes. Accordingly, these soil variables seem to be the most important ecological factors influencing the distribution of vegetation in the study area.

  7. Failures in American Diplomacy: The Suez Crisis,1956/// Amerikan Diplomasisinde Başarısızlık: Süveyş Krizi ( 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Hart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In October 1956 Great Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt over control of the Suez Canal. The allies believed Egypt’s actions violated the 1888 principles regarding control and use of the waterway. The United States played a role in the mediation of the parties. It is widely believed that the Eisenhower administration’s influence prevented more conflict and stood up to the Soviet intrusion into the area. The evidence shows that this was not the case. In fact, it was American failures in diplomacy which brought about the crisis in the first place, created the pathway for Soviet adventurism into this vital area, and inevitably caused a war between the nations involved. In effect America’s interest was dedicated to damage control of the situation rather than the peaceful resolution of the issue. This essay argues that American failures were the main cause of the Suez Crisis in 1956, and was the primer for more instability and war in the region long after the Eisenhower administration had ended.

  8. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iman F Abou-El-Naga

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host–parasite relationship at a molecular level.

  9. A contrução do canal de Suez e a formação do conflito: a força de paz brasileira na Faixa de Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carla Santos Ferrer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ocorrerem ainda inúmeros conflitos, após 1945 as nações uniram-se em busca de paz. A ONU passou a intervir em conflitos armados sempre que achasse necessário para a manutenção da paz. Entretanto, o imperialismo havia deixado suas marcas em diversos países da África, que após a Segunda Guerra Mundial se lançaram na luta por independência. Este foi o caso de Suez. No presente artigo apresentamos nossa análise sobre a formação do conflito árabe-israelense na Faixa de Gaza e da efetiva participação brasileira, como força de paz enviada pela ONU, na Guerra dos Seis Dias.

  10. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection agency on water quality criteria (W.Q.C.)

  11. Geothermal potential of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Chandler A.; Morgan, Paul; Boulos, F. K.

    1983-04-01

    One hundred and sixty samples of groundwater from nearly all parts of Egypt have been collected and chemically analyzed in order to assess the country's geothermal potential. The samples considered to be thermal include 20 wells ( T > 35° C), 4 springs ( T > 30° C) and 1 spring not included in the present inventory. The remaining samples, together with data from the literature, establish background chemistry. The hottest springs are located along the east shore of the Gulf of Suez: Uyun Musa (48°C) and 'Ain Hammam Faraoun (70°C). Additional warm springs are located along both shores of the Gulf of Suez and this region is the most promising for geothermal development. The Eastern Desert of Egypt, particularly the coastal area adjacent to the Red Sea has above normal heat flow ( ~ 72.0 Egypt can be considered thermal including several reported "hot springs." Application of the silica, NaKCa. and NaKCaMg geothermometers does not indicate the presence of a high temperature geothermal resource at any area we visited.

  12. Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (∼3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

  13. Occult HBV infection status among chronic hepatitis C and hemodialysis patients in Northeastern Egypt: regional and national overview

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohamed, Mandour; Nader, Nemr; Atef, Shehata; Rania, Kishk; Dahlia, Badran; Nashaat, Hawass.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is considered to be one of the major risks for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis (HD) and patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study compared the prevalence of OBI among these two [...] high-risk groups in the Suez Canal region, Northeastern Egypt, to obtain a better national overview of the magnitude of OBI in this region. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 165 HD patients and 210 chronic HCV-infected patients. Anti-HCV antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HCV RNA was detected using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and HBV was detected using a nested PCR. RESULTS: All patients were negative for HBsAg. A total of 49.1% and 25.2% of the patients in the HD and HCV groups, respectively, were anti-HBc-positive. In addition, more anti-HBs-positive patients were detected in the HD group compared to the HCV group (52.1% and 11.4%, respectively). Three cases were positive for HBV DNA in the HD group, while eighteen positive cases were detected in the HCV group. Both study groups showed significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level as well as anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV-DNA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was more prevalent among chronic HCV patients than HD patients in the Suez Canal region, Egypt, with rates of 8.5% and 1.8%, respectively. However, more precise assessment of this infection requires regular patient follow-up using HBV DNA detection methods.

  14. Occult HBV infection status among chronic hepatitis C and hemodialysis patients in Northeastern Egypt: regional and national overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mandour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI is considered to be one of the major risks for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD on regular hemodialysis (HD and patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. This study compared the prevalence of OBI among these two high-risk groups in the Suez Canal region, Northeastern Egypt, to obtain a better national overview of the magnitude of OBI in this region. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 165 HD patients and 210 chronic HCV-infected patients. Anti-HCV antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, total hepatitis B core (anti-HBc antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HCV RNA was detected using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and HBV was detected using a nested PCR. RESULTS: All patients were negative for HBsAg. A total of 49.1% and 25.2% of the patients in the HD and HCV groups, respectively, were anti-HBc-positive. In addition, more anti-HBs-positive patients were detected in the HD group compared to the HCV group (52.1% and 11.4%, respectively. Three cases were positive for HBV DNA in the HD group, while eighteen positive cases were detected in the HCV group. Both study groups showed significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST level as well as anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV-DNA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was more prevalent among chronic HCV patients than HD patients in the Suez Canal region, Egypt, with rates of 8.5% and 1.8%, respectively. However, more precise assessment of this infection requires regular patient follow-up using HBV DNA detection methods.

  15. Tracing Recharge Sources and Salinization Processes of the Quaternary Aquifer Using Stable Isotopes and Hydrogeochemistry, South of the Ismailia Canal, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. M. A. M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2014-12-01

    The reclamation policy to alleviate overpopulation problem of the Nile Delta, Egypt, has created both quality and quantity problems for the Quaternary aquifer beneath the reclaimed areas. It is partly because of the less well managed way for land use planning and lack of the environmental impact assessment at least at the early stage of the development. A stable isotopic ( δ 18O and δ 2H) and hydrochemical investigation was carried out in the reclaimed area at the south of the Ismailia Canal to identify recharge sources, and mixing and salinization processes of the Quaternary aquifer. On the basis of the isotopic data, four end-members, i.e., the Quaternary aquifer, the Miocene aquifer, surface freshwater and wastewater ponds were found to be mixed in different degree in the study area. As a consequence of mixing with groundwater in the Miocene aquifer which shows highly saline and depleted isotopic signature, groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer was found to have a depleted isotopic trend towards south, i.e., toward structural highs. On the contrary, northward trends of the enriched isotopic values and lower EC values in the Quaternary aquifer indicated the mixing with surface water. Local abnormal EC values at an agricultural area and the vicinity of well field were considered to be related to the excessive pumping for irrigation and reclamation activities which in turn resulted in upconing of deeper saline groundwater. Mixing pattern also suggested local contribution of the wastewater ponds to the recharge process, which is consistent with the previously reported heavy metal contamination in the vicinity of these ponds, indicating the necessity to protect and remediate the subsurface water resources in the area.

  16. Towards a new intermediate hub region in container shipping? Relay and interlining via the Cape route vs. the Suez route

    OpenAIRE

    Notteboom, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    The Suez Canal plays a pivotal role in todays global container shipping network, in particularly in accommodating vessels sailing on the important AsiaEurope trade lane. This paper analyses to what extent and for which trade lanes the Cape route could develop into a competitive alternative to the Suez route. The market potential of the Cape route is analysed using a distance analysis, a transit time analysis and a generalized cost analysis for a large set of O/D relations. We compare vessel...

  17. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal H El-Gazzaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62 and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48; 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12; Hepatitis B (HBV-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54% developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

  18. Suez and the energy and environmental stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents the project of merger between Suez Group and Gaz de France Group with the ambition of becoming one of the first gas and electric utility in the world. One goal of the future Gaz de France/Suez group will be the diversification of the energy mix and the development of infrastructures for the transport, storage and liquefaction of natural gas. LNG is developing and is expected to play a more and more important role in this evolution. The aim is to answer the future energy and environmental stakes of the European Union. (J.S.)

  19. Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A.M.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

  20. Assets and liabilities : refugees from Hungary and Egypt in France and in Britain, 1956-1960

    OpenAIRE

    De Aranjo, Alexandre G. A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the reception and treatment of the refugees from Hungary and Egypt who arrived in France and in Britain after the Hungarian revolution and the Suez crisis. The thesis argues that the reception of the refugees from Hungary and from Egypt was primarily linked to the French and British immigration policies and influenced by the Cold War context. The first part deals with the creation of the Hungarian refugees and their reception in France and Britain. Chapter two giv...

  1. Development of El-Salam Canal Automation System

    OpenAIRE

    Noha Samir Donia

    2012-01-01

    In Egypt irrigation water is becoming more scarce with the continuously increasing demand for agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes. To face this increasing irrigation demand, the available water supply in Egypt is supplemented by the reuse of agricultural drainage water as in El-Salam Canal that do not satisfy water quality standards defined for the canal. This paper introduces an automation system for El-Salam Canal to control the flow of the fresh water and drainage water supplied ...

  2. Evaluation Of The Hydraulic Connection Between The Surface Water And The Groundwater Along El-Salam Canal, North Eastern Coast, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the interconnection between the surface water of El-Salam Canal and the shallow groundwater in the adjacent aquifer has been discussed using both the environmental isotopes and the chemical analyses of the different water bodies along the canal trajectory from Faraskour in the west to Balousa in the east. The isotopic techniques were applied to investigate this relationship and to estimate the possible contribution from various sources such as groundwater, sea water and/or irrigation water, and finally to determine the extent of mixing between El-Salam Canal and the adjacent aquifers. Since the groundwater in the area is saline (more than 10000 ppm) while the mixed canal water is mainly fresh (less than 1000 ppm), the interconnection between the canal water and surrounding shallow groundwater leads to one of the following two hydrologic processes; seepage from the canal water to the shallow groundwater which means fresh water losses or leakage from the groundwater into the surface water which means water quality deterioration The present study aims to detect the hydraulic interconnection between the two water bodies by using environmental isotope techniques as well as detailed chemical analysis. For this purpose, 31 water samples from both surface water and groundwater were collected and analyzed for 18O and 2H contents as well as 44 representative water samples were collected and analyzed for the chemical components (anions and cations) as a major ions and minor constituents. The distribution of the analyzed samples on the 18O vs. D diagram indicated that the samples could be classified into three genetic groups representing different sources of water. The first group reflects a contribution from evaporated rain water prior to infiltration to the groundwater, the second group represents a mixing trend between both of El-Farma drain water and El-Manzala lake water with the groundwater which have enriched isotopic values as well as high salinity due to seawater intrusion. The third group reveals also mixing between surface water and groundwater where in this case, the isotopic concentration of surface water is subjected to evaporation processes and mixing with groundwater body

  3. Impact of pollination and fertilization on sesame production in the reclaimed lands, Ismailia governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blal Abd Elfatah H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the sesame growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. For the purpose of studying the impact of insect pollination and nitrogen fertilization on sesame production, the experiment was divided into 13 treatments of open pollination and non open pollination with three different levels of ammonium nitrate (N and one level of seryalin as bio-fertilizer. Non open pollination treatments were covered before the start of flowering period with a perforated net bag to allow the air to pass through and to prevent insects from approaching the plants. Quantitative and qualitative parameters were measured as follows: number of capsules per plant, capsule weight, number of seeds per capsule, weight of 1000 seeds, germination rate, seedling vigour and oil content. Results clearly demonstrate that qualitative and quantitative parameters of sesame crop significantly increased with open pollination and with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level up to 95 kg N/ha plus or minus seryalin in reclaimed sandy soils in Ismailia, Egypt.

  4. GdF Suez, the real energy champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During summer 2010, France discovered that she owned a second energy giant, GdF Suez, ranked number two as a power producer just behind EdF, but world number one in the energy domain thanks to the taking over of International Power (UK) in 2010. Until now, GdF Suez and EdF were confronting with each other in a fair game, keeping their respective seizure on their historical monopolies, gas for GdF Suez and electricity for EdF. From now onward the two giants have started an open fight on all markets, with the exception of nuclear energy for which the French government continues to favour EdF. This paper recalls the main steps of the last 15 years of GdF Suez progress, from the Suez investment bank in 1995 to the merger with GdF in 2008 and the acquisition of International Power in 2010. Then it makes a comparative portrait of both GdF Suez and EdF energy groups with their respective advantages and, finally, it ends with an interview of G. Mestrallet, president of GdF Suez who explains the strategy of his group. (J.S.)

  5. Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m2, and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Estimation of the Pollution Level in El Timsah Lake, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide range of activities surrounding El Timsah Lake and the discharge effluent at the north and eastern parts of the lake led to high level of anthropogenic pollution in lake water more than the navigation activities. Heavy metals concentration increases in low salinity water toward the land from the discharging effluent. Whereas, oil hydrocarbon and water salinity increase toward Suez Canal current water. This indicates some dispersion of oil ballast water of shipping tankers or from petroleum companies during transportation in the Suez Canal. Chemical and isotopic results indicate lake water stratification, low mixing rate due to slow current of lake water. This led to long residence time of the pollution load enhancing accumulation and precipitation of the heavy metals to the bottom sediment near the boundaries of the lake

  7. Offensive strategy: Suez wants to hustle EdF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Electrabel, its new energy pole, the private company Suez is looking for multiple ways of entry to reinforce its positions in France in the gas and electric power sectors in the prospect of the complete opening of energy markets in 2004. This article analyzes the strategy of Suez to become the most credible challenger of EdF, the French historical national electric utility: reorganization of its industrial and commercial activities, gain of new clients and definition of a new strategy for the gas market. (J.S.)

  8. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m3. According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m3, placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range of economic and political measures, are seeking to favour natural gas exports to restore the balance of payments in the hydrocarbons sector and to establish the position of Egypt as a gas supply hub for the Middle East. Hence, to guarantee a market for Egyptian gas, the main foreign operators present in Egypt have proposed the following export projects: Agip is promoting the idea of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Israel; BP Amoco has submitted a bid for the construction of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan; British Gas has recently been authorized to set up the Egypt LNG company, in partnership with an Egyptian company, to sell the gas produced on offshore fields discovered in early 1999 off the Western Delta, probably in the form of LNG; Shell intends to submit a similar request. (authors)

  9. Earthquakes focal mechanism and stress field pattern in the northeastern part of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Emad K.; Hassoup, A.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Othman, Adel A. A.; Hamed, Diaa-Eldin M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Egypt is characterized by moderate size seismicity where earthquakes are distributed within several active regions. In the present study, we investigated the source mechanism of earthquakes using the digital waveform data recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) during the period from 2004 to 2008. The focal mechanisms are constructed with high reliability based on the polarity of the first motion of P-wave. These solutions are used to examine the mode of tectonic deformation and the present-day stress field pattern affecting on different tectonic provinces in the northern part of Egypt. The results demonstrate mainly a normal faulting mechanism with minor strike slip component generally trending parallel to the northern Red Sea, the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez and Cairo-Alexandria trend. The inversion technique scheme is used also in the present study for determining the regional stress field parameters for earthquake focal mechanism solutions based on the grid search method of Gephart and Forsyth (1984). The Results of the stress tensor using focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes show a prevailed tension stress field in N52E, N41E and N52E for the northern Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba zone respectively.

  10. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  11. Tectonic framework of northeast Egypt and its bearing on hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, Cairo (Egypt); Moustafa, A.R.

    1995-08-01

    Detailed structural study of northern and central Sinai, the northern Eastern Desert, and the northern Gulf of Suez clarified the tectonic framework of northeast Egypt. This framework is related to the movements between the African Plate and the Eurasian and Arabian Plates. Late Cretaceous folding and thrusting in response to oblique convergence between the African and Eurasian Plates formed NE-ENE oriented, doubly plunging, en echelon folds of the northern Egypt fold belt. This fold belt is well exposed in northern Sinai and a few other places but is concealed under younger sediments in the other parts of northern Egypt. Younger folding of local importance is related to dextral slip on the Themed Fault (Central Sinai) in post Middle Eocene-pre Miocene time. Early Miocene rifting of the Afro-Arabian Plate led to the opening of the Suez rift and deposition of significant syn-rift facies. Half grabens and tilted fault blocks dominate the rift. Slightly tilted fault blocks characterize the competent Middle Eocene limestones of the Eastern Desert south of the Cairo-Suez road but north of this road, Middle Eocene rocks are locally dragged on nearby E-W and NW-SE oriented faults forming fault-drag folds. Ductile Upper Eocene and Miocene rocks are also folded about gentle NW-SE oriented doubly plunging folds. The different stages of tectonic activity in northern Egypt contributed to the development of different types of structural traps as well as different source, reservoir, and cap rocks. The sedimentary history of the region indicates well developed marine sediments of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene ages. Basin development in structurally low areas provided good sites for hydrocarbon generation and maturation.

  12. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  13. Petrophysical and petrographic evaluation of Sidri Member of Belayim Formation, Badri field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudeif, A. M.; Attia, M. M.; Radwan, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    Presence of sandstone streaks in Sidri Member within Belayim Formation that lies between two productive zones; Kareem Formation and Hammam Faraun Member, was the main reason to perform this study. It may represent a good hydrocarbon reservoir and will be added to the Egyptian oil production in some wells of Badri field. This Member has high resistivity signature on Electric-logs responses which attracted the attention to investigate its occurrence in the field, to delineate its distribution all-over the area, to evaluate the petrographic and petrophysical characteristics and to evaluate its productivity. Petrographic and petrophysical analyses of these sand zones were undertaken using thin section samples. The electric logs and subsurface geologic data was used to evaluate the main reservoir characteristics of the Sidri sandstone such as lithology, cementation, shale volume, porosity (Φ), effective porosity (Φ eff), estimated permeability (K), fluid saturation, fluid type and Net pay thickness. This study revealed that, Sidri sandstone facies was classified into two mainly sandy facies; blocky sandy facies which located at the northern part of the field and streaky sandy facies at the southern area of the field. These two facies are separated by shaley facies. Some wells were studied to represent the two sandy facies in Sidri Member and these sand intervals have not been tested yet. These sands consist of quartz grains with grey and pink feldspars as accessory minerals, with siliceous and calcareous cementation, with good porosity. Petrophysical evaluation of this sand unit indicated that it is hydrocarbon bearing formation in three wells and water bearing one in other wells. Electrical logs analysis (Resistivity, Density-Neutron, Sonic and Gamma-Ray) revealed that The volume of shale in this sandstone, the effective porosity, the water saturation, the estimated permeability, the hydrocarbon saturation, and the net-pay thickness are varying from 9 to 13%, 19%-22%, 26%-34%, 200 and 600 mD, 66 and 74%, 20-35 feet respectively. The fluid types are oil, gas and water.

  14. GdF-Suez inflates its underground gas stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storengy, a daughter-company of GdF-Suez, is investing 1.4 billion euros for the development of gas underground storage. The company now owns a storage capacity of 10 billion m3 shared between 12 sites in France, 3 in Germany and one in England. The overall of these sites represents 17% of the European storage capacity. Moreover, thanks to its participation to Intragaz, Storengy exploits 120 million m3 of gas in Quebec (Canada). In France, Storengy has to share its activities with another smaller operator, TIGF (former Elf) settled in the region of Pau (SW of France). (J.S.)

  15. Mejoras en el canal de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl, Charles McG.

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panama Canal, together with the Suez Canal, is an engineering accomplishment which is now regarded as a master work marking the initiation of modern civil engineering. Other projects, also of great magnitude, do not seem to maintain the reputation of the above two, because they cannot continue to serve their function with sustained usefulness in the new circumstances of today. The Panama Canal, with its limited dock capacity, and the narrow, so called Serpent, canal, has had to cope with a continuously increasing volume of shipping traffic; a natural consequence of commercial evolution. In order to keep up with these increasing demands, it has been necessary to carry out an almost uninterrupted series of modifications and improvements, affecting both the method of operation and organisation, and the actual nature of the canal. Thanks to these alterations the Panama Canal has continued to maintain, at least nominally, an adequate standard of functional efficiency. At present the canal is being widened over certain sections to enable the easy passage of ships of great displacement. The work is being done very rapidly, and in order to gain time, it has been distributed to various contractors simultaneously.El canal a través del ismo de Panamá es una obra de ingeniería civil que, junto con el de Suez, empiezan ya a clasificarse como obras maestras que señalan el primer jalón del desarrollo de la ingeniería moderna. Otras obras, también importantes, no conservan, sin embargo, la misma reputación que aquéllas, por no seguir un paralelismo con las exigencias en cada época. El canal de Panamá, con sus exclusas, y angosto paso llamado de la. Culebra, ha tenido que afrontar un tráfico creciente de navíos que siguen la evolución del tiempo. Para conseguir este paralelismo, tanto el material de explotación como la organización, dragados y mejoras, han tenido que conocer una sucesión ininterrumpida de modificaciones que han permitido conservar, por lo menos nominalmente, el derecho de paso en especie. Actualmente, se está ensanchando el canal en algunos trozos para permitir el cruce fácil de barcos de gran tonelaje. Las obras se están ejecutando a un ritmo acelerado y, con objeto de ganar tiempo, se han repartido en distintas contratas que trabajan simultáneamente.

  16. Comparison of burnout pattern between hospital physicians and family physicians working in Suez Canal University Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Kotb, Amany Ali; Mohamed, Khalid Abd-Elmoez; Kamel, Mohammed Hbany; Ismail, Mosleh Abdul Rahman; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. It is associated with impaired job performance. Methods This descriptive study examined 171 physicians for the presence of burnout and its related risk factors. The evaluation of burnout was through Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The participant was considered to meet the study criteria for burnout if he or she got a “high“ score on at least 2 of the three dimensio...

  17. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils

  18. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  19. The present-day stress field in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Badawy

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present-day stress field has been investigated by the analysis of the directions of maximum horizontal stress ( 1 inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts in Egypt. The results indicate that strike-slip and normal faulting movements characterize the majority of the earthquake focal mechanisms; only a few events are of reverse faulting type. The analysis of 35 mechanisms suggests that the present-day stress field in Southern Egypt is dominated by a strike-slip stress regime (SS and it is mainly transtensional (NS: normal faulting with strike-slip component in Northern Egypt. The orientation of P-axes reflects that the maximum horizontal stress ( 1 in Southern Egypt is uniform and aligned to nearly E-W direction while in Northern Egypt it is aligned with an even mix of NW-SE and nearly E-W compression. Along the Gulf of Aqaba, the southern part of the Dead Sea Fault (DSF, the focal mechanism solutions indicate that the maximum horizontal stress is presently oriented NW-SE, corresponding to a strike-slip mechanism in concert with geological evidence. More detailed investigations have been performed for the Gulf of Suez. We compare our results to the near-surface stress measurements from borehole breakouts to see if there is a change in orientations with depth. Shallow stress directions derived from borehole breakouts are not consistent with the deep stress directions derived from earthquakes focal mechanisms. About 73% of 30 borehole breakouts measurements indicate NW-SE alignment of the maximum horizontal stress and 27% are ENE-WSW. The direction of 1 inferred from the focal mechanism solutions is changing from NE-SW to ENE-WSW. Therefore, at least in this area, the stress direction is not constant throughout the crust.

  20. Geodiversity assessment of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy; Farghaly, Enas

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a triangular plateau lies in NE corner of Egypt, its head in the south at Ras Mohammed and its other sides between the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez and the triangle base on the Mediterranean Sea. Sinai Peninsula is the most attractive region from the geological, geomorphological and environmental stand points of view because it displays a variety of simple and complex structural and landforms, (Abu Al-Izz,1971). In general, Sinai Peninsula reflects all geologic column of Egypt. Geomorphologically, Sinai Peninsula comprises many geomorphologic units such as mountains blocks, cliffs, isolated hills, wadies, hogbacks, questas, sand ridges, muddy and marshy lands, lakes and shorelines. This paper aims to define and measure geodiversity assessment index of the Sinai Peninsula as the quantitative variety of geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features. Some geodiversity indices maps for the above features produced for Sinai Peninsula were based on the methodology presented by (Pereira et al, 2012), it depends upon calculate of some geodiversity elements for overlay grid of the study area, which divided topographic, geological maps of the Sinai Peninsula with scale 1:500000 and satellite image (landsat 8, 27th October 2014, 12 bands, 30m). It divided into 743 squares (10x10 km), and some partial geodiversity indices such as geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil indices were calculated by counting the number of each element inside each square, then the overall geodiversity index map produced by calculate the total number of all indices inside each square, the geodiversity index map were classified into some gradual categories by using isolines: very low, low, medium, high and very high.

  1. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  2. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  3. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jernigan, Dann A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay Josephine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nissen, Mark R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lopez, Carlos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vermillion, Nancy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  4. Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The ?- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

  5. Five offshore wind farms by EDF, GDF Suez and Iberdrola. France; Vijf offshore windparken door EDF, GDF Suez en Iberdrola. Frankrijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Leemreis, J. [TWA Netwerk, Paris (France)

    2012-02-15

    Five offshore wind farms are planned to be built off the Northwest coast of France. On 11 January 2012, three international consortia, led by the French businesses EDF EN (Energie Nouvelles), GDF Suez and the Spanish business Iberdrola, submitted their project proposals to this end. The French government highly values the contribution that offshore wind farms can make to the development of a new industrial sector. This would bring highly needed benefits to the French economy [Dutch] Voor de Noordwest-kust van Frankrijk moeten vijf offshore windparken komen. Op 11 januari 2012 hebben drie internationale consortia onder leiding van de Franse bedrijven EDF EN (Energies Nouvelles), GDF Suez en het Spaanse Iberdrola hun projectvoorstellen hiervoor ingediend. De Franse regering hecht veel waarde aan de bijdrage die offshore windparken kunnen leveren aan de ontwikkeling van een nieuwe industriele sector. De Franse economie zou dit goed kunnen gebruiken.

  6. Development of the Qattara Project, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Nile, as a huge source of cheap hydroelectric energy, was fully exploited in Egypt upstream of Aswan in 1968 by the construction of the famous Aswan and High Dam Hydroelectric Complex. The growth of demand for electrical power is such that an additional large source of energy is required. The Qattara Project would offer not only an ideal source of low cost power production, but a vital boost for Egypt's national economy. The fundamental idea of the scheme is to channel Mediterranean Sea water into the Qattara Depression, using the difference in levels to produce hydroelectric power. The rate of discharge of sea water into the depression should be equivalent to the rate of evaporation from the lake surface. This situation will arise ten years after starting to fill the lake, when the water has reached a level of 60 m below sea level. The possibility of using PNE to excavate a Mediterranean Sea - Qattara Depression canal was first postulated by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Establishment in 1971. In 1973 a pre-feasibility study was prepared, based on preliminary site investigations performed during the period 1964-1965, namely geological and cartographic surveys, as well as on comparative economic evaluation of various solutions. The study showed clearly that the project including both base-load and peak-load hydroelectric power stations and using nuclear excavation of a canal between the sea and the depression offers a competitive solution for cheap power production. A subsequent feasibility study, which was started in 1975, investigates alternative ways of constructing the canal/tunnel system, using conventional tunnelling and PNE. For the nuclear solution, two cases are considered, one using unlimited yields and another with 150 kt maximum yield. A preliminary assessment of the effects of the explosion and costs of the nuclear component of the project are given. (author)

  7. Structural set-up of Southern Sinai and Gulf of Suez areas indicated by geophysical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rabeh

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the evaluation of the structural set-up of the southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez and western part of Gulf of Suez from magnetic, gravity, and seismic data. The utilised techniques including the Least Squares separation method suggest NW, NE, and E-W trends. The trend analysis shows north 35-45 west, north 15-25 east and E-W which may be related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea stresses.The Euler deconvolution illustrates that the area is highly affected by these trends. Depths range from 1 km to more than 3 km below sea level and its magnetic susceptibility ranges between 1 to 3 SI units. The 2.5D magnetic modelling and analytical signal techniques confirm the depths to the magnetic sources deduced by the Euler method, whereas the depth to the basement rocks ranges between 0 km to about 3 km indicating that it is subjected to strong tectonic activities. In addition, two seismic sections (EG-31 and MP-70, compiled by the Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation (EGPC, were interpreted together with a geologic cross section. The studied area may be divided into several major blocks along the Gulf of Suez area. It can be concluded that the sedimentary was affected by basement tectonics as revealed by the two seismic sections.

  8. Evaluating the Design and Operation of Irrigation Canals in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Kayal, Amany El

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation model for temperature data was developed in order to generate synthetic daily temperature. The model consists of two components: a deterministic component represented by a Fourier series fit, and a stochastic component represented by an autoregressive model . The simulation model was proven to be able to preserve the main statistics of the historical series. The data generated by the above temperature model were used as an input to an irrigation water requirements sim...

  9. What next for Egypt?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghettas, Lakhdar

    2011-01-01

    If there was ever a better time to read ‘Egypt: The Moment of Change’, a book edited by Rabab El Mahdi and Philip Marfleet which was launched in front of a packed audience at SOAS in 2009, then it is now. Made up of chapters by eight Egyptian and British academics, it catalogues the explosive situation which has existed in North Africa’s most populous country for many years. ‘Egypt: The Moment of Change’ highlights problems including social injustice and governmental corruption. It also focus...

  10. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. - Highlights: ► The positive DRAD values indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. ► Thorium normalization was applied to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities. ► The conventional well logs are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in wells. ► Determining hydrocarbon potentialities zones using spectrometric gamma-ray logs

  11. Integrated petrophysical and lithofacies studies of lower-middle Miocene reservoirs in Belayim marine oil field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Ali, El-Khadragy; Emad El Din Abd Elrazik, Eysa; Shebl Azam, Salah; Ahmed Hassan, Saleh

    2016-05-01

    The reservoir parameters (total gross thickness, shale volume, total porosity, effective porosity, water saturation, bulk pore volume, net pay thickness and oil in place indicator) of Kareem and Belayim formations are studied through nine wells and mapped to show the aerial distribution of these parameters. Interpretation of these maps showed that, the best locations of hydrocarbon accumulation in Belayim marine oil field are middle part, northeast and the south west directions for Kareem formation and southwest and northeast directions for Belayim formation. The petrophysical results of Belayim formation were presented in the form of 3D slicing models to exhibit the variation of these parameters in the different directions. Cross plots of Kareem formation were done using neutron, density and sonic logs which is directly influenced by the matrix composition. By using two or three porosity logs reading we determined the porosity and evaluated the matrix characteristics of Kareem formation as it is considered as a good reservoir for oil and gas and mainly composed of sand stone. Finally, facies maps for Kareem and Belayim formations which established using composite logs indicate that, the environment of deposition of Kareem formation was deep marine in the middle and northern parts and shallow in the southern parts of the study area, meanwhile in Belayim formation the environment of deposition was in lagoonal through the deposition of Baba and Feiran members and shallow to deep during the sedimentation of Sidri and Hammam Faraun members.

  12. Holocene carbonate facies model, Ras Shukhier hypersaline pool and its surrounding sabkha, west Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keheila, E.; Khalifa, H.; El-Haddad, A.

    1989-06-01

    The Holocene Ras Shukhier pool is an active carbonate depositional subenvironment surrounded by an evaporitic supratidal sabkha. Field and petrographic studies of the carbonate constituents of the pool lead to the recognition of seven sedimentary facies. These are: (1) carbonate lithoclast-pellet-aggregate sand facies, (2) algal (cyanophyt) stromatolites comprising stratiform cryptalgal laminites and laterally close-linked hemispheroids (LLH-C), (3) pellet-lime mud with dolomitized bioclastic floatstone/packstone crusts, (4) pellet-lime mud facies, (5) gastropod ( Cerithium) pellet-lime muddy sand facies, (6) puffy gypsum crust, and (7) tufa limestone patches. The lateral distribution of the carbonate facies in the pool is dependent on the orientation of the pool with respect to the prevailing northwest winds and on the direction of water seepage. The evaporitic sabkha is classified here into: (a) a seasonally water-covered rim where the carbonates and evaporites formed seasonally by direct precipitation from the surface water, and (b) a subaerially exposed sabkha with lithified halite crust exhibiting tepee structures. The occurrence of carbonates, followed by sulphates and halites, within the sabkha siliciclasts, have been developed by sedimentation from brines migrating upward.

  13. Report on the supply costs of GDF Suez. CRE's expertise mission. September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors first propose an analysis of European practices in terms of regulated tariffs. They outlines that these tariffs have disappeared in most of the historic member countries, but are still present in new coming countries but with different practices, and that tax-excluded prices for households in France are greater than the European average. They show that the tariff formula in the public service contract 2010-2013 between the State and GDF Suez does not take some supply cost optimization possibilities into account. They discuss the fact that the market context is still characterized by a separation between market prices on the one hand, and gas prices defined in long term contracts on the other hand. They show GDF Suez supply diversification allows a cost optimization

  14. Transient deformations in the Suez-Sinai area from GPS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Riguzzi, F; Pietrantonio, G; Mahmoud, S M

    2005-01-01

    We analyze data from four GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2002 on a network of 11 sites in the Suez-Sinai, the area of collision between the African and the Arabian plates. This is the key area to understand how and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played between seismic and geodetic (long term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion (in terms of ITRF00 velocities) matches African plate motion (NNR-NUVEL-1A model). However, the baseline length variations show transient deformations in Sinai and across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of about 1.5 cm in five years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we worked under the hypothesis that a contribute may be due to post-seismic relaxation. Under this hypothesis, we compared the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occ...

  15. Effects of salicylic acid elicitor against aphids on wheat and detection of infestation using infrared thermal imaging technique in Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Farag Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum sativum L. is one of the most important cereal crops in Egypt. Insect pests, such as aphids, are major threats in terms of yield reduction. Induced resistance in wheat using salicylic acid as a foliar application was tested on the farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University during 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Three wheat cultivars, Gemeza 9, Sakha 93 and Giza 168, were sprayed three times with two concentrations of salicylic acid (SA, 200 mg/l and 100 mg/l, after early detection of aphid infestation by infrared thermal imaging. The infrared thermal imaging technique is based on significant differences in surface temperature between infested and healthy leaves. Imaging data are digital, and a computer program can be used to detect infestation rapidly. The results showed that aphid infestation raised the temperature of infested leaves, compared to healthy leaves. The range temperature difference between maximum and minimum temperatures (At was 1.1 ºC in healthy leaves and 3.9 ºC in infected leaves. The results of SA application showed significant differences in the mean number of aphids and in reduction of infestation among treatments and cultivars. The higher of the two SA rates (200 mg/l gave higher efficacy in the three cultivars than the lower rate (100 mg/l over the five weeks of trial. The highest efficacy against aphids was reached one week after application (86.28% for Giza, 85.89% for Gemesa and 70.54% for Sakha. Moreover, SA treatment enhanced the wheat yield of all three cultivars, compared with control plants. The three cultivars (Giza, Gemesa and Sakha produced higher yields than the control when sprayed with 200 mg/l SA. Their grain yield was 2,491.5, 2,455.0, and 2,327.25 kg/feddan (1 fed = 0.42 ha, respectively. In conclusion, infrared thermal imaging can be employed in identification of infected leaves. Also, the application of SA on wheat induced plant resistance to aphids.

  16. ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    Biney–Amissah, Araba

    2013-01-01

    Project Title: ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT) Abstract: The Copts have been discriminated - under Mubarak’s regime and now under Mursi’s - without any certain law to assure them of their basic rights and freedom of speech. The Muslims have the dominant privilege in Egypt (and in Middle Eastern countries in general), however, Christians should also have rights in a democratic Egypt. There is no common understanding of divisions between the legal structure of societies and the differ...

  17. More sustainable energy in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    Last autumn, Risø completed eight years of work mapping out Egypt’s wind climate and wind resources. The result was a 260-page Wind Atlas for Egypt. Thanks to this, Egypt will be able to increase the share of renewable energy.......Last autumn, Risø completed eight years of work mapping out Egypt’s wind climate and wind resources. The result was a 260-page Wind Atlas for Egypt. Thanks to this, Egypt will be able to increase the share of renewable energy....

  18. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  19. Some predicted peak ground motions for nuclear cratering explosions along the Qattara alignment in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some predicted peak free-field ground motions at shot depth for the nuclear explosive excavation of a canal in Egypt are summarized. Peak values of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and radial stress are presented as a function of slant range from the working point. Results from two-dimensional TENSOR cratering calculations are included. Fits to ground motion measurements in other media are also shown. This summary is intended to help specify engineering design requirements for detonating nuclear explosive salvos which are required to efficiently excavate the canal. It also should be useful in guiding estimates for gage response ranges in ground motion measurements

  20. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an updated assessment of Egypt's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Egypt. In recent years there have been a number of major reforms, mostly...

  1. Petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons in water from Lake Manzala and associated canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, M.I.; Wahaab, R.A.; Abou Waly, H.F. [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-08-01

    Lake Manzala is located at the north eastern edge of Nile Delta in Egypt. It is separated from the Mediterranean sea by a sandy beach ridge. However, the lake is in connection with the sea through three opening nearby Port Said. The area of the lake is about 769 Km{sup 2} and relatively shallow with an average depth of 1.3 m. The lake is of high economic value as a natural resource, for fishery, reacreation and for migratory birds. The lake is highly polluted as it receives wastewaters discharged by several canal. The present investigation aimed to assess the residue levels of petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the lake water as well as in Hadous canal, Fariskur canal and Bahr-El-Baqar canal. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Current motion and short-term deformations in the Suez Sinai area from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguzzi, Federica; Pietrantonio, Grazia; Piersanti, Antonio; Mahmoud, Salah M.

    2006-07-01

    We analyze observations from eight GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2005 on a network of 13 sites in the Suez-Sinai area, where separation between the African and the Arabian plates takes place. This is the key area to understand if and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played by seismic and geodetic (long-term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion, in terms of ITRF00 velocities, matches the African plate motion defined by the NNR-NUVEL-1A model. The horizontal principal strain rate axes estimated separately in the Gulf of Suez area and in the northern Sinai vary from compression across the Gulf (-2.2 1.2) 10 -8 year -1 to NE extension (1.0 1.5) 10 -8 year -1 in the North, showing the presence of two distinct domains, so that in our opinion Sinai cannot be considered simply a unique rigid block. The analysis of GPS baseline length variations shows short-term deformations across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of more than 1 cm in 8 years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we work under the hypothesis that a contribute may be expected by post-seismic relaxation effects. Under this hypothesis, we compare the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occurred in the area, testing two different viscoelastic models. Our results show that the detected short-term deformations are better modeled for viscosity values of 10 18 Pa s in the lower crust and 10 20 Pa s in the asthenosphere. However, since the modeled post-seismic effect results modest and a certain amount of the detected deformation is not accounted for, we think that an improved modeling should take into account the lateral heterogeneities of crust and upper mantle structures.

  3. Responding t o the Challenges of Breast Cancer in Egypt and Other Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt.

  4. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  5. Canals, Yellowstone Feeder Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Yellowstone Feeder Canal'. Data by this publisher are often...

  6. Canals, River Irrigation Company Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'River Irrigation Company Canal'. Data by this publisher are...

  7. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

  8. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  9. Spinal canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.)

  10. syndrome du canal carpien

    OpenAIRE

    boukraa, kheira; merniz, nacera

    2012-01-01

    Le canal carpien est la principale cause des acroparesthésies de la main. I La forme habituelle est la forme sensitive pure primitive de la femme en période I post ménopausique. Le traitement médical suffit le plus souvent. La constatation et l'installation de signes déficitaires neurologiques sont une indication à un traitement chirurgical. Le syndrome du canal carpien peut être un mode de début d'une polyarthrite u rhumatoïde.

  11. Paleocene stratigraphy in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    The Egyptian Paleocene is widely distributed with vertical and lateral facies changes geographically separated and subject to different tectonic and sedimentary regimes. Five coeval facies associations of the Paleocene outcrops are identified and named from south to north: Garra El-Arbain, Nile Valley, Farafra, Sinai, and Southern Galala. Ten Paleocene third-order depositional sequences (Ds Da1 to Ds Th9) are tentatively distinguished in Egypt. These are bounded at their base and top by ten sequence boundaries (Eg.Da-1, Eg.Da-2, Eg.Da-3, Eg.Da-4, Eg.Da-5, Eg.Da-6, Eg.Se-7, Eg.Th.-8, Eg.Th.-9, and Eg.Eo-10). The relative ages and correlation of the Paleocene depositional sequences are based on planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. Comparison of identified Paleocene sequences in and outside Egypt are referred to eustatic sea-level changes and partly to regional tectonics events, which have caused hiatuses of variable durations and different configurations of Paleocene sedimentary regimes from place to place.

  12. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of... Marketing North America, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United... by email to Christopher.Lawrence@hq.doe.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Exports of electricity...

  13. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath the continental rifting area of the Gulf of Suez from earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2016-02-01

    Suez rift is one of the active seismic zones in the northward continuation of the Red Sea, as indicated by recent earthquake records from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN). We present a new model of P and S wave velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Gulf of Suez and surrounding areas, including the northern portion of the Red Sea. Using the records from 94 seismic stations, we analyzed ~ 66,000 P and ~ 17,000 S wave arrival times from 9700 events. The travel time tomography inversion was performed using the iterative LOTOS code. The spatial resolutions of the derived models were assessed using several synthetic tests. The most prominent anomaly is a sharp high-velocity anomaly beneath the Red Sea, which is observed in both the P and S models at all depth intervals. We interpret this anomaly to be oceanic crust that was formed through extension associated with a dispersed system of spreading centers. Beneath the Gulf of Suez, the upper and middle crusts appear to be strongly heterogeneous and are dominated by low-velocity anomalies, indicative of the continental nature of the crusts. In contrast, at a depth of 30 km, we observe a prominent high-velocity anomaly along Gulf of Suez, which is interpreted to be the result of crustal thinning associated with extension between the Sinai block and the African Plate. The thickness of the crust beneath the rift is estimated to be approximately 25 km, whereas that in the surrounding areas appears to be 30-35 km. In the northwestern part of the area, we observe a low-velocity zone in the middle and lower crusts that coincide with intense seismicity and a well-developed system of recent faults on the surface. This region may mark a possible area of northward propagation of the Suez Rift zone.

  14. Root canal medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki; Yeng, Thai; Parashos, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The ultimate goals of endodontic treatment are complete removal of bacteria, their byproducts and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete seal of disinfected root canals. Intracanal medicaments have been thought an essential step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning may be assuming greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Until recently, formocresol and its relatives were frequently used as intracanal medicaments, but it was pointed out that such bactericidal chemicals dressed in the canal distributed to the whole body from the root apex and so might induce various harmful effects including allergies. Furthermore, as these medicaments are potent carcinogenic agents, there is no indication for these chemicals in modern endodontic treatment. Today, biocompatibility and stability are essential properties for intracanal medicaments. The more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. Calcium hydroxide has been determined as suitable for use as an intracanal medicament as it is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. It also induces hard tissue formation and is effective for stopping inflammatory exudates. Single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, is generally not now contraindicated and various reports have shown that the clinical outcomes between single- and multiple- visit endodontics are similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics: however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, calcium hydroxide is recommended to be used as an intracanal medicament. PMID:19323305

  15. Paleozoic Igneous Activity In Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Meneisy, M. Y. [محمد يسري منيسي

    1989-01-01

    Based on available isotopic age data, including a few K/Ar ages obtained by the writer, a geochronological sequence of the main phases of igneous activity in Egypt during the Paleozoic is presented. Five main phases at around 550-500 Ma, 400 Ma, 350 Ma, 290 Ma and 230 Ma are identified. An attempt is made to relate these phases with tectonic events. It appears that Paleozoic igneous activity in Egypt was more widespread than has previously been recognised.

  16. Egypt/FOF reorganize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In Egypt, both the national family planning program and the privately operated social marketing program, Family of the Future (FOF), are currently being reorganized. The Population and Family Planning Board, orginally charged with the responsibility of overseeing the national family planning program, was replaced by the newly created National Council. The reasons for the change and the type of program changes which will ensue from this organizational change are unclear. The FOF recently adopted a new management organizational structure, implemented a computerized management and information system, and initiated a staff training program. The management of the program's product line is now divided into 3 sections. There are separate sections for IUDs, barrier methods, and hormonal methods. Each section is responsible for developing a marketing plan for its products and overseeing the distribution of its products. The management staff is now provided with management skills training. To date, 9 managers have received training in management techniques in the US at George Washington University. Personal computers are being installed at the FOF office in Cairo. The system will be used to keep tract of inventory, volunteer activities, and product distribution and to handle accounting procedures. These innovations are expected to facilitate the handling of planned changes in FOF's product line. FOF will begin selling surgical gloves, as a supplemental item for its currently marketed IUD kit, and pregnancy testing kits for use by physicians and hospitals. Other anticipated introductions include Depo Provera, an injectable contraceptive, the new Ortho vaginal tablet which will replace the currently marketed Annan vaginal tablet, and possibly, the implant contraceptive, Norplant. Triton is currently under contract with the US Agency for International Development to provide technical assistance for the FOF program. This contract is due to expire in December, 1984, and a contract renewal decision is still pending. In 1984, FOF opened its 3rd regional office. The new office is located in Assiut in upper Egypt. PMID:12340331

  17. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  18. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  19. Effects of Three Questioning Strategies on EFL Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

    This study investigated the effects of three classroom questioning strategies on the reading comprehension of learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Subjects were 86 first-year EFL students in the school of education of Suez Canal University (Egypt), randomly assigned to three treatment groups. The same instructor taught the three groups…

  20. Effect of Instruction in Story Grammar on the Narrative Writing of EFL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

    A study investigated the effects of explicit versus implicit instruction in story grammar on the narrative writing skills of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students at the university level. Subjects were 83 freshmen enrolled in English at the Faculty of Education at Suez Canal University (Egypt). The subjects were randomly assigned to…

  1. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  2. Suez-Gaz de France merger, E.ON's public takeover bid on Endesa... The new energy fight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy sector is in fever. In less than a week (February 21 to 26, 2006), the Europe of energy has fallen into a frenzy of mergers and acquisitions: the German E.ON offered 29.1 billion euros to get the Spanish Endesa, Electricite de France (EdF), who already got the Italian Edison in 2005, is ready for more major acquisitions, the Italian Enel is candidate for the repurchasing of Suez, while Gaz de France (GdF) and Suez have started a surprise merger. The stake of this match between giants is their growing up and the penetration of foreign markets before their complete liberalization in July 2007. The potential victims of these actions are the competition and the clients, the industrial ones first. (J.S.)

  3. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  4. El-Salam canal is a potential project reusing the Nile Delta drainage water for Sinai desert agriculture: Microbial and chemical water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. Othman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available More than 12נ109m3/year of Nile Delta drainage water is annually discharged into the Mediterranean Sea. El-Salam (peace canal, having a mixture of such drainage water and the Nile water (1:1 ratio, crosses the Suez canal eastward to the deserts of north Sinai. The suitability of the canal water for agriculture is reported here. Representative samples were obtained during two successive years to follow effects of seasonal and spatial distribution, along the first 55km course in north Sinai, on the water load of total bacteria, bacterial indicators of pollution, and chemical and heavy metals contents. In general, the canal water is acceptable for irrigation, with much concern directed towards the chemical contents of total salts (EC, Na and K, as well as the trace elements Cd and Fe. Extending the canal course further than 30km significantly lowered the fecal pollution rate to the permissible levels of drinking water. Results strongly emphasize the need for effective pre-treatment of the used drainage water resources prior mixing with the Nile water.

  5. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  6. Hazards influencing coastal plains management along the Eastern stretch of the Gulf of Suez, using remote sensing and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M.H.; Abdel-Kader, O.H.; Kaiser, M F

    2007-01-01

    This research aims at to assess the impact of natural hazards on the human activities and development planning held along the eastern coastal stretch of the Gulf of Suez. Change detection technique was used in combined with geologic and topographic maps, GIS and field investigations to specify and categorize environmental hazards along the concerned area. This site is characterized by enormous natural resources, including hot vents in Hammam Faroun and Ayun Mousa, oil exploration and mineral ...

  7. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  8. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  9. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 5 Vols. Annexes 6--10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Edward E.; Teagan, Peter; Little, Arthur D.; Kaplan, George; Kunze, Jay; Warchol, Edward J.

    1979-04-01

    Annex 6, which investigates the possible hydroelectric resources of Egypt, reveals that presently the only existing sites are on the upper Nile at the High and Aswan Dams. There are 8 sites on the Nile where it is practical to add hydroelectric generation and, of these, only 4 are feasible for immediate construction. There are also pumped-storage sites on the Nile and the Red Sea. There is also the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert which can be utilized for conventional, as well as pumped-storage generation, by bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea to the depression by canal or tunnel. The options were considered for construction of hydro plants to met the electric load growth of Egypt when other forms of energy supply would be integrated into a comprehensive supply pattern. In Annex 7, the prospective use of nuclear energy to meet Egypt's resources (uranium and thorium) to implement a nuclear energy program, and potential effects of the expanded use of nuclear energy are discussed. Annex 8 discusses solar energy (technology descriptions and impacts, solar thermal power, photovoltaics). Also wind power generation, biomass utilization, desalination, solar air conditioning and refrigeration, and cost of power from diesel engines are discussed. Annex 9 covers geothermal potentials in Egypt, discussing resources with temperatures above 180/sup 0/C; from 150 to 180/sup 0/C; from 100 to 150/sup 0/C; and with temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. Annex 10 discusses the electric power systems in Egypt. The following subjects are covered: existing electric power systems; electrical power facilities under construction or planned for construction by 1985; past and projected growth of electrical energy; distribution; and electrical power system projected from 1985 to 2000. (MCW)

  10. Egypt air radioactive sources warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would like to give me this chance, of being here among famous scientists. I wish to thank the general director of cargo division, and the general manager of import for providing all facilities for me to be present at this scientific meeting. At this conference, I wish to explain the role played by egypt air (as public sector company) in the officiant of radiation physics. The atomic energy authority, ministry of health, and ministry of civil aviation; have provided instructions that were essentially required to complete the work of the national radioactive warehouse located in egypt air terminal in Cairo. Now the license for operating the store has been granted. Prior to constructing the warehouse, the radioactive sources were distributed among the foreign cargo terminals at Cairo airport, such as swiss air, air france, saudi arabia, the Ice stores, as well egypt Air. Cargo terminals. The control of radiation hazard was therefore difficult. The ministry of Civil aviation then issued a decree dictating the storage of all radioactive sources exclusively at the national store of egypt air. All foreign cargo terminals should transfer all imported radioactive sources to the national warehouse at Cairo air port. According to that decree. 6 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society. PMID:19006207

  12. Tectonic and structural setting of the northeastern central Gulf of Suez area using aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Hesham Shaker; Nakhla, Adel Mokhles

    2016-03-01

    Cumulative qualitative and quantitative analysis of the filtered regional and residual magnetic components of the northeastern central area of the Gulf of Suez, as well as images of the second vertical derivatives of the reduced to the northern magnetic pole map of the total magnetic intensity field images, supplemented with the available geologic information, enabled the precise delineation of the detailed structural configuration of the basement complex, which consequently illustrated the structural deformational pattern of the overlying sedimentary succession. The basement tectonic map reflects a series of N-S to NNW-SSE oriented belts of high and low basement structures. These structures are interrupted by a set of NE-SW crossing diagonal faults having varying throws and creating promising blocks for exploration. An often remarkable correlation between the reduced to the magnetic pole map and the basement relief map is noted, in particular the outline of various oil fields. A larger number of the tilted fault blocks and basement culminations have been outlined and numerous interesting exploration prospects are indicated, which appear to warrant further follow up investigation.

  13. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  14. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rosalie David

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are currently being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptia...

  15. Egypt Health Policy Note : Egypt Public Expenditure Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The public expenditures review (PER) of the health sector was prepared in response to a request from the government of Egypt as part of a broader PER work that covers other sectors. This policy note is intended to inform government policymakers of the key findings from the PER and recommend strategies for improving the efficiency, equity, and sustainability of public financing in the health sector, with a special emphasis on expanding the coverage of social health insurance - a major plank in...

  16. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  17. Solar-hydrogen energy system for Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for a solar-hydrogen energy system for Egypt has been developed by obtaining relationships for and between the main energy and energy related parameters. The magnitude and trends of the parameters, with and without hydrogen introduction, have been investigated over a period of time. The results indicate that the fossil fuel resources in Egypt could be exhausted within one to two decades. They also indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would extend the availability of fossil fuel resources, reduce pollution, and establish a permanent energy system for Egypt. They show that Egypt could become an exporter of hydrogen. (author)

  18. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Canal Dehiscence (SCD) Tinnitus Vestibular Hyperacusis Vision & Hearing Psychology Diet Other Topics Military Resources Infographics & Presentations Paid ... the notion that SSCD is due to a developmental abnormality. Temporal-bone histopathological studies suggest that 1– ...

  19. The Ten Plagues of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Wotton

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The ten Plagues of Egypt described in the Bible were central to the liberation of the Jewish people from the oppression of the Egyptians. The succession of disasters demoralised the Egyptians and were seen as a victory for Jewish monotheistic beliefs. In this essay, natural explanations for most of the Plagues are proposed and a chronology of events is provided. Could the mythological explanation of these arguably natural phenomena still have a profound influence on the modern world?

  20. The Ten Plagues of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Roger S. Wotton

    2007-01-01

    The ten Plagues of Egypt described in the Bible were central to the liberation of the Jewish people from the oppression of the Egyptians. The succession of disasters demoralised the Egyptians and were seen as a victory for Jewish monotheistic beliefs. In this essay, natural explanations for most of the Plagues are proposed and a chronology of events is provided. Could the mythological explanation of these arguably natural phenomena still have a profound influence on the modern world?

  1. Mesozoic Igneous Activity In Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Meneisy, M. Y. [محمد يسري منيسي

    1986-01-01

    A geochronological sequence of the main phases of igneous activity in Egypt during the Mesozoic is presented in this paper. This is essentially based on scrutinized isotopic age data. New K / Ar ages are also included. Three main phases are outlined: 1. Early Triassic- Late Permian (230 ± 10 Ma). 2. Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous (140 ± lOMa). 3. Late Cretaceous (90 * lOMa). An attempt is made to relate these phases with tectonic events.

  2. Epidemic of mesothelioma in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, R M; Eldin, N H Aly

    2005-07-01

    Asbestos has been recognized in Egypt since a long time as ancient Egyptians were using it in mummification. Mesothelioma in Egypt is mainly attributed to environmental origin with a high incidence of women and young adults affected. The incidence of mesothelioma is rising in Egypt. Epidemiological data for 635 malignant mesothelioma (MM) patients over 4 years in the third Millennium were collected from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University and Abbassia Chest hospital. This number is more than four times the number diagnosed in the previous 11 years at NCI. A clinicopathological study was done for 100 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients and showed that asbestos exposure and SV40 positivity were evident in 67% and 60% of cases, respectively. The median survival was 14.3 months and the 1 and 2 year survival rates were 60% and 27%, respectively. Evaluation of p53 and pRb immunohistochemically showed that pRb alteration was related to poor survival. Other biological prognostic factors such as EGFR, HER-2, glutathione S transferase (GST) and MDR were evaluated in 50 cases. Overexpression of EGFR was correlated with lack of clinical benefit and poor survival. GST potentiated the effect of EGFR on survival. The use of EGFR inhibitors may have a role in the treatment of MM. Asbestos in Cairo is a silent killer and measures toward eliminating it entirely or at least strictly controlling human contact with this dangerous carcinogen have to be taken in order to combat the coming epidemic of mesothelioma in Egypt. PMID:15950794

  3. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Kumar; Madhu,; Prashant,; Sreenivasa

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodo...

  4. The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

  5. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  6. Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Mohamed A.; Emara, Ahmed M.

    2006-05-01

    Levels of the heavy metals Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) were determined in coastal water, sediments and soft tissues of the gastropod limpet, Patella caerulea, and the bivalve, Barbatus barbatus, from seven different stations in the western coast of the Gulf of Suez. The concentrations of heavy metals in water ranged between 3.37-4.78, 18.83-21.46, 2.75-3.17, 0.22-0.27, 0.99-1.21, 2.69-3.65, 3.75-4.56 ?g L - 1 and 23.82-32.78 mg g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The corresponding concentration values in the sediments were 8.65-12.16, 51.78-58.06, 36.52-42.15, 3.23-3.98, 9.03-12.75, 34.31-49.63, 3.28-4.56 and 64.20-70.22 ?g g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The highest accumulated metals were Fe, Zn and Mn in both P. caerulea and B. barbatus, while the lowest one was Cd. The accumulation of metals was more pronounced in P. caerulea than B. barbatus. The highest concentrations of all metals in water, sediments and mollusca were recorded at Adabiya harbour north of the Gulf, while the lowest concentrations were recorded at Gabal El-Zeit and Hurghada. Land based activities and ships awaiting berth are the main source of metal pollution in the northern part of the Gulf.

  7. Pattern of irritable bowel syndrome and its impact on quality of life in primary health care center attendees, Suez governorate, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmajeed, Ahmed; Rabab, Mohamed A; Sliem, Hamdy A; Hebatallah, Nour Eldein

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common disorders diagnosed by gastroenterologists and a common cause of general practice visits. Although this disease is not life threatening, patients with IBS seem to be seriously affected in their everyday life. The study was designed to explore the pattern of IBS in clinical practice and the impact on the quality of life. Methods This is a case control descriptive study. 117 individuals were included in this study. Rome II cr...

  8. Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oil spills detection. • Image enhancement techniques. • Aeromagnetic data processing and interpretation. -- Abstract: Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE–SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa–Hurghada coastal zone

  9. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the

  10. Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, Southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of 137Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of 226Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The 226Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg-1 for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg-1 for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l-1 for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, 226Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ∼14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the 232Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while 137Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place. (authors)

  11. Application of thorium-normalized airborne radio-spectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt

  12. Egypt Post Success Story: Distinguished Services Made Possible with ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Amr Badr-El-Din

    2013-01-01

    Without exaggeration, Egypt Post (EP) is the oldest and most honored governmental institute in Egypt. Its headquarters, located in Ataba Square in downtown Cairo, is considered a central and prominent place in Cairo and Egypt. Khedive Ismail unveiled the inauguration of the headquarters officially.However, sometime within its lifespan until 2005, Egypt Post (EP) was considered one of the worst governmental institutes in Egypt from a quality of service point of view. In addition, EP had not be...

  13. Source parameters and moment tensor of the ML 4.6 earthquake of November 19, 2011, southwest Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gad-Elkareem Abdrabou; Omar, Khaled

    2014-06-01

    The southern part of the Gulf of Suez is one of the most seismically active areas in Egypt. On Saturday November 19, 2011 at 07:12:15 (GMT) an earthquake of ML 4.6 occurred in southwest Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. The quake has been felt at Sharm El-Sheikh city while no casualties were reported. The instrumental epicenter is located at 27.69N and 34.06E. Seismic moment is 1.47 E+22 dyne cm, corresponding to a moment magnitude Mw 4.1. Following a Brune model, the source radius is 101.36 m with an average dislocation of 0.015 cm and a 0.06 MPa stress drop. The source mechanism from a fault plane solution shows a normal fault, the actual fault plane is strike 358, dip 34 and rake -60, the computer code ISOLA is used. Twenty seven small and micro earthquakes (1.5 ? ML ? 4.2) were also recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) from the same region. We estimate the source parameters for these earthquakes using displacement spectra. The obtained source parameters include seismic moments of 2.77E+16-1.47E+22 dyne cm, stress drops of 0.0005-0.0617 MPa and relative displacement of 0.0001-0.0152 cm.

  14. Canals - CANALS_HISTORIC_STRUCTURES_IN: Historic Canal Structures in Indiana (Bernardin-Lochmueller & Associates, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data depicts the locations of historic structures associated with the Wabash-Erie, Central, and Whitewater Canals constructed in Indiana in from 1830-1870. Canal...

  15. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 9, 2005

  16. The Kamil Crater in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, Luigi; Di Martino, Mario; El Barkooky, Ahmed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lethy, Ahmed; Urbini, Stefano; Nicolosi, Iacopo; Hafez, Mahfooz; Cordier, Carole; van Ginneken, Matthias; Zeoli, Antonio; Radwan, Ali M; El Khrepy, Sami; El Gabry, Mohamed; Gomaa, Mahomoud; Barakat, Aly A; Serra, Romano; El Sharkawi, Mohamed

    2010-08-13

    We report on the detection in southern Egypt of an impact crater 45 meters in diameter with a pristine rayed structure. Such pristine structures are typically observed on atmosphereless rocky or icy planetary bodies in the solar system. This feature and the association with an iron meteorite impactor and shock metamorphism provides a unique picture of small-scale hypervelocity impacts on Earth's crust. Contrary to current geophysical models, ground data indicate that iron meteorites with masses of the order of tens of tons can penetrate the atmosphere without substantial fragmentation. PMID:20651117

  17. Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 2--Patterns of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, F; el-Emam, M; Abdel Kader, A; el-Din, A S; el-Hommossany, K; Shiff, C

    1999-08-01

    The distribution, abundance and seasonality of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were studied for 2 years (1992-1994) in two newly reclaimed areas, namely El Manayef and El-Morra areas located on both sides of Suez Canal near Ismailia City. The results confirm the occurrence of transmission of both Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium since infected snails of both species were recovered in these areas. This consequently proves that reclamation of parts of the desert utilizing Nile water had led to spread of schistosomiasis to these areas. Analysis of the data shows that the infected snails, especially B. alexandrina, were found clustered in a relatively few numbers of transmission sites and furthermore the greater majority of these sites were found located within a less number of transmission foci. This pattern of focality is clearly demonstrated by Geographical Information System (GIS) produced maps. Infected B. alexandrina snails fluctuated seasonally showing 2 peaks, a minor peak in August and a higher one in November. Only one peak of infected B. truncatus was recognized in July. PMID:10605512

  18. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S; Peutzfeldt, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other...... half received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  19. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodontic complexity 1 . The need for some manner of root canal preparation pri or to root canal filling has long been recognized as an essential step in endodontic t reatment. Concepts concerning the role and purpose of this canal preparation, however, have differ ed remarkably at different times in the development of endodontics and in the hands of diffe rent practitioners 2

  20. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    surprising development in the region. This article analyses how strategic relations between the EU and Egypt are being challenged by constitutional changes in Egypt following the political development since early 2011. Initially the article describes European-Egyptian relations prior to the fall of President...... Hosni Mubarak by briefly going back to early contacts between the EEC and President Gamal Abdel Nasser and how more elaborate agreements developed up to recent times. Taking this historical point of departure the article characterizes the role of the EU in connection with the development since the start...... of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...

  1. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  2. Clean waste management: Egypt's way to sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Elnokaly, Amira; Elseragy, Ahmed; Elgebaly, Ingy

    2007-01-01

    Today Egypt is in an enormous energy conflict; it faces choices about what energy sources it will use in the future. Conventional fuels are becoming increasingly expensive and there is recognition that these fuel resources are finite. Some estimates indicate that native natural gas and oil reserves, on which Egypt's electricity generation currently relies, will run out in about 30 or 40 years, making the transition to alternative energy sources a pressing need to avoid stagnant economic devel...

  3. Water Resources Management: Alarming Crisis for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Randa El Bedawy

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most important inputs for economic development and sustainable development; as the demandincreases, so too does the importance of water. The future looks miserable if Egypt does not succeed in formulatingand implementing water resources management approach which can match the limited freshwater supply with theincreasing demand. This study intended to shed the light on the future water status in Egypt based on the currentstatus of the available water resources, the water d...

  4. Arab Republic of Egypt : Gender assessment 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this policy note is to examine the gender dimension of the Egyptian labor market, with a focus on identifying the scope for policies to improve female labor force participation. An update to the Egypt gender assessment report of 2003, it is envisioned as a contribution to programmatic work on gender and inclusion in Egypt, helping build evidence which can inform policy aim...

  5. Nuclear desalination in Egypt: activities and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of freshwater resources in Egypt is the River Nile. The Egyptian share of the Nile water was limited to 55.5x109 m3/year in the Nile Water Treaty concluded with Sudan in 1959. Due to the rapid population growth, the annual per capita freshwater resources declined from 2560 m3 in 1955 to 970 m3 in 1995. Consequently, desalination plants of various sizes and technologies have been introduced to Egypt in the past three decades. The Egyptian desalination inventory increased from less than 2000 m3/day in 1970 to almost 175000 m3/day in 1997, of which 54% was seawater desalination. The energy-intensive seawater desalination technologies are expected to play an increasing role in mitigating future potable water deficit in Egypt. Egypt has been considering for a number of years the introduction of nuclear energy to meet the combined challenge of increasing electricity and water demand on one hand and the limited primary energy and water resources on the other hand. In this regard, Egypt has been carrying a number of national, regional and international activities. This paper presents an overview of the Egyptian activities in the field of nuclear desalination including, feasibility studies and Research and Development activities. The results of recent studies are presented regarding: quantification of seawater desalination market in Egypt and preliminary economic assessment of potable water production by various combinations of energy sources and desalination processes proposed for El-Dabaa site. (author)

  6. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  7. Monitoring of some heavy metal in egypt using different spectroscopic technique ICP-AES and AAS-GF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals include both toxic and/or non toxic elements egyptian aquatic environment were monitored using inductivly coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy; ICP-AES and graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy; GF-AAS. Water and aquatic weeds (waterhyathins) are of different categories specified for such monitoring form the canals. The locations of sampling sites the river nile in egypt. These sites were chosen based on the industrial activity comparing to the cleansite and the other cultivated one. Bioavailability and related effects were defined so as to specify actually the higher concentration more contaminated areas

  8. Arab Republic of Egypt - Reshaping Egypt's Economic Geography : Domestic Integration as a Development Platform, Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report investigates Egypt's regional economic growth, explores the causes for geographically unbalanced development, and proposes policy options to make unbalanced growth compatible with inclusive development. In Egypt, despite rapid progress in most welfare indicators in lagging regions, there are still substantial gaps in consumption and opportunities between growth poles and the re...

  9. Rochdale Canal cSAC

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This is the report on Habitats Directive, the Review of Consents Stage 1 and 2 by the Environment Agency of the Rochdale Canal cSAC. The Habitats Directive has the main aim to promote the maintenance of biodiversity by defining a common framework for the conservation of wild plants and animals and habitats of community interest. The Directive establishes a European ecological network known as "Natura 2000". The network comprises Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) and Special Protection Ar...

  10. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  11. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)

  12. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history and understanding of the complexity of the cultural life of Serbia.

  13. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the environment shapes the genome. PMID:21248857

  14. Egypt Public Land Management Strategy : Volume 1. Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank (WB)

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the Egypt Public Land Management Strategy is to provide the Government of Egypt (GOE) with practical and politically feasible policy recommendations to reform existing public land management policies and practices in the aim of improving the business climate in Egypt. This study is presented in two volumes: Volume one with the main policy note, supported by Volume two...

  15. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt April 14-16, 2013, published at 78 FR 7752, February 4, 2013. The effect of this... participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service is organizing a Trade Mission to Cairo, Egypt to...

  16. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to the.... Commercial Service Cairo, Egypt U.S. Commercial Service Washington, DC Dennis Simmons, Deputy...

  17. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the N...

  18. Analytic and algebraic properties of canal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Feng, Renzhong; Sun, Jia-Guang

    2006-10-01

    The envelope of a one-parameter set of spheres with radii r(t) and centers m(t) is a canal surface with m(t) as the spine curve and r(t) as the radii function. This concept is a generalization of the classical notion of an offset of a plane curve. In this paper, we firstly survey the principle geometric features of canal surfaces. In particular, a sufficient condition for canal surfaces without local self-intersection is presented. Moreover, a simple expression for the area and Gaussian curvature of canal surfaces are given. We also consider the implicit equation f(x,y,z)=0 of canal surfaces with the degree of f(x,y,z) presented. By using the degree of f(x,y,z), a low boundary of the degree of parameterizations representations of canal surfaces is presented.

  19. Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture by using a cadaver vertebra. EMI, CT 5005 scanner was used. Best condition to observe the thoracic canal by CT was nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permited within about 100 in configuration and dimention. Configuration of 10 normal thoracic canals at each vertebral level was assessed and the dimentions of the canal at these levels were measured. In the cases of developmental cervical stenosis, the thoracic canal showed narrow especially in sagittal diameter. On the other hand it did not show marked difference in transverse diameter. In 4 cases of ossification of the yellow ligament treated surgically, 3 cases showed narrow thoracic canal on CT scan and narrow cervical canal in conventional radiographs. (author)

  20. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  1. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

  2. The petromastoid canal on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Weidner, J.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51{+-}0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57{+-}0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63{+-}0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

  3. Mandibular second premolar with three canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandibular premolars often show aberrant anatomy varying from one to three canals. The incidence of occurrence of 3 canals has been recorded to be 0.46 - 0.5 %. We report a case of mandibular second premolar with 3 canals, which was initially diagnosed radiographically by shift cone technique and confirmed by clinical examination. The tooth was successfully obturated and restored. It remained asymptomatic at one month recall. (author)

  4. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-01-01

    Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital) lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spon...

  5. Tumors in the facial nerve canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Bumb, P.

    1986-11-01

    The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid.

  6. Tumors in the facial nerve canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

  7. Endoscopic posterior decompression of lumbar canal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yad Ram Yadav; Nishtha Yadav; Vijay Parihar; Yatin Kher; Shailendra Ratre

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) is quite common. Surgery is indicated when patient fails to improve after conservative treatment. Endoscopic technique can be used in LCS and lateral recess stenosis. It can be performed in degenerative canal stenosis or with disc bulges. Bilateral severe bony canal stenosis and unstable spine are the contraindications. This procedure should be avoided in patients with a history of trauma. Detailed history and thorough physical examination should be performed to fi...

  8. Surgical Approaches to the Hypoglossal Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Gabriel; Isaacson, Brandon; Yoshor, Daniel; Oghalai, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe and illustrate three distinct surgical approaches that permit exposure and resection of extradural, intradural, and transdural lesions involving the hypoglossal canal. Study design: Case series. Setting: University medical center. Patients: Four patients with lesions of the hypoglossal canal were reviewed to illustrate our philosophy when selecting a surgical approach to the hypoglossal canal. Interventions: Three separate surgical approaches were used to approach lesio...

  9. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its develop...

  10. Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt / Monitoramento de cistos parasitarios no cerebro de um rebanho de ovinos no Egito

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shehata, Anwar; Emad, Mahdy; Khalid Ali, El-Nesr; Khaled Mohamed, El-Dakhly; Adel, Shalaby; Tokuma, Yanai.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cistos cerebrais parasitrios constituem um grande problema para o gado. Entre estes, coenurosis e toxoplasmose so predominantes. Aqui, um nmero total de 60 ovelhas obtidas em uma fazenda particular na provncia Suez, Egito, foram examinadas post-mortem para a deteco de cistos parasitrios visv [...] eis e microscopicamente para detectar cistos de pequenas dimenses. A necropsia revelou cistos medindo entre 0,5-6,5 cm de dimetro, preenchidos com um fluido transparente, contendo um grande nmero de protoscolices. Por conseguinte, os cistos foram identificados como o metacestide Coenurus cerebralis. Entre as ovelhas examinadas, 11 animais (7 machos e 4 fmeas) (18,3%) estavam infectados. A maior parte dos cistos estavam localizados nos hemisfrios cerebrais, com nmeros variando de um a trs em ovinos infectados. O efeito da presena de cistos no tecido do crebro foi avaliado. Histopatologicamente, pseudocistos de Toxoplasma gondii foram encontrados em dois animais sem reaes inflamatrias detectveis. Em concluso, coenurosis e toxoplasmose so graves problemas parasitrios que desempenham um papel significativo no manejo de ovelhas no Egito, como resultado do contacto ntimo dos animais com os ces e gatos, que desempenham um papel crtico no ciclo de vida desses parasitas. Abstract in english Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to dete [...] ct small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscolices. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites.

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals production activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the field of nuclear medicine in Egypt have increased so rapidly in the last few years. At present, a large number of hospitals are utilizing these radioisotopic techniques for both diagnosis and treatment. The following production activities are taking place in the Egyptian Radioisotope Production laboratories. By utilizing the research reactor a large number of radioisotopes which find wide applications in nuclear medicine were produced, such as iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-24, potassium-42 and molybdenum-99 / technetium-99m generators. Gallium-67, indium-111 and iodine-123 will be produced locally after installation of the cyclotron at the end of 1998. A large number of Tc-99m based kits for diagnostic medical applications have been produced. Also, many radiopharmaceuticals labelled with iodine-131 were produced. The radioisotope production laboratory is able to supply many hospitals with the radioimmunoassay kits of the thyroid related hormones (T4, T3 and TSH). Research and development activities are taking place in the field of monoclonal antibodies and tumor markers with special consideration of AFP, CEA, PSA and βhCG. (author)

  12. Egypt's disarmament initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, M.N. (United Nations, New York, NY (UN))

    1990-11-01

    On April 16, 1990, President Mubarak of Egypt proposed to the UN that all weapons of mass destruction be prohibited in the Middle East. The proposal arises from a conviction that the very presence of such weapons in the region is a security threat not only to the Middle East but also to international peace and security one which exacerbates an already tenuous and unstable situation. Egypt believes that creating an effective zone would reduce tension and generate impetus to resolving political conflict in the region, because it would exemplify the readiness of all countries to take into account the security concerns of others. Egypt's leaders are well aware that as long as political strife prevails in the Middle East, the obstacles to concrete disarmament measures are daunting. However, the potentially catastrophic consequence of yet another outbreak of hostilities drove them to seize the initiative.

  13. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  14. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  15. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kassab SE; Al-Shafei AI; Salem AH; Otoom S

    2015-01-01

    Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Ahmad I Al-Shafei,2 Abdel Halim Salem,3 Sameer Otoom4 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 4Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), Busaiteen, Bahrain Purpose: Thi...

  16. Lecturing skills as predictors of tutoring skills in a problem-based medical curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Kassab SE; Hassan N; Abu-Hijleh MF; Sequeira RP

    2016-01-01

    Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Nahla Hassan,1 Marwan F Abu-Hijleh,2 Reginald P Sequeira3 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Purpose: Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL) programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. ...

  17. Seabass and seabream market : situation and potential in Mediterranean Mahgreb countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Denis

    1996-01-01

    The five mediterranean Maghreb countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt) present similar natural characteristics which explain numerous observations about seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)and seabream (Sparus aurata) production and market. From the Atlantic coast to the Suez canal, if the coastline is not favourable to aquaculture, as safe moorings in sheltered bays are limited, several lagoons (300 000 ha) and brackishwater lakes (400 000 ha) are available. Traditionally, local consum...

  18. Inflation tax and deficit financing in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hinh T. Dinh; Giugale, Marcelo

    1991-01-01

    Although Egypt's budget deficit is far above the level found in other low-middle-income countries, the inflation rate in Egypt has never been very high. This is because the country has managed to finance these budget deficits by resorting to an inflation tax that, at 11 percent of GDP in 1987, constitutes a large share of total tax revenues. By contrast, conventional tax revenues come to only 17 percent of GDP. The authors report a large, underlying inflation-tax base - from which the Egyptia...

  19. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  20. Diversity of insect pollinators with reference to their impact on yield production of canola (Brassica napus L. in Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman M. Kamel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of insect pollinators and their impact on canola yield was conducted during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons. The study was carried out at an experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia. The results revealed that 21 species of insect pollinators belonging to 14 families under four orders visited canola flowers. The abundance of Hymenoptera insects reached the maximum of 67.90%, followed by Diptera 14.97%, Coleoptera 13.61%, then Lepidoptera 2.26% as average of both seasons. In open pollination, Colletes lacunatus had the maximum percent abundance in the two seasons (30.45 and 29.34%, respectively followed by Apis mellifera (12.34 and 17.73%, respectively, compared to other bees and different pollinators. Peaks of foraging activity of both C. lacunatus and A. mellifera were mainly observed from 1:00 to 3:00 pm and they corresponded to the number of flowering plants. Open pollination increased the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, weight of 1000 seeds, yield per plant, yield per feddan (1 fed = 0.42 ha and seed germination, compared to non-open pollination.

  1. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  2. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Sung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea); Koo, Ja-Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  3. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  4. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of...

  5. CANAL AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION AT MSIDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new canal automation system, known as SACMAN (Software for Automating Canal MANagement), has been developed at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in cooperation with Automata, Inc. through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. SACMAN works with a commercial Supervisory Control And ...

  6. Canal-centering ability: An endodontic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During instrumentation of the root canal, it is important to develop a continuously tapered form and to maintain the original shape and position of the apical foramen. However, the presence of curvatures may cause difficulty in root canal instrumentation. The ability to keep the instruments centered is essential to provide a correct enlargement, without excessive weakening of the root structure. Several studies have shown that Ni-Ti instruments remain significantly more centered and demonstrated less canal transportation than stainless steel files. Considerable research has been undertaken to understand the several factors related to an instrument?s canal-centering ability. In this article, we have discussed the influence of various parameters such as alloys used in the manufacture of instruments, instrument cross-section, taper, and have given tips on canal-centering ability.

  7. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  8. Caractersticas de los Canales Radiculares de Molares Temporales / Characteristics of Roots Canals of Deciduous Teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esther, Vaillard Jimnez; Enrique, Huitzil Muoz; Loida, Castillo Domnguez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigacion fue identificar en los canales radiculares de la denticin temporal las variantes anatmicas de la cavidad dentaria pulpar. Se realiz un estudio clnico, descriptivo, transversal ex vivo, que analiz una muestra de 60 dientes temporales pertenecientes a nios mexic [...] anos aparentemente sanos, cuya extraccin se indic por motivos teraputicos. Los dientes fueron almacenados en agua destilada y posteriormente diafanizados. La identificacin de canales radiculares se realiz por un solo observador durante dos ocasiones (k= 0,7947). Los dientes unirradiculares presentaron 50% de canales simples y laterales, 25% secundarios y 25% deltas. Los molares maxilares presentaron un 8% de canales simples en cada raz, mientras que los molares mandibulares un 29%. Canales secundarios, paralelos y recurrentes se observaron en el 33% de los molares. El 100% de las races distales de molares mandibulares presentaron canales reticulares. Las fusiones radiculares se presentan en el 88% de las molares mandibulares. La anatoma de los canales radiculares de la denticin temporal es altamente compleja. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify in roots canals of deciduous teeth anatomical variants in pulpar cavity. In a clinical, descriptive, cross sectional ex vivo study was analyzed a sample of 60 deciduous teeth of healthy Mexican children. Each tooth was conserved in distillated water and were tra [...] nsparency with a technic modified for deciduous teeth. Identifications of root canals was made twice by a lonely observant (k= 0.7947). Simple root teeth show 50% simple and lateral root canal, 25% secondary, 25% delta. Upper molars show 8% simple canal in each root. Lower molars 29%. Secondary root canals, parallel and recurrent were identified in 33% of cases. 100% of distal roots of lower molars have reticular canals. Root fusions are presents in 88% of lower molars. In conclusion, root canals anatomy of deciduous teeth is high complex.

  9. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  10. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside

  11. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were

  12. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  13. Egypt : Gulf of Aqaba Environmental Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB); European Union

    2000-01-01

    The intensive development of tourism in the Gulf of Aqaba presents both an opportunity and a dilemma for Egypt. Intensive tourism, if left unmanaged, can inflict irreversible damage on coral reef and desert ecosystems and curtail the area's economic potential. Together with current projections for a rapid expansion of the tourism base in the Aqaba coast, degradation from mounting recreatio...

  14. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing

  15. Experience with the INES scale in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty years experience with Egypt first Research Reactor (ET-RR-1) operation, was introduced focusing on the famous events that were initiated and the procedures that were taken for their recovery or mitigation is given. Four out of seven events can be attributed to human errors, the events if classified using the INES

  16. Egypt : Health Sector Reform and Financing Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank (WB)

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) of the Government of Egypt (GOE) launched a comprehensive Health Sector Reform Program (HSRP) aiming to develop a national health system, based on social insurance that would address existing problems in equity, access, efficiency, quality and financial sustainability. The purpose of the Health Sector Reform and Financing Review is to p...

  17. Egypt, Arab Republic : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade, Egypt made significant efforts to align corporate financial reporting requirements with the International Accounting Standards (IAS) and to close the compliance gap in both accounting and auditing practices. Consequently, important improvements have been achieved in accounting and disclosure requirements for the publicly traded companies and financial institutions a...

  18. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions and independent experts. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture and a full understanding of the energy industry and market in Egypt, the way they operate and their long-term perspectives

  19. Carcinoma of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Marshall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are around 5,000 new cases of anal canal cancer each year in the United States. It is of particular risk in HIV-positive populations. Many cases are related to persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV. The treatment of anal cancer has progressed from abdominoperineal resection mandating permanent colostomy in the 1940s through the 1970s to modern chemoradiation with sphincter preservation in around 80% of patients, even with locally advanced disease. The evolution of the treatment paradigm of this disease is a model for the treatment of malignant disease with organ preservation. Multiple randomized trials have been conducted to guide this evolution. Technological developments in the delivery of radiotherapy and anti-cancer pharmaceuticals harbor hope for further improvements in outcomes with possible reductions in toxicity and increases in tumor control. Perhaps most inspiring is the recent development of HPV vaccines that

  20. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  1. Community participation for schistosomiasis control: a participatory research project in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Katsha, S; Watts, S; Khairy, A; El-Sebaie, O

    1993-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the major public health problems in rural Egypt. Many rural people continue to be exposed to the disease as they enter irrigation canals during agricultural, domestic and recreational activities. Current control strategies focus on testing and treatment of cases in rural health units; apart from a TV media campaign, health education plays a small role. This article reports on an on-going participatory research project involving all the people and institutions in two villages who have an interest in schistosomiasis control at the village level. The project is studying human behavior and the transmission of schistosomiasis, with the ultimate aim of recommending appropriate control strategies. The research team worked with local staff at the clinic to improve testing and treatment for villagers, especially school children. It also trained local residents in social research techniques, so that they work with local villagers to understand why exposure to canal water persists and what can be done to minimize this contact. PMID:20841009

  2. Joint inversion of VES and TEM data for investigation of geothermal resources and sea water intrusion at Hammam Mousa hot spring, Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Geoelectrical methods are pioneer in geothermal resources exploration. With the advent of computing technology, it has become convenient to apply sophisticated data analysis and joint inversion to different field data sets. Numerous studies have shown that, the joint interpretation of galvanic and inductive data, where a single model satisfies both data sets, will generally enhance the resolution of the subsurface resistivity structure. Thus, the inclusion of inductive data in the VES data set is expected to reduce problems with layer suppression, reduce the low and high resistivity equivalences that may be encountered with this method. In this work, DC resistivity and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at Hammam Mousa area, Sinai, Egypt to explore the geothermal resources, groundwater aquifer and the effect of sea water invasion on this aquifer. The field survey comprises 19 DC resistivity soundings (VESes) with AB/2 up to 1000m and 27 transient electromagnetic (TEM) stations using a square loop of 25 m side length. Both data sets were firstly inverted in 1-D scheme using a nonlinear least-squares method and gave a layered-earth resistivity model. Besides, the joint interpretation of both VES and TEM data, using the available geological information as a constraining factor, could successfully enhance the inversion results. The geoelectrical cross section resulted from the inversion process shows the effect of the Suez Gulf water intrusion in the western part of the study area. Meanwhile, hot water reduces the resistivity values drastically near the hot spring.

  3. The relapses of cancerous growths of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter of book authors give information about general comprehensions of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths, the classification of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths, frequency of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths, the diagnostics of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths and prophylaxis and treatment of relapses

  4. Environmental and Irradiation Effect on the Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Some Local Bacterial Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty eight bacterial isolates were isolated from The Suez Gulf sea water from the coast of the El-Nasr Petroleum Company on Suez Canal and formation water from overhead of an oil well in western desert of Egypt named (M68). Sixteen bacterial isolates were obtained from The Suez Gulf sea water. Twelve bacterial isolates were obtained from formation water (M68). The bacterial isolates were screened for bio surfactant production by using emulsification activity and haemolytic activity. The most potent two isolates N8 and S8 were selected according to three parameters; the ability of isolate to grow and produce surfactant on wide range of ph, temperature and salinity. The most promising bacterial isolates were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve their abilities for bio surfactant production which resulted in a passive effect on bio surfactant production

  5. Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sebaity DM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalia M El-Sebaity1, Wael Soliman1, Asmaa MA Soliman2, Ahmed M Fathalla11Department of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, EgyptPurpose: To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt.Methods: All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalmology Department of Assiut University between July 2009 and July 2010 were included in the study. The demographic data of all patients and characteristics of the injury events were determined. The initial visual acuity and final visual acuity after 3 months follow-up were recorded.Results: One hundred and fifty patients were included. The majority of injuries occurred in children aged 27 years (50.7%. There were 106 (70.7% boys and 44 (29.3% girls. The highest proportion of injuries occurred in the street (54.7% followed by the home (32.7%. Open globe injuries accounted for 67.3% of injuries, closed globe for 30.7%, and chemical injuries for 2%. The most common causes were wood, stones, missiles, and glass. LogMar best corrected visual acuity at 3 months follow-up was: 01 in 13.3%; <11.3 in 27.3%; <1.3perception of light (PL in 56%; and no perception of light (NPL in 3.3%.Conclusions: Pediatric ocular trauma among patients referred to our tertiary ophthalmology referral center in Upper Egypt over a period of 1 year was 3.7%. Of these, 67.3% of cases had open globe injury, 30.7% had closed injury, and only 2% had chemical injury. In Upper Egypt, socioeconomic and sociocultural status, family negligence, and lack of supervision are important factors in pediatric eye injuries, as 92% of children were without adult supervision when the ocular trauma occurred. Nearly 86.6% of children with ocular trauma end up legally blind. Modification of these environmental risk factors is needed to decrease pediatric ocular morbidity.Keywords: ocular trauma, pediatric, epidemiology

  6. Labor law reforms and labor market performance in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelgouad, Ahmed Fayez

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a review of the institutional framework in the Egyptian labor market to show how it is regulated by discussing extensively the most recent labor law regulations in Egypt and the main reasons behind enacting this law. The paper guides also to different data sources that can be used and highlights a number of empirical studies about the labor market in Egypt. Finally, it concludes that further reforms are still required to improve labor market efficiency in Egypt.

  7. Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution: an interpretative archaeological overview

    OpenAIRE

    Aerde, van, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the VIDI 'Cultural innovation in a globalising society: Egypt in the Roman world', this research explores manifestations of Egypt in the material culture of Augustan Rome. This period was a crucial turning point for the urban landscape of Rome, which was characterised by cultural diversity. Previous studies focus primarily on Greek influences on the development of Augustan material culture, while Egypt remains neglected or simply categorised as exoticism or Egyptomania. This resear...

  8. Upper Egypt--Challenges and Priorities for Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This sector report on Challenges and Priorities for Rural Development analyzes why Upper Egypt has lagged behind the rest of the country and to help the Government of Egypt and stakeholders to define a framework for interventions to promote broad-based economic growth and human development that will reach the poor and improve welfare in rural Upper Egypt. To achieve this objective, the str...

  9. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  10. 75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... require significant security measures. In its fight against drug smuggling and counterfeit products, Egypt..., smuggling and counter terrorism. The military and police agencies are purchasing safety and...

  11. A Root Canal Therapy on the Maxillary First Molar Tooth with Five Canals: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Erhan; Gundogar Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary first molar usually exhibits a radicular anatomy of three roots and three or four canals. However, different anatomic variations like extra number of roots and canals are possible. For a successful treatment, clinicians must have well equipment and a thorough knowledge of the external and internal anatomy of teeth and its variation. Using of CBCT may help to locate extra canals by giving a chance to clinicians to see the root canal anatomy in 3-D view. The aim of this study was to p...

  12. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

  13. Model equations for Calculating Rn-gas Concentrations in Air of Uranium Exploratory Tunnels, Allouga, West-Central Sinai , Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Allouga area is located some 40 km due east from Abu Zenima town on the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, West-Central Sinai, Egypt. A network of exploratory tunnels totaling 670m in length and approximately 2x2 m in cross section, were excavated within a paleosol clayey bed. They host (Fe, Mn)-, Cu-, and U-mineralizations. Portions of the tunnels are naturally ventilated and others portions are non-ventilated and show ground water seepage through fractures. Model equations were developed for calculating the Rn-gas concentrations in the air of the tunnels under dry conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by air flow through porous media as well as for wet conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by ground water flow into the tunnels. Under dry conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations(15.2-60.6 PCi/1) are consistent with measured values by active techniques (3.26-22.85 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (19-69.1 pCi/1) when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha= 0.05-0.2), the emanating rock thickness (X=10 cm) and U-concentration averages 30 ppm. Under wet and non-ventilated conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations (159-1248 pCi/1) are consistent with the measured values by active techniques (231-1348 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (144-999pCi/1), when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha=0.1-0.25), the ground water flow (F=0.04-0.10 ml/s-1cm-2) and U-concertrations (100-250ppm)

  14. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    OpenAIRE

    OHASHI, AYUMI; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; ADLY LABEEB, SHOKRIA; GHAREDS MOHAMED, ASMAA; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas ...

  15. Egypt: Politics in the New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maye Kassem

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It seems that with the new millennium, some potentially interesting changes have emerged within the Egyptian political arena. Whether these are linked to attempts at US democratic promotion in the Middle East is difficult to substantiate. What seems clear however is such reforms appear to have produced only the most minor of changes to the prevailing authoritarian system of contemporary Egypt. These changes have included reforms ranging from changes in legislative elections procedures (2000; internal re-structuring within the NDP(2001/2; a proposed revision of presidential referendum procedures (March 2005; followed by the first presidential elections in Egypt (September 2005 and new legislative elections a few months later (November-December 2005. This article will examine these political developments in an effort to gauge the degree to which such changes can potentially contribute towards the democratization of Egyptian politics in the new millennium.

  16. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  17. Corruption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Ghalwash

    2014-01-01

    Based on a theoretical consideration of economic growth model, this study empirically investigates the direct and indirect impact of corruption on economic growth by incorporating the corruption index in the growth model in the case of Egypt. The model provides a simple theoretical framework in which the level of corruption as well as the effects of corruption on output variables; forging direct investments, government expenditure, openness and political instability are iden...

  18. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  19. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Samy-Kamal, Mohammed; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis; Forcada, Aitor

    2011-01-01

    Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc.), ...

  20. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  1. Policy Reform in Egypt? : A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Matilda; Nordin, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the police reform in Egypt in the light of the revolution 2011. The ousting of the authoritarian president Hosni Mubarak was the beginning of the transition towards democracy. Within 15 months both parliamentary and presidential election had taken place. The political leaders were new and the transitional process had begun however the institutions where still the same and one feature of the revolution was to reform the police since the police was hated as the oppressive pow...

  2. Turkish and Malaysian experiences: Lessons for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rezeg, Ali Abo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Egyptian uprising was triggered on January 25, 2011 after thirty years of political and economic corruption through Mubarak‟s administration. The thirst for development, political freedom, and social equality were the most significant factors behind thisuprising. There are widespread discussions on which developmental experience Egypt might adopt in the post-Mubarak era. Turkey and Malaysia are the two cases that are mostly referred to aspossible models for the Egyptian case. Th...

  3. Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

  4. School effects on educational attainment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Menshawy

    2012-01-01

    Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data for Egypt in 2007, this paper examines the determinants and gender inequality of educational attainment (test scores in Mathematics and Science). The complicated structure of the data is carefully addressed during all stages of the analysis by employing plausible values and jackknife standard error technique to accommodate the measurement error of the dependant variable and the clustering of students in classes and schoo...

  5. External auditory canal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External auditory canal (EAC) carcinomas are relatively rare conditions lack on established treatment strategy. We analyzed a treatment modalities and outcome in 32 cases of EAC squamous cell carcinoma treated between 1980 and 2008. Subjects-17 men and 15 women ranging from 33 to 92 years old (average: 66) were divided by Arriaga's tumor staging into 12 T1, 5 T2, 6 T3, and 9 T4. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Disease-specific 5-year survival was 100% for T1, T2, 44% for T3, and 33% for T4. In contrast to 100% 5-year survival for T1+T2 cancer, the 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer was 37% with high recurrence due to positive surgical margins. The first 22 years of the 29 years surveyed, we performed surgery mainly, and irradiation or chemotherapy was selected for early disease or cases with positive surgical margins as postoperative therapy. During the 22-years, 5-year survival with T3+T4 cancer was 20%. After we started superselective intra-arterial (IA) rapid infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy in 2003, we achieved negative surgical margins for advanced disease, and 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer rise to 80%. (author)

  6. Cucullanus egyptae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cucullanidae) infecting the European eel Anguilla anguilla in Egypt. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Morsy, Kareem; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mohammed, Sanna

    2014-09-01

    A total of 80 specimens of the European eel Anguilla anguilla were collected during the period from February 2013 to March 2014 at the coast of the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea, Egypt). A new species of parasitic nematodes was recovered and described as Cucullanus egyptae. It was found in the eel's intestine with a prevalence of 68.7%. The morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worms had a wide cephalic extremity with a slit-like oral aperture being surrounded by a cuticular ring and delimited internally by a row of small teeth in addition to four sub-median cephalic papillae and one pair of lateral amphids. Body measurements showed that the male worms were smaller than females measuring 7.5-8.9 mm (8.3 ± 0.2) in length and 1.6-1.9 mm (1.8 ± 0.1) in width. Females measured 12.9-13.5 mm (13.1 ± 0.2) in length and 2.9-3.2 mm (3.1 ± 0.1) in width. The posterior end of the males is provided with ten pairs of caudal papillae and two long spicules which are slightly sclerotized, equal in size measuring 0.59-0.65 mm (0.62 ± 0.01) in length. Comparing the present worms with other species of the genus Cucullanus, several similarities were observed. However, peculiar new characteristics such as the precloacal sucker (especially the spicula length), the arrangement and the distribution of the post-cloacal papillae, and the position of the excretory pore make it reasonable to describe a new species. The sequence data of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) obtained from the present nematode supported its taxonomic position within the genus Cucullanus. The new species is closely related to the first clade of Spirurina and even more closely related to Cucullanus dodsworthi as a sister taxon with a high percentage of identity. The sequence of the recorded SSU rDNA of this parasite is deposited in the GenBank with the accession no. KF681520. It is proposed to name the new species C. egyptae as the first representative of Cucullanidae in Egypt with a new host record. PMID:25030116

  7. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on water availability in the Nile Basin over the longer term. Depending on the GERD fill rate, short-term (e.g., within its first 5 years of operation) annual losses in Egyptian food production may peak briefly at 25 percent. Long-term (e.g., 15 to 30 year) cumulative losses in Egypt's food production may be less than 3 percent regardless of the fill rate, with the GERD having essentially no impact on projected annual food production in Egypt about 25 years after opening. For the quick fill rates, the short-term losses may be sufficient to create an important decrease in overall household health among the general population, which, along with other economic stressors and different strategies employed by the government, could lead to social unrest. Third, and perhaps most importantly, our modeling suggests that the GERD's effect on Egypt's food and water resources is small when compared to the effect of projected Egyptian population and economic growth (and the concomitant increase in water consumption). The latter dominating factors are exacerbated in the modeling by natural climate variability and may be further exacerbated by climate change. Our modeling suggests that these growth dynamics combine to create long-term water scarcity in Egypt, regardless of the Ethiopian project. All else being equal, filling strategies that employ slow fill rates for the GERD (e.g., 8 to 13 years) may mitigate the risks in future scenarios for Egypt somewhat, but no policy or action regarding the GERD is likely to significantly alleviate the projected water scarcity in Egypt's Nile Basin. However, general beliefs among the Egyptian populace regarding the GERD as a major contributing factor for scarcities in Egypt could make Ethiopia a scapegoat for Egyptian grievances -- contributing to social unrest in Egypt and generating undesirable (and unnecessary) tension between these two countries. Such tension could threaten the constructive relationships between Egypt and Ethiopia that are vital to maintaining stability and security within and between their respective regional spheres of influence, Middle East and North Africa, and the Horn of Africa.

  8. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. PMID:25239124

  9. Rinderpest surveillance in Egypt 1992/1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest control in Egypt has focussed for many years on the annual vaccination of all animals. In 1992 it was decided to vaccinate adult animals only twice and to cease vaccination of animals under the age of one year in an attempt to detect any circulating rinderpest virus. A national serological survey was undertaken to determine the level of immunity of cattle to rinderpest, linked with a serological and clinical survey of cattle and buffaloes under one year of age to determine if rinderpest virus was circulating in this population. At the same time a survey was undertaken of sheep and goats to determine if any serological evidence could be found of rinderpest virus in this group. The results show that levels of immunity in cattle are around 70% and in buffaloes around 50%. No substantive evidence could be found indicating the presence of rinderpest virus in cattle, buffalo, sheep or goats in Egypt. Based on the above it is appropriate that Egypt cease rinderpest vaccination and make the OIE declaration of provisional freedom from rinderpest. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  10. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid agitation using a closely fitting instrument or by sonic or ultrasonic activation. This review highlights a way forward by understanding the physical processes involved through physical models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. (topical review)

  11. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  12. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  13. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  14. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  15. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,

  16. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on

  17. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, Van den, W.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the improvement of food security in Egypt in general and the reduction of post-harvest losses in particular.

  18. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  19. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.; Badger, J.; Jørgensen, B.H.; Hasager, C.B.; Paulsen, U.S.; Hansen, O.F.; Enevoldsen, K.; Youssef, L.G.; Said, U.S.; Moussa, A.A. E.-S.; Mahmoud, M.A.; Yousef, A.E.S.; Awad, A.M.; Ahmed, M.A.-E.R.; Sayed,M.A.M.; Korany, M.H.; Tarad, M.A.-E.B.

    2006-01-01

    wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods...... is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The numerical wind atlas database, in combination...... – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published in a...

  20. First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt (Cairo, Egypt, May 21, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gara, Chloe

    This document is comprised of the papers presented at the First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt in May 2001. Participating in the symposium were representatives from the World Bank, the Amsterdam Institute for International Development, the Children's Project, and the Academy for Educational Development. The symposium opened with an…

  1. Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

  2. Changes in anal canal sensation after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornes, H; Bartolo, D C; Stirrat, G M

    1991-01-01

    Obstetic trauma predisposes to faecal incontinence. Anal canal sensation is impaired in incontinent patients. To assess the effect of childbirth on anal canal sensation anal mucosal electrosensitivity was measured in 122 primiparous patients in the immediate postnatal period and in 74 at 6 months postpartum. There were 35 normal vaginal deliveries, 36 forceps deliveries, 20 ventouse extractions, ten vaginal breech deliveries and 21 caesarean sections. Sensation was impaired in the lower, mid and upper anal canal immediately after delivery in those patients who had a normal vaginal delivery or a forceps delivery when compared with controls or with those delivered by caesarean section. Women who had ventouse deliveries had impaired sensation immediately after delivery in the mid anal canal compared with controls and those undergoing caesarean section. By 6 months there were no differences between any group. Patients who sustained a division of the external anal sphincter at delivery had impaired sensation which persisted in the upper anal canal at 6 months. PMID:1998871

  3. Contemporary diagnostic imaging of spinal canal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal canal tumors occur relatively rarely in comparison with intracranial mass lesions. Because of their unspecific clinical symptoms the imaging methods play fundamental role in diagnosis of these tumors. New imaging methods - computed tomography (CT) and especially magnetic resonance (MR) - the imaging procedure of choice in diagnosis of spinal canal tumors - markedly reduced the significance of the older ones, like plain X-ray films, myelography and angiography, which are used nowadays occasionally. MR should be performed as soon as possible in any patient in whom a spinal canal neoplastic pathology is clinically suspected. Very good results in evaluation of staging of neoplastic processes are obtained with positron emission tomography (PET). Biopsy of the tumor, which can be performed under CT guidance or in open MR units, makes possible the definitive diagnosis. According to the space of origin spinal canal tumors are divided into extradural, intradural extramedullary and intramedullary. The most frequent neoplasmatic lesions in the spinal canal, which can localize in each of the spaces mentioned above are metastases. The most uncommon are intramedullary tumors. Some lesions occupy two of neighbouring spaces, most often neurinomas, which as '' dumbbell '' tumors, involve extradural and intradural extramedullary spaces. (authors)

  4. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been much debate over the costs for trade, the costs for the environment, national and regional security concerns, as well as major concerns related to political and economic relations in the region. Therefore, one of the main purposes of this study is to contribute to the debate on the possible impact of the devel-opment of the Kra Canal on ASEAN’s regional relations. In particular, it proposes that the development of the Kra Canal could threaten regional solidarity as it would physically divide maritime Southeast Asia from main-land Southeast Asia, which would ultimately result in an economic, cultural and political divide of ASEAN itself.

  5. Root canal debridement: an online study guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present root canal debridement including subdivisions on canal access, canal debridement, orifice enlargement and preflaring, crown-down technique, balanced force, nickel titanium and other shape memory alloys, rotary engine-driven techniques, endodontic instruments, irrigation, electronic apex locators, sonics/ultrasonics, smear layer, and intracanal medicaments. PMID:18457698

  6. Interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patond K

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Opinion is still divided over a standard surgical procedure to decompress lumbar canal stenosis. Both, laminectomy with or without facetectomy and foraminotomy and interlaminar fenestration have been advocated. In the present communication interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis has been discussed. Sixteen consecutive patients (7 males and 9 females with clinical, neurological and radiological features of lumbar canal stenosis were treated by interlaminar (fenestration decompression. The age of onset of symptoms ranged between 22-57 years. Adjoining lamina around interlaminar space of involved segment along with ligamentum flavum and part of facet joint (undercutting facetectomy, extending laterally (foraminotomy were removed at single or multiple levels. Follow-up response (93.7% over a period of two and half years showed the results as good in 73.3% and fair in 26.7% of cases, with uniformly uneventful post-operative period.

  7. Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture of thoracic spinal canal using a cadaver vertebra. EMI CT 5005 scanner was used and 13 mm thick slice of cadaver vertebra was obtained. After obtaining of CT picture, we made a same thick specimen of cadaver vertebra and compared CT picture to softex x-ray picture. The best condition of thoracic spinal canal by CT showed nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle of thoracic spinal cannal was permitted within 100 in measurement and in configuration. The precise location of being scanned was known by using different length of radiopaque catheter markers taped on a patient's back and comparing CT pictures to x-ray picture. Normal thoracic spinal canal was examined and we observed normal thoracic spinal configurations and confirmed that the ratio of frontal diameter to sagittal diameter had a pattern. (author)

  8. The Economics of Tobacco in Egypt : A New Analysis of Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Heba

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the economics of tobacco production and demand in Egypt. It reviews previous studies of demand for cigarettes in Egypt, consumption tends in Egypt, in the context of regional trends, and the data on tobacco-attributable diseases in Egypt. It describes the structure and trends in cigarette production in Egypt, and the level of imports and exports. Part 2 uses household e...

  9. 5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosalie David

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are currently being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseasesComprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que actualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades

  10. Egypt after Mubarak : the challenges ahead.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The events in Egypt in November 2011, and in preceding months, are stark reminders that the Middle East is changing in ways which a decade ago were rarely contemplated, either in the countries concerned or beyond them. A new solar system is emerging in the Arab world in which the gases are still swirling. In time, they will cool and solidify into more predictable and hopefully more productive forms—but how long that may take is far from certain. The core argument I presented at Durham Univ...

  11. Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Eric

    2008-01-01

    in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

  12. Isotope techniques in the study of groundwater in the eastern Nile Delta and the transport of pollution from drainage water into Lake Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-two water samples were collected from eastern Nile Delta groundwater, Lake Manzala, surface water and main drainage stations during 1993-1995. The water samples were analysed for major, minor and tracer elements and for oxygen-18 and deuterium. The hydrochemical studies indicate that the groundwater of the eastern Delta can be classified into three groups of low, medium and high salinity. The fresh water is mostly encountered near the Nile and near irrigation canals in the south. The brackish and saline water occurs near the Bitter Lakes, the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea. The salinity is attributed to the leaching of terrestrial salts and to seawater intrusion. Nitrate concentration was found to be relatively high because of extensive fertilizer use. In general, the stable isotope contents of groundwater differ widely depending upon the contribution of each recharging source (present Nile, old Nile, precipitation, seawater intrusion and possibly palaeowater contribution in some localized areas). Investigation of Lake Manzala revealed that the water salinity is rather inhomogeneous, and high concentrations of trace elements were detected, which could be attributed to drainage water discharging into the lake. A stable isotope balance was developed to estimate seepage and evaporation from the lake. (author)

  13. CANALES DE DISTRIBUCIN Y COMPETITIVIDAD EN ARTESANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos de la Paz Hernndez Girn

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se explica cmo la relacin entre canales de distribucin y competitividad se ve influenciada por variables contextuales como el tipo de negocio, su ubicacin, su antigedad y el tipo de producto, en un ambiente de negocio que vive la artesana en tres estados de la Repblica Mexicana: Oaxaca, Jalisco y Guanajuato. La teora central se enmarca en la mercadotecnia y sus estrategias. Los canales de distribucin, dentro de la mezcla de mercadotecnia, sobresalen porque la creciente competencia global hace ms difcil entrar, controlar y mantenerse en cualquier mercado.

  14. Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangasamy Vijayaraghavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization.

  15. Cisto aracnideo extradural do canal espinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiogrficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnstico de cisto de aracnide extradural do canal espinal de localizao torcica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos j publicados. So comentadas a incidncia do processo patolgico nos diversos grupos etrios, sua localizao ao longo do canal raqueano, a evoluo do quadro clnico, a etiologa e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnstico, a teraputica e o prognstico.

  16. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Abbas Moshari; Nahid Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi; Nahid Rahimifard; Soheila Darmiani

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103) with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5) and 7 experimental (n = 14) groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212) and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire) as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04,...

  17. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  18. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  19. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  20. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Kirilova; Snezhanka Topalova-Pirinska; Dimiter Kirov

    2014-01-01

    Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of ...

  1. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. ...

  2. Locomotor head movements and semicircular canal morphology in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Malinzak, Michael D.; Kay, Richard F.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Animal locomotion causes head rotations, which are detected by the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Morphologic features of the canals influence rotational sensitivity, and so it is hypothesized that locomotion and canal morphology are functionally related. Most prior research has compared subjective assessments of animal “agility” with a single determinant of rotational sensitivity: the mean canal radius of curvature (R). In fact, the paired variables of R and body mass are correlated w...

  3. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J; Hosker, Gordon L; Lose, Gunnar; Kiff, Edward S

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  4. Adaptive Predictive Controller Applied to an Open Water Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Rato, Luís; Salgueiro, Pedro; Lemos, João Miranda; Rijo, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns to the application of adaptive control to a large scale water canal experimental plant. Water canals are complex spatially distributed systems which aim at distributing water either for irrigating, or domestic, or industrial purposes. In this paper a predictive adaptive control algorithm (MUSMAR) is applied to a large scale experimental water canal prototype. The experimental facilities with a fully instrumented canal, a PLC network and a SCADA system, are br...

  5. Matters of simulation of the semicircular canal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, V. S.; Petukhov, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    A scale model of the human semicircular canal system was developed based on the theory of dynamic similitude. This enlarged model makes it convenient to conduct tests on the vestibular processes and dynamics in the semicircular canals. Tests revealed hydromechanical interaction between canals, with asymmetry of the conditions of movement of the endolymph in the canals in opposite directions. A type of vestibular reactions, occurring with angular oscillations of the head, was predicted and demonstrated using this model and human test subjects.

  6. The Egyptian legislation for safe transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian legislation related the safe transport of radioactive materials, a licence is required for the transport, import and or export these materials. The licence is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the NCNSRC-AEA licence to handle/ transport radioactive materials/wastes have been developed according to the international and Egyptian legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or to refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Suez Canal, in the Egyptian regional waters, in the sea harbours or in the exclusive economic zones of Egypt according to the national and international regulations. (author)

  7. Water-level difference controller for main canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operation of main irrigation canals is complicated in situations where the operator does not have full control over the canal inflow, or where there are very long transmission distances from the point of supply, or both. Experienced operators are able to control the canal, but often supply error...

  8. Framework for Bridges Maintenance in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Abd Elkhalek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approaches for bridges maintenance is proven to be inefficient as they lead to random way of spending maintenance budget and deteriorating bridge conditions. In many cases, maintenance activities are performed due to user complaints. The objective of this paper is to develop a practical and reliable framework to manage the maintenance and repair activities of Bridges network in Egypt considering performance and budget limits. The model solves an optimization problem that maximizes the average condition of the network given the limited budget using Genetic Algorithm (GA. The main tasks of the system are bridge inventory, condition assessment, deterioration using markov model, and maintenance optimization. The developed model takes into account multiple parameters including serviceability requirements, budget allocation, element importance on structural safety and serviceability, bridge impact on network, and traffic. A questionnaire is conducted to complete the research scope. The proposed model is implemented in software, which provides a friendly user interface. The results of the framework are multi – year maintenance plan for the entire network for up to five years. A case study is presented for validating and testing the model with Data collected from “General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport” in Egypt.

  9. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  10. Egypt's nuclear power programme: Economic and financial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypts' needs for electric power up to the year 2002 is assessed. The potential of different energy resources in Egypt is evaluated. The nuclear option is discussed from economic, social, and technological point of view. The special situation of Egypt as a developing country with weak infrastructure and limited qualified manpower is stressed. Advanced nuclear technology is discussed from the perspective of its appropriateness to the needs and conditions prevailing in developing countries. Some national and international resources to finance nuclear power projects were proposed and the potential of each was assessed. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present

  12. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present.

  13. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  14. QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  16. LOVE CANAL MONITORING PROGRAM. VOLUME 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the prime contractor activities during the monitoring phase of the Love Canal project. Since GCA Corporation was only responsible for data collection, no analytical results appear in this report. The program involved a multifaceted sampling and analytical e...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  18. Root canal treatment in necrotic primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A D; Reina, E S

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-three patients (27 boys and 26 girls) with necrotic primary teeth received root canal treatments with a paste consisting of KRI-1 paste and pure calcium hydroxide powder with one drop of formocresol. All cases were followed clinically, radiographically and some histologically at 6, 12 and 17 to 24 months postoperatively. All cases were clinically and radiographically successful. PMID:2637358

  19. Root and canal morphology of Indian maxillary premolars by a modified root canal staining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subbarao, Chandana; Ahuja, Roshni; Subbarao, Chandragiri Venkata

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary first and second premolars in Indians by a modified canal staining and tooth clearing technique. Maxillary first (350) and second (350) premolars were collected, and the morphology and number of roots analyzed. After cleaning, the teeth were immersed in India ink and placed in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber at 0.6 MPa for 2 h. The teeth were then demineralized and cleared. Digital images of the teeth were examined under magnification to evaluate the number of root canals, root canal system configurations, number of apical foramina, and intercanal communications. Root canal configurations were identified based on Vertucci's classification and Gulabivala's additional classes. The most common root morphology of the first premolars was the classical two separate root morphology (a Caucasian trait) and that of the second premolars was a single-root morphology (a Mongoloid trait), though other morphologies such as singlerooted first premolars and three-rooted first and second premolars were also identified. A "radiculous" first premolar was identified in two samples. The buccal roots of the first premolar showed the maximum variation, the most common being type I (Vertucci's classification), followed by type IV. The highest incidence of intercanal communications was found in the single-rooted first premolars. All roots exhibiting type IV and V canal configurations showed two separate apical foramina, while additional type 2-3 canal configurations showed three separate apical foramina. The root number and morphology as well as the canal morphology of Indian maxillary premolars showed both Mongolian and Caucasian traits. PMID:21271321

  20. Comparison of canal transportation in simulated curved canals prepared with ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Brenda Leite; Pires, Frederico; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Neves, Aline Almeida; Souza, Erick Miranda; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Maillefer) in maintaining the original profile of root canal anatomy. For that, ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer) was used as reference techniques for comparison. Materials and Methods Twenty simulated curved canals manufactured in clear resin blocks were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n = 10) according to the system used for canal instrumentation: PTU and PTG groups, upto F2 files (25/0.08). Color stereomicroscopic images from each block were taken exactly at the same position before and after instrumentation. All image processing and data analysis were performed with an open source program (FIJI). Evaluation of canal transportation was obtained for two independent canal regions: straight and curved levels. Student's t test was used with a cut-off for significance set at α = 5%. Results Instrumentation systems significantly influenced canal transportation (p < 0.0001). A significant interaction between instrumentation system and root canal level (p < 0.0001) was found. PTU and PTG systems produced similar canal transportation at the straight part, while PTG system resulted in lower canal transportation than PTU system at the curved part. Canal transportation was higher at the curved canal portion (p < 0.0001). Conclusions PTG system produced overall less canal transportation in the curved portion when compared to PTU system. PMID:26877984

  1. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  2. Root and Root Canal Morphology of Human Third Molar Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Shalavi, Sousan; Bandi, Shilpa; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-04-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on having comprehensive information regarding the root(s)/canal(s) anatomy. Dentists may have some complication in treatment of third molars because the difficulty in their access, their aberrant occlusal anatomy and different patterns of eruption. The aim of this review was to review and address the number of roots and root canals in third molars, prevalence of confluent canals in third molars, C-shaped canals, dilaceration and fusion in third molars, autotransplantation of third molars and endodontic treatment strategies for third molars. PMID:26067735

  3. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  4. Policy aspects of electricity and the environment in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt is facing many challenges, most of which stem from the high population growth rate. Efforts to improve the standard of living require substantive development of Egypt's economic, technical, community, electricity and energy infrastructures. Over the past three decades, the electric energy demand has increased more than 15 fold, requiring development of sound national electric energy policies based on rational use of indigenous resources which are, unfortunately, limited. Realization of such policies faces a number of economic and social constraints, all of which need great efforts to overcome. Environmental considerations within Egypt's electric energy policies are focusing more attention on the degradation in environmental conditions, which is in line with growing public concern about this issue, both locally and internationally. An alarming increase in pollution levels in the urban areas of Egypt has necessitated the creation of new laws to curb pollution of the air and the environment, in addition to adhering to strict standards for effluents from thermal power stations. (author)

  5. Quality assessment of imported powder milk at Mansoura city, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Abdelkhalek; Mohammed Elsherbini; Dalia Eletriby; Ahmed Sadak

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the keeping quality of powder milk sold at local markets in Mansoura City, Egypt, and to isolate the contaminated bacteria particularly Salmonella spp., E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus from these milk samples. Materials and methods: A total of 50 powder milk samples were collected from different sources at Mansoura, Egypt. The samples were subjected for physical examination to determine their pH and acidity. Microbiologcal assessment...

  6. Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid; Abdel-Aziz M. Khalid

    2011-01-01

    This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies...

  7. Perceived stress among tomorrow’s attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Amr; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Few data are available on the level and sources of stress among law students in the Middle East generally and in Egypt specifically. We conducted this study to identify the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among law students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study covered 426 law students selected through a stratified cluster sampling method. The questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items on sources of...

  8. RECURRENT/PERSISTENT PNEUMONIA AMONG CHILDREN IN UPPER EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Saad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children continues to be a major challenge for the paediatricians. We aimed to determine the prevalence and underlying causes of recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt. Settings: Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.   Methods: Patients with pneumonia admitted to the hospital during 2 years were investigated (microbiological, biochemical, immunological and radiological tests) for recurrent/persistent pne...

  9. The Egypt labor market panel survey: Introducing the 2012 round

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the 2012 round of the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS), a publicly-available nationally representative longitudinal household survey. We describe the key characteristics of the ELMPS, including the samples and questionnaires for each round. Additionally, we examine the attrition processes observed in the panel and discuss the creation of weights to correct for attrition. We compare our data to other statistical sources for Egypt to evaluate the sample's representa...

  10. Development And Climate Change In Egypt: Focus On Coastal Resources

    OpenAIRE

    El Raey, M.; Hagenstad, M.; Smith, J.; Agrawala, S.; van Aalst, M.; Conway, D; Moehner, A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the integrated case study for Egypt carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Egypt are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities af...

  11. Social Mobility and Education: The Case of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    ELHINI, Maha; MOURSI, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    The proposed paper gauges the extent of social mobility in Egypt via measuring intergenerational educational achievements of youth aged 13 to 25 using cross-section household data from Egypt Labour Market Panel Survey 2012. According to the sample, youth account for approximately 22per cent of the population, roughly 13 million individuals. We assume the schooling-gap is a good proxy for individuals’ future prospects across social classes, thus rendering educational achievement a measure of s...

  12. Is Egypt Ready to Apply Inflation Targeting Regime?

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim L. AWAD

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to answer the question Is Egypt ready to apply IT regime? The researcher presumed that; a country is ready to apply IT regime once the prerequisites for IT regime are available. Comparing the current position of Egypt with some emerging market economies, the conclusions point to the following: (i) the CBE is not factually independent. Although the CBE has been granted legal independent instrument, the existence of the government representatives as voting members ...

  13. Factors affecting adoption of eHealth in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mekawie, Nermeen Magdi

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the factors that affect technology acceptance in the eHealth domain with regard to Egypt. It also focuses on the impact of the perceptions and attitudes of online privacy, due to the sensitivity of healthcare information, and trust, in addition to the other technology acceptance factors affecting acceptance of eHealth in Egypt. The aims of the research were to (i) understand the impact of general attitudes to online privacy and associated concerns on the accep...

  14. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  15. Economic study of rice irradiation in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the economics of rice irradiation and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The result of the analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit in Egypt would be economically feasible

  16. Mandibular First and Second Molars with Three Mesial Canals: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminsobhani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canal system are mandatory for successful root canal treatment. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for the practitioner. The occurrence and location of the third mesial canal (Middle Mesial Canal in mandibular first and second molars in relation to other two mesial canals that were treated in private practice were studied. In 27 clinical cases, the presence of a middle mesial canal was demonstrated. The third canal was located in the middle of the distance between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals. This canal configuration was found in six second lower molars and twenty one first molars. Middle mesial canal in all of our cases joined to mesiobuccal or mesiolingual canals. None of the teeth consisted of three independent canals with three apical foramina. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth.

  17. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt: an illustrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, M A; Ayman, M; Ashour, S; Hassanin, M M; Zeina, A A

    1995-03-01

    The detailed features of right sided endomyocardial fibrosis are described in 15 out of 10,000 consecutive patients who all had infection with Schistosoma mansoni and came from rural Egypt. Laboratory investigations, 12 lead electrocardiography, chest radiography, and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients. Cardiac catheterisation and angiography were performed in eight. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained from the right ventricles of two patients and pericardial biopsy specimens from two. Pericardiocentesis was performed in all patients. All patients were infected with S mansoni and had schistosomal hepatic fibrosis and ascites. Eleven had splenomegaly. All patients had raised cervical venous pressure with prominent Y descent and atrial fibrillation. Eosinophilia was notably absent. Echocardiography showed apical fibrosis in the right ventricle, obliteration of the ventricle, and moderate to massive exudative pericardial effusion in all patients. Calcification and fibrosis extended into the right ventricular outflow tracts in two patients. Huge right atrial thrombi occurred in five patients. Tricuspid regurgitation (grades I-II) was detected in 11 patients by Doppler ultrasonography. Haemodynamic and angiographic data confirmed the pure right sided restrictive pathophysiology. Pericardial biopsy specimens showed perivascular inflammatory infiltrates in two patients and a schistosomal granuloma in one. Endocardial biopsy specimens showed dense fibrosis with many fibroblasts. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt is unique in several aspects. It always affected only the right side of the heart. Calcification and fibrosis extended to the right ventricular outflow tract. Pericardial inflammatory reaction was present. The relation to schistosomiasis and the link to periportal hepatic fibrosis in these patients is intriguing. PMID:7727191

  18. Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration. They were important to insure the acceptance and success of the proposed project that takes Egypt to a new era of environmental protection. (author)

  19. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance from the Hillsboro Canal pumping station and are the result of dilution by receiving canal waters.

  20. Sediment analysis of sewage contaminated canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediments of sewage contaminated Fuleli canal was sampled before and after addition of sewage for over 25 k.m. and analyzed for loss on ignition, pH, conductance, organic carbon, water soluble chloride, sulphate, carbonate, phosphates, Na, K, Ca and Mg. The sediments were also examined for total (Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, Zn, Pb, Co and Cd) and bioavailable (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) metal contents. The sediment showed alkaline character and contain wide rang of variation soluble salts. The major cations and total metal contents indicated following decreasing pattern Ca>Mg>Na>K; Fe>>Mn>Zn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Co>Cd. The bioavailability metal contents cross the save limits the for the use of sediments of contaminated portion of the canal for agriculture purposes. (author)

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  2. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das soluções introduzidas no espaço peridural.

  3. Variaciones Anatmicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo H Oporto V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interaccin entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimtico subyacente durante la Odontognesis. La interaccin anormal de estos tejidos podra resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupcin de un diente anmalo, ectpico o con variacin anatmica. El presente reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatmicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnstico en los tres casos se efectu por medio del anlisis de radiografas. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos races y dos canales, el premolar maxilar present tres races y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este ltimo, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitacin. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatmicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologas que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicacin de exmenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatmicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento.Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was performed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

  4. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Epidermoid carcinoma of the external auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 43 years-old, urban, male patient assists the consultation of Otolaryngology with a long evolving otorrhea (around two years), receiving several treatments against the external otitis he suffered. With those antecedents and what we found when examining him, we decided to take a sample (biopsy) of the area, diagnosing an epidermoid carcinoma of the left external canal, an infrequent pathology in our settings

  7. CSF Hydrodynamics in the spinal canal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaczmarská, A.; Vaněk, P.; Maršík, František; Převorovská, Světlana; Otáhal, S.; Otáhal, J.

    Brno : Brno University of Technology, 2006 - (Burša, J.; Fuis, V.), s. 116-117 ISBN 80-214-3232-2. [Human Biomechanics 2006. Hrotovice (CZ), 13.11.2006-16.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : spinal canal * cerebrospinal flluid * hydrodynamics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  8. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  9. Pleomorphic Adenoma of External Auditory Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Chadha, Snya; Pannu, Kulwant Kaur; Gill, Karamjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma comprises about 80% of the benign salivary gland tumours and is characterised by a slow growth and a clinically benign course. This tumour is known to occur at various other anatomical locations apart from the major salivary glands. Case reports of this tumour arising from the nasal septum, tongue, turbinate, upper lip, lungs, trachea and lacrimal glands have been found in the literature. But case reports of pleomorphic adenoma from the external auditory canal have been ex...

  10. Endoscopic pudendal canal decompression for the treatment of fecal incontinence due to pudendal canal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, A

    1997-08-01

    Fecal incontinence resulting from pudendal canal syndrome has been treated by pudendal canal decompression (PCD) with satisfactory results. Considering the possible difficulty in exposing the pudendal canal and nerve by the open method, laparoscopic PCD was practiced in 9 women aged between 37 and 52 years. They were complaining of fecal incontinence; urinary stress incontinence was an additional complaint in 4/9 women. Neurologic, manometric, and EMG studies confirmed the diagnosis of pudendal canal syndrome. For laparoscopic PCD a 1-cm incision lateral to the anal orifice was performed. A balloon dilator was introduced in the ischiorectal fossa (IRF) to create a working space, and CO2 was insufflated. Under the guidance of a laparoscope, the IRF was entered and the inferior rectal nerve identified and followed to the pudendal canal. The latter was split open, releasing the pudendal nerve into the IRF. Fecal control was achieved in 7/9 patients and urinary control in 2/4. Fecal and urinary control were associated with improvement in perianal sensation, rectal neck pressure, EMG of external anal sphincter and levator ani muscle as well as in pudendal nerve terminal motor latency. Two women showed no improvement. Failure is suggested to be due to an advanced pudendal neuropathy. In conclusion, laparoscopic PCD is a simple, easy, and safe procedure. It allows for better exposure of the contents of the IRF than the open procedure, thus avoiding injury of the pudendal nerve and its branches during the performance of the PCD. PMID:9448117

  11. Endoscopic posterior decompression of lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS is quite common. Surgery is indicated when patient fails to improve after conservative treatment. Endoscopic technique can be used in LCS and lateral recess stenosis. It can be performed in degenerative canal stenosis or with disc bulges. Bilateral severe bony canal stenosis and unstable spine are the contraindications. This procedure should be avoided in patients with a history of trauma. Detailed history and thorough physical examination should be performed to find out exact level of pathology responsible for symptoms. Patient′s symptoms must correlate with radiological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging is the investigation of choice because of its superior visualization of soft-tissue. Computed tomography scan does give a more accurate and detailed picture of the bony anatomy. Although the operative time and the complication rate could be more in the initial learning curve, the results of endoscopic decompression are comparable with conventional open procedures with the additional benefit of decreased complications and lower morbidity, when sufficient experience is gained. Complications in endoscopic surgery for LCS could be dural tears, hematomas and root and facet injury. This procedure is also associated with limitations such as steep learning curve and the contra lateral decompression may not be as good as ipsilateral side. Some of the limitations of this technique can be overcome by attending live operative workshop, practice on models and hands on cadaveric dissection. Conversion to an open procedure may be required when there is disorientation, management of dural tear and for control of bleeding.

  12. 78 FR 20372 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: Hall of Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for...

  13. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious...

  14. No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance; N. 3017. Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete relative au projet de fusion entre Gaz de France et Suez, aux conditions de sa preparation et de son annonce et aux consequences de la privatisation de Gaz de France pour les usagers et l'equilibre du marche de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balligand, J.P.; Ayrault, J.M.; Hollande, F.; Besson, E.; Migaud, D.; Emmanuelli, H.; Brottes, F.; Bataille, Ch.; Ducout, P.; Gaubert, J.; Habib, D

    2006-04-15

    On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

  15. A multi-level analysis of public spending, growth and poverty reduction in Egypt:

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shenggen; Al-Riffai, Perrihan; El-Said, Moataz; Yu, Bingxin; Ahmed KAMALY

    2006-01-01

    "Egypt is a lower middle-income country with a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003 of US$3,949 measured in international dollars, or purchasing power parity (World Bank 2005a). In the decade from 1975 to 1985, Egypt enjoyed rapid economic growth... however... Egypt still lags behind many middle-income countries in key social indicators. Further reforms are necessary to reduce poverty, especially if Egypt is to achieve the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halvin...

  16. Five canalled and three rooted mandibular first molar: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Success of endodontic treatment depends on the proper identification of all the canals, thorough chemo-mechanical preparation followed by three dimensional obturation with hermetic seal. Failure of any of these steps may occur due to unusual tooth morphology. Usually mandibular molars have two roots with three canals (mesiobucccal, mesiolingual and distal but in few teeth, the number of roots and canals vary. The variation in the number of roots is called radix entomolaris. This article presents a case report of mandibular first molar with extra distal root and five root canals. This report highlights the importance of radiographic examination and points out the need to look for additional canals and unusual canal morphology associated with a mandibular first molar.

  17. 78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: Hall of Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' AGENCY... pertaining to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The referenced notice is corrected here to include... of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  18. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt, I. Afforestation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the ...

  19. Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal

    OpenAIRE

    Reuben Joseph; Velmurugan Natanasabapathy; Vasanthi Santhanam; Priya; Vijaylakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the ′S′ shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an ′S′ shaped root canal.

  20. Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

  1. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  2. Mandibular premolars with aberrant canal morphology: An endodontic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Sunandan Mittal; Tarun Kumar; Shifali Mittal; Jyotika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Complete cleaning and shaping is the key to successful endodontic treatment. A thorough understanding of the internal anatomy and morphology of the root canal system is an important consideration when performing cleaning and shaping procedures. Mandibular premolars are one of the most difficult teeth to treat endodontically because of aberrant root canal anatomy. This article describes case series of mandibular premolars with variations in root canal anatomy treated successfully by convention...

  3. Design and implementation of an irrigation canal SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Rijo, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    In Portugal all of the upstream controlled canal systems work with flexible water delivery schedules and therefore canal operational losses can be significant. Real-time technologies can allow the canal managers to continuously compare the real operation with its optimal or target value and to take appropriate corrective steps as required and minimize the water operational losses. The paper presents the design, field solutions and tuning of an implemented SCADA system on a Portuguese upstrea...

  4. Semicircular Canal Geometry, Afferent Sensitivity And Animal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hullar, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    The geometry of the semicircular canals has been used in evolutionary studies to predict the behaviors of extinct animals. These predictions have relied on an assumption that the responses of the canals can be determined from their dimensions, and that an organism’s behavior can be determined from these responses. However, the relationship between a canal’s sensitivity and its size is not well known. An intraspecies comparison among canal responses in each of three species (cat, squirrel monk...

  5. Endodontic treatment of lower anterior teeth with multiple canals

    OpenAIRE

    Vujašković Mirjana; Stojanović Nikola; Vujašković Goran

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Knowledge of root canal morphology is one of the main prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. We present the case of a patient with multiple canals in lower anterior teeth which were treated endodontically. Case Report. To a 45-year-old patient endodontic treatment was applied on lower left lateral incisor, lower right central and lateral incisor and lower right canine. These teeth were previously prepared for prosthetic crowns. All involved teeth had two canals...

  6. Mediciones del canal raqudeo lumbar del adulto cubano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Expsito Rodrguez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron mediciones del canal raqudeo lumbar en estudios radiogrficos simples de la columna lumbosacra en las vistas anteroposterior y lateral, en 200 adultos sin antecedentes de dolor y afeccin lumbar o ambos. Se utiliz la tcnica recomendada por Eisenstein en 1976 para definir el margen posterior del canal. Se corrobor la importancia del dimetro sagital como parmetro esencial para determinar la estenosis del canal estando los lmites de la normalidad entre 14,7 y 21 mm. Se establece como lmite inferior de la distancia interpedicular 22,6 mm. El canal de las mujeres es menor que el de los hombres, y el canal de la raza negroide es menor al de la raza caucasiana y los mestizos en su dimetro sagital. Se recomienda este mtodo con el fin de establecer un diagnstico precoz de la estenosis del canal en el sector lumbar.Measurements of the lumbar spinal canal were made in simple radiographic studies of the lumbosacral column in the anteroposterior and lateral view in 200 adults with no antecedents of pain or lumbar affection. The technique recommended by Eisenstein in 1976 to define the posterior edge of the canal was used. The importance of the sagittal diameter as an essential parameter to determine the stenosis of the canal was corroborated. Normal limits are between 14.7 and 21 mm. An inferior limit of the interpedicular distance of 22.6 mm is established. The women's canal is smaller than that of men, whereas the canal of the black persons is lower than that of Caucasians and mestizos in its sagittal diameter. This method is recommended in order to made an early diagnosis of the stenosis of the canal in the lumbar sector.

  7. Ulnar Nerve Compression in Guyon's Canal by Ganglion Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Kyung-Woo; Kim, Min-Su; Chang, Chul-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal can result from repeated blunt trauma, fracture of the hamate's hook, and arterial thrombosis or aneurysm. In addition, conditions such as ganglia, rheumatoid arthritis and ulnar artery disease can rapidly compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. A ganglion cyst can acutely protrude or grow, which also might compress the ulnar nerve. So, clinicians should consider a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal as a possible underlying cause of ulnar nerve c...

  8. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    OpenAIRE

    Karunakaran, J. V.; R Shobana; Kumar, Mohan; Kumar, Senthil; Mankar, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to ident...

  9. New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschkind, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

    El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como estas prácticas lingüisticas guardan una similitud visual y oral con las grabaciones de vídeo, de baja resolución, que se hacen con teléfonos móviles y que aparecen después en los blogs políticos. Todas estas nuevas prácticas revelan formas emergentes de acción política y de disidencia en el Egipto actual.

  10. Uranium resources and reserves in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resources and reserves of radioactive raw materials in Egypt include some conventional and nonconventional types discovered at some localities in the Eastern Desert, Sinai and the Western Desert. The conventional-type uranium and/or thorium include replacements in granitic rocks, and in alkaline dikes and sills. The nonconventional-types comprise marine phosphorites and black sand concentrations along the Mediterranean. Latent resource include some anomalous areas in carbonaceous shales, clays and phosphatized sandstones in the Western Desert. Some target areas are by now under development. In one locality some 3,000 tons of ore assayed at 0.108% U are proved through drilling and drifting. Marine phosphorites represent potential resources for uranium. The total estimated reserve and potential reserve of phosphatic rocks in Egypt amounts approximately to 2.5 billion tons. Assuming an average of 100 gm U3O8/ton, the above reserve contains as much as 250,000 tons U3O8. The economic potentiality of black sands with respect to uranium and thorium content must be viewed in terms of industrialization of the whole products coming out from black sands. Nevertheless, the estimated reserve of heavy minerals amounts to over 30 million tons in the top meter and over 600 million tons with 27% heavy minerals to a depth of 20 meters in the area of Damietta East, Rosetta East and West. Some other 42.6 million tons grading about 9% heavy minerals are proved to a depth of 20 meters east and west of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. Assuming an annual production of 12,000 tons monazite (this amount yields 54 tons U3O8, 720 tons Th O2 7,500 tons RE and 3,360 tons P2O5) and marketing of the other products coming out of black sands, it is estimated that the production cost of one pound. U3O8 amounts to $15 to $30. 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. A review on fascioliasis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Ahmad N; el-Shazly, Atef M; Arafa, Magdy A S; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2002-04-01

    Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola species, is a disease of herbivorous animals. It has a worldwide distribution in a large variety of grass-grazing animals as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, horses and rabbits. In Egypt, donkeys and camels as well, are hosts for F. gigantica. Fascioliasis may occasionally affect man. Human infection causes serious hepatic pathological sequences that add to the already known threats to the liver of the Egyptian population. Two clinical stages are recognized in human fascioliasis. An acute stage coincides with the larval migration and worm maturation in the hepatic tissue, and a chronic stage coincides with the persistence of Fasciola worms in the bile ducts. Human infection with fascioliasis was very sporadic until the last three decades where clinical cases and outbreaks were reported. The estimated the number of people currently having fascioliasis to be 360,000 in Bolivia, 20,000 in Ecuador, 830,000 in Egypt, 10,000 in Islamic Republic of Iran, 742,000 in Peru, and 37,000 in Yemen. The total estimated number of people infected is 2.4 million in 61 countries and that the number at risk is more than 180 million throughout the world. Human fascioliasis has to be differentially diagnosed from some diseases as acute hepatitis, infection with other liver flukes as schistosomiasis, visceral toxocariasis, biliary tract diseases and hepatic amoebiasis. The parasitological diagnosis is based on identification of eggs in stool, duodenal contents or bile, also by the recovery of adult worm during surgical exploration, after treatment or at autopsy. However, the eggs may be present in very small number at irregular intervals, hence difficult to be found. Besides, the eggs may be transiently present in stool after ingestion of raw or undercooked liver from infected animals. The direct methods of diagnosing the egg are usually unsatisfactory. The symptoms may be present for several weeks before eggs are recovered in stool. Thus, the serologic tests are the alternative method of confirming early and extrabiliary human fascioliasis. However, cross-reactions with other helminthic antigen may confuse the interpretation of the results. PMID:12049266

  12. Efficient and effective root canal retreatment without chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariasen, K L; Brayton, S M; Collinson, D M

    1990-06-01

    A root canal retreatment technique is described which eliminates the need for chloroform as a gutta percha solvent. This technique utilizes the gutta percha softening actions of both a self-heating instrument and the heat-potentiated solvent action of eucalyptol. In addition, sonics/ultrasonics and/or Gates-Glidden drills are suggested as useful adjuncts to canal debridement during re-preparation of the canal system. Given the controversy regarding the toxicity of chloroform, both for dental patients and dental personnel, practitioners may wish to consider using this retreatment technique to eliminate chloroform from endodontic retreatment procedures, while still achieving effective, efficient root canal retreatment. PMID:2369702

  13. GeoGebra helps to know canal surfaces better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bímová, Daniela; Bittnerová, Daniela; Vraštil, Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    GeoGebra 5.0 is the dynamic geometric and mathematic software which dynamic tools allow the user to solve dynamic problems in a plane and as well as in the three-dimensional space. The contribution presents the dynamic applets constructed in GeoGebra 5.0 that show the origin as well as some properties of various kinds of canal surfaces. There are described the applets for constructing the canal surfaces in the paper. Some of the created canal surfaces are compared with the real life canal surface examples.

  14. Endodontic treatment of lower anterior teeth with multiple canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowledge of root canal morphology is one of the main prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. We present the case of a patient with multiple canals in lower anterior teeth which were treated endodontically. Case Report. To a 45-year-old patient endodontic treatment was applied on lower left lateral incisor, lower right central and lateral incisor and lower right canine. These teeth were previously prepared for prosthetic crowns. All involved teeth had two canals which were not visible on the primary radiographs. Gracility of remaining tooth structure and canals and the presence of two canals in each tooth required additional radiographs for verification of multiple canals. Careful biomechanical instrumentation and irrigation with use of lubrication due to narrow canals was performed. The canals were obturated with gutta-percha using lateral compaction technique and Acroseal (Septodont paste. On the control checkup after eight months, the patient was asymptomatic, while clinical finding was normal. Conclusion. Complexity of presented case was even more significant because these teeth were prepared to support prosthetic superstructure and crowns, and every “forgotten” canal is an iatrogenic error.

  15. Canal-centering ability of two rotary file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Tony M; McDonald, N J; Kuttler, Sergio; Strassler, Howard E; Dumsha, Thomas C

    2002-04-01

    The ability of two nickel-titanium rotary file systems to maintain the original path of the canal were compared by using a new split-mold design (the Endodontic Cube). The mesial roots of 10 mandibular first- and second-molar teeth with separate canals from orifice to foramen were divided into two groups based on canal curvature and morphology. Working lengths for each canal were determined 1.0 mm short of where the file tip was visible on the external surface of the root. The teeth were embedded in composite resin by using the Endodontic Cube as a mold and sectioned into five pieces. ProFile Ni-Ti.06 taper Series 29 and ProFile GT rotary instrumentation techniques were randomly assigned to one of the canals and used in a crown-down fashion to a 0.217 ProFile and a 0.06 GT master apical file, respectively. Digital photographs were made of the middle three sections and software features of Adobe Photoshop were used to measure the movement of the canal centers by superimposing the images of the instrumented and uninstrumented canals. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Both systems remained centered within the canal with minimal deviation from the original canal path. The largest mean movement was less than 0.15 mm. The Endodontic Cube was an effective tool for studying and comparing instrumentation techniques. PMID:12043864

  16. The electrical power equipment and services market in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a market overview of the electrical power equipment and services in Egypt and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Between 1997 and 2001, energy consumption in Egypt increased by 17 per cent. Electricity demand is expected to rise rapidly due to population and economic growth. Plans are underway to add 8,000 MW of installed energy capacity to Egypt's current 15,200 MW by 2010. Priority will be on providing universal access to electricity and reliability in rural areas. Egypt is also taking part in many international projects to link its electricity grid with nearby countries. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Recent legislation exempts foreign companies from corporation tax and from tax on income from movable capital for 5 to 10 years. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve electric power generation and transmission projects. Considerations for market-entry in Egypt were outlined. 29 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  18. Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. Tassie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest. It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.

  19. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  20. Assessment of Urban Sprawl on El Minya Archeological Sites, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. El-Bayomi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, thousands of known and unknown archaeological sites are at risk of destruction from urban sprawl and expanding development. Population growth is the main factor driven urban sprawl, Egypts population has witnessed a remarkable increase over the previous decades. The population rose from 35.3 million in 1970 to around 90 million today, doubling in less than 40 years. Hence, population issues are of the highest priority to the Government of Egypt. El Minya Governorate have a high population growth (i.e., 3.1% per year and hence the urban sprawl over the archeological sites in the desert fringes of the Nile valley is expected. Remote sensing and GIS are now providing new tools for advanced ecosystem management. The collection of remotely sensed data facilitates the synoptic analysis of earths system function patterning and change at local, regional and global scales. Overtime such data also provide an important link between intensive localized ecological research and regional, conservation and management of archeological areas. The basic premise in using remote sensing data and GIS for change detection is that the process can identify change between two or more dates that is uncharacteristic of normal variation. This research aims to assess the extent of urban sprawl and its impact on archeological sites in El Minya Governorate, Egypt.

  1. Egypt's Policy Concerning Food Irradiation Research and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypt's policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  2. Mine detection in Egypt: Evaluation of new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the central geographical location between Africa, Asia and Europe, Egypt was location for many battles. As a result of these battles, Egypt often cites a figure of twenty three million landmines and UXO emplaced in the country as a result of many wars since the World War II. The presence of such active mines caused many problems to Egypt. First, it obscures the development in the locations where it had been planted. Beside, many civilians and soldiers have been killed or maimed because of its unknown zones. Recently with the advances of geophysical techniques it becomes possible to use them in detecting landmines and UXO. Geoelectrical resistivity technique as a low cost, simple technique was used successfully to model the buried landmines and UXO objects in 2D. The technique was tested in Egypt using a newly adopted array of electrodes proposed by Kyushu University Mine Action Group (QMAG). The results are promising for future application using this tool in Egypt. Moreover, a new Advanced Landmine Imaging System (ALIS) developed at Tohoku University was also successfully evaluated at the Egyptian environment. The results show high efficiency for detecting both AP and AT mines. Accordingly, a new proposal for adopting both systems with robotic facility, to be applicable for wide area survey that can meet the Egyptian demand to solve the landmines problem there, is considered. (author)

  3. Comparison of canal transportation in simulated curved canals prepared with ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold systems

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Muniz, Brenda Leite; Pires, Frederico; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Neves, Aline Almeida; Souza, Erick Miranda; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Maillefer) in maintaining the original profile of root canal anatomy. For that, ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer) was used as reference techniques for comparison. Materials and Methods Twenty simulated curved canals manufactured in clear resin blocks were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n = 10) according to the system used for canal instrumentation: PTU and PTG groups, upto F2 files (25/0....

  4. Low Job Satisfaction Among Physicians in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Gamal Abdel-Rahman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: Physician’s job satisfaction is a cornerstone for improving the quality of health care, and its continuity. To identify the extent of job satisfaction and explain its main components among physicians, together with finding out the main indicators for job satisfaction. METHODS: We randomly selected physicians from the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population Hospitals. All participants were asked to fill a self administrated questionnaire which included data pertaining socio-demographic characteristics and job satisfaction regarding salaries/incentives, monitoring, administration system, management, career satisfaction, relationship with colleagues, social support, opportunities for promotion, and job responsibilities. Satisfied was defined as satisfaction of>60%. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty eight physicians participated in this study; with mean age of 37.1+ 9.4 years, and 70.2% were males. Only 42.9% of the physicians’ reported job satisfaction. Relationship with colleagues was the most important component of satisfaction with mean of 81.3+19.6 while, salaries/incentives were the least one with mean of 16.2+ 14. The overall current satisfying domains were not significantly associated with marital status or educational level, however it was significantly associated with specialty. Neither age nor gender was significantly associated with the degree of job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Our results call for paying more attention to improve physicians’ job satisfaction in Egypt, to meet needed higher standards in health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 91-96

  5. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2015-11-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 uc(ad)) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1 0.1 spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  6. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  7. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  8. The prospective nuclear desalination market in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the unavoidable decline in the per capita share of the more or less constant natural fresh water resources in Egypt, water desalination is expected to play an increasing role in mitigating a future deficit in potable water supply, particularly in remote desert areas. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the evolution of potable water supply, demand and deficit, as well as the portion to be covered by sea water desalination. The future potable water supply was determined as the difference between the projected total renewable fresh water supply and the projected combined demand of the other consuming sectors. To project the future demand of potable water, the history of past consumption was studied and correlated with the population and gross domestic product. Three scenarios were contemplated for economic development, reflecting low, medium and high economic growth rates. The difference between potable water supply and demand is the deficit that has to be compensated for. Part of the future deficit may be covered through various means other than sea water desalination. Therefore, it was assumed that sea water desalination will cover only 10% of the deficit in potable water supply. It is concluded that there will be a demand for an additional desalination capacity of a sufficiently large magnitude around the year 2012 and beyond that will support the installation of desalination facilities larger than 100,000 m3/d. Desalination plants in this range coupled to nuclear power plants could be competitive with fossil fired plants. (author)

  9. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid translabyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  10. Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  12. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten

    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic...... Communication and Grammar' class in Denmark, a 'Financial Management' class in Vietnam and a 'Marketing Management' class in Egypt. To analyze the data collected, the researcher developed a model based on a constructivist understanding of learning processes. Three detailed descriptions of observations made in......The recent advances in technology have made the process of exporting Western education more easy, and Blended Learning techniques is often the method of choice for exported educational programs. Although, in theory, this make perfect sense, yet in practice, the export of education has encountered...

  13. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  14. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000 years were obtained. As a key national cultural relic, candidate of the world cultural heritage, and route of the South-to-North Water Diversion, the China Great Canal is a worthy subject of a study. Results presented in this paper therefore have high realistic significance

  15. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000 years were obtained. As a key national cultural relic, candidate of the world cultural heritage, and route of the South-to-North Water Diversion, the China Great Canal is a worthy subject of a study. Results presented in this paper therefore have high realistic significance.

  16. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  17. Geochemical and hydrological processes controlling groundwater quality in Assiut Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, R. G.; Tempel, R.; Gomaa, M.; Korany, E.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater in Assiut area, Egypt, is an important source of fresh water for human consumption, agriculture, and domestic and industrial purposes. Due to a growing population and expansion of agricultural reclamation projects in the desert fringes of the Nile Valley, there is an increasing water demand in this arid region. This study has investigated the geochemical and hydrological processes that control groundwater quality within the Pleistocene, Plio-Pleistocene, and Eocene aquifers in Assiut, in addition to the hydraulic relationships between surface and groundwater systems and the relations among the defined groundwater aquifers. A total of 28 surface and 160 groundwater samples were collected for geochemical analysis (major and minor element chemistry, and stable isotope analyses). Total dissolved solids = 182 to 5657 mg/L, water-delta 18O = -7.5 to +6.5%, and water-delta D = -55 to +32%. Geochemical and stable isotope data indicate that the principal source of recharge to the Pleistocene and Plio-Pleistocene aquifers is the surface water system (irrigation canals), while the prevalence of Na-Cl type waters in the Eocene aquifer indicates recharge by upward leakage from the underlying Nubian sandstone aquifer which contains the same Na-Cl water type. Evaporation prior to infiltration, mixing, and mineral equilibria (dissolution and precipitation) are the main factors that affect water quality. Ion exchange plays a secondary role in controlling the water chemistry of the Pleistocene aquifer, but is more effective in controlling water quality within the Plio-Pleistocene and Eocene aquifers due to the prevalence of clay minerals within the matrices. The fresh water exploited from the Eocene aquifer may be of great importance for land reclamation projects not only at the western desert fringes, but also at the eastern desert fringes of Assiut and similar settings around the River Nile south of Assiut Governorate. Results of this study will be helpful for sustainable development, and raising the standard of living of people in the Assiut area, which is one of the poorest regions of Egypt.

  18. Nematodes associated with soybean (Glycine max) in upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Salem; El-Morshedy, M.M.F.; El-Zawahry, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Dix-sept espèces de nématodes phytoparasites ont été récoltées dans les champs de soja des Gouvernorats de Menia, Assiut et Sohag, en Haute Egypte. Les espèces #Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Longidorus pisi, Pratylenchoides ritteri, P. variabilis, rotylenchulus parvus$ et #Tylenchorhynchus annulatus$ sont signalées pour la première fois en Egypte. #Merlinius brevidens$ est rencontré avec une fréquence relativement élevée tandis que #Pratylenchus zeae$ est présent en populations assez denses...

  19. THE FIRST TURKISH GOVERNOR OF EGYPT IN EARLY MIDDLE AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Rafik ISMAYILOV

    2010-01-01

    In this study, to Egypt in the early medieval period, the governor was given information about Abu Salih al-Haresi. Abbasid rule during the administration of the state’s role in the Turks spoke of Turkey’s first governor of Egypt from the previous situation was briefly explained. Abu-l-Abbas es-Seffah of the first Abbasid caliph in time, the Turks took place in the army while during the second Caliph Abu Jafar Al-Mensur was brought up to the task state. The third caliph al-Mahdi gave the Egyp...

  20. The Post-Ottoman Conquest Coinage of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, Norman D.

    2010-01-01

    In 1975, Ariel Berman published a short article concerning the earliest Ottoman coinage of Egypt, based on a few specimens he had been able to purchase locally in Jerusalem and one or two others seen in private collections1. Coinage from this brief period of early Ottoman rule in Egypt had received little notice from numismatists and historians in the past and neither has much further study been done up to the present day. Berman is the first person of whom I am aware who ac...

  1. Microblogging in Crisis Situations: Mass Protests in Iran, Tunisia, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanaugh, Andrea L.; Yang, Seungwon; Li, Lin T.; Sheetz, Steven D.; Fox, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we briefly examine the use of Twitter in Iran, Tunisia and Egypt during the mass political demonstrations and protests in June 2009, December 2010 and January 2011 respectively. We compare this usage with methods and findings from other studies on the use of Twitter in emergency situations, such as natural and man-made disasters. We draw on my own experiences and participant-observations as an eyewitness in Iran, and on Twitter data from Tunisia and Egypt. In these three cases, ...

  2. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter due to airborne particles washed out by rain events. Conversely, the AOD increases in summer because particle accumulation is favored by the absence of precipitation during this season. Moreover, in summer, photochemical processes in the atmosphere lead to slight increases in the values of aerosol optical characteristics, despite lower wind speeds [hence less wind-blown dust] relative to other seasons. This study has been conducted under the PEER 2-239 research project titled "the Impact of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Aerosols to Climate in Egypt". Project website: CleanAirEgypt.org

  3. Seed Diversity among Certain Species of Caryophyllaceae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Zareh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, data are used to re-asses the relationships between certain weed species of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt. Seed diversity of fourteen species belonging to five genera of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. These genera are Dianthus, Vaccaria, Silene, Stellaria and Spergula. Macromorphological criteria concerned with vegetative and reproductive organs were investigated. NTSYS-pc program was used for analyzing the data of seed and macromorphological characters. The taxonomic relationships between the studied taxa were discussed as well as SEM micrographs of seeds are provided.

  4. Women's Status, Autonomy, and Fertility in Transitional Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Samari, Goleen

    2015-01-01

    Among the 22 Arab countries, Egypt ranks amongst the worst for the treatment of women. Additionally, in the last 6 years, fertility surged to a 20-year high of 3.5 births per woman. Poorer women’s status and autonomy is often linked to high fertility; however, little is known about the factors that shape women’s autonomy and fertility in Egypt. This study evaluates determinants of women’s autonomy and the relationship between autonomy and fertility over time in a representative, longitudinal ...

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  6. Mandibular Second Molar with a Single Root and a Single Canal: Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Anna; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Suresh, Nandhini

    2013-01-01

    The variability of root canal system morphology of multirooted teeth represents a continuous challenge to endodontic diagnosis and therapeutics. This report extends the range of known possible anatomical variations to include teeth with lesser number of root and root canals. Variations of root canal systems need not always be in the form of extra canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of existence of fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anat...

  7. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular left first molar with six root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin Gupta; Shikha Jaiswal; Rohit Arora

    2012-01-01

    The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, of which three canals were located in the mesial root and three in distal root. Third canals were found between the two main root canals. This case presents a rare anatomic configuration and points to the importance of expecting and searching for additional canals.

  8. Lipochoristoma of the Internal Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scangas, George; Remenschneider, Aaron; Santos, Felipe

    2015-07-01

    Objective?Lipochoristomas comprise 0.1% of all cerebellopontine angle tumors and may be misdiagnosed as vestibular schwannomas. We describe a lipochoristoma of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and present the salient features of the evaluation, diagnosis, and management. Study Design and Methods?Retrospective case review. Results (Case Report)?A 51-year-old woman presented with left-sided severe hearing loss, tinnitus, mild episodic vertigo, and facial paresthesias progressive over 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small (5??4 mm) T1 hyperintense lobulated lesion in the distal internal auditory canal. With fat-suppressed images, there was no enhancement of the lesion. A diagnosis of IAC lipochoristoma was made. Conservative management was recommended, and on 17-month follow-up there was no interval growth. The patient remains symptomatically stable with improved equilibrium but persistent left-sided hearing loss. Conclusions?Differential diagnosis of an enhancing lesion in the IAC includes acoustic neuroma, meningioma, epidermoid and arachnoid cysts, lipochoristoma, and metastatic tumors. Fat-suppressed MRI sequences aid in a definitive diagnosis of lipochoristomas. Because lipochoristomas may have a tendency for more indolent growth and intimate involvement of the auditory nerve, conservative management with interval imaging is recommended. Surgical treatment is reserved for growing lesions or those with disabling vestibular symptoms. PMID:26251810

  9. Status of the interoceanic canal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Sea-Level Canal Study Commission are are not as yet completed, although there is no reason at this time to doubt that the 1 December 1970 deadline for the Commission's final report will be met. Since it has not been published, I am unable to pass on to you any of its conclusions; they simply do not exist today. And it would be improper for me to reveal the substance of the Commission's deliberations to date or to speculate upon what their outcome may be. But many elements of the work being conducted under my supervision - The Engineering Feasibility Study - are already in the public domain. It is to them that my remarks here are addressed. Of the six basic routes we have considered in our studies for possible sea-level canal alinements, four could involve nuclear excavating techniques. The so-called nuclear alternatives are Route 8 along the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border, Route 17 across the Darien Isthmus of Panama, Route 23 crossing the Panama-Colombia border and Route 25 across the western tip of Colombia. The conventionally excavated routes are Route 10 west of the Panama Canal Zone and Route 14 along the alinement of the present canal. The engineering studies examine from a technical standpoint the feasibility of constructing these routes and estimate their costs. To accomplish this we have made conceptual designs for canals capable of transiting at least 40,000 vessels annually (and possibly several times that many) and of accommodating ships of up to 250,000 dwt in size. Thus, in terms of basic requirements, all alternatives - conventional and nuclear - have been made comparable. Beginning with the northernmost route, let us now consider the four nuclear alternatives. Route 8 is 137 miles in length. Its maximum elevations are slightly less than 800 feet in the Continental Divide and about 400 feet through the so-called Eastern Divide. The rock to be excavated is primarily volcanic tuff. It is readily apparent that this route is not competitive with other nuclear alternatives because of its location in a relatively well developed, built-up region. Its construction would require the evacuation of more than one-quarter million people from the exclusion area for the duration of nuclear operations and for about a year thereafter. This would almost certainly be politically unacceptable. There would be an additional requirement on shot days for the temporary evacuation of an estimated 30,000 people from high rise buildings in Managua and San Jose to avoid casualties from possible structural collapse caused by ground shock. The magnitude of these problems can be expressed to some degree in terms of the estimated cost of their resolution. In this case, they constitute a major part - $1.7 billion - of the Route 8 construction costs which we estimate to be $3.5 billion

  10. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of...

  11. RCRA closure of the Building 3001 Storage Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3001 Storage Canal is located under portions of Buildings 3001 and 3019 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and has a capacity of approximately 62,000 gallons of water. The term canal has historically been used to identify this structure, however, the canal is an in-ground reinforced concrete structure satisfying the regulatory definition of a tank. From 1943 through 1963, the canal in Building 3001 was designed to be an integral part of the system for handling irradiated fuel from the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor. Because one of the main initial purposes of the reactor was to produce plutonium for the chemical processing pilot plant in Building 3019, the canal was designed to be the connecting link between the reactor and the pilot plant. During the war years, natural uranium slugs were irradiated in the reactor and then pushed out of the graphite matrix into the system of diversion plates and chutes which directed the fuel into the deep pit of the canal. After shutdown of the reactor, the canal was no longer needed for its designed purpose. Since 1964, the canal has only been used to store radioisotopes and irradiated samples under a water pool for radiation protection. This report describes closure alternatives

  12. GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benea Ciprian Beniamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

  13. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw...

  14. Optimizing Indicator Choosing for Canal Control System and Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Key problem for canal system control is how to select appropriate performance indicators and how to tune the controller with these indicators. A canal system is a multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) system. The judging of control performance can be extremely complicated. In this paper, frequentl...

  15. 77 FR 12514 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA AGENCY... drawbridge operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble. This...

  16. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of...

  17. Lateral line canal morphology and signal to noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Herzog, Hendrik; Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-04-01

    The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, shoaling, intra specific communication and entraining. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast that occurs free standing on the skin and in fluid filled canals. With aid of the lateral line fish perceive minute water motions. In their natural habitat fish are not only faced with biotic water motion but also with the abiotic fluctuations caused by various inanimate sources. The detection of meaningful signals is crucial for survival, and therefore animals should be able to separate meaningful signals from noise. Fishes live in various habitats (e.g. in still water or in running water). Therefore it is not surprising that the number and distribution of neuromasts as well as canal dimension, canal shape and canal branching patterns differ among fish species. We studied how lateral line canal parameters influence the filter properties of lateral line canals. To do so we exposed artificial lateral line canals, equipped with artificial neuromasts (sensors), to the vortex street shed by a submerged cylinder and to air bubble noise. We found that certain canal parameters significantly can enhance the signal to noise ratio.

  18. Safe transit of radioactive cargoes through the Panama Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 12,000 ocean-going vessels transit the Panama Canal annually. About 30% carry dangerous goods, including radioactive material. A high level of safety has been achieved. There is a demonstrated effort to maintain and improve this by requiring compliance with the relevant regulations, exercising strict control of transit operations, inspecting transiting vessels, and by continuously making improvements to the Canal. (author)

  19. Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and related irrigation projects in Southwestern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongkon; Sultan, Mohamed

    2002-05-01

    A two-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed to investigate the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and the major land reclamation projects that use excess lake water in southwest Egypt. Egypt constructed (1964-1971) the Aswan High Dam, creating the Lake Nasser reservoir (length: 500 km; average width: 12 km) and is constructing the Tushka Canal to channel 5.0×10 9 m 3/yr of Lake Nasser water to reclaim 0.5×10 6 acres of desert lands. The model, constrained by regional-scale groundwater flow and near-lake head data, was successfully calibrated to temporal-observation heads from 1970 to 2000 that reflect variations in lake levels. Predictive analyses for the subsequent 50-yr period were conducted by employing the calibrated model. Simulations of long-term effects, beyond year 2000, of Lake Nasser on recharge and temporal groundwater head (base case scenario) show that recharge from the lake will continue at a much slower rate than during the 30-yr period of 1970-2000 (with approximately 86% reduction in 30-yr recharge). The modest projected pumping and injection activities in the study area are not expected to cause major deviation in the overall head distribution compared to the base case scenario. The investigation of effects of the new irrigation land development on the Nubian aquifer indicated that many of the proposed irrigation areas, especially those with small aquifer thickness, will become fully saturated with introduced water, resulting in potential flooding and salinization.

  20. Semi-Circular Canals Anomalies//Idiopathic Scoliosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rousie, D L; Joly, O; Salvetti, P; Vasseur, J; Berthoz, A

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to a novel modelling programme to detect anomalies in the membranous semi circular canals (SSC) of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) we found severe anomalies mainly located in lateral SCC devoted to trunk rotation and lateral deviations. We also found a specific communication between the lateral and posterior canal involving the utricular chamber which is also highly suspected in scoliosis. Key points: - Membranous semi circular canals (SCC) modelling based on MRI revealed significant anomalies in IS patients compared to normal subjects. - Frequent aplasias located in the lateral canal were found in IS. - We also discovered a, never described, abnormal communication between lateral and posterior canal. - Lateral SCC is involved in trunk rotation and lateral deviation: these movements are frequently abnormal in IS. Supports: Fondation Yves Cotrel pour la recherche en pathologie rachidienne. Institut de France, Paris. SHFJ/CEA Orsay in the frame of the cooperation through IFR 49 INSERM/CNRS France.

  1. Low Job Satisfaction Among Physicians in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Gamal Abdel-Rahman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: Physician’s job satisfaction is a cornerstone for improving the quality of health care, and its continuity. To identify the extent of job satisfaction and explain its main components among physicians, together with finding out the main indicators for job satisfaction. METHODS: We randomly selected physicians from the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population Hospitals. All participants were asked to fill a self administrated questionnaire which included data pertaining socio-demographic characteristics and job satisfaction regarding salaries/incentives, monitoring, administration system, management, career satisfaction, relationship with colleagues, social support, opportunities for promotion, and job responsibilities. Satisfied was defined as satisfaction of>60%. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty eight physicians participated in this study; with mean age of 37.1+ 9.4 years, and 70.2% were males. Only 42.9% of the physicians’ reported job satisfaction. Relationship with colleagues was the most important component of satisfaction with mean of 81.3+19.6 while, salaries/incentives were the least one with mean of 16.2+ 14. The overall current satisfying domains were not significantly associated with marital status or educational level, however it was significantly associated with specialty. Neither age nor gender was significantly associated with the degree of job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Our results call for paying more attention to improve physicians’ job satisfaction in Egypt, to meet needed higher standards in health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 91-96

  2. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light. PMID:21192112

  3. Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s−2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults

  4. No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

  5. Use of mass balance and statistical correlation for geochemical and isotopic investigation of the groundwater in the quaternary aquifer of the nile delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrochemical and environmental isotopic studies were conducted in the nile delta region, to investigate the sources of salinity and replenishment for the groundwater reservoir which are of importance for land reclamation projects and the establishment of new communities on the west and east side of the nile delta. The hydrogeological properties of the main exploitable aquifer (quaternary) was described. The chemistry of the collected surface and ground-waters was outlined through the analysis of major cations (Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++) and major anions (Ci-, SO4-, HCO3-). The variation in chemical composition of examined waters is attributed to the use of fertilizers, leaching of terrestrial salts and ion exchange between soil's minerals and water, in addition to, sea water intrusion in some isolated areas near by saline bodies (mediterranean sea, manzala lake, suez canal). Oxygen-18 and deuterium concentrations were used to identify the mechanism of recharge. The results show a mixing between different sources of water: recent Nile, old Nil water before construction of high Aswan dam, coastal precipitation as well as some contribution from both sea water toward north and palaeo-water at the eastern and western fringes of the nile delta. In some localities the recharge occurs indirectly after evaporation and/or vertical leakage of deep water due to over-pumping rates. This paper also demonstrates the implementation of statistical correlation and mass balance approaches to present the chemical and isotopic characterization of the nile delta quaternary aquifer. Recommendations are given for optimal use of water resources in the area of study

  6. Estresse crnico melhora a funo miocrdica sem alterar a atividade do canal-L para Ca+2 em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O estresse crnico est associado remodelao cardaca; entretanto, os mecanismos permanecem a ser descobertos. OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi testar a hiptese de que o estresse crnico promove disfuno cardaca associada a depresso da atividade do canal-L para Ca2+. M MTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos com 30 dias de idade (70 - 100 g foram distribudos dentro de dois grupos: controle (C e estresse crnico (St. O estresse consistiu na imobilizao durante 15 semanas, cinco vezes por semana, 1 h por dia. A funo cardaca foi avaliada pela performance do ventrculo esquerdo por meio do ecocardiograma e pelo msculo papilar ventricular isolado. A funo do msculo papilar foi avaliada em condio basal e com manobras inotrpicas, como: ps-pausa e elevao na concentrao extracelular de Ca2+, na presena ou ausncia de um bloqueador especfico de canal-L para Ca2+. RESULTADOS: O estresse ficou caracterizado por hipertrofia das glndulas adrenais, aumento nos nveis de corticosterona circulante e por hipertenso arterial. Ainda, o estresse crnico gerou hipertrofia ventricular esquerda. O estresse crnico foi capaz de melhorar a resposta no msculo papilar para manobras inotrpicas positivas. A melhora de funo no esteve associada com o canal-L para Ca2+. CONCLUSO: O estresse produziu hipertrofia cardaca; entretanto, nos estudos de msculo papilar isolado, as manobras inotrpicas positivas potencializaram a funo cardaca em ratos estressados, sem o envolvimento do canal-L para Ca2+. Assim os mecanismos responsveis permanecem incertos para alteraes no influxo de Ca2+.

  7. [Limit of root canal obturation by gutta percha compaction technique in single rooted teeth. Clinical data apropos of 168 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye, F; Mbaye, M; Toure, B; Dieng, O; Diallo, B

    2002-03-01

    After the introduction of the lateral compactage of gutta percha in endodontic clinic of OdontoStomatology Institute of Dakar in 1995; the immediate evaluation of the quality and the limit of the canal obturation due to a prospective study on 157 monoradicular teeth so be 168 canals (11 supplementary canals) has shown that 75% of canals are of type I of Vertucci and that the apical limit of security is reached within 80.25% of cases. The manual step back canal preparation (79.17%) and the technique of canal obturation by lateral compactage of gutta percha [(64.88%); Apical limit of security: 59.52%] permit to obtain a densities (95.83%) and homogeneous (79.57%) canal obturation. The indication of gutta percha compactage on monoradicular teeth (hermetic and tridimensional root canal filling) must avail to apical curved roots of lateral incisive, the use of adapted instruments in case of canines (31 mm) and apical stop cone on necrotic pulp teeth. PMID:12061241

  8. The radiological hazards of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus Lakes, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariout and Brullus were considered two of the highly fish productive lakes in Egypt as well as they widely used to drain huge quantities of industrial wastewater, sewage and agriculture drainage. Thousands of peoples inhabited the areas around the lakes and depend on them completely in their lives. The activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured in the upper most part of the surface sediments of the two lakes using gamma ray spectrophotometery. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher 238U and 232Th and lower 40K (17.22±2.49 Bq/kg, 10.0 ±56 Bq/kg and 299.7±17.78 Bq/kg) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53 Bq/kg, 7.24±0.76 Bq/kg and 518.75±46.24 Bq/kg respectively). Inversely, the mean average of absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose rate (mSvy-1), radium equivalent (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex) and the representative level index (Iγr) were; 32.01 nGy/h, 0.04 mSv/y, 62.95 Bq/kg, 0.17 and 0.50 at Mariout Lake higher than those in Brullus lake (26.42 nGy/h, 0.03 mSv/y, 54.25 Bq/kg, 0.15 and 0.41) respectively. The recorded and calculated values were lower than the acceptable limits published in the different localities around the world. The activity distributions of the radiological hazards show the highest intensities in the western part of Mariout Lake and decreasing gradually eastward and north eastward affecting by the drainage agriculture water from Kabary Drain, Umum Drain, S.W. Basin and Nubaria Canal. At Brullus Lake, the radiological hazard intensities were concentrated in the west and southwest influenced by Zaglul Drain, Rosetta Drain, Brembal canal, Drain 11, Drain 9, Drain 8 and partially by Drain 1 while the lowest intensities were in the north and northeast affecting by the interaction with the Mediterranean Sea. K-40 recorded positive correlations and significant linear regression relationships with radiological hazard parameters at Mariout Like meaning that 40K is the main gamma emitter in the lake, while the different radioelements are participating gamma emitters at Brullus Lake.

  9. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills

  10. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature

  11. Egypt : Enhancing Access to Finance for Micro and Small Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Nasr, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    This operation provides a $300m line of credit (Financial Intermediary Loan) through Egypt's Social Fund for Development (SFD), the apex body for micro and small enterprise finance, which would on-lend on commercial terms to eligible Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), potential microfinance institutions (MFIs), and banks. The project objective is to increase micro and small enterpris...

  12. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmenter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth.

  13. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Vergne, Timothée; Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies.

  14. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  15. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  16. Flight to Egypt - The Flight of All Flights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Lubomír

    Prague : The UN Refugee Agency, 2002 - (Raimanová, I.; Concolato, J.), s. 10-14 ISBN 80-238-8859-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9056118 Keywords : Flight to Egypt * iconography * literary sources Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  17. La Fuite en Egypte - la fuite de toutes les fuites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Lubomír

    Prague : The UN Refugee Agency, 2002 - (Raimanová, I.; Concolato, J.), s. 10-14 ISBN 80-238-8860-9 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9056118 Keywords : Flight to Egypt * iconography * literary sources Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

  19. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring

  20. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing

  1. MULTIPLE WATER REUSE IN POULTRY PROCESSING: CASE STUDY IN EGYPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An industrial-scale multiple water reuse system was under investigation for a period of four years at a modern poultry processing plant in Alexandria, Egypt. The system involved: chlorination of cooling water from the compressor; reuse of this water in the chiller; successive tra...

  2. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their

  3. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.

  4. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of

  5. Molecular Detection of Some Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry plants exhibiting distinct virus-like symptoms (stunting, mottling, yellowing, vein clearing, vein necrosis and vein banding) were collected from strawberry production fields and nurseries in Qalubia Governorate, Egypt (about 20 km north of Cairo). Plants of 'Festival' and 'Sweet Charlie'...

  6. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and

  7. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  8. 78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, to... FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced that... 50 percent of the population under the age of 25 and a strong tourism market, there has...

  9. Medicine in Egypt at the time of Napoleon Bonaparte

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Thomas G; Russell, Terence M

    2003-01-01

    The scientists and doctors who accompanied Napoleon to Egypt in 1798 undertook a survey that is one of the great intellectual achievements of the 19th century. It left a record of the health and wellbeing of the people, especialy in Cairo

  10. Reshaping Egypt's Economic Geography : Domestic Integration as a Development Platform

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report investigates Egypt's regional economic growth, explores the causes for geographically unbalanced development, and proposes policy options to make unbalanced growth compatible with inclusive development. Regional disparities in income and consumption may be attributed to differences in natural endowments and geographical location, but unbalanced growth is mostly due to economies...

  11. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Egypt Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdy, Amr

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Egypt faces significant challenges in harnessing its education system to promote its development p...

  12. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Arab Republic of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    Egypt's corporate governance system is framed by French civil law for corporations. Sharia law has no direct influence on corporate governance. Anglo-American influence is prevalent in the securities depository law and the new capital markets law shortly to be introduced to Parliament. There is one stock exchange with two trading floors: The Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchange (CASE) which...

  13. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  14. Arab Republic of Egypt Workforce Development : SABER Country Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    From the mid-2000s to 2011, the Egyptian economy grew at a rapid pace. Yet, this economic performance has not significantly improved the country's overall competitiveness, nor has this growth impacted the masses by providing more decent jobs. In 2004, the Government of Egypt embarked on a structural reform program of liberalization and privatization, which, combined with high oil prices, b...

  15. Seismicity and seismic risk in and around Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake data in Egypt and its vicinity were compiled for the period between 2200 B.C. and 1980 A.D. Data earlier than A.D. 1900 were adjusted to historical documents of earthquake disaster, and the others (Period: 1901-1980) were arranged by consulting seismological bulletins of many observatories in the world and the seismological report of Helwan Institute. It was recognized from the above data that active seismic areas in and near Egypt are: (1) the northern part of the Red Sea, (2) the central part of the Red Sea, (3) the Levant Region, and (4) the north east part of Egypt. Seismic Risk maps for the area concerned, that is, regional distribution of maximum earthquake motion for some return periods were drawn up making use of the aforesaid data, attenuation models and the methods of extreme value fitting. The maps consist of the following two kinds: (1) The maximum particle velocity on the base rock, (2) The maximum acceleration on the ground. The return periods of these maps are 300 and 600 years, respectively. On the basis of these results, Egypt and its vicinity can be regarded as areas of moderate seismicity. (author). 14 refs, 9 figs

  16. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  17. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  18. 77 FR 33439 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... about Egypt's political future and may help pave the road forward to achieve macroeconomic stability. In.... The plan comprises 1,100 projects, including the creation of ``Silk City,'' a financial and commercial... million. East Port Said Port: Includes a duty free zone area, road and rail networks, a power...

  19. Egypt, Arab Republic of - Food Subsidies : Benefit Incidence and Leakages

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Egypt's food subsidies, important for ensuring political stability, do not target specific groups. The subsidies were introduced during Second World War and have never been targeted. Egyptians seem to perceive food subsidies as the most concrete benefit they receive from government spending. Seen as an entitlement, food subsidies are politically sensitive. Section two gives the historical ...

  20. View of the Columbia's aft section while over Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This southerly looking view photographed from the orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia shows a small portion of the vehichle's aft section. The 50-ft Canadian built remote manipulator system (RMS) is in a resting posture (lower right corner) stretched out along the 60-ft. long cargo bay. Many of the components of the OSS-1 payload package are in the bottom center. The Mediterranean Sea is at right foreground. Parts of the Sinai peninsula, Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon can be located in the photo. The Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, Suez Canal are near the photo's horizon.

  1. Variaciones Anatmicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo H Oporto V; Ramn E Fuentes F; Camila C Soto P

    2010-01-01

    El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interaccin entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimtico subyacente durante la Odontognesis. La interaccin anormal de estos tejidos podra resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupcin de un diente anmalo, ectpico o con variacin anatmica. El presente reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatmicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnstico en los tres c...

  2. Preparacin de canales curvos y calcificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sofia Gallego Lopez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa preparacin durante el tratamiento endodntico consiste en la correcta limpieza y conformacin del sistema de conductos radiculares, y que conserve siempre su forma original. Al finalizar la preparacin, se debe obtener un conducto con conicidad uniforme y con un tope apical, que permita un selle hermtico al momento de la obturacin. Se debe tener en cuenta la dificultad para lograr resultados satisfactorios sobre todo en conductos curvos y calcificados debido a la complejidad de stos. Las tcnicas implementadas y el instrumental adecuado para la preparacin de conductos, han sido muchos con el fin de minimizar los errores durante la preparacin. No obstante, ninguna tcnica ni instrumental por s solo resulta ideal en la prevencin de estos errores; es necesario el cumplimiento de algunos principios bsicos durante la preparacin de estos conductos, tales como la correcta preparacin coronal, el uso continuo de irrigantes y agentes quelantes, el mantenimiento de la permeabilidad, el limado anticurvatura y la doble conicidad. La incorreccin de estos principios conlleva a errores, los cuales dificultan el xito del tratamiento endodntico. Los avances de la ciencia y el advenimiento de los instrumentos de nquel-titanio, han logrado facilitar el tratamiento de endodoncia, tanto que ya no es considerado como anteriormente se le atribua que era un procedimiento difcil, lo importante predecir la orientacin y anatoma del conducto antes de emplear tcnicas o instrumentales, ya que un error en ellas nos llevar al fracaso del tratamiento. (DUAZARY 2011, 66 - 73AbstractThe preparation for the endodontic treatment is proper cleaning and shaping the root canal system, and always keep its original shape. After the preparation, must be obtained through uniform and tapered with an apical stop, allowing a tight seal when the seal. It must take into account the difficulty of achieving satisfactory results especially in curved canals and calcified due to the complexity of these, the implemented techniques, and instrumentation suitable for the preparation of pipes have been many in order to minimize errors during preparation. But any technique or instrument itself ideal in preventing these errors, it is necessary to comply with some basic principles for the preparation of these channels, such as proper preparation coronal, the continued use of irrigants and chelating agents, maintenance of the permeability, filing anticurvatura and double taper. The incorrectness of these principles leads to errors which hinder the success of endodontic treatment. The progress of science and the advent of nickel-titanium instrument, it has been facilitating both root canal treatment is no longer considered previously attributed to him was a difficult procedure, the important thing to predict the orientation and anatomy through before using or instrumental techniques, since an error in them will lead to treatment failure.Keywords: development; calcification; root canal.

  3. Guyon Canal: The Evolution of Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroukis, Brianna L.; Ogawa, Takeshi; Rehim, Shady A.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    The eponym “Guyon canal” refers to the ulnar tunnel at the wrist that was named after the French surgeon Jean Casimir Félix Guyon who first described this space in 1861. After Guyon’s discovery, clinicians have focused their interest on symptoms caused by compression of structures occupying this canal (later named ulnar tunnel syndrome, or Guyon syndrome). However disagreement and confusion persisted over the correct anatomical boundaries and terminology used to describe the ulnar tunnel. Through anatomical investigation and evolving clinical case studies, the current understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar tunnel was established. This article examines the evolution of the anatomical description of the ulnar tunnel and its relevant clinical associations, and casts light on the life and contributions of Jean Casimir Félix Guyon. PMID:25446410

  4. Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

    2014-05-01

    The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from Lake Manzala (Nile Delta) suggests this period was one of declining discharge (Stanley et al. 2003). Amenhotep III's temple floor lies 2m above the calcareous palaeosol and its construction lies within the broad dating of the ancient surface. It is possible that low discharge levels enabled him to build his temple high and dry of the Nile floods. Future seasons should allow us to clarify this using 14C and OSL dating, and in time we hope to shed more light on the fluvial history of the Nile and how this affected the decision making of the ancient Egyptians. References Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Emery, V.L., Jones, S., Barker. D.B. 2013. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2013, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 99, 35-52. Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Hunter, M.A., Jones, S., Masson, A., Millet, M., Pennington, B.T. 2012. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2012, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 98, 27-42. Stanley, D.J., Krom, M.D., Cliff, R.A. and Woodward, J.C. 2003. Nile flow failure at the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic and petrologic evidence, Geoarchaeology 18(3), 395-402.

  5. Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohtavipour, Seiedeh Tahereh; Dalili, Zahra; Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi [Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional and digital radiography in the estimation of working length in mandibular molars. Sixty molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups in the basis of canal curves (0-15 degree, 15-30 degree, >30 degree). After the placement of a 15 K-file, radiographs were taken with a conventional film (F-speed) and a digital sensor. Canal lengths were measured in these images by two observers. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of ANOVA and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence. There was a high inter-observer agreement on the measurements of working length in conventional and digital radiographs. There was no significant difference between the mean values of measurements in conventional and digital radiography. Moreover, there was no significant difference between conventional and digital radiography with the actual values in the basis of canal curves. The accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in the determination of the working length was in an acceptable range.

  6. Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional and digital radiography in the estimation of working length in mandibular molars. Sixty molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups in the basis of canal curves (0-15 degree, 15-30 degree, >30 degree). After the placement of a 15 K-file, radiographs were taken with a conventional film (F-speed) and a digital sensor. Canal lengths were measured in these images by two observers. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of ANOVA and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence. There was a high inter-observer agreement on the measurements of working length in conventional and digital radiographs. There was no significant difference between the mean values of measurements in conventional and digital radiography. Moreover, there was no significant difference between conventional and digital radiography with the actual values in the basis of canal curves. The accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in the determination of the working length was in an acceptable range.

  7. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  8. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater in the reclaimed small basin of Abu Mina, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Atwia, Mohamed G.; El-Horiny, Mohamed M.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural reclamation activities during the last few decades in the Western Nile Delta have led to great changes in the groundwater levels and quality. In Egypt, changing the desert land into agricultural land has been done using transferred Nile water (through irrigation canal systems) or/and groundwater. This research investigates the hydrogeochemical changes accompanying the reclamation processes in the small basin of Abu Mina, which is part of the Western Nile Delta region. In summer 2008, 23 groundwater samples were collected and groundwater levels were measured in 40 observation wells. Comparing the groundwater data of the pre-reclamation (1974) and the post-reclamation (2008) periods, groundwater seems to have been subjected to many changes: rise in water level, modification of the flow system, improvement of water quality, and addition of new salts through dissolution processes. Generally, Abu Mina basin is subdivided into two areas, recharge and discharge. The dissolution and mixing were recognized in the recharge areas, while the groundwater of the discharge region carries the signature of the diluted pre-reclamation groundwater. The salts of soil and aquifer deposits play an important role in the salt content of the post and pre-reclamation groundwater. NaCl was the predominant water type in the pre-reclamation groundwater, while CaSO4, NaCl and MgSO4 are the common chemical facies in the post-reclamation groundwater. The post-reclamation groundwater mostly indicates mixing between the pre-reclamation groundwater and the infiltrated freshwater with addition of some ions due to interaction with soil and sediments.

  9. Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt IMPRSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealed sources are usually in capsules made of stainless steel. They are the size of a pen or a finger and contain one of hundreds of radioactive elements (e.g., Iridium, Radium) or their isotopes. They are air-tight and very durable, contain the radioactive material but not radiation. They are used in the health sector, industry, military, and universities. Incidents occurred in Met Halfa, Egypt, 2000 (Iridium-192); Goiania, Brazil, 1987 (Cesium-137); Mexico and Southwest U.S., 1977 -1984 (Cobalt-60); Peru, 1999 (Iridium-1992); Poland 2001 (Cobalt-60). The IMPRSS Mission is based on a joined partnership between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency and others. The IMPRSS Mission protects human health and the environment in Egypt from mismanaged sealed sources, is developed jointly with MOH and EAEA, provides capabilities for managing radioactive sealed sources in Egypt, increases public awareness, provides education and training, improves emergency response capabilities, develops a permanent disposal facility, ensures the program is self-sustaining and ensures close coordination with the IAEA. Infrastructure how to manage sealed sources is discussed. It includes awareness, tracking and inventory control, security, recovery, conditioning and storage, recycling and disposal. Emergency response, regulatory reform, education and training and its targets are provided. The government of Egypt can protect the people of Egypt and is ready for emergencies. Prevention is the first line of defence and detection is the second line of defence. Adequate Emergency Response saves lives and adequate control reduces risk of mismanaged uses or deliberate misuses of sources. A Cradle-to-Grave approach is built on existing capabilities at EAEA and MOH

  10. Geomorphic indicators of Holocene winds in Egypt's Western Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Ian A.

    2003-11-01

    Geomorphic mapping of Egypt's Western Desert from LANDSAT-MSS images reveals oriented aeolian landforms that record, in part, Holocene winds. Wind directions reconstructed from these landforms indicate the dominance of N-S airflow from 30°N to 20°N, turning clockwise southward to NE-SW, conformable with modern circulation. A second direction appears over western Egypt, W between 30°N and 26°N, NW between 26°N and 20°N. Cross-cutting aeolian landforms show that W/NW winds are older than the N/NE winds. Geomorphic evidence, abundant south to 26°N and less abundant to 20°N, also indicates that W and NW winds were early Holocene 'palaeowesterlies'. Some evidence also indicates that they extended eastward to at least 30°E, perhaps to the Red Sea. These winds steered moist Atlantic/Mediterranean air masses to Egypt, sustaining early Holocene lakes and playas north of the limit of tropical monsoonal rainfall at 20°N. Upon aridification, beginning after 5 kyr BP, yardangs oriented west to east were eroded in early Holocene basinal sediments in western Egypt, indicating that these winds continued there for 1-2 kyr, until 3-4 kyr BP. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of surface sand sheet in southern Egypt indicate that the present north-south winds were established ca. 3-4 kyr BP, at the same time as the northern savanna boundary was stabilized at its present position.

  11. Discharge Estimation in a Lined Canal Using Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a new method and technology to measure the discharge in a lined canal in Taiwan. An Acoustic Digital Current Meter mounted on a measurement platform is used to measure the velocities over the full cross-section for establishing the measurement method. The proposed method primarily employs Chiu’s Equation which is based on entropy to establish a constant ratio the relation between the maximum and mean velocities in an irrigation canal, and compute the maximum velocity by the observed velocity profile. In consequence, the mean velocity of the lined canal can be rapidly determined by the maximum velocity and the constant ratio. The cross-sectional area of the artificial irrigation canal can be calculated for the water stage. Finally, the discharge in the lined canal can be efficiently determined by the estimated mean velocity and the cross-sectional area. Using the data of discharges and stages collected in the Wan-Dan Canal, the correlation of stage and discharge is also developed for remote real-time monitoring and estimating discharge from the pumping station. Overall, Chiu’s Equation is demonstrated to reliably and accurately measure discharge in a lined canal, and can serve as reference for future calibration for a stage-discharge rating curve.

  12. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  13. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to identify and treat these aberrations successfully. The present report describes a left mandibular second permanent molar requiring root canal treatment, found to have three separate canals in the mesial root. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and emphasizes the need for the clinician to be aware of and look out for such variations and use adequate diagnostic methodologies prior to and during therapy to detect such variations. The possibility of additional canals, whenever in doubt, should be explored with the assistance of technologies such as those of magnification and illumination and various diagnostic aids. Operator experience has also shown to be a key factor in negotiation and management of these aberrant canal configurations.

  14. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, while this one leaves no doubt to have its origin in Nisyros. (authors)

  15. Communication dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt, concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt, attaching the text of a Press Statement dated 25 January 2005. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the Press Statement, are reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  16. Endodontic management of a maxillary molar with three mesiobuccal canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundam, Sirisha; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

    2014-01-01

    It is imperative that the clinician should have comprehensive knowledge about the normal anatomy and its variations of the teeth as the deviations from the usual are very common. An increased awareness of unusual anatomy and a better understanding of the root canal system guide the clinician in accurate diagnosis and treatment of such variations in order to achieve a successful endodontic outcome. The maxillary first molar has been shown to have a wide variation in respect to the number of canals specifically noted in the mesiobuccal root. The current case report shows the successful management of a maxillary molar in which the mesiobuccal root had three canals. PMID:25505997

  17. TREATMENT OF BLUNDER BUSS CANAL: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report was to evaluate the depth of cure of composite resin cured within root canals by means of light - transmitting plastic posts. Light - curing composite resins must be adequately polymerized within the root canal to reinforce weakened roots. The physical properties of dental composite resins are of great concern because they affect their clinical performance. The light - transmitting plastic posts (Luminex, Weissman Technology have enabled the transmission of light into the root canal t o polymerize composite resin placed within it.

  18. Endodontic treatment of a taurodontic premolar with five canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryrek, Ebru zsezer; Gnlol, Nihan; Bulucu, Bilin

    2013-08-01

    Taurodontism is a morpho-anatomical abnormality in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged pulp chamber, apical displacement of the pulpal floor and no constriction at the level of the cemento-enamel junction are the characteristic features. Special care is required in all aspects of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth, including identifying the orifice, canal exploration, cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal. This case report describes the successful endodontic treatment of a taurodontic mandibular second premolar with five root canals. PMID:23890265

  19. Strategic Implications of the Possible Construction of the Thai Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Kinder, Ivica

    2008-01-01

    Oil supplies coming from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to South East and East Asia are mostly shipped through the Strait of Malacca. There has been a long-standing idea to dig a canal through Thailand's part of the Malay Peninsula, the so-called Thai Canal, which would create a new sea lane of communication. It would allow ships to move between the Indian and Pacific Oceans without having to pass through the Strait of Malacca. The Canal would not just relieve pressure on the Strait in term...

  20. Contribution of geoelectrical resistivity sounding for paleoenvironment assessment at Saft El-Henna and Tell El-Dab'a archaeological sites, eastern Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kenawy, Abeer 1Metwaly, Mohamed 2345Gemail, Khalid 1El-Raouf, Amr Abd

    2013-09-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES), a resistivity sounding technique, has been applied at two important archaeological sites in the eastern part of the Nile Delta to trace the paleoenvironment, particularly the defunct canals. Like many other archaeological sites in the Nile Delta of Egypt, these two sites have been subjected to urbanisation and agricultural invasion from the local farmers. Therefore, studying the paleoenvironment is an important task for guiding the excavation process and highlighting the importance of these two archaeological sites. The VES stations were arranged to cover the two sites, in the form of traverse profiles for tracing the subsurface sand and gravel facies that intercalated with clay deposits. The acquired VES data were processed based on the available borehole lithological information for the purpose of establishing the resistivity-depth models. Both 1D and 2D processing schemes were applied to the VES data sets to increase the confidence of the obtained results. The clay and silt deposits are characterised by low resistivity values, whereas the sand facies has a relatively high resistivity character. From the constructed cross-sections at the two sites, it was possible to define a consistent character for the clay deposits, which can be inferred as the defunct canals that supplied water to the two sites.

  1. The classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter authors give information about frequency of cancerous growths of the anal canal, general analysis of observations the classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal, clinical-anatomy classification of cancerous growths of the anal canal and staging of cancerous growths of anal canal

  2. In vitro analysis of thermocompaction time and gutta-percha type on quality of main canal and lateral canals filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andr Luiz da Costa Michelotto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of filling in main and lateral root canals performed with the McSpadden technique, regarding the time spent on the procedure and the type of gutta-percha employed. Fifty simulated root canals, made with six lateral canals placed two apiece in the cervical, middle and apical thirds of the root, were divided into 5 groups. Group A: McSpadden technique with conventional gutta-percha, performed with sufficient time for canal filling; Group B: McSpadden technique with conventional gutta-percha, performed in twice the mean time used in Group A; Group C: McSpadden technique with TP gutta-percha, performed with sufficient time for canal filling; Group D: McSpadden technique with TP gutta-percha, performed in twice the mean time used in Group C; Group E: lateral condensation technique. Images of the filled root canals were taken using a stereomicroscope and analyzed using the Leica QWIN Pro software for filling material flow, gutta-percha filling extension and sealer flow. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. The best values of penetration in lateral canals in the middle third occurred in the groups where TP gutta-percha was used. However, in the apical third, group B showed the best values. Although a longer time of compactor use allows greater penetration of the filling material into the lateral canals, the presence of voids resulted in bad quality radiographic images, suggesting porosity. The best quality of filling material was observed in Group A (McSpadden technique with conventional Gutta-Percha, performed with sufficient time for root canal filling.

  3. ENDODONTIC TREATMENT OF LOWER LATERAL INCISOR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS CASE REPORT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetelina G. Gueorgieva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of endodontic treatment is the correct diagnosis, optimal mechanical and chemical preparation and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal. Reasons for endodontic failure can be variations in the anatomy of the teeth - the presence of additional root canals, lateral canals, intricate anatomy of the apical delta. Very often lower incisors occurred more than one root canal. Many dentists are treating this group of teeth under general assumption, that they possess single canal. The purpose of this article is to present the treatment of lower lateral incisor with three root canals and discuss the signs of the existence of additional root canals.

  4. The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Egypt: a systematic review and data synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamoud, Yousra A.; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Riome, Suzanne; Miller, DeWolfe; Laith J. Abu-Raddad

    2013-01-01

    Background Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, estimated nationally at 14.7%. Our study’s objective was to delineate the evidence on the epidemiology of HCV infection among the different population groups in Egypt, and to draw analytical inferences about the nature of HCV transmission in this country. Methods We conducted a systematic review of all data on HCV prevalence and incidence in Egypt following PRISMA guidelines. The main sources of data included...

  5. No more Gas from Egypt? The Israeli Gas Sector between Offshore Discoveries and Import Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Siddig; Harald Grethe

    2013-01-01

    1 Introduction In 2009, major offshore natural gas deposits were discovered in Israel after historically being an energy-poor state relying on imported fossil fuels to meet its energy needs, and an energy island that is disconnected from energy infrastructure in the region, with the exception of gas supplies from Egypt (Shaffer, 2011). Since 2008, Egypt is supplying Israel with 40% of its domestically consumed natural gas. The gas is delivered through a pipeline that connects the Arab (Egypt,...

  6. Lipoma causing Guyon's canal syndrome: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanathu Chellappantilla Sreekumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal leads to Guyon's canal syndrome. Lipoma is a rare cause of such compressions with only 12 cases reported previously. We report a 55-year-old man who presented with swelling in the left hand with decreased sensation in the ring and little fingers. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signals in T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with suppression of the short T1 inversion recovery signal, suggestive of lipoma. On exploration a well-encapsulated, dumbbell-shaped, fatty tumor was seen in the hypothenar space and Guyon's canal. The tumor was enucleated in toto. At 6-month follow-up, the patient had fully regained sensation. A review of the literature is presented for similar cases where a lipoma was the cause of Guyon's canal syndrome.

  7. Bacteria in the apical 5 mm of infected root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, J C; Falkler, W A

    1991-08-01

    Ten freshly extracted teeth which had carious pulpal exposures and periapical lesions contiguous with the root apex were placed inside an anaerobic chamber and the apical 5 mm of the root canals cultured. In addition to anaerobic incubation, duplicate cultures were incubated aerobically. Fifty strains of bacteria from the 10 root canals were isolated and identified. The most prominent bacteria cultured from the 10 root canals were Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, black-pigmented Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, nonpigmented Bacteroides, Veillonella, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus mutans. Of the 50 bacterial isolates, 34 (68%) were strict anaerobes. This study demonstrates the presence of predominantly anaerobic bacteria in the apical 5 mm of infected root canals in teeth with carious pulpal exposures and periapical lesions. PMID:1809801

  8. Canals, Published in unknown, Arizona Department of Transportation.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator projection; The extent of...

  9. The epidural expansion in the waist canal - less obvious findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors demonstrated 55 less obvious epidural expansion in the waist canal. These expansions are discussed. The detection of the epidural mass at myeloma multiples has a principal significance for the indication of the radiotherapy or surgical intervention

  10. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício SCAINI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A case of an endodontic treatment of a mandibular premolar with 4 root canals was reported and some cases of endodontic treatment in mandibular premolars with 1, 2 and 3 root canals were shown.

  11. Pollution of Lahore canal water in the city premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water contamination is one of the major environmental pollution problems facing Pakistan because it has a direct impact on the health of human beings and crops. Lahore Canal water is being used both for irrigation and a source of ground water recharge. For the best use of this water, extent of pollution and its effect on soil hydraulic properties needs to be studied. For this purpose, water samples from twenty three sites and soil samples from three sites were collected along the Canal within the city limits of Lahore. The survey of the area from Jallo Park to Mall Road, show that all the abadies/colonies and industries situated on both sides of the canal dump their waste water and garbage in to canal. This result in increase of salinity as well as BOD and COD values which were found maximum at the locations of Herbuns Pura, Mughal Pura Dharam Pura, and Thoker Niaz Baig. (authors)

  12. Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression.

  13. QUANTITATIVE SIZE ASSESSMENT OF THE LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL BY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Midia Z. Miabi

    2007-01-01

    By determining normal ranges of spinal canal diameters we can make early diagnosis in persons who have lower diameters of spinal canal. These persons are predisposed to spinal canal stenosis that is a major cause of spinal radiculopathies. In different studies performed in several countries, minimum and maximum ranges of spinal canal diameters were different for each population. In this study, we tried to determine the mean values of normal spinal canal diameters and areas in Tabriz and its s...

  14. TREATMENT OF BLUNDER BUSS CANAL: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Dileep; Deepak; Rachit; Neha; Ritu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to evaluate the depth of cure of composite resin cured within root canals by means of light - transmitting plastic posts. Light - curing composite resins must be adequately polymerized within the root canal to reinforce weakened roots. The physical properties of dental composite resins are of great concern because they affect their clinical performance. The light - transmitting plastic posts (Luminex, Weissman Technology) hav...

  15. Interlaminar fenestration in lumbar canal stenosis- a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Puneet; Sharma Sansar; Chauhan V; Maheshwari Rajesh; Juyal Anil; Agarwal Atul

    2005-01-01

    Background: Degenerative lumbar canal stenosis is a multifaceted problem presenting as backache and neurological claudication. Methods: In fifteen patients of acquired degenerative lumbar canal stenosis multi level interlaminar fenestration with discectomy, if required, was carried out. Retrospective analysis was done to assess the out come by assessing the relief in backache and neurological claudication. Results: The mean age of patients was 50.4 years and average duration of neurologi...

  16. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  17. A Successful Endodontic Outcome with Non-Obturated Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    This case report represents the outcome of endodontic treatment in an infected mandibular molar with periradicular periodontitis and inherent poor prognosis of root canal treatment due to severe root curvature. The tooth was successfully treated by leaving the mesial root non-obturated, the canal orifices were coronally sealed with calcium enriched mixture cement and a definitive coronal amalgam restoration, was placed at the subsequent visit.

  18. Prominent central spinal canal on MRI - normal variant or pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The sensitivity of MRI can make differentiation of normal from abnormal challenging.The study investigates whether a visible central spinal canal is pathological or a normal variant. We review eight MRI (mostly on a 1.5 Tesla unit) cases where there is a visible central cavity in keeping with a central canal and review the literature. The central canal is a space in the medial part of the grey-matter commissure between the anterior and posterior horns. Histopathological studies show that the canal is present at birth with the majority showing subsequent involution but is uncommonly imaged on MRI. The main differential diagnosis is syringomyelia which usually presents with deficits in pain and sensation corresponding to the appropriate level often with a demonstrable aetiology. Two thirds of our patients were female with an average age of thirty-six years (range 26-45). The patients were largely asymptomatic or their symptoms appeared unrelated to the imaging findings. Three patients had minor previous trauma and two others had non-bacterial meningitis up to twenty years earlier. No patient had known spinal surgery or trauma.The cavity corresponded tomographically to the expected site of the central canal. The canal was in the thoracic location. The canal diameter ranged from one to five millimetres and its length varied from one half a vertebral body height to extending over the entire thoracic region. Its configuration was either filiform or fusiform, with smooth contours. No predisposing features to suggest syringomyelia or other structural abnormalities were noted. Where Gadolinium was given no abnormal enhancement was observed. These cases add to the literature and suggest that these prominent canals are largely asymptomatic and should be viewed as normal variants. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Neandertal birth canal shape and the evolution of human childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Timothy D.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Childbirth is complicated in humans relative to other primates. Unlike the situation in great apes, human neonates are about the same size as the birth canal, making passage difficult. The birth mechanism (the series of rotations that the neonate must undergo to successfully negotiate its mother's birth canal) distinguishes humans not only from great apes, but also from lesser apes and monkeys. Tracing the evolution of human childbirth is difficult, because the pelvic skeleton, which forms th...

  20. Evaluation of spinous process wiring techniques for accidental canal penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Augustine A Adeolu; Azeez, Abiodun L

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Accidental canal penetration with attendant complications constitutes one of the reasons for abandoning the use of wires for posterior spinal fusion techniques. However, there is dearth of information on this risk when the wire is introduced through the base of spinous process as against sublaminar passage. This study was designed to evaluate hardware-related postoperative complications, especially canal penetration, in our patients who had spinal process wiring in t...