WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Environmental aeroradioactivity levels in the Suez-Canal Zone, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study deals essentially with the establishment of the environmental radioactivity levels in the Suez Canal Zone. It will provide basic information that can be used as a reference to detect and determine the amount and extent of any possible future variations in the natural radioactivity level in that part of Egypt, that might result from nuclear testing or accidents involving release of nuclear radiations and fallout of nuclear fission products that might affect both the terrestrial and atmospheric environments. According to the statistical analysis of the radio active measurements recorded over the Suez Canal Zone, it was found that its mean radiometric background is 7.76 millirem/year. Seven lithological units were separated, each was found to be homogeneously distributed, as far as radioactivity is concerned and has its own characteristic statistics. They form the environmental terrestrial aeroradioactivity map of the area. The Suez Canal Zone is characterized by the presence of extensive water surfaces represented by the Gulf of Suez, Bitter Lakes, El Temsah and El Manzalah Lakes. These represent the lowest radiometric level (0.03-5.16 millirem/year) in the studied zone in spite of the presence of a slightly higher level around the rim of the great Bitter Lake. The highest radiometric level was (4.4-15.3 millirem/year) found associated with El Shat formation of Middle Miocene age and which is composed mainly of sandstone, clay, limestone and gypsum. In that regard the present study demonstrated that periodical aerial radiometric surveying for the entire Suez Canal area is highly recommended for monitoring changes in its environmental radioactivity levels. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs.

1995-01-01

2

An optimization planning technique for Suez Canal Network in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces a proposed optimization technique POT for predicting the peak load demand and planning of transmission line systems. Many of traditional methods have been presented for long-term load forecasting of electrical power systems. But, the results of these methods are approximated. Therefore, the artificial neural network (ANN) technique for long-term peak load forecasting is modified and discussed as a modern technique in long-term load forecasting. The modified technique is applied on the Egyptian electrical network dependent on its historical data to predict the electrical peak load demand forecasting up to year 2017. This technique is compared with extrapolation of trend curves as a traditional method. The POT is applied also to obtain the optimal planning of transmission lines for the 220 kV of Suez Canal Network (SCN) using the ANN technique. The minimization of the transmission network costs are considered as an objective function, while the transmission lines (TL) planning constraints are satisfied. Zafarana site on the Red Sea coast is considered as an optimal site for installing big wind farm (WF) units in Egypt. So, the POT is applied to plan both the peak load and the electrical transmission of SCN with and without considering WF to develop the impact of WF units on the electrical transmission system of Egypt, considering the reliability constraints which were taken as a separate model in the previous techniques. The application on SCN shows the capability and the efficiently of the proposed techniques to obtain the predicting peak load demand and the optimal planning of transmission lines of SCN up to year 2017. (author)

Abou El-Ela, A.A.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.; Allam, S.M.; Atta, Gasir M. [Electrical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Eng., Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

2010-02-15

3

Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight surface sabkha soils samples were collected from Ismailia—Suez roadbed, southwestern of Suez Canal district. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses were conducted using grain size; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Grain size analysis indicates high contents of fine sand and mud as well as presence of salts. X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDAX tool clarified that the sabkha soils are enriched by quartz, sulfate minerals (gypsum, anhydrite), carbonate minerals (calcite-dolomite-aragonite), chlorides (halite and bischofite), and clay minerals. The results elucidate that the appearance of sabkha deposits and their distribution in the study area are controlled mainly by the content of water soluble salts through parent materials; ground water table; subsurface structural; and physiographic features for instance surface relief or topography; and human activity.

Mohamed M. El-Omla; Hamdy A. Aboulela

2012-01-01

4

Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal beaches, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal.

Barakat, M.A.K.; Shimy, T.M.; Mostafa, Y.M. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Cairo (Egypt)

1996-10-01

5

Predictors of job satisfaction among practicing dentists at hospitals in Suez Canal Area, Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure the level of job satisfaction and the work factors associated with it among practicing dentists in Suez Canal governorates hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred forty nine dentists were contacted, and 277 agreed to participate (response rate 61.7%). They were surveyed through a self-administered questionnaire based on items from the Dentist Satisfaction Survey (DSS) questionnaire, which included 29 questions covering items related to the overall satisfaction level and work environment factors; answers were reported on 5 point Likert scale. RESULTS: The mean score of overall job satisfaction among studied dentists was 3.24 out of 5. As regards work environment factors, the most satisfying aspect was patient relations (3.71) and the least was personal time (2.71). Multiple regression analysis model verified that patient relations, value of income, personal time, staff, and training opportunities accounted for 36% of variation in overall job satisfaction score. The majority of the variance was explained by patient relations. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that patient relations, perception of income, personal time, staff, and specialty training are important work environment factors for job satisfaction among the dentists. These findings might help policy makers to design plans to increase the level of job satisfaction among dentists at their workplaces.

Fahim AE

2013-03-01

6

Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

2008-01-01

7

Taxonomic Study on the Feather Stars (Crinoidea: Echinodermata) from Egyptian Red Sea Coasts and Suez Canal, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A taxonomic study on the crinoids (feather stars) collected from 34 sites from the Red Sea coasts and islands as well as the Suez Canal was done during the period from 1992 to 2003. A total of 15 species are now known from the Red Sea belonging to eleven genera under six families. Among them four species are endemic to the Red Sea and the two spe- cies, Decametra chadwicki and Lamprometra klunzingeri, are recorded from the Suez Canal for the first time. Also, the two species, Oligometra serripinna and Dorometra aegyptica, are new record from Gulf of Suez, and Decametra mollis from Gulf of Aqaba and Northern Red Sea. This study represents the first proper documentation of crinoid species in the study area. Summaries are provided of the specific habitats and geographical distribution.

Ahmed M. Hellal

2012-01-01

8

Taxonomic Study on the Feather Stars (Crinoidea: Echinodermata) from Egyptian Red Sea Coasts and Suez Canal, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A taxonomic study on the crinoids (feather stars) collected from 34 sites from the Red Sea coasts and islands as well as the Suez Canal was done during the period from 1992 to 2003. A total of 15 species are now known from the Red Sea belonging to eleven genera under six families. Among them four sp...

Ahmed M. Hellal

9

Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gulf of Suez is an intracratonic rift basin which originated in the early Miocene on the once-continuous Arabo-African plate. The Precambrian crystalline basement is overlain by a platform cover of Early Cambrian to Eocene age. There is no evidence of tectonic precursors to the Miocene breakup. Marine transgressions, for example during the Carboniferous and Cretaceous, followed wide embayments caused by long-wavelength oscillations trending northwest-southeast on the North African craton. This article discusses the geologic history of the Gulf.

Schuetz, K.I. (Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (USA))

1988-08-01

10

Effect of transplantation on heavy metal concentrations in commercial clams of Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis pullastra are commercially fished clamswith a wide distribution in the shallow inshore waters of Lake Timsah, Egypt.They are usually contaminated with heavy metals. Consumption of suchcontaminated clams can pose a public health risk. To minimise this risk,therefore, the clams should be removed from the contaminated waters andtransferred to an approved area to reduce the high levels of metals beforebeing marketed. The aim of this work was to study the effect of transplantation on levels of heavy metals(Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb) in these clams. The clams were removed from their polluted site and transplantedto a relatively clean area for a period of 120 days. Although the salinity atthe transplantation site was higher than at the polluted site, it was stableand did not appear to have any adverse effect on clam growth. Heavy metalswere analysed in the water, sediment and clam tissues from both the pollutedand the transplantation sites. Although in both species transplantationevidently reduced heavy metal levels, these still exceeded the maximumpermissible levels laid down by the WHO (1982).

Howaida R. Gabr; Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

2008-01-01

11

Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Analyses Techniques For Optimum Land Use Planning, West of Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current study aims at using remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for optimum landuse planning of the area located north Ismaillia - south Port Said Governorates on the western side of Suez Canal. It is bounded by longitudes 32 degree 10 and 32 degree 20 E and latitudes 300 4 rand 31 0 00' N. Great part of this area is under reclamation and suffering from improper landuse. Ten geomorphologic units were recognized i.e. clay flats, decantation basins, overflow basins, sand sheets, gypsiferous flats, old river terraces, sand flats, turtle backs, lake beds, and recent river terraces. Using US Soil Taxonomy, two soil orders could be identified; Entisols and Aridisols which are represented by ten great groups: Typic Haplosalids, Typic Haplogypsids, Typic Toriorthents, Vertic Argigypsids, Vertic Torrijluvents, Vertic Natrargids ,Typic Torripsamments, Typic Torrifluvens, Aquic Torriorthents and Typic Psammaquents. Surface and ground water with respect to salinity and alkalinity hazards were investigated ,where surface water of the main canals was classified as C2-S 1, C3-S 1 ,C4-S2 and C4-S4, meanwhile the ground water was classified as C3-S 1, C3 -S 1 ,C4-S2 ,C4-SI and C4-S4 .Optimum landuse planning of the studied area includes three approaches i.e., physical planning, optimum cropping pattern and other uses. Physical planning includes designing of three geospatial models. I-treatment plant site selection model. 2-central village site selection model and 3- shortest path for new Canal model. Current cropping pattern was obtained by matching the crop requirements with soil characteristics, where soils of high sand flats and low gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, alfalfa and cotton, soils of low sand flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for olive, citrus and melon, soils of low recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, cotton, corn and rice ,soils of moderately recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, potato and rice, soils of high recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, rice and cotton, soils of high gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for corn, cotton, and citrus, soils of decantation basins are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, rice, corn, cotton, soils of turtle bake are currently highly suitable (S2) for melon, potato, cotton, soils of overflow basins are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus, peach, soils of sand sheets and old river terraces are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus

2008-01-01

12

Association of catalase gene polymorphisms with catalase activity and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in the Suez Canal area, Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study evaluated the relationship of genetic variants in both promoter (-262?C/T) and in exonic (389?C/T) regions of the catalase (CAT) gene to CAT activity and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Suez Canal-area patients. CAT gene polymorphisms were assessed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). CAT activity was measured by using a spectrophotometer. We compared the frequencies of CAT 389 C/T and -262?C/T polymorphic variants between SLE patients (n?=?103) and healthy controls (n?=?103). CAT 389?C/T is associated with SLE susceptibility, with the T allele being significantly more frequent among SLE patients than healthy controls. There was no association, however, between CAT activity and genotypes of 389?C/T. We did not observe significant differences in the prevalence of CAT -262?C/T polymorphic variants in SLE patients and controls, however, we found that patients with the CAT -262 CT and TT genotypes had low CAT activity, and these genotypes showed a significant association with thrombocytopaenia, leukopaenia and the presence of anti-snRNP in SLE patients. In conclusion, the present study supports the notion of in vivo oxidative stress in SLE as indicated by the decrease in CAT activity. The allelic variations in the CAT gene -262 are more likely to affect the expression or the function of the enzyme. Since CAT may be pathogenetically linked to SLE, and owing to its free-radical origin, it appears reasonable to target lipid peroxidation by dietary and/or pharmacological antioxidants.

Ghaly MS; Ghattas MH; Labib SM

2012-10-01

13

Towers for overhead transmission lines with extreme dimensions for the Suez Canal crossing. Freileitungsmaste mit aussergewoehnlichen Dimensionen fuer die Kreuzung des Suez-Kanals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new 500 kV transmission line connecting Egypt and Jordan has also to cross the Suez Canal. The requirements established by the Canal Authority resulted, among other things, in 220 m high suspension towers. The report describes the basic parameters of the crossing and deals in detail with the design of the suspension towers. The transmission was commissioned in June 1998. (orig.)

Fuchs, A. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Energieuebertragung und -verteilung, Hochspannung)

1999-05-31

14

The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors; Le Canal de Suez et les ports petroliers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.).

Anon.

1997-12-31

15

Waste management practices in the Gulf of Suez - Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company (GUPCO) is the largest offshore oil producing company in Egypt. GUPCO currently produces 400,000 BOPD from over 350 wells supported by 87 offshore producing platforms. As a leader of the Egyptian petroleum industry, GUPCO established within its strategies and goals a separate category covering safety, health and Protection of the environment. This step was recognized and emphasized the importance of GUPCO`s role in protecting the Egyptian environment while producing oil and natural gas. This paper discusses the existing waste management practices of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company which were put into place to protect the Egyptian environment in the Gulf of Suez-Egypt and GUPCO`s associated operations.

Ghzaly, S.M.; Binegar, J.S.

1996-12-31

16

Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF{sub 6} packages traversing the Suez Canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF{sub 6} shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF{sub 6} on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

Salama, M

2004-07-01

17

Longitudinal evolution of Suez rift structure, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A three-dimensional study of the structure of the Suez Rift has been carried out using field and subsurface data in an attempt to determine the role of transverse faults and the longitudinal evolution of the rift. As in most intracontinental rifts, the structure of the Gulf of Suez area is governed by normal faults and tilted blocks, whose crests constitute the main target of exploratory wells. The fault pattern consists of two major sets of trends: (1) longitudinal faults parallel with the rift axis and created in an extensional regime, trending east-northeast-west-southwest, and (2) transverse faults with north-south to north-northeast-south-southwest dominant trend. The transverse faults are inherited passive discontinuities, whereas most of the longitudinal faults were created during the Neogene in a purely extensional regime. Both sets were simultaneously active, producing a zigzag pattern and rhombic-shaped blocks. The transverse faults can show horizontal strike-slip components and act as relays between major normal faults.

Colletta, B.; Le Quellec, P.; Letouzey, J.; Moretti, I.

1988-01-01

18

The Economic Lifeline of British Global Empire: A Reconsideration of The Historical Dynamics of The Suez Canal, 1869-1956  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper re-examines the historical dynamics of the events that led to Suez Canal crisis of 1956. Most significantly, and unlike several other works on the Suez Canal with their emphasis on political, military and strategic factors, this present study points out that economic factors exerted a preponderant influence in shaping the course of events during the period under review. Consequently, the approach adopted in this work is that of the economic theory of imperialism. Thus, apart from situating the history of the Canal in its proper historical perspective, the paper posits that the intense struggle for the control of the Canal between Egypt on the one hand, and the West on the other, emanated primarily from the latter’s attempt to exploit and dominate the Egyptian economy.

Dr. Olukoya OGEN

2008-01-01

19

Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF{sub 6}) packages tracking Suez Canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF{sub 6}) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF{sub 6}) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF{sub 6}) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested.

Salama, M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

2004-07-01

20

Piquet Caroline, Histoire du canal de Suez, Paris, Perrin, 2009, 372 p.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les études sur l'histoire du canal de Suez connaissent un regain d'intérêt chez les historiens français. Nathalie Montel avait ouvert la voie en 1998 en publiant un ouvrage passionnant sur le percement du canal, Le chantier du canal de Suez, 1859-1869. Une histoire des pratiques techniques. L'étude s'arrêtait à l'ouverture du canal en 1869, laissant le champ libre à de futurs travaux. La publication en 2008 de l'ouvrage de Caroline Piquet, La Compagnie du canal de Suez, une concession françai...

Claudine Piaton

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Uranium concentrations in sediments of the Suez Canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Suez Canal bottom sediment samples have been analyzed by alpha-spectrometry for the measurement of uranium. This method is based on the extraction of uranium with trioctylphosphine oxide/cyclohexane (TOPO) followed by reextraction and separation on anion exchange resins, and finally electrodeposition. The [alpha]-activity of [sup 238]U and [sup 234]U were measured by surface barrier detectors, in Bq/kg dry weight. The obtained results were compared with concentrations determined by [gamma] measurements. The results point to a state of disequilibrium between [sup 238]U and RaeU (radium equivalent uranium) which is attributed to the escape of radon. (author).

Ibrahiem, N.M. (National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Nasr City, Cairo (United Kingdom)); Pimpl, M. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Central Safety Dept.)

1994-09-01

22

Slim-hole drilling in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper discusses the economical, operational and environmental aspects of the reduced hole size drilling now used in offshore operations in Gupco and other major petroleum companies operating in the Gulf of Suez Area Egypt. The results demonstrate that reduced hole size drilling saves cost: use of slim hole reduces time related intangible savings, fixed tangible savings, and tangible equipment savings. The advantages of small hole size and the reduction in the volume and size of oil wet drilling cuttings help minimize the environmental impact associated with the use of oil base mud. The reduction in drilling fluid volume and treatment cost, higher rates of penetration, better hole cleaning capabilities, savings in consumables (such as bits, mud, cement and diesel oil), less tangible cost, and easier equipment mobilization are interacted to produce significant operational gains. This results in savings to 40 to 50 percent of well costs versus the cost of conventional wells drilled in the same area. Although substantial savings were realized, there are elevated risks with the major one being the lack of a good contingency in the event unexpected hole condition or geological condition require an extra casing to be run prior to reaching the total depth. Effective preplanning between the drilling, exploration, and engineering to accurately define possible geologic targets and their potential drilling problems can minimize these risks associated with drilling slim holes and provide higher levels of success in meeting objectives

1993-01-01

23

Coccoliths From Some Paleogene Rocks In The Gulf Of Suez Area, Egypt ?????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????? - ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes and illustrates the calcareous nannoplankton (coccoliths) recorded in 240 samples collected from the Paleogene rocks in Wadi Belayim/Wadi Nukhul surface sections. Gulf of Suez area. Egypt. Thirty species of cocoliths belonging to 14 genera and 4 families of the Suborder Coccolit...

El Dawoddy, Ahmed Sami [???? ???? ???????

24

On The Prawn Fisheries in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? - ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prawn fisheries in the Gulf of Suez constitute about 13.7% of the total fish and shrimp landings. About 11% are made up by three penaeid species namely: Penaeus japonicus Bate, Penaeus semisulcatus De Han and Penaeus latisulcatus Kishinouy. Metapenaeopsis stridulants Alcock and Trachypenaeus curviro...

Yassin, Mohamed H. [???? ?????

25

Geology of the Warda discovery, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

British Gas, as operator for its partners, Yukong Ltd., and Union Pacific Petroleum Suez Ltd., recently discovered the Warda field in the Gulf of Suez in November 1990. Discovery well Hb78-2, located 4 km off the mouth of the Wadi Araba on the west side of the north-central Gulf of Suez, reached a total depth of 8,400 ft in Nubia clastics. Oil was tested in the Hb78-2 from five separate clastic intervals at a cumulative flow rate of approximately 7,000 BOPD of 20-24{degree} API with no water. Currently, an appraisal well program is underway to extend the limits of the field. This significant new-field discovery is located in a part of the Suez basin that previously considered to have limited oil potential. Geophysical assessment of the structure used exploration 3-D seismic coverage and concurrently acquired potential-fields datasets. The Warda structure at Kareen-Rudeis levels is a broad four-way closure, trending northwest-southeast, which drapes over older pre-Miocene tilted fault blocks. The Warda structure lies downthrown to a major Clysmic shoulder fault and is bounded on the northeast by another Clysmic down-to-the-basin normal fault. Cross faulting is noted at the deeper levels, and particularly influences the rift boundary faults. According to burial-history modeling, oil generation occurred within 4-5 million years after the Eocene-Senonian carbonate source rocks achieved onset of oil generation at a birthline of 10,000-11,000 ft subsea. The Cretaceous-Carboniferous Nubia sandstones apparently have acted as a conduit for oil migration from the adjacent Lagia hydrocarbon kitchen a few kilometers to the northeast.

Vargo, J.N.; Greet, M.J.; Collings, B.P.; Davis, C.B.; Miller, M.H. (BG Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-08-01

26

Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt) in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.

Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER; Walid K. Al-GHARIB

2013-01-01

27

Ascidian introductions through the Suez Canal: The case study of an Indo-Pacific species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although marine biological invasions via the Suez Canal have been extensively documented, little is known about the introduction of non-indigenous ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea), a group containing particularly aggressive invasive species. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to study the introduction of the ascidian Herdmania momus into the Mediterranean Sea. We reviewed its taxonomy and global distribution, and analyzed how genetic variation is partitioned between sides of the Suez Canal. The taxonomic revision showed that H. momus currently has a wide Indo-Pacific distribution. Genetic data indicated two well-differentiated colonization histories across the eastern Mediterranean. Our findings suggest that the range expansion of H. momus has been greatly facilitated by the combined effect of human-mediated transport and the species' ability to adapt to different environments. The integrative approach presented here is critical to attain a holistic understanding of marine biological invasions, especially when studying groups with a poorly resolved taxonomy.

Rius M; Shenkar N

2012-10-01

28

Accommodation structures on Morgan hinge zone, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Morgan hinge zone is a narrow, complex structural belt separating a province of southwest-dipping fault blocks in the southern Gulf of Suez from a northeast-dipping province in the central Gulf. The variety of accommodation structures within this zone appears to result from the intersection of oppositely dipping, low-angle extensional detachments underlying the two dip provinces. Three major accommodation structures link to form the Morgan hinge zone. Transverse arches project outward from both rift margins. In the west, near Ras Shukheir, a gently dipping platform breaks northward into an array of small cross-strike tilt blocks but is truncated on the south by a broad, arcuate cross fault with major throw. In the central Gulf, a series of arcuate normal faults form spiraling splays around the broad dome at the Morgan field. The factors controlling the accommodation structures are (1) the configuration of the master detachments adjacent to the accommodation zone, (2) the vertical separation between the two opposing master detachments, and (3) preexisting mechanical weaknesses within the prerift basement terrane.

Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

1988-02-01

29

Accommodation structures on Morgan hinge zone, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Morgan hinge zone is a narrow, complex structural belt separating a province of southwest-dipping fault blocks in the southern Gulf of Suez from a northeast-dipping province in the central Gulf. The variety of accommodation structures within this zone appears to result from the intersection of oppositely dipping, low-angle extensional detachments underlying the two dip provinces. The central and southern Gulf provinces both exhibit similar gross morphologies. An array of similarly tilted fault blocks extends from one margin of the rift to close to the opposite margin, where dips of the tilt blocks decrease, then reverse, forming a broad structural arch adjacent to the border fault. This structural pattern results from extension on a low-angle master detachment having a dip opposite to that of the overlying tilt block array. Thus, the central Gulf province appears to have opened by extension on a southwest-dipping detachment, whereas the southern Gulf province opened on a northeast-dipping detachment.

Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

1988-01-01

30

Extensional tectonics and collapse structures in the Suez Rift (Egypt)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Suez Rift is a 300 km long and 50 to 80 km wide basin which cuts a granitic and metamorphic shield of Precambrian age, covered by sediments of Paleozoic to Paleogene age. The rift structure is dominated by tilted blocks bounded by NW-SE normal faults. The reconstruction of the paleostresses indicates a N 050 extension during the whole stage of rifting. Rifting began 24 My ago with dikes intrusions; main faulting and subsidence occurred during Early Miocene producing a 80 km wide basin (Clysmic Gulf). During Pliocene and Quaternary times, faulting is still active but subsidence is restricted to a narrower area (Present Gulf). On the Eastern margin of the gulf, two sets of fault trends are predominant: (1) N 140 to 150 E faults parallel to the gulf trend with pure dip-slip displacement; and (2) cross faults, oriented NOO to N 30 E that have a strike-slip component consistent with the N 050 E distensive stress regime. The mean dip cross fault is steeper (70 to 80 deg) than the dip of the faults parallel to the Gulf (30 to 70 deg). These two sets of fault define diamond shaped tilted block. The difference of mechanical behavior between the basement rocks and the overlying sedimentary cover caused structural disharmony and distinct fault geometries.

Chenet, P. Y.; Colletta, B.; Desforges, G.; Ousset, E.; Zaghloul, E. A.

31

Esporre l’Egitto. Viaggiatori europei all’inaugurazione del canale di Suez (1869)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La dilatazione mediatica e spettacolare delle manifestazioni dell’inaugurazione del Canale di Suez (1869) ci portano a riflettere sull’impatto della trasformazione dell’esperienza del viaggio nei decenni centrali dell’Ottocento, anche nel più stretto ambito della formazione e della cultura degli artisti figurativi. La ricchezza delle testimonianze iconiche e dei resoconti dei due tours proposti agli invitati europei da Ismail Pascià, nell’alto Egitto seguendo il percorso del Nilo, e nei territori del Canale, ci permette di ricostruire la complessità di questa ‘messa in scena’ dell’Egitto, che sembra dilatare l’impianto del Parc Egyptien all’Esposizione Universale del 1867.

Vanja Strukeli

2013-01-01

32

Structure of Morgan hinge zone, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Morgan hinge zone separates two major segments of the Suez rift containing opposite internal tilt-block rotations. Field studies within the zone's exposed western part show this complex cross-strike structure to be a transfer or accommodation feature, rather than a scissor-faulted hinge system or superimposed, through-going, strike-slip zone. The zone's western part contains complexly faulted and variably tilted blocks with unique histories, in contrast to adjacent orderly tilt-block arrays. Some faults exhibit oblique slip. To the south, the zone terminates against the Esh el Mellaha block, a large, southwest-dipping tilt block. Immediately to the northeast, the Zeit tilt block extends farther northwest and is separated from the adjacent Gebel Gharumul area by a small, deep pull-apart basin. To the northeast, the hinge zone passes across the rift through Morgan oil field and then doglegs southeastward, ending in a disturbed zone analogous to the Gebel Gharumul area. All fault sets appear to be contemporaneous and have maintained physical continuity. Local oblique slip and tilting, and high-angle, through-going cross faults terminating in doglegs, associated with deep pull-apart basins, suggest laterally varying transcurrent motion, rather than simple scissor faulting. The continuous border faults preclude through-going, strike-slip faults. Thus, the Morgan hinge zone is a transfer structure forming a decoupled interface between two orderly tilt-block systems. Although strike-slip motions are present locally, they probably cancel out along the entire zone and do not represent regional cross-strike shear.

Garbee, M.H.; Coffield, D.Q.; Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.; Smale, J.L.

1986-05-01

33

Corridor X: The challenge for Serbia's strategy toward the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the author points to a great significance of the Corridor X and the Danube-Morava-Vardar-Thessalonica bay projects. It would create conditions for connecting not only Serbia and the surrounding countries but the whole Europe with the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal. The author is of the opinion that there are good opportunities for cooperation on these projects between Serbia and the interested countries, and between the national and the world capital. These two projects, as well as the 'Južni tok' pipeline, should be one of the priority aims in the development strategy of the country.

Duji? Ivan

2009-01-01

34

Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using {gamma} spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 238}U series, {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of {sup 238}U series and {sup 40}K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq l{sup -1} for stream water. (author).

El-Tahawy, M.S.; Farouk, M.A.; Ibrahiem, N.M.; El-Mongey, S.A.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control

1994-07-01

35

Marine radioactivity studies in the Suez Canal. A modelling study on radionuclide dispersion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes work carried out under the IAEA Project EGY/07/002 to study the dispersion of radioactive material in the Suez Canal and the Bitter Lakes. This effort is linked with increased public concern about radiation safety through this important trade route. We apply a sequence of related modelling approaches, covering: (1) hydrodynamics, (2) transport of dissolved pollutants, (3) suspended loads and sediment dynamics, and (4) electrolytic reactions in aqueous suspension and in-sediment water pores. The final stage is a kinetic-reactive transport model for these tidal waters. The hydrodynamics have been studied using both 1D and 2D modelling approaches, and a reasonable calibration has been possible from the data set prepared with the collaboration of the Suez Canal Authority. Diffusion coefficients are calibrated from field tracing experiments included in the IAEA Project. They have been implemented in 1D and 2D models. Suspended matter dynamics and electrolytic reactions are documented from the available literature. Finally, different scenarios of discharges for both conservative and non-conservative radionuclides have been investigated.

Abril, J.M. E-mail: abril@cica.es; Abdel-Aal, M.M

2000-05-01

36

Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential ...

Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

37

Timing of structural development of oil traps in Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To date, more than 40 oil fields with an estimated 25billion bbl of oil in place have been discovered in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. These oil accumulations are present both in the pre-graben and graben-fill cycles which are separated by Oligocene tectonic phase, hitherto considered to be responsible for differentiation and formation of oil traps. In the present study, the structural development of many oil traps is related to intra-Rudeis tectonic phase of late early Miocene age. Presence of an a

Chowdhary, L.R.; Shaheen, S.

1988-01-01

38

Direct gamma-ray measurement of different radionuclides in the surface water of Suez Canal; Mesure directe du rayonnement gamma emis par divers radionucleides dans les eaux de surface du canal de Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactivity levels of naturally-occurring {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K and anthropogenic {sup 137}Cs in surface water from eight locations in the Suez Canal have been assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The samples were further characterized by determination of the common cations and anions using ion chromatography. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity levels in surface water from the Suez Canal with those of other sea waters is presented. The radioactivity levels of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K from sea water are also reported. The effect of total dissolved solids (T.D.S.), chloride, sulphate ion concentrations on the radioactivity levels of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 226}Ra is discussed. (authors)

Lasheen, Y.F.; El-Zakla, T.; Seliman, A.F.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A. [Hot Labs. Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

2008-04-15

39

La crisis del Canal de Suez en 1956: el fin de una época en el Medio Oriente y el comienzo de otra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La crisis del Canal de Suez (o Campaña de Suez, Guerra de Suez u Operación Kadesh) fue una guerra que estalla en 1956 en territorio egipcio. El conflicto que opone a Egipto a una alianza formada por Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel se produce a consecuencia de la nacionalización del Canal de Suez por el dirigente egipcio Gamal Abdel Nasser. Esta alianza entre dos estados europeos e Israel respondió a intereses comunes: económicos, comerciales y políticos. Durante el curso del mes que siguió a la nacionalización del Canal, un acuerdo secreto fue firmado en Sèvres, en las afueras de Paris, en el cual se selló la cooperación militar de Gran Bretaña, Francia e Israel contra Egipto.

Efraim Davidi

2006-01-01

40

Distribution of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia thurstoni Herdman, 1890 (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) along Suez Canal and Egyptian Red Sea coasts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecteinascidia thurstoni is a colonial sea squirt. It has a seasonal rhythm and a tropicaland subtropical distribution; it is usually present during the summer months.It synthesizes a group of molecules called ecteinascidins. One of these is ET-743, a compound that has a most original anti-tumoral activity and is today considered to be one of the most promising substances effective against various solid-type tumors (currently sold under the trade name of Yondelis for the treatment of sarcomas and related tumors; it is undergoing phase II/III clinical trails for other kinds of tumors).Worldwide, Ecteinascidia species represent the only available source of this bioactivecompound, which was first discovered in E. turbinata.During the present study, the ecology of E. thurstoni along the Suez Canal and Red Seawas investigated. Its populations were observed to be highly gregarious due in partto their low larval dispersal, which is very localized; larvae therefore tendto settle close to their parent colonies. It is only recorded in shallow waters (0.5-1.5 m)as an epiphyte on the pneumatophores of mangroves by the Red Sea, on the pilings of jetties,and the metal or cement banks of the Suez Canal. The morphometric characteristics(zooid length, zooid weight, colony weight) of the Suez Canal population differsignificantly from those of the Red Sea. Studying the distribution of this speciesand locating its different populations along the Suez Canal and Red Sea could helpto characterize their genetics, chemistry and bacterial communities at differentisolated locations.Ultimately, this will help to define the sources of ET-743 and hence promote itsbiosynthesis on a commercial scale.

Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Wind resources of the Gulf of Suez and northern Red Sea, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of a comprehensive, 5-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez is presented. The primary purpose has been to establish reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for this area. With mean wind speeds and energy densities of 8-12 ms{sup -1} and 500-1400 Wm{sup -2}, respectively, at a height of 25 m over roughness class 0 (water), the wind resources of the Gulf of Suez are comparable to those of the most favourable regions in NW-Europe. The wind atlas methodology has proven very useful in the extreme climatic conditions of the desert. Applied with care, it can provide accurate predictions of the wind climate at candidate sites for wind turbines along the Gulf of Suez. (author)

Mortensen, N.G. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Meteorology and Wind Energy; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Wind Energy Dept.

1997-06-01

42

Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations; a secondary purpose has been to evaluate the applicability of current wind resource estimation and siting tools – in particular the European Wind Atlas methodology – to this region where the meso-scale effects are pronounced and the climatic conditions (e.g. atmospheric stability) somewhat extreme. The wind data are analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Meso-scale Model (KAMM) has been used to model the wind flow as well as to establish the magnitude and spatial variation of the wind resource in the Gulf of Suez – based on the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data set. Results are compared to long-term measurements of wind speed and direction at 13 meteorological stations along a 250-km stretch of the Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea. The simulations of the wind climate in the Gulf of Suez with the KAMM meso-scale model capture the main features of the complicated flow patterns and of the observed wind climates; however, the mean wind speeds and power densities are somewhat underestimated. The wind resource is found to be very high in the Gulf of Suez – with capacity factors of up to about 70% – at the same time the horizontal gradients of wind speed and power density are quite steep. The combination of meso- and micro-scale flow models – here the KAMM/WAsP methodology or the Numerical Wind Atlas – seem necessary in order to make reliable wind resource assessments in all parts of the Gulf of Suez.

Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama

2003-01-01

43

Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric parameters, the frequency of occurrence, abundance and density analyses, the seaweed C. prolifera is more frequent, abundant and dense in Suez Canal than the seagrass H. stipulacea, which is very rare. Instead C. prolifera forming extended dense meadows with percentage cover nearly 100% m–2 at many sites. This mainly happened; due to the competitive success of C. prolifera which seems to be related to its big size, high density, rapid growth, high efficiency in dim light conditions, high tolerance to severe nutrient limitation and salinity and temperature fluctuations and to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. The presence of these toxic secondary metabolites explains why C. prolifera is avoided by many of macro invertebrates as a habitat or feeding grounds.

Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

2007-01-01

44

Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric parameters, the frequency of occurrence, abundance and density analyses, the seaweed C. prolifera is more frequent, abundant and dense in Suez Canal than the seagrass H. stipulacea, which is very rare. Instead C. prolifera forming extended dense meadows with percentage cover nearly 100% m-2 at many sites. This mainly happened; due to the competitive success of C. prolifera which seems to be related to its big size, high density, rapid growth, high efficiency in dim light conditions, high tolerance to severe nutrient limitation and salinity and temperature fluctuations and to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. The presence of these toxic secondary metabolites explains why C. prolifera is avoided by many of macro invertebrates as a habitat or feeding grounds.

Gab-Alla, Ali A.-F. A.

45

Miocene biofacies development and geological history of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Miocene sediments of the Gulf of Suez were deposited in a rapidly subsiding rift which became active during Late Oligocene and Early Pliocene tectonic episodes. Complex lithological variations associated with the variable submarine structure commonly preclude detailed correlation of drilled subsurface successions. Thick Middle to Late Miocene evaporites and their geometry obscure seismic interpretation of prospective sub-evaporitic Early and Middle Miocene sequences. The thick Miocene sediments are believed to have significantly furnished the source, as well as the reservoirs and seals for the oil discovered in the Gulf of Suez. Over four billion barrels of oil have been established as recoverable reserves in Miocene reservoirs. A new Gulf-wide detailed correlation scheme is established based upon a series of newly defined microfaunal assemblage zones. These zones are based on holistic analysis of microfauna utilizing planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, diatoms, otoliths and pteropods. Dating by planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils indicates the zones are isochronous. Vertical and lateral variations in assemblage characteristics have been identified, mapped and are concluded to be the results of vertical and lateral differences in salinity, water depth, water clarity, lithological variation and oxygen availability. The correlative applicability of this scheme within the Gulf of Suez provides potential for it to serve as a reference for drilled sequences in the Red Sea, where thicker evaporite sequences make sub-evaporitic stratigraphic correlation even more difficult owing to the greater seismic attenuation. (author)

Hughes, G.W.; Girgis, M.H. (Robertson Group, Llandudno (United Kingdom)); Abdine, S. (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt))

1992-02-01

46

Calibration and sensitivity analysis in reactive transport models for tidal waters, application to radionuclide dispersion in the Suez Canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last decade we have been developing conceptual and numerical models to study the dispersion of radionuclides in marine and estuarine environments. We are using approaches from the Computational Fluid Dynamics to solve the instantaneous water state and the dynamics of suspended solids and bottom sediments. This provides the physical scenario where the electrolytic reactions between dissolved radionuclides and the solid phase take place. The model structure is constructed so that each new sub-model is implemented over the previously established and validated basis. the final stage is a kinetic-reactive transport model for tidal waters. In this work we illustrate the calibration procedure and the sensitivity analysis in a modelling study of the dispersion of radioactive materials in the Suez Canal waters. (Author) 5 refs.

Abril, J. M.

2001-07-01

47

Penetrating evaporites - new information from old seismic data in Suez Rift, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Structures in the prerift sediments, Gulf of Suez, are of primary interest for petroleum exploration. However, the overlying thick blanket of Miocene synrift evaporites severely limits resolution of deep structures in seismic reflection lines. A technique for maximizing accuracy of prerift maps and sections is illustrated by examples from the south-central Gulf of Suez. Preliminary structural maps of prerift units are generated from limited well data, good seismically derived maps of the base evaporite, and fragmentary deep seismic data. Through rigorous application of conventional cross section balancing techniques and geometric rules for listric normal fault-block rotation, trial cross sections are constructed. Construction of trial cross sections relies heavily on the following information from seismic lines: (1) thickness variations of synrift fill; (2) sequence boundaries representing unconformities over buried tilt blocks; (3) dip domains faintly visible beneath Miocene evaporites; and (4) faulting in Miocene sediments in response to deeper normal faults. The integration of well data allows control of seismic interpretation and of depth to prerift rocks. The sections are refined through iteration and are then used in conjunction with areal balancing methods to correct the structure maps. The subsequent serialization of balanced sections results in an internally consistent, geometrically constrained, three-dimensional picture of the basin which best fits all the available data. Important information on prerift structures which results from this technique includes location of normal faults and the magnitude of their throw, attitude of deep tilt blocks, and location of tilt-block terminations. Using this methodology, old prospects can be refined and new plays and prospects generated. These can then be tested by local detailed seismic work or by the drill.

Perry, S.K.; Gawarecki, S.L.; Schamel, S.

1987-05-01

48

Risk factors of falls among elderly living in urban Suez--Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Falling is one of the most common geriatric syndromes threatening the independence of older persons. Falls result from a complex and interactive mix of biological or medical, behavioral and environmental factors, many of which are preventable. Studying these diverse risk factors would aid early detection and management of them at the primary care level. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study about risk factors of falls was conducted to 340 elders in Urban Suez. Those are all patients over 60 who attended two family practice centers in Urban Suez. RESULTS: When asked about falling during the past 12 months, 205 elders recalled at least one incident of falling. Of them, 36% had their falls outdoors and 24% mentioned that stairs was the most prevalent site for indoor falls. Falls were also reported more among dependant than independent elderly. Using univariate regression analysis, almost all tested risk factors were significantly associated with falls in the studied population. These risk factors include: living alone, having chronic diseases, using medications, having a physical deficit, being in active, and having a high nutritional risk. However, the multivariate regression analysis proved that the strongest risk factors are low level of physical activity with OR 0.6 and P value 0.03, using a cane or walker (OR 1.69 and P value 0.001) and Impairment of daily living activities (OR 1.7 and P value 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although falls is a serious problem among elderly with many consequences, it has many preventable risk factors. Health care providers should advice people to remain active and more research is needed in such an important area of Family Practice.

Kamel MH; Abdulmajeed AA; Ismail Sel-S

2013-01-01

49

Risk factors of falls among elderly living in Urban Suez - Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Falling is one of the most common geriatric syndromes threatening the independence of older persons. Falls result from a complex and interactive mix of biological or medical, behavioral and environmental factors, many of which are preventable. Studying these diverse risk factors would aid early detection and management of them at the primary care level. Methods This is a cross sectional study about risk factors of falls was conducted to 340 elders in Urban Suez. Those are all patients over 60 who attended two family practice centers in Urban Suez. Results When asked about falling during the past 12 months, 205 elders recalled at least one incident of falling. Of them, 36% had their falls outdoors and 24% mentioned that stairs was the most prevalent site for indoor falls. Falls were also reported more among dependant than independent elderly. Using univariate regression analysis, almost all tested risk factors were significantly associated with falls in the studied population. These risk factors include: living alone, having chronic diseases, using medications, having a physical deficit, being in active, and having a high nutritional risk. However, the multivariate regression analysis proved that the strongest risk factors are low level of physical activity with OR 0.6 and P value 0.03, using a cane or walker (OR 1.69 and P value 0.001) and Impairment of daily living activities (OR 1.7 and P value 0.001). Conclusion Although falls is a serious problem among elderly with many consequences, it has many preventable risk factors. Health care providers should advice people to remain active and more research is needed in such an important area of Family Practice.

Kamel, Mohammed Hany; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed; Ismail, Sally El-Sayed

2013-01-01

50

Mechanical stratigraphy of sedimentary section - implications for petroleum exploration, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mechanical response of sedimentary units to extension varies, depending on their rheology. In the Gulf of Suez, knowledge of the mechanical stratigraphy assures better control for seismic interpretation, structural analysis, and delineation of possible hydrocarbon traps. Recent field studies and seismic analysis allow delineation of the structural response of a range of prerift and synrift lithologies. The prerift section is divided into three major mechanical/stratigraphic units: Precambrian basement, Nubian sandstone, and Cenomanian through Eocene shallow marine platform rocks. Single fault planes in the basement are expressed in the overlying Nubian sandstone as closely spaced parallel faults and fractures. In contrast, the inhomogeneous Late Cretaceous-Paleogene section of alternating brittle and ductile beds drapes over the underlying normal faults. The synrift section may comprise three mechanical/stratigraphic units: (1) early Miocene carbonates and clastics; (2) middle-late Miocene evaporites; and (3) Pliocene-Recent clastics. The lower synrift rocks respond to faulting much like the Cenomanian-Eocene units. The evaporite section acts as a major detachment zone, with underlying faults dying out upward. Onshore, faults in the more brittle passive cover rocks sole into the underlying evaporites. Thus, faults at the surface may be entirely decoupled from master faults in the early synrift and prerift strata. Mechanical response in the synrift section is complicated by syntectonic processes such as growth faulting, compaction, and lateral facies changes.

Gawarecki, S.L.; Coffield, D.Q.; Schamel, S.

1987-05-01

51

Modulation of stress related protein genes in the bass (Epinephelus guaza) caught from the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impact of chemical pollution on expression of stress protein genes in the bass Epinephelus guaga collected from several locations including Suez Oil Production Port (Floating port), Atakah Fishing Port, Adabiya Port and Tawfik Port in Suez Governorate, Egypt, was investigated. In the current study, levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and fish samples collected from Suez Gulf were assessed. In addition, gills and liver tissues of caught bass fish were used to address the interaction between pollution status and the expression of stress-related genes (Hsp70a, Hsp70b, Hsp47, MT and CYP1A). Our analysis demonstrated that levels of PAHs in Floating and Tawfik ports were higher than those found in the Atakah Fishing Port and the Adabiya Port. In addition, MDA and PC contents were significantly higher in gills and liver tissues collected from Floating and Tawfik ports than those collected from Adabiya and Atakah ports. In correlation to the above results, all fish collected from the Floating and Tawfik ports presented a significant increase in Hsp-, MT- and CYP1A-mRNAs. On the other hand, fish samples collected from the Atakah Fishing and Adabiya ports showed no induction of the stress-related genes transcription in such tissues. In conclusion, the current research demonstrates that remarkable increase in PAH contaminants levels in Floating and Tawfik ports are correlated with the levels stress protein-related genes transcription in E. guaga gills and liver tissues. PMID:23849466

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Khalil, Wagdy K B

2013-07-10

52

Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) abroad. We studied the outcome o...

Galal H El-Gazzaz; Azza H El-Elemi

53

Sea transport of radioactive materials in Egypt (invited paper)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the experience gained. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the Canal from 1963 to 1996 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. (author)

El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Gomaa, M.A

1998-07-01

54

Mapping Geological Structures In Wadi Ghoweibaarea, Northwest Gulf Of Suez, Egypt, Using Aster-Spot Data Fusion And Aster DEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Practical and economical constraints prompt the need of obtaining lithological and structural information for development of desert areas with reduced field effort. The fusion of multi-sensor satellite data is an effective mean of exploiting the complimentary nature of different data types. This technique allows fusion of spectral-spectral information of multi-source data with high accuracy. In the present study, fusion of SPOT and ASTER data was applied to test the potentiality of this technique in mapping geological formations and structural lineaments in Wadi Ghoweiba area, to the west of the northwestern tip of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. ASTER data is characterized by a wide range of spectral bands (14 bands), while SPOT panchromatic data is characterized by high (10 meters) spatial resolution. Based on spectral characteristic analysis (SCA) of the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands of ASTER data, two false-color band-ratio images (1/3, 2/5, and 4/ 9) and (1/5, 8/9, and 4/6) in R, G, B were produced for better lithological discrimination. SPOT panchromatic image data was fused with ASTER band ratio images data using principal component (PC) and color normalization or Brovey transformation techniques. The fused images proved to be excellent for lithological discrimination. ASTER data includes bands 3N (Nadir) and 3B (Backward) that are acquired in the spectral range of near infrared region (from 0.78 to 0.86 microns) allowing extraction of digital elevation model (DEM). Three-dimensional perspective views were generated by draping SPOT-ASTER ratio fused images over ASTER DEM. This technique was used to enhance morphologically-defined structures. The fused images and the 3D perspective views were interpreted to produce a photo geological-structural map that was verified using the available geological maps and subsequent field check. The produced photo geological map indicates that fusion of SPOT and ASTER ratio image's data is a reliable technique for geological mapping especially in remote and inaccessible areas

2009-01-01

55

Gulf of Suez has excellent potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt's re-emergence as an oil exporting country in the past several years was brought about by the drilling of fewer than 100 exploration wells in a small area of the Gulf of Suez. Now that Israel and Egypt are at peace and Egypt again controls this area, prospects for large, new discoveries in previously untested areas are excellent.

Abdine, S.

1981-07-01

56

Seasonal composition and population density of zooplankton in Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated seasonally at ten sites in Lake Timsah and the adjacent, connected western lagoon in relation to the physico-chemical conditions. A total of 42 taxa (including larval stages) were identified, among them 21 species of copepods, 6 rotifers, 5 cladocerans, 1 chaetognath and 1 urochordate. Copepods represented the predominant component (77.7% of the total community), followed by rotifers, molluscs, cladocerans and (9.2, 4.7 and 3.9% respectively), while other groups collectively formed about 4.5% of the total zooplankton population. Summer was the most productive season with an average count of 40 864 individuals m-3. The dominant copepod species were Paracalanus crassirostris and Oithona nana representing 28.3 and 24.3% of the total zooplankton respectively. The total zooplankton count, including copepods, and its dominant species showed significant positive correlations with temperature, pH and total phytoplankton density. However, negative correlations were detected between densities of rotifers, and salinity and dissolved oxygen.

Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny; Ali M. Al-Aidaroos; Ali Gab-Alla

2011-01-01

57

A contrução do canal de Suez e a formação do conflito: a força de paz brasileira na Faixa de Gaza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apesar de ocorrerem ainda inúmeros conflitos, após 1945 as nações uniram-se em busca de paz. A ONU passou a intervir em conflitos armados sempre que achasse necessário para a manutenção da paz. Entretanto, o imperialismo havia deixado suas marcas em diversos países da África, que após a Segunda Guerra Mundial se lançaram na luta por independência. Este foi o caso de Suez. No presente artigo apresentamos nossa análise sobre a formação do conflito árabe-israelense na Faixa de Gaza e da efetiva participação brasileira, como força de paz enviada pela ONU, na Guerra dos Seis Dias.

Francisca Carla Santos Ferrer; Júlia Silveira Matos

2006-01-01

58

Facies and geologic history of an exposed Miocene rift-margin carbonate platform: Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abu Shaar is a small exhumed carbonate platform of lower to middle Miocene age on a horst of Precambrian crystalline rock along the western side of the Gulf of Suez. The reef-rimmed complex is entirely dolomite but with exquisitely preserved primary and diagenetic microfabrics. Similar platforms, some of which contain hydrocarbons, are buried beneath evaporites in the Gulf. The platform developed in three stages, defined as local members of the Rudeis Formation. The first stage records deposition during progressive marine onlap as aprons of mixed terrigenous-carbonate sediments evolved into a wide reef-rimmed platform. Synsedimentary platform-margin collapse subsequently removed the most seaward portions of the reefs along the eastern Gulf-facing margin. These truncation surfaces were then covered by a second phase of reef growth and deposition of fore-reef carbonates. The third and final stage, deposited following a sea level drop and subaerial exposure, is a series of well-bedded peritidal carbonates that become progressively more evaporitic upward. Fore-reef facies are again truncated by synsedimentary slope failure. Former evaporites are now recorded as collapse breccias, contorted bedding, black chert nodules, and evaporite molds. Porosity is mainly secondary as vugs and molds and is highest in platform interior facies. These more porous sediments contained more aragonitic components originally and were less affected by submarine cementation. In contrast, the higher degree of synsedimentary lithification of platform-margin reef and fore-reef sediments is comparable with what is commonly observed in modern reef-dominated platform margins. 15 figures, 1 tables.

James, N.P.; Coniglio, M.; Aissaoui, D.M.; Purser, B.H.

1988-05-01

59

Excavation of a Qattara Canal in Egypt: two-dimensional nuclear cratering calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of single-charge nuclear cratering calculations were performed. Results from these calculations are being used in a study of the technical feasibility of the Qattara Project. The project would use nuclear explosives with yields ranging between about 200 and 1750 kilotons to excavate a canal about 73 km long connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the below sea-level Qattara Depression in northwestern Egypt. Computer simulations of explosive excavations were carried out at four locations near the proposed Qattara alignment. Holes were drilled in Egypt at these locations to depths of 372, 514, 632, and 701 m, respectively, to provide geophysical information needed to properly characterize each site for computer calculations. The calculated results for ground motion, particle velocity, and crater dimensions for these nuclear excavations are presented.

1980-01-01

60

Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author).

El-Shinawy, R.M.K. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radiation Protection Dept.

1994-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Wind farm planning at the Gulf of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wind Atlas for Egypt project is an element in a national effort to provide the best possible basis for planning of future environmentally sustainable development and utilization of wind energy resources and technology in Egypt. The present report compiles the data, information and recommendations available for planning of wind farm projects in the Gulf of Suez. (au)

Clausen, N.E.; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Clausager, I. [Hedeselskabet A/S, Viborg (Denmark); Pagh Jensen, F. [National Environmental Res., Copenhagen (Denmark); Georgy, L.; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt, (Egypt)

2004-11-01

62

Failures in American Diplomacy: The Suez Crisis,1956/// Amerikan Diplomasisinde Ba?ar?s?zl?k: Süvey? Krizi ( 1956)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In October 1956 Great Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt over control of the Suez Canal. The allies believed Egypt’s actions violated the 1888 principles regarding control and use of the waterway. The United States played a role in the mediation of the parties. It is widely believed that the Eisenhower administration’s influence prevented more conflict and stood up to the Soviet intrusion into the area. The evidence shows that this was not the case. In fact, it was American failures in diplomacy which brought about the crisis in the first place, created the pathway for Soviet adventurism into this vital area, and inevitably caused a war between the nations involved. In effect America’s interest was dedicated to damage control of the situation rather than the peaceful resolution of the issue. This essay argues that American failures were the main cause of the Suez Crisis in 1956, and was the primer for more instability and war in the region long after the Eisenhower administration had ended.

Larry Hart

2011-01-01

63

A new cascaded hydropower plants in El Sheikh Zayed Canal in the new valley in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the streaks of the light looming in the horizon, heralding the dawn of the 21st century and the closing of the 20th century, the whole people of the world specially the sons of Egypt are full of hopes and dreams. The south Egypt development project is translation of this concept viewed from comprehensive strategic vision embracing a number of development fields covering activities in the field of agriculture, industry, transport, communication and roads as well as social aspects services such as health and education that would drive Egypt to the horizons of the 21st century. This new projects are: Toshka, New Valley or New Delta, Sheik Zayed which will feed more than a million feddans, transforming the desert into a green carpet, turning the wheels of industries and shedding off the stiffing nightmare of the choking narrow valley. This paper presents a new idea and application to know to use the water flow from the Nasser lake after raising and pumping with certain speed according to the ground slope. A series of hydro power plants are designed on certain interested points on El Sheikh Zayed Canal to generate electrical energy which will be required to feed several projects in this new valley. The results show the comparison between these eight hydro power plants w.r.t: it's generated electrical energy water release, water contents and the head of water inside each one. Also, the study contains the mathematical models of each hydropower station and the mathematical description of each reservoir, barrages and power stations. [Spanish] Con los rayos de luz asomandose en el horizonte, anunciando el amanecer del siglo XXI y el ocaso del siglo XX, todas las personas del mundo, especialmente los hijos de Egipto, estan llenos de suenos y esperanza. El proyecto de desarrollo del sur de Egipto traduce este concepto desde una vision estrategica integral que incluye un gran numero de areas de desarrollo que abarcan actividades en el campo de la agricultura, la industria, el transporte, las comunicaciones y los caminos, asi como servicios sociales salud y educacion, los cuales dirigiran a Egipto a los horizontes del siglo XXI. Estos nuevos proyectos son los de Toshka, Nuevo Valle o Nuevo Delta y Sheikh Zayed que alimentaran mas de un millon de almas, transformando el desierto en una alfombra verde, moviendo las ruedas de las industrias y despojandose de la pesadilla de muerte sobre un asfixiante valle estrecho. Este articulo presenta una nueva idea y aplicacion para saber utilizar el flujo del agua desde el lago Nasser despues de elevar y bombear a cierta velocidad de acuerdo al declive del suelo. Una serie de plantas hidroelectricas estan disenadas en ciertos puntos de interes en el Canal El Sheikh Zayed para generar energia electrica que se necesitara para alimentar varios proyectos en este nuevo valle. Los resultados muestran la comparacion entre estas ocho plantas hidroelectricas o sea: Su generacion electrica, su liberacion de agua por energia electrica generada, almacenamiento de agua y carga hidraulica de cada una. El estudio contiene tambien modelos matematicos de cada planta hidroelectrica y la descripcion matematica de cada embalse, represas y planta electrica.

Hosny Fahmy, Faten [Electronics Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

2000-07-01

64

Renovation of a salt-damaged tunnel in Suez; Suez no engai tunnel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a tunnel under the Suez Canal that has been used by vehicles since 1983. Since a large damage to the tunnel was detected, the Japanese Government delegated an inquiry commission in 1992, and has the damaged tunnel repaired according to the inquiry result. As one of the Japanese engineers involved in the repair, the author describes the repair of the tunnel as well as the climate of the areas around the tunnel, including Suez City and the Suez Canal. In these areas, water infiltrating from the Suez Canal evaporates to produce salt crystals that are deposited on the ground surface, which only produces wild bare lands around the Canal. Salt damage has prevented exploitation into farm lands. The tunnel above, which is 1640 m in length and 11.6 m in outside excavation diameter, was completed in 1983. Only two years later, the first salt damage was detected in the tunnel. Water leakage containing salt several times as much as in sea water corroded reinforcing bars of the tunnel structure. The damage reached about 65% of the segments. The principal cause is eliminating of lining concrete from construction of the tunnel. To repair the damaged tunnel, lining concrete of adequate strength was placed. The repair work was executed and completed under the plan in perspective of future extensions. 8 figs.

Hamada, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-10-15

65

Light-gravity crude oil is produced in the Gulf of Suez mine property; Suezuwankoku de keishitsu genyu wo sanshutsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TEIKOKU OIL announced that an output of crude oil 3114BPD and natural gas NISSAN 270000m{sup 3} was confirmed from the trial pit No.1 well in Gulf of Suez girth Ashrahy mine property (Egypt zight bay northeast 4 km) in Egypt which the TEIKOKU OIL Suez petroleum invested with Japan National Oil Corp. on 10th has participated. 60% and TEIKOKU OIL Suez petroleum possess 40% on interests of this mine property in IEOC Co.. The oil quality of the crude oil which produces this time is 43.5 degrees and light type in the API. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

1999-07-01

66

Impact of human activities on Aluminum contamination in the drainage canals in the Nile Delta, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aluminum is released into Sabal drainage canal through the emissions of recycled aluminum industries, the discharge of stations of water purification that contain huge amount of aluminum sulfate (alum) and the extensive use of clay in the industry of packed bricks. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of human activities on Al accumulation on water and fish consumption. The field and laboratory studies of water samples and different fish tissues (muscles, liver and ovary) revealed that water samples had higher levels of Aluminum if compared to those collected from other localities. Tissue samples of the fish, Tilapia zillii had higher levels of Al which exceeded the international permissible limits. From a public health standpoint, the increased concentrations of Al in water samples and the fish tissues in the are is a matter of concern. Therefore, the research suggests the elimination of illegal aluminum industries and replace the smaller and old stations of sewage treatment by another modern type capable of collecting and treating huge amount of sewage, with high efficiency of treatment and purification.

Alne-na-ei A. A.; Authman M.

2013-01-01

67

Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host-parasite relationship at a molecular level.

Abou-El-Naga IF

2013-09-01

68

Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host-parasite relationship at a molecular level.

Abou-El-Naga IF

2013-09-01

69

Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host-parasite relationship at a molecular level. PMID:23938396

Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

2013-09-01

70

Egypt's petroleum geology: Good grounds for optimism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past eight years 30 operators have discovered 25 fields in Egypt. While most have been in the Gulf of Suez, the Western Desert, Which covers two-thirds of the country, and the Nile Delta are also prospective. This study discusses Egypt's regional geology as well as the geology of the individual significant recent discoveries.

Abdine, A.S.

1981-12-01

71

Recovery of Ralstonia solanacearum from canal water in traditional potato-growing areas of Egypt but not from designated Pest-Free Areas (PFAs)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surveys over three seasons of irrigation, drainage and artesian well water throughout the major potato-growing areas of Egypt indicated that Ralstonia solanacearum bv. 2 race 3 (phylotype II sequevar 1), cause of potato brown rot, was limited to the canals of the traditional potato-growing areas in the Nile Delta region, with positive findings more commonly associated with the network of smaller irrigation canals flowing through potato-growing areas. Pathogen populations in the canals of the Delta (~100-200 cfu l?¹) were generally variable throughout the year with presence linked to potato cultivation in the immediate area. The pathogen was not detected in irrigation or drainage water associated with potato cultivation in the newly reclaimed desert areas (designated as Pest-Free Areas, PFAs) or in the main branches of the Nile upstream from these areas. In vitro studies showed that temperature and microbial activity were the main factors affecting survival of the pathogen in canal water. In experiments at temperatures of 4, 15, 28 and 35°C, survival was longest at 15°C and shortest at 35°C. Survival at 4 and 28°C tended to be intermediate between these extremes as was survival when the bacterium was grown at fluctuating temperatures. Aeration, solarisation and pH variation between 4 and 9 appeared to have little effect on survival. Survival in autoclaved or filter-sterilised canal water was longer than in untreated water irrespective of other factors with survival times exceeding 300 days at 15°C in some experiments. Evidence is presented indicating that survival in water-saturated sediment may be longer than in the overlying water suggesting that sediment may provide a protective niche for the pathogen in some circumstances. The maximum survival time in non-sterile Egyptian canal water at high inoculum pressure was estimated to be up to 300 days at optimum temperature for survival (15-30°C) suggesting the potential for long-distance spread in Egyptian surface waters from sources of contamination.

Tomlinson DL; Elphinstone JG; Soliman MY; Hanafy MS; Shoala TM; Abd El-Fatah H; Agag SH; Kamal M; Abd El-Aliem MM; Fawzi FG; Stead DE; Janse JD

2009-12-01

72

Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (?3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

2009-01-01

73

Egyptian Arab Republic; Egypte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work are given the principal news concerning petroleum and natural gas in Egyptian Arab Republic. An important discovery of natural gas has been made in Khalda (Egyptian Arab Republic). The discovery well will be temporarily abandoned until it is connected to the egyptian pipeline system. In 1996 the south Khalda will be explored with at least two well drilling. The transit duties by the Suez canal for liquefied natural gas exports have decreased of 35%. The Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company studies a connection project of the trans saudi pipeline with the Suez mediterranean pipeline. The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation will furnish 2,5 milliards of m{sup 3} per year of natural gas to Israel during 20 years. (O.L.). 2 figs.

Anon.

1995-10-01

74

Wind Atlas for Egypt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step forward in the application of the wind atlas methodology in Egypt. Not only does it provide a coherent and consistent overview of the wind energy resource over the entire land (and sea) area of Egypt, the results of the mesoscale modelling are further available in a database (numerical wind atlas) which may be employed directly for detailed wind resource assessments and siting of wind turbines and wind farms. Utilising this database together with elevation maps derived from the Space Shuttle Topography Mission and land-use maps constructed from satellite imagery, the wind resource and likely power production of a given wind farm can be estimated in a matter of hours – anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published in a Wind Atlas for Egypt.

Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama

2006-01-01

75

Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62) and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48); 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV)-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12); Hepatitis B (HBV)-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54%) developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

Galal H El-Gazzaz; Azza H El-Elemi

2010-01-01

76

Prevalence of female genital cutting among Egyptian girls/ Prévalence des mutilations génitales féminines chez les filles en Egypte/ Prevalencia de la mutilación genital femenina entre las niñas en Egipto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El concepto de mutilación genital femenina (MGF) abarca en general las prácticas tradicionales que entrañan la ablación parcial o total de los genitales externos femeninos por razones no terapéuticas, culturales o de otro tipo. En Egipto, el resultado de la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud realizada en 2000 reveló que un 97% de las mujeres casadas participantes en la encuesta habían sufrido MGF. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la prevalencia de MGF e (more) ntre las escolares de Egipto. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó un método de muestreo aleatorizado polietápico para seleccionar los sitios. Primero, el país se dividió en cinco zonas geográficas: área metropolitana de El Cairo, Bajo Egipto, Alto Egipto, Sinaí y región del Canal de Suez. Segundo, en cada prefectura se seleccionaron al azar dos distritos educativos (excepto Luxor). En cada uno de los distritos seleccionados, las escuelas se clasificaron en primarias, preparatorias y secundarias. En cada nivel educativo, las escuelas se clasificaron en rurales, urbanas, públicas y privadas. El número total de mujeres entrevistadas fue de 38 816. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de MGF entre las escolares de Egipto era del 50,3%. El porcentaje era de un 46,2% en las escuelas públicas urbanas, 9,2% en las escuelas privadas urbanas, y 61,7% en las escuelas rurales. Los niveles educativos de la madre y el padre estaban inversamente relacionados con la MGF (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Female genital cutting (FGC) is the collective name given to traditional practices that involve partial or total cutting away of the female external genitalia whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. In Egypt, the result of the Demographic Health Survey in 2000 revealed that 97% of married women included in the survey experienced FGC. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt. METHODS: Multistage random t (more) echnique was applied for site selection. First, Egypt was divided into five geographical areas; Greater Cairo, Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Sinai and Suez Canal Region. Second, from each governorate, two educational districts were selected randomly (except Luxor). In each of the selected districts, the schools were divided into primary, preparatory and secondary schools. In each education stage, the schools were divided into rural, urban, government and private. The total number of females interviewed was 38 816. FINDINGS: The prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt was 50.3%. The prevalence of FGC was 46.2% in government urban schools, 9.2% in private urban schools and 61.7% in rural schools. Educational levels of mother and father were negatively associated with FGC (P

Tag-Eldin, Mohammed A; Gadallah, Mohsen A; Al-Tayeb, Mahmoud N; Abdel-Aty, Mostafa; Mansour, Esmat; Sallem, Mona

2008-04-01

77

Spotlight: Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Egypt the population grew at a relatively slow pace prior to World War 2, but since 1974 the rate of growth has approximately doubled, primarily as a result of declining mortality conditions with the overall improvement in health conditions. The population totaled 46 million in 1983, giving Egypt one of the highest population densities in the world. The country is largely agricultural, dependent upon an intricate irrigation system of canals, drains, dams, and pumping stations. Nearly half of the labor force is engaged in farming or food processing, maintaining an agronomy with relatively high production, despite some inefficiencies. In the early 1970s the economy was aided by Sadat's "turn to the West." This caused an increased flow of foreign economic assistance. Despite the rising importance of petroleum products as an income earner, Egypt continues to have a large negative trade imbalance, in part caused by the necessity of importing food, scarce wood, and machinery for development. The predominantly Muslin population has had a history of high fertility and a traditional preference for large families. As the death rate declined in the postwar period, Egypt's high fertility caused a more rapid increase in population growth. If the present rate of growth were sustained, the population would double in size about every 25 years. The government has long been concerned about the effects of population and has, in recent years, adopted a vigorous national program to reduce fertility and slow growth. There is little question that some fertility decline has occurred in recent years, but it is difficult to determine exact values for recent levels and trends. In 1973 the government set a goal to reduce the crude birthrate by 1 point per year. Although that specific target was probably not reached, 1980 survey data indicate that about 40% of married women in urban areas and 12% in rural areas practice some form of contraception. A campaign to increase family planning by rural couples is underway. Yet, fertility remains high with a national average of about 5-6 children per woman. Even with a rapid fertility decline, the population will most likely rise from the present 46 to over 80 million and may well exceed 100 million, if the decrease in the birthrate is more protracted. Egypt's demography will be an overriding issue for many years to come. PMID:12266005

1984-01-01

78

Obstetricians' perspective towards cesarean section delivery based on professional level: experience from Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate Egyptian obstetricians' views towards cesarean delivery on maternal request, (2) to investigate Egyptian obstetricians' views towards some of the "potentially neglected" or controversial obstetrical skills or maneuvers as external cephalic version (ECV), fetal scalp pH measurement or tubal ligation during CS and (3) to examine the effect of professional level on the above factors. STUDY DESIGN: This is a descriptive study performed at the 8th annual Obstetrics and Gynecology conference of Suez Canal University held at Ismailia city in Egypt in June 2011 via a structured self administered questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed to 223 conference attendants from the three professional levels (consultants, specialists and registrars) working at the two major institutions in Egypt: University and Ministry of Health. The structured questionnaire was based on informed opinion and professional guidelines. In total, 167 (75%) completed the questionnaire. RESULTS: Cesarean delivery on maternal request was accepted by 66% of the studied group and acceptance was significantly higher among consultants. There was no difference in all physicians' practices of cesarean section in both private and public settings. Limited access to medical equipment such as cardiotocogram (CTG) was shown in consultant group reflecting improper private sector preparations. The study revealed that 59% of obstetricians accepted vaginal breech delivery, and only 14% would consider ECV. Fetal scalp pH taking in cases of abnormal CTG was accepted by only 16.3% and 49% rejected the practice of instrumental delivery. There were significant differences among the three professional and the two institutional groups regarding these attitudes. There were different views regarding tubal sterilization during CS. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge, the need to improve some clinical skills and some professional attitudes may shed light on rising CS rates in Egypt.

Shaaban MM; Ahmed WS; Khadr Z; El-Sayed HF

2012-08-01

79

Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

Abbas, A.M.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

1997-12-01

80

Seroprevalence of HDV infection in HBsAg positive population in Ismailia, Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that needs hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from HBV for transmission. HDV can lead to fulminant hepatitis and the progression of chronic liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HDV among HBsAg positive individuals in Ismailia, Egypt. Serum samples were collected from 170 HBsAg positive healthy individuals from Suez Canal University blood bank over a one year period. All of them were seeking blood donation and found to be HBsAg positive during viral hepatitis screening workups which is routinely done prior to donation. Serum samples were screened for IgG antibodies to hepatitis delta virus (HDV) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Anti-HDV antibodies were detected in 8 (4.7%) individuals aged from 29-43 years. Liver function tests showed that serum ALT and AST levels were elevated in the HBsAglanti-HDV positive cases. It is concluded that the rate of HDV infection in Ismailia is high and further investigation is needed to validate the findings and raise awareness about the risk of dual HBV and HDV infection.

Gomaa NI; Metwally LA; Nemr N; Younis S

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Impact of pollination and fertilization on sesame production in the reclaimed lands, Ismailia governorate, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the sesame growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. For the purpose of studying the impact of insect pollination and nitrogen fertilization on sesame production, the experiment was divided into 13 treatments of open pollination and non open pollination with three different levels of ammonium nitrate (N) and one level of seryalin as bio-fertilizer. Non open pollination treatments were covered before the start of flowering period with a perforated net bag to allow the air to pass through and to prevent insects from approaching the plants. Quantitative and qualitative parameters were measured as follows: number of capsules per plant, capsule weight, number of seeds per capsule, weight of 1000 seeds, germination rate, seedling vigour and oil content. Results clearly demonstrate that qualitative and quantitative parameters of sesame crop significantly increased with open pollination and with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level up to 95 kg N/ha plus or minus seryalin in reclaimed sandy soils in Ismailia, Egypt.

Blal Abd Elfatah H.; Kamel Soliman M.; Mahfouz Hatem M.; El-Wahed Maysa Said Abd

2012-01-01

82

The El-Tal El-Kebir story: an example of social accountability from Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In 1985, the Faculty of Medicine at Suez Canal University responded to a request from the people of El-Tal El-Kebir, a district in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, to assist them in addressing their poor health statistics. After an initial visit, the team realized that any long-term solution in dealing with and improving their community health problems needed a true inter-sectoral collaborative approach, with the involvement of other sectors such as agriculture, veterinary medicine, and education. The team also realized that establishing a true partnership with the community as well as the local governmental agencies was indispensible in order to maintain any long-term effects. AIMS: In this article, we will describe how the medical school mobilized other sectors to improve the community health. METHODS: The methodology adopted during this example of providing community outreach services was concordant with the principles of social accountability, which was later described by the World Health Organization. RESULTS: Our multi-sectoral team has established several projects for enhancing community participation in solving their own health problems. CONCLUSION: Medical schools can lead a community development project in collaboration with the community.

Talaat W; el-Wazir Y

2012-01-01

83

Evaluation Of The Hydraulic Connection Between The Surface Water And The Groundwater Along El-Salam Canal, North Eastern Coast, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, the interconnection between the surface water of El-Salam Canal and the shallow groundwater in the adjacent aquifer has been discussed using both the environmental isotopes and the chemical analyses of the different water bodies along the canal trajectory from Faraskour in the west to Balousa in the east. The isotopic techniques were applied to investigate this relationship and to estimate the possible contribution from various sources such as groundwater, sea water and/or irrigation water, and finally to determine the extent of mixing between El-Salam Canal and the adjacent aquifers. Since the groundwater in the area is saline (more than 10000 ppm) while the mixed canal water is mainly fresh (less than 1000 ppm), the interconnection between the canal water and surrounding shallow groundwater leads to one of the following two hydrologic processes; seepage from the canal water to the shallow groundwater which means fresh water losses or leakage from the groundwater into the surface water which means water quality deterioration The present study aims to detect the hydraulic interconnection between the two water bodies by using environmental isotope techniques as well as detailed chemical analysis. For this purpose, 31 water samples from both surface water and groundwater were collected and analyzed for 18O and 2H contents as well as 44 representative water samples were collected and analyzed for the chemical components (anions and cations) as a major ions and minor constituents. The distribution of the analyzed samples on the 18O vs. D diagram indicated that the samples could be classified into three genetic groups representing different sources of water. The first group reflects a contribution from evaporated rain water prior to infiltration to the groundwater, the second group represents a mixing trend between both of El-Farma drain water and El-Manzala lake water with the groundwater which have enriched isotopic values as well as high salinity due to seawater intrusion. The third group reveals also mixing between surface water and groundwater where in this case, the isotopic concentration of surface water is subjected to evaporation processes and mixing with groundwater body

2012-01-01

84

Structural evolution of the rift of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During late Oligocene-early Miocene time, the Suez rift was initiated by northeast-southwest compressional stress. This stress correlated with the compressional events recorded in the southern Syrian arc. It resulted in the initial cracking of the rift zone due to the reactivation of inherited faults with sinistral (Aqaba trend = north-south) and dextral (Duwi = Azimuth 110/degree/) strike-slip movements. These faults bound large parallel-sided panels. Within these panels, blocks tilting along clysmic directions are the result of a unimodal pull-apart effect. During this early stage, between 20 and 25 Ma, basaltic effusions occurred. Around 19 to 20 Ma, the end of block rotation indicates the major phase of crustal extension also ceased. Movements were replaced by large vertical displacements (horsts and grabens, shoulder uplift, deepening of the central trough). The width of this zone suggests the progressive advent of phenomena due to the convection of mantellic material. From 6 to 16 Ma, fault movements had minor amplitudes, subordinate to the general basinward flexure of the margins. The same evolution is recorded in the Gulf of Suez and in the northern Red Sea. Later on, the Aqaba fault acted as a transfer fault between the Gulf of Suez, which remains an intracontinental rift, and the Red Sea basin, which evolves toward oceanic accretion.

Burollet, P.F.; D' Estevou, P.O.; Montenat, C.; Jarrige, J.J.

1988-08-01

85

Suez prepares its rear forces in Spain; Suez prepare ses arrieres en Espagne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waiting for an hypothetical merger with Gaz de France company, Suez, the French-Belgian energy group now put its forces on the dynamical Spanish market dominated by Endesa (a third of the power market), Iberdrola (a quarter of the power market) and Gas Natural (5% only of the power market, but the first gas operator in Spain). Since more than a year, these companies are the target of other European operators like Suez, Enel, E.On but also from Spanish giants of the building industry like ACS and Acciona, who are looking for mergers, partnerships or takeover bids. (J.S.)

Lepetit, V

2007-06-15

86

Studies on the Indo-Pacific Tridacnidae (Tridacna maxima) from the Northern Red Sea, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Egypt, Tridacna Maxima are found in Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea. Tridacna Maxima are very important ecological species as seafood source and as a substrate for reef-associated organisms; therefore we should protect it from extinction. Recently, th...

Manal S. Mekawy; Hashem A. Madkour

87

Estimation of the Pollution Level in El Timsah Lake, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wide range of activities surrounding El Timsah Lake and the discharge effluent at the north and eastern parts of the lake led to high level of anthropogenic pollution in lake water more than the navigation activities. Heavy metals concentration increases in low salinity water toward the land from the discharging effluent. Whereas, oil hydrocarbon and water salinity increase toward Suez Canal current water. This indicates some dispersion of oil ballast water of shipping tankers or from petroleum companies during transportation in the Suez Canal. Chemical and isotopic results indicate lake water stratification, low mixing rate due to slow current of lake water. This led to long residence time of the pollution load enhancing accumulation and precipitation of the heavy metals to the bottom sediment near the boundaries of the lake

2008-01-01

88

Gas industry development in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m3. According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m3, placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range of economic and political measures, are seeking to favour natural gas exports to restore the balance of payments in the hydrocarbons sector and to establish the position of Egypt as a gas supply hub for the Middle East. Hence, to guarantee a market for Egyptian gas, the main foreign operators present in Egypt have proposed the following export projects: Agip is promoting the idea of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Israel; BP Amoco has submitted a bid for the construction of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan; British Gas has recently been authorized to set up the Egypt LNG company, in partnership with an Egyptian company, to sell the gas produced on offshore fields discovered in early 1999 off the Western Delta, probably in the form of LNG; Shell intends to submit a similar request. (authors)

2000-01-01

89

Realizm in the International Relations in the Example of French Invasion of Egypt //// M?s?r'?n Frans?zlar Taraf?ndan ??gali Örne?inde Uluslarras? ?li?kilerde Realizm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Osmanl? (Ottoman) State struggled for its very existenceagainst the imperialist powers’ partition plans, particularly, in thenineteenth century. The imperialist competition of the Europeanpowers on Egypt influenced on the Osmanl? rulers’ internationalpolicies. Egypt was an important place in the region andinternational relations from the ancient to the modern periods. Theopening of the Suez Canal increased this geo-political significancefurther, which fuelled the confrontation among the Europeanpowers. The Osmanl? rulers’ policies regarding on Egypt wereadapted to the internal and external developments.Egypt’s proximity to the French colonies in the north andcentral African countries were important for France as well as forGreat Britain. Egypt shortened the way to India and South EastAsian colonies, which made Egypt a focal point for France, Russiaand Britain. European power struggles in Europe and other partsof the world were reflected in their Egyptian policies and itsimmediate region. The Osmanl? authorities were well aware of thefact that the Armed forces could not be able to deal with all theseimperialist powers at a time. Therefore, policies were finely tuned‘balanced policies’ one to another between the imperialist powers’expectations and confrontations. Egypt with its all specialities wasperfectly used for the policies of the Osmanl? State and others.This study discusses the confrontation and power strugglesof the imperialist powers for Egypt, and how the Osmanl? Stateresponded to such policies. What kinds of roles Egypt played in thecreation of the Osmanl? policies towards the European powers?What would be beneficial outcome of such policies for the Osmanl?State and Egypt? The study highlighted that how an internalmatter can be an international issue to determine the influential powers’ policies. How international interests creates internationalconflicts and alliances as in the examples at the beginning of thenineteenth century in Egypt. //// Osmanl? Devleti özellikle 19ncu yüzy?lda emperyalistgüçlerin bölme planlar?na kars? hayatta kalma mücadelesivermistir. Avrupal? Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerindeki yar?slar?Osmanl? yönetiminin uluslararas? politikalar?n? etkilemistir. M?s?r,Eskiça?’dan günümüze bölgede ve uluslararas? iliskilerde önemlibir yere sahiptir. Süveys kanal?n?n aç?lmas? M?s?r’?n jeopolitikönemini art?r?rken Avrupal? güçlerin aralar?ndaki mücadeleleri deateslemistir. Osmanl?’n?n M?s?r ile ilgili politikalar? da içte ved?sar?da meydana gelen yeni gelismelere göre sürekli uyarlanm?st?r.M?s?r’?n Kuzey ve Orta Afrika’daki Frans?z kolonilerine olanyak?nl??? Fransa için önemli oldu?u kadar Büyük Britanya için dehayatidir. M?s?r’?n Hindistan ve Güney Do?u Asya ülkelerindekisömürgelere giden yolu k?saltmas? Fransa, Rusya ve ?ngiltere içinönemli bir ilgi oda?? haline gelmesine sebep olmustur. Avrupal?güçlerin Avrupa ve dünyan?n di?er bölgelerindeki mücadeleleriM?s?r politikalar?nda yans?maktad?r. Osmanl? eskisi gibi silahl?kuvvetlerinin emperyalist güçlere kars? ayn? anda mukabeleedemeyece?i gerçe?inin fark?ndad?r. Bu yüzden oldukça hassasayarlar gerektiren “denge politikalar?” Emperyalist güçlerinbeklentileri ve çat?smalar? dikkate al?narak ayarlanm?st?r. BöyleceM?s?r kendine has bütün özellikleriyle Osmanl? Devleti’nin özel vegenel ç?karlar? için de?erlendirilmistir.Bu çal?sma, Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerinde güçmücadeleleri ve çat?smalar?n? ele al?rken Osmanl? Devleti’nin bupolitikalara nas?l cevap verdi?ini incelemektedir. Avrupal? güçlerekars? Osmanl? politikalar?nda M?s?r nas?l bir rol oynam?st?r? Bupolitikalar?n Osmanl? Devleti ve M?s?r için olumlu sonuçlar? nelerolmustur? Çal?smada, bir iç meselenin etkili güçlerinmüdahaleleriyle nas?l bir uluslararas? konu haline getirildi?i vepolitikalar? etkiledi?i gösterilmektedir. Uluslararas? ç?karlar

Halil Erdemir

2009-01-01

90

Root canal  

Science.gov (United States)

A root canal is a dental procedure to remove dead or dying nerve tissue and bacteria from inside a tooth. ... A root canal is done if you have an infection that affects the nerve in the root of a tooth. ...

91

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male) and S. mucronata (both sexes). They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif; Wafaa Amer; Salah Eldin Ali Khodary; Walaa Azmy

2009-01-01

92

Seismicity and kinematic evolution of middle Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as recent GPS measurements, the seismicity and kinematic evaluation of middle Egypt is presented. Middle Egypt suffered in historical times by six major earthquakes and the Ramses II temple on the west bank of the Nile in Luxor, was almost destroyed by an ancient event. The temporal distribution of recent earthquakes (1900 1997) is highly scattered with only nine events recorded. Only after the installation of the modern Egyptian national seismograph network (ENSN) the seismic record of middle Egypt increased with a total of 280 earthquakes from 1998 to 2004. Focal mechanism solutions of the largest five events during the ENSN's operation period reveal reverse faulting mechanism with minor strike-slip component on the west bank of the Nile, while a normal faulting mechanism dominate in the eastern side. The orientations of both P- and T-axes are consistent with the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez stress field. Dynamic source parameters of these five events were derived from P-wave spectra as well. Three campaigns of GPS measurements were carried out for the middle Egypt network that established after the first instrumental earthquake on 14 December 1998 in this area. The velocity vectors for each epoch of observations were calculated and deformation analysis was performed. The horizontal velocity varies between 1 and 4 mm/year across the network. The deformation pattern suggests significant contraction across the southeastern sector of the study area while, the northwestern part is characterized by an extension strain rates. High shear strain is observed along the epicenteral area of the Mw = 4.0 June 2003 earthquake possibly reflecting the stress accumulation stage of a seismic cycle.

Badawy, A.; Abdel-Monem, S. M.; Sakr, K.; Ali, Sh. M.

2006-08-01

93

Eternal Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Available in English, French, and Arabic, Eternal Egypt is a website with a wealth of information on "the artifacts, characters, and places that together comprise the wonder that is Eternal Egypt." The website is organized so visitors can choose between a guided tour, begin with one of the cultural highlights (such as The Temple of Luxor or Part of a Wall of a Tomb), or simply explore and discover. A key feature of the website is the context provided in relation to various topics, so that a visitor can learn about the artifacts, but also how they connect to other people, places and artifacts, and where they fit in terms of an overall timeline and on a multimedia map of Egypt. Topics include: Arts and Crafts (Libraries, Architecture, Paintings and Relief, Sculpture, Humanities, Crafts), Science (Archaeology, Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine, Social Science, Engineering), Agriculture (Irrigation, Herding, Farming, Crops), Commerce and Trade (Transportation), Government (Leaders, Seats of Power, Theocracy, Military), and Society and Culture (Family, Food and Drinks, Clothing, Sports and Entertainment, Religion and Spirituality).

94

CANAL AUTOMATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Canals have been used to distribute water for irrigation for several millennia. The practices gradually evolved from a shovel to open gaps in a berm to fixed structures to movable structures such as gates. Regulation of water in canals is still by manual labor in most parts of the world. A few hydra...

95

Ancient Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on its superb collection of materials from archaeological excavations, the British Museum presents this extensive learning resource on Ancient Egypt. The site features texts, images, and interactive elements detailing Egyptian daily life, mythology, timekeeping, geography, architecture, governance, business, writing, and rituals of death. The material is clearly and simply written so that the site would be useful for primary school students, but it is informative and substantial enough to be of interest to college students and curious adults as well. Thoroughly hyperlinked and replete with images that can be enlarged for detailed perusal, the site goes beyond the typical teaser Websites so often posted by lesser museums.

96

Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes and the genesis of some crude oils from Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The delta13C values obtained from 25 crude oil samples representing the main producing oil fields in Egypt indicate a significant difference between the Gulf of Suez Province and the Western Desert Province, which is attributed to environmental differences in the source rocks of the two provinces. Variations within each of the two provinces were compared and related to age, thermal maturity as well as migration processes. Variations of the delta13C values were also related to changes in the GOR (gas/oil ratio) and API gravity values

1984-01-01

97

Evaluation Of Hydraulic Parameters For Dara .Area (Gulf Of Suez), Egypt ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? - ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work aims to furnish a basis for evaluating the water resources in Dara Area which is one of the vergin areas assigned for the purpose of land reclamation. Analysis of pumping and recovery tests performed in the study area is done by six methods manually and three methods using computer program...

Sewidan, A. S. [???? ???? ??????

98

GdF-Suez inflates its underground gas stocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Storengy, a daughter-company of GdF-Suez, is investing 1.4 billion euros for the development of gas underground storage. The company now owns a storage capacity of 10 billion m3 shared between 12 sites in France, 3 in Germany and one in England. The overall of these sites represents 17% of the European storage capacity. Moreover, thanks to its participation to Intragaz, Storengy exploits 120 million m3 of gas in Quebec (Canada). In France, Storengy has to share its activities with another smaller operator, TIGF (former Elf) settled in the region of Pau (SW of France). (J.S.)

2009-01-01

99

Graben infilling in Gulf of Suez and Red Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last 4 years, the French research group Genegass has completed geological and geophysical studies in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez. Neogene infilling of the basin is related with basement quality and volume of clastic supply, and inherited structural features are important to the development of Miocene rifting. The Neogene series may be divided into four major groups (Listed A-D), each limited by unconformities that seem to reflect the major stages of rifting. (A) The lowermost formations begin with a conglomerate and are followed by a variegated unit of sand and clay. In the Gulf of Suez, especially on the eastern bank, these formations are marine. Along the Red Sea, tilted blocks may be capped by stromatolites, and the valleys between them are the site of shale and evaporite sedimentation (lower Miocene). (B) The main extension phase results in an invasion of marine shales. The lower zones contain coarse clastics, and the high zones contain reefs and bioclastic limestone (late Burdigalian to early Serravallian). (C) The middle to late Miocene corresponds to a regional basinward tilting. Stromatolites coat the slopes, and conglomerate fans are found in the lower zones. Evaporite sedimentation dominates; anhydrite is found on the borders, and in the basin, thick halite is overlain by a clastic series. Basement shoulders are uplifted. (D) During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, the central part of the graben showed an important subsidence, and salt tectonism was active with diapirs and collapses.

Burollet, P.F.

1986-05-01

100

CANAL code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ancient Egypt: the Mythology  

Science.gov (United States)

This Website, "dedicated to supplying information about the religious beliefs of ancient Egypt," offers internally linked essays and descriptions from scholarly sources detailing the relationship between the land and ancient beliefs; glossaries with healthy descriptions of the deities and symbols; and eighteen prominent mythological stories of Ancient Egypt. An annotated list of about a dozen other pertinent sites is also posted. A simple search engine is provided and can be accessed by going to the incongruously titled "Egypt" page, which offers users an opportunity to search the site, sign the guestbook, or email the author -- a college instructor -- questions about Egyptian mythology, but which offers no additional information on Egypt itself.

102

Geography of Ancient Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity focuses on the importance of geographic features and the abundance of natural resources that helped ancient Egypt become the world's first superpower. Students will learn about the geography and resources available to the ancient Egyptians. Read each question below carefully. Using the following maps: modern political map geographical features map natural resources map archaeological sites map And the following features on the Egypt's Golden Empire website: natural resources farming Answer each question below using as much detail as possible. What countries border modern-day Egypt? (modern political map) Name the major bodies of water that surround an are a part of Egypt. (modern political map) What ...

Myers, Mr.

2010-09-30

103

Life in Egypt!  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the difference between life in the United States and life in Egypt? Use this fact chart to record your findings! Where is Egypt? Sightseeing in Egypt Use this time to record your findings in the "places" section of your fact chart and complete any other section you can with the information you have learned! Facts about Egypt Language (with audio) A Day in the Life Use this time to record your findings in the "people" section of your fact chart and complete ...

Pendleton, Ms.

2011-04-07

104

75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.  

Science.gov (United States)

...EA-372] Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA...applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada...GSEMNA for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

2010-09-23

105

Distribution And Sources Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Surface Sediments Of The Suez Gulf.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suez Gulf is an area of environmental interest due to tourism, Suez port, Safaga Port, El-Sukhna new port, shipping activity, petroleum production, and industry activities. Twenty two sediment samples, collected from the coastal area of Suez Gulf, were analyzed for the spatial distribution and sources of aliphatic (n-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture of fossil hydrocarbons) and 16 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of the 16 EPA-PAH studied in the sediments ranged from 158 to 10463 ng g(-1)with a mean value of 234 ng g(-1)dry sediments. The total concentrations varied from 0.52 to 88.38 ng g(-1)for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 148 to 8824 ng g(-1)for summation operatorPAH(CARC), from 0.5 to 81.7 ng g(-1)for summation operatorC(12)-C(40). The highest concentrations of total PAHs were recorded for stations near the Ras Shukeir and Suez cities. Interferences of rather petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH contaminations were noticed in different locations in Suez Gulf due to petroleum products deliveries and production as well as fuel combustion emissions from cars and ships. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to determine the sources of hydrocarbon pollutants in sediments of Suez Gulf. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage). PMID:16770511

Nemr, Ahmed El; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany; Said, Tarek O; Abd-Allah, Aly M A

2006-06-13

106

Distribution And Sources Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Surface Sediments Of The Suez Gulf.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Suez Gulf is an area of environmental interest due to tourism, Suez port, Safaga Port, El-Sukhna new port, shipping activity, petroleum production, and industry activities. Twenty two sediment samples, collected from the coastal area of Suez Gulf, were analyzed for the spatial distribution and sources of aliphatic (n-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture of fossil hydrocarbons) and 16 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of the 16 EPA-PAH studied in the sediments ranged from 158 to 10463 ng g(-1)with a mean value of 234 ng g(-1)dry sediments. The total concentrations varied from 0.52 to 88.38 ng g(-1)for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 148 to 8824 ng g(-1)for summation operatorPAH(CARC), from 0.5 to 81.7 ng g(-1)for summation operatorC(12)-C(40). The highest concentrations of total PAHs were recorded for stations near the Ras Shukeir and Suez cities. Interferences of rather petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH contaminations were noticed in different locations in Suez Gulf due to petroleum products deliveries and production as well as fuel combustion emissions from cars and ships. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to determine the sources of hydrocarbon pollutants in sediments of Suez Gulf. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage).

Nemr AE; Khaled A; El-Sikaily A; Said TO; Abd-Allah AM

2006-06-01

107

Two offshore LNG terminals planned by Suez in the USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US LNG market represents today only 15 million tons per year but it is growing up rapidly and should reach 75 million tons per year in the next ten years. According to Cambridge Energy Research, LNG imports will represent 18% of the US gas resources in 2015 with respect to 3% today, and in 2010 LNG will represent 30% of the world natural gas trade. For these reasons, the Suez group has planned to acquire two offshore gas terminals, i.e. LNG tanker ships fitted with a gasification plant, to supply its Everett terminal on the US East coast and a future terminal in Florida. In both cases, the investment is the same as for an onshore terminal facility. Short paper. (J.S.)

2006-01-01

108

Education in Egypt, 1978.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1978, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.; Ibrahim, Fawzia El-Sayed, Ed.

109

Education in Egypt, 1979.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1979, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.

110

Solar cooling plant in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of a prototype solar cooling power plant is investigated to demonstrate the feasibility of using solar energy for cooling in Egypt. The results gained from the first run under actual solar and environmental conditions shows that it is highly advantageous and has great possibilities for use as a model of a solar cooling plant in different locations in Egypt. The selected places besides Cairo are Lower Egypt in the delta, Central Egypt at Assuit and Upper Egypt at Aswan.

Sakr, I.A.; Hafez, W.; Taha, M.

1981-01-01

111

Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The ?- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

2011-01-01

112

Energy planning in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation in the last decade, represented in increasing energy demand growth rates, low energy prices, low rates of efficient energy use, and critical situation of crude oil reserves, led to a greater awareness for the importance and need of energy planning in Egypt. This situation has been crystallized in the establishment of both the Supreme Council of Energy (SEC) in 1979 and the Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) in 1983. This publication develops successively the importance of an energy planning for Egypt, the main guidelines of integrated energy planning process, the energy resources and the energy situation in Egypt. (TEC). 8 figs.

Selim, M.; Korkor, H.

1993-12-31

113

Tectonic Implications of the Northern Part of Gulf of Suez Region as Revealed from the Lineament Analysis of Landsat Imageries ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Processing on lineaments revealed from photo-satellites imageries of the northern part of the Gulf of Suez region has been carried out. Imageries of Landsat exhibit lineaments that reflect topographic surface features surrounding the water covered area of the Gulf of Suez. The lineaments were differ...

M. AWAD; Y. EL-ABD; M. EL-RAIE; I. SABBAH; S. HUSSIEN

114

Sedimentation patterns in southern Gulf of Suez rift  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface and subsurface mapping in the southern Gulf of Suez, primarily in the Gemsa Plain and contiguous regions, delineates sedimentation patterns that persisted throughout extensive tectonism, subsidence, and large sea level variations. Proximal clastic facies reflecting uplift and erosional stripping of rift shoulders and tilt-block crests interfinger with a succession of normal marine and evaporitic units during basin filling, while sedimentation kept pace with subsidence. The Gema Plain subbasin comprises a half graben abutting the border fault of the southwest-dipping Esh el Mellaha tilt block on the southwest and rising onto Gebel Zeit, a stripped tilt-block crest. To the north, the basin laps onto the structurally high Ras Shukheir platform. Two cross-cutting wadis, draining northeastward, provide primary clastic input. Wadi Dara cuts a low-lying topographic high north of the Esh el Mellaha and Wadi Dib crosses the northern Esh el Mellaha, draining the basin to its southwest. During the early Miocene, normal marine conditions prevailed, with both wadis building large fan-delta complexes whose coarse clastics interfinger with basinal shales and marls eastward and ultimately thin onto the Zeit high. In the later Miocene, the same basic pattern persisted, with marine evaporites largely substituting for marls and fine clastics. Today, large fan complexes still dominate sedimentation. The basic facies patterns have remained essentially unchanged throughout rifting, although lithologies changed through time in response to the interaction of local vertical movement and eustatic sea level variation.

Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.; Smale, J.L.

1986-05-01

115

Carbonate diagenesis and rifting in the Gulf of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lower Miocene carbonates of the northwest Red Sea and Gulf of Suez have been deposited on a series of structural blocks where bathymetric relief, created by early rift tectonics, has strongly influenced both sedimentation and early diagenesis. Initial submarine cementation by fibrous calcite and aragonite strongly affects slope deposits, destroying most primary porosity. It was followed by several phases of regional dolomitization whose isotopic signatures suggest nonmarine influence. Undolomitized sediments are the exception. An intense dissolution is the principal agent determining petrophysical qualities of the series. Nonmarine sparitic cements are not important, indicating the dissolved carbonate has been flushed out of the system. Finally, large-scale sulfate replacement affects dolomites adjacent to the middle Miocene primary evaporites. These secondary sulfates are associated with a zone of calcitized dolomite (dedolomite). This diagenetic activity obviously reflects repeated changes in the composition of interstitial waters. Its exceptional intensity is explained by the contemporaneous basin relief; the presence of numerous subparallel blocks has resulted in the development of separate bodies of water relating to both meteoric influx and evaporation. Together with normal marine waters, these fluids of variable density have penetrated the intervening sedimentary platforms via the numerous slopes. It is clear that multiphased carbonate diagenesis is one of the many expressions of early rifting.

Purser, B.H.; Orszag-Sperber, F.; Aissaoui, D.M. (Universite Paris XI, Orsay (France))

1988-08-01

116

Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accumulations of oil were first known in Egypt since 1968, some ten years after the famous Drake well in Pennsylvania in August 1859. These oil accumulation were found as seepages in tunnels dug for extracting sulphur in the area of Gemsa on the West coast of the Gulf of Suez. Since that time exploration activites were conducted on and off throughout a long history of operations which witnessed the use of the latest developments in exploration tools and techniques. So far, the main oil province in Egypt is the Gulf of Suez Basin, where the bulk of oil reserve have been found. Other hydrocarbon provinces are the Nile Delta Basin, the Abu Gharadig Basin and the Alamein ridge, both in the Western Desert. Three important gas discoveries were made in the Nile Delta Basin two of which are offshore, in addition to other so for non commercial gas finds. In addition to the known oil and gas discoveries the exploration activities throughout that long period contributed volumenous geological and geophysical material and data which added appreciably to the geology of Egypt at large, and in particular to the petroleum geology of the country. The Gulf of Suez oil province displayed very favourable conditions for the generation and trapping of hydrocarbons in Miocene and Pre-Miocene pools though at the same time it displayed very complicated geological setting which renders the exploration work a difficult task. The Nile Delta Basin, on the otherhand, is a relatively very recently explored area. Accordingly, extensive exploration work is still needed in order to evaluate the hydrocarbon possibilities of that basin. So for, gas has been discovered at a number of locations in lower Pliocene-Miocene pools. Whether future work would prove that oil generation took place remains to be seen. The Western Desert did not yet display the required response with regards to the exploration work conducted till now. To date, only few small discoveries have been made with oil and gas pools mainly vvithin the Upper and Lower Cretaceous. Recent advances in seismic techniques are helping in locating deeper structures, which might prove instrumental in the upgrading of the oil possibilites of the region. At present, the exploration activities are going on in the different oil and gas provinces in Egypt. These activilles are expected to increase and are also expected to expand to new areas in the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez Basin, offshore and onland, in Northern Sinai and in the Offshore Mediterranean. These new areas are believed to house very good prospects which will be tested not before long. It is also hoped that progress in seismic tools and techniques will add to the possibilities of finding more oil and gas. On connaît des accumulations d'huiles depuis 1868, quelque 10 ans après le célèbre puits de Drake en Pennsylvanie (août 1859). Ces accumulations ont été trouvées comme des suintements dans des tunnels forés pour l'extraction du soufre dans la région de Gemsa sur la côte ouest du golfe de Suez. Depuis cette époque, les activités d'exploration se sont poursuivies à travers une longue histoire d'opérations qui témoignaient des derniers développement dans les outils et les techniques. Jusqu'à maintenant, la principale province à huile d'Egypte est le bassin du golfe de Suez où la majorité des réserves ont été trouvées. D'autres provinces à hydrocarbures sont le bassin du delta du Nil, celui d'Abu Garadig et la ride d'El Alamein, les deux derniers situés dans le désert occidental. Il y a eu trois importantes découvertes de gaz dans le delta du Nil, dont deux en mer, en plus de quelques indices de gaz encore non commerciaux. Outre les découvertes mentionnées, les activités d'exploration au cours de cette longue période ont apporté une masse d'informations géologiques et géophysiques qui ont contribué largement à la connaissance géologique de l'Egypte, et en particulier à la géologie pétrolière. La province du golfe de Suez réunissait des conditions très favorables à la formation e

El Ayouti M. K.

2006-01-01

117

Five offshore wind farms by EDF, GDF Suez and Iberdrola. France; Vijf offshore windparken door EDF, GDF Suez en Iberdrola. Frankrijk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five offshore wind farms are planned to be built off the Northwest coast of France. On 11 January 2012, three international consortia, led by the French businesses EDF EN (Energie Nouvelles), GDF Suez and the Spanish business Iberdrola, submitted their project proposals to this end. The French government highly values the contribution that offshore wind farms can make to the development of a new industrial sector. This would bring highly needed benefits to the French economy [Dutch] Voor de Noordwest-kust van Frankrijk moeten vijf offshore windparken komen. Op 11 januari 2012 hebben drie internationale consortia onder leiding van de Franse bedrijven EDF EN (Energies Nouvelles), GDF Suez en het Spaanse Iberdrola hun projectvoorstellen hiervoor ingediend. De Franse regering hecht veel waarde aan de bijdrage die offshore windparken kunnen leveren aan de ontwikkeling van een nieuwe industriele sector. De Franse economie zou dit goed kunnen gebruiken.

Polo-Leemreis, J. [TWA Netwerk, Paris (France)

2012-02-15

118

Egypt Daily.com  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of the World News network, Egypt Daily.com provides a wealth of links to frequently updated news stories dealing primarily with Egypt. From the homepage, users can click on any number of recent items gathered from a variety of different sources, including the BBC, ABC News, Arabic News, and CNN. The archive of news items stretches back several weeks, and news items are also arranged thematically into sections dealing with the economy, tourism, and technology on the site's main page. The site also features a number of helpful links, such as those leading to English-language news resources for the Arabic-speaking world and to online newspapers in Arabic. The site is rounded out by a list of online travel guides for those seeking to plan a trip to Egypt or other parts of North Africa.

119

Distribution of Different Organotin and Organolead Compounds in Sediment of Suez Gulf  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organotin and organolead compounds were determined in sediments of the Suez Gulf The concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT) ranged from 0.27 to 2.77 with an average value of 1.37 µgg-1; dry wt. However, the concentrations of dibutyltin (DBT) ranged from 0.07 to 2.27 with an avera...

Mohamed A. Shreadah; Tarek O. Said; Safaa A. Abd El Ghani; Abd El Moniem M. Ahmed

120

Structural set-up of Southern Sinai and Gulf of Suez areas indicated by geophysical data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work deals with the evaluation of the structural set-up of the southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez and western part of Gulf of Suez from magnetic, gravity, and seismic data. The utilised techniques including the Least Squares separation method suggest NW, NE, and E-W trends. The trend analysis shows north 35°-45° west, north 15°-25° east and E-W which may be related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea stresses.The Euler deconvolution illustrates that the area is highly affected by these trends. Depths range from 1 km to more than 3 km below sea level and its magnetic susceptibility ranges between 1 to 3 SI units. The 2.5D magnetic modelling and analytical signal techniques confirm the depths to the magnetic sources deduced by the Euler method, whereas the depth to the basement rocks ranges between 0 km to about 3 km indicating that it is subjected to strong tectonic activities. In addition, two seismic sections (EG-31 and MP-70), compiled by the Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation (EGPC), were interpreted together with a geologic cross section. The studied area may be divided into several major blocks along the Gulf of Suez area. It can be concluded that the sedimentary was affected by basement tectonics as revealed by the two seismic sections.

T. Rabeh

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Studies on the Indo-Pacific Tridacnidae (Tridacna maxima) from the Northern Red Sea, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Egypt, Tridacna Maxima are found in Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea. Tridacna Maxima are very important ecological species as seafood source and as a substrate for reef-associated organisms; therefore we should protect it from extinction. Recently, these species are exposed for many factors of pollution (human activities, tourism and natural resources) that affect the distribution and abundance of it. The main objective of this research is to shed some light on the origin, stratigraphic position, systematic palaeontology and geographic distribution of Tridacna Maxima. In addition to their ecologic and environmental conditions were discussed. Finally, a proposed rules for protection these species from extinction were listed. Individuals of Tridacna Maxima were collected from different sites along the red Sea coast.

Manal S. Mekawy; Hashem A. Madkour

2012-01-01

122

Iraqi refugees in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egypt is host to an estimated 150,000 Iraqi refugees. Initiallyarriving with high hopes of resettlement, their resources arenow depleted, they are unable to work, their children are outof school and their community is fractured by divisions

Lynn Yoshikawa

2007-01-01

123

77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.  

Science.gov (United States)

...EA-386] Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing...applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico...GSEMNA for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

2012-07-05

124

Root canal irrigants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ?root canal irrigants? and ?endodontic irrigants.? The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

2010-01-01

125

Foraminiferal biostratigraphy, graphic correlation, and depositional history of the early Miocene, Gemsa Plain, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposures of the early Miocene successions in the Gebel Gharamul and Gebel el Zeit regions, along with subsurface Gemsa Plain well logs, have been graphically correlated using Shaw's method. Three important regional events have been recognized. From oldest to youngest they include the following: (1) The Early Clysmic event, which is marked by strong onlap and truncation (Nukhul formation). (2) The Mid-Clysmic or Mid-Rudeis event, which is associated with the G. Subquadrata datum (LAD) and is characterized by structural truncation and downlap. Marginal outcrops of the Gemsa subbasin show internal disconformities marked by the presence of igneous boulder conglomerates, siliciclastic pulses, and synsedimentary slumps. A possible fan delta proximal to Gebel el Zeit was initiated at this time. Other fan deltas from both Wadi Dara and Wadi Dib continued to be active primary conduits for clastic distribution from the rift shoulders. Basinward, structural highs were formed and eroded, and continuous sedimentation occurred in structurally low areas. (3) The Kareem/Belayim event, which is characterized by an increase in sedimentation rate. Overall, the early synrift sedimentation patterns can provide limits on the timing of fault-block movements. Increased biostratigraphic resolution allows for better correlation of lateral facies changes across the half-graben and results in an improved stratigraphy over that presently used.

Smale, J.L.; Thunell, R.C.; Schamel, S.

1987-05-01

126

Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and reservoir quality of the sandstones of the Kareem Formation, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The study deals with provenance and reservoir quality of Kareem sandstones.The source material was deposited in a passive continental margin of a synrift basin.Also, the deposition of Upper Kareem constrained the beginning of faulting.They were derived from mixed granitic, metamorphic and recycled sedimentary rocks.Enhancement of reservoir quality is followed of dissolution of carbonate cement.

Zaid, Samir M.

2013-09-01

127

Report on the supply costs of GDF Suez. CRE's expertise mission. September 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors first propose an analysis of European practices in terms of regulated tariffs. They outlines that these tariffs have disappeared in most of the historic member countries, but are still present in new coming countries but with different practices, and that tax-excluded prices for households in France are greater than the European average. They show that the tariff formula in the public service contract 2010-2013 between the State and GDF Suez does not take some supply cost optimization possibilities into account. They discuss the fact that the market context is still characterized by a separation between market prices on the one hand, and gas prices defined in long term contracts on the other hand. They show GDF Suez supply diversification allows a cost optimization

128

Synrift sedimentation in the Gulf of Suez rift controlled by eustatic sea level variations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laterally persistent stratigraphic variations in the southern Gulf of Suez rift indicate that eustatic variations in sea level predominate over local tectonic effects in controlling Neogene basin-fill sedimentation. Low sea level allows extensive erosion of tilt-block crests and rift shoulders, sending clastic aprons into the intervening subbasins and allowing evaporite deposition. High sea level minimizes clastic input, allowing marls and shales to build up off structure and reefs to form on and around tilt blocks. Thus variations in sediment character indicate relative sea level. Early rifting events in the upper Oligocene are marked by deposition of continental red beds. Overlying lowest Miocene clastics and evaporites are cut by a lower Burdigalian unconformity, indicating a minor transgression in the Aquitanian. Above a disconformity, laterally varying clastics and evaporites suggest regression followed by intermittent shallow-water conditions. A higher unconformity is overlain by thick cyclic evaporites representing periodic flooding and drying of the rift, a result of sea level remaining close to the height of the Suez sill to the north. A major Messinian unconformity cuts the section, indicating major regression, and is overlain by largely clastic sediments of both continental and marine affinities, showing rapid sea level fluctuations. Regional synrift sedimentation has been controlled more by eustatic sea level change, modified by the Suez sill to the north, than by tectonic movements within the rift.

Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

1985-01-01

129

The Panama Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

Among all the engineering feats of the 20th century, the Panama Canal was certainly one of the greatest. The Panama Canal Authority (PCA) provides this home page, which contains a vast amount of information regarding the canal's origins and current affairs. Most visitors to the Web site will be mainly interested in the complete history of the canal. This begins with early plans by the Spanish in the 1500s, and documents all progress until the final completion in 1914. An impressive photo gallery includes historical pictures and panoramic views of four main locations, and a live camera shows the boat traffic in the canal at ten second intervals. Other resources such as maritime operations and news articles are also available.

130

Environmental radioactivity studies in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Environmental radioactivity studies in Egypt are grouped as follows: National Network of radiation monitoring stations was used to measure exposure rate in air and water. In situ sample collection and detection using gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation or radioactivity measurements at various regions of Egypt. Environmental monitoring using TLD and exposure rate devices was used in 8 cities in Egypt. Radon monitoring using active and passive detectors was used at various cities in Egypt. Radioactivity in foodstuffs was assessed for typical food in several cities. Radioactivity in NORM was assessed at several petroleum companies. The present study is aimed to review the results obtained in order to have national map of natural radiation of Egypt. (author)

2000-01-01

131

Evaluation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic species of Suez Gulf water along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Egyptian Red Sea environment especially along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries (Suez) is severely contaminated with organic compounds, as well as overfishing. This may be well contributory to recent serious declines in fish stocks. Fish embryos are also particularly vulnerable to oil exposure, even at extremely low concentrations of less than one part per billion. Consequently, even traces of oil pollution at levels often considered safe for wildlife can cause severe damage to fish. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in ten fish species of aquatic species by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples were measured in order to use them as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollutants in the studied region. The total content of these16 PAHs ranged from 399.616 up to 67,631.779 ng/g wet weight. The data show that these values are considered to be alarmingly high enough to cause lethal toxicity effect by accumulation. All studied aquatic species samples are characterized by relatively high concentrations of the six-membered ring PAHs. The origin of PAHs in the collected samples is either petrogenic, biogenic, or mixed petrogenic and biogenic.

Ali NA; Ahmed OE; Doheim MM

2013-10-01

132

Reconnaissance electrical resistivity survey of geothermal reservoir at Hamam Faraun area, Sinai Peninsular, Egypt; Egypt{center{underscore}dot}Sinai hanto Faraun chiiki no chinetsu choryuso no denki tansa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High temperature hot spring and aquifers exist at Hamam Faraun area, Sinai Peninsular, Egypt. In this paper, the results of the vertical electrical prospecting (AB/2 = 1,000 m) using Schlumberger's method executed in Faraun area are described. The obtained apparent specific resistivity curve is analyzed using a non-linear least square method by presuming a horizontal multi-layer structure. As a result, it has been clarified that, in the Hamam Farun area facing the Suez Gulf, the low specific resistivity later shows a specific resistivity value of 10 ohm-m or less. However, this area has a complicated geological structure which can also be known from a contour map. Two-dimensional inversion and three-dimensional inversion will be executed in the future for clarifying the three-dimensional distribution of geothermal reservoirs. (translated by NEDO)

Gad, E.; Ushijima, Keisuke [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hassanen, G.

1999-02-01

133

Natural gas in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On-stream only since 1975, commercial gas production in Egypt will surpass 110 billion CF in 1983 and will reach 400 billion CF by 1990. As of January 1983, Egyptian proved gas reserves were 7 trillion CF. In 1978, gas supplied only 5% of the nation's primary energy requirements; by 1982, its share had risen to 12% with consumption of 93 billion CF. Most of the gas is used near the production fields by power generation plants and heavy metal and cement industries.

Nadaud, J.F.

1984-05-01

134

Panama Canal capacity analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1995-04-27

135

Atrioventricular Canal Defects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Atrioventricular (AV) canal defects should be diagnosed by means of echocardiography. Infants with complete AV canal defects should undergo intracardiac surgical repair before pulmonary vascular obstructive disease develops, preferably before 6 months of age. Repair of partial AV canal defects or primum atrial septal defects can be postponed until 18 to 36 months of age if the patient does not have pulmonary hypertension or growth failure. The one- and two-patch techniques can both provide excellent results with a low mortality rate in repair of complete AV canal defects. Repair of the cleft mitral valve at the time of initial surgery is advised to preserve long-term mitral valve function. Tetralogy of Fallot with AV canal defect can also be repaired but at an older age and with a greater incidence of reoperation. Unbalanced AV canal defects associated with a hypoplastic ventricle may necessitate initial pulmonary artery banding and a subsequent decision about the suitability of two-ventricle repair. If ventricular septation is unsuitable, a single-ventricle path is chosen. Bidi-rectional cavopulmonary anastomosis and, eventually, the Fontan procedure are used.

Murphy Jr DJ

1999-12-01

136

Egypt-United States Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

U.S.-Egyptian relations are tied to maintaining regional stability, improving bilateral relations focused on Egyptian economic development and military cooperation, developing Egypt's democracy, sustaining the March 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty, and...

C. R. Mark

2001-01-01

137

The ecology of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina and its implications for the control of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The respective vectors of the two forms of bilharziasis in Egypt do not have the same ecological distribution. Bulinus truncatus is most abundant in large canals, and decreases in density as the water approaches and flows into drains. Biomphalaria alexandrina is most abundant in drains, and decrease...

Dazo, B. C.; Hairston, Nelson G.; Dawood, I. K.

138

Exploration and assessment of the geothermal resources in the Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of the African continent suggests that it may possess significant geothermal resources, especially along its eastern margin. The most promising areas for geothermal development in the northwest Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift system are located where the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations, including a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures. Magnetotelluric and gravity-reconnaissance surveys were carried out over the geothermal region of Hammam Faraun to determine the subsurface electric resistivity and the densities that are related to rock units. These surveys were conducted along profiles. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) inversion model techniques were applied on the MT data, integrating the 2D inversion of gravity data. The objectives of these surveys were to determine and parameterize the subsurface source of the Hammam Faraun hot spring and to determine the origin of this spring. Based on this data, a conceptual model and numerical simulation were made of the geothermal area of Hammam Faraun. The numerical simulation succeeded in determining the characteristics of the heat sources beneath the Hammam Faraun hot spring and showed that the hot spring originates from a high heat flow and deep ground water circulation in the subsurface reservoir that are controlled by faults. These studies were followed by an assessment of the geothermal potential for electric generation from the Hammam Faraun hot spring. The value of the estimated potential is 28.34 MW, as the reservoir is assumed to be only 500 m thick. This value would be enough for the desalination of water for both human and agricultural consumption.

Zaher, Mohamed Abdel; Saibi, Hakim; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Mesbah, Hany; Ehara, Sachio

2012-02-01

139

Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 1-distribution and population seasonal fluctuation of intermediate host snails.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two newly reclaimed areas located west & east of Suez Canal, namely El Manayef area and El Morra area, were studied for patterns of distribution and population seasonal fluctuation of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively. In this study Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were utilized for producing maps and analyzing the results. Habitats of the two vector snail species were categorized into suitability levels depending on the frequency with which snails were collected over a 12 months period. Data obtained from the most suitable habitats were only used for studying the seasonal fluctuation of snail population. The results showed that both study areas were almost similar in major physico-chemical parameters. However, oxygen content in canals was higher than in drains and conductivity was higher in drains than in canals. As regards snail distribution and density, most snails of both considered species were clustering in much fewer numbers of sites, more pronouncedly in the case of Biomphalaria than Bulinus. Population density of snails was significantly higher in El-Manayef area than in El-Morra area and in canals than in drains. Both species exhibited 2 population peaks/year, the peaks of Biomphalaria were in March-April & August in both study areas, while for Bulinus these peaks occurred in March-May and August in El-Manayef area and in May and March, respectively, in El-Morra area. PMID:9914712

Yousif, F; el-Emam, M; Abdel-Kader, A; el-Din, A S; el-Hommossany, K; Shiff, C

1998-12-01

140

Panama and the Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Florida's George A. Smathers Libraries and the Panama Canal Museum have worked together to create this engaging digital collection that tells the story of Panama and the Canal Zone. The collection contains 158 items, including newspaper clippings, illustrations, stock shares, and more. The Leonard Carpenter Panama Canal Collection contains a mix of photos of dredging work, military personnel, and a U.S. Navy dirigible. Another smaller collection contains items from the Government Documents Department, such as annual reports, maps, and Congressional hearing transcripts. Visitors can search the entire collection by keyword, and they shouldn't miss the 1754 maps of Panama and the surrounding region by Jacques Nicolas Bellin.

 
 
 
 
141

Multistate nested canalizing functions  

CERN Document Server

The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

2013-01-01

142

Surface expression of an accommodation zone within the Gulf of Suez rift, Egyp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gebel Gharamul region in the western Gulf of Suez offers an excellent outcrop example of the structural geometries associated with an accommodation zone termination. The surface expression of the accommodation zone is dominated by a basement promontory, which protrudes from the rift shoulder and underlies the junction of oblique ramps from two adjacent half-grabens, both of which face the Gulf of Suez. The southern half-graben represents the breakaway fault of the southwest-dipping tilt-block domain, and the northern half-graben represents the collapse of the upper plate above the northeast-dipping tilt-block domain. Basement and Nubian rocks in the hanging walls above the opposing low-angle detachments on either side of the accommodation zone are broken by gulf-parallel synthetic normal faults an orthogonal transfer faults, which act as block terminations and incrementally accommodate the large-scale rotation and displacement between adjacent blocks. The prerift and synrift stratigraphic succession is draped over this fault template, resulting in a complex and variable distribution of structures, the product of an inhomogeneous stratigraphic succession with an accommodation zone.

Coffield, D.Q.; Schamel, S. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (USA))

1989-01-01

143

Scale deposition in surface and subsurface production equipment in the Gulf of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some of the Gulf of Suez oil fields (El-Morgan, July, and Shoab Ali) have been waterflooded with gulf seawater. Compatibility tests have indicated probable deposition of scale in surface and subsurface production equipment. This paper outlines the physical and theoretical prediction for downhole scale deposition in Gulf of Suez oil wells. It also describes field experience with CaSO/sub 4/ scale removal from the wells and their formations in view of field results of the implemented programs. Scale inhibition programs carried out to control downhole scale deposition by using the formation squeeze technique, along with the field results obtained from the squeezetreated wells, are described. A new improvement in the squeeze treatment technique has been introduced as highmolecular-weight polyacrylamide polymer solutions were incorporated to stage the scale inhibitor squeeze batch to prolong the treatment lifetime. Field results are presented, along with conclusions and recommendations that can be applied to similar problems, especially when wells of highly productive sandstone formations are to be inhibited.

El-Hattab, M.I.

1985-09-01

144

Mid-clysmic event, Gulf of Suez rotational deformation associated with a deep crustal detachment fault  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dip relationships at the boundaries of three stratigraphic packages (one prerift and two synrift) in the Gulf of Suez suggest that the early stages of structural development in the Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into two phases. Synrift sediments deposited in the first phase of deformation (prerotation units) demonstrate only minor angular discordance with the underlying pre-Miocene (prerift stratigraphy). Synrift sediments deposited in the second phase of deformation (rotation units) show marked angular discordance and onlapping relationships with underlying units. The authors propose that the prerotation units were deposited during a period of basin-wide, generally vertical subsidence which was accommodated by slip on numerous, oppositely dipping normal faults. As subsidence continued, faults with similar dip directions began to work in unison and dominate the deformation of portions of the rift, causing faults with other orientations to play a lesser role or to become inactive. Minor rotations occurred during this phase of deformation. The rotational phase of deformation initiated as major faults propagated downward to and merged with a major detachment surface at depth. As extension continued, rotation of large, fault-bound blocks along deep seated listric faults resulted in the exposure and erosion of both pre-Miocene and prerotation units along the updip segments of the blocks. Sediments deposited during the rotational phase of deformation transgressed the backs of these rotated blocks and were laid down in angular discordance with the underlying units.

Vigano, P.L.; Patton, T.L. (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, Cairo (Egypt))

1988-08-01

145

Interaction between lithospheric stretching and asthenospheric secondary convection: application to Suez rift evolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modeling of geodynamic rifting processes by lithospheric stretching does not adequately account for some rift features, such as the abrupt uplift of the rift shoulders. Using a thermomechanical model dealing with a non-Newtonian crust and mantle rheology, I. Moretti and C. Froidevaux suggested that the numerous continental rifts evolved from upward propagation of an asthenospheric thermal anomaly; an extensive regional stress would have caused these convective phenomena, as well as crustal thinning. Between 23 and 17 Ma, the Suez rift, as determined by tectonic subsidence studies, had an initial period of rapid subsidence over the entire width (80 km) of the rift. The subsidence nearly stopped between 18 and 13 Ma, probably as a result of the decreased extensional rate. The rift trough tends to narrow progressively, and active subsidence was restricted to the present-day Gulf of Suez (40-50 km) while the onshore areas began to uplift. This evolution has been modeled assuming an initial lithospheric stretching phase of a few million years of duration and a continuous asthenospheric upwelling away from the rift axis.

Moretti, I.; Chenet, P.Y.

1986-05-01

146

Reproductive Periodicities of Indo-Pacific Invertebrates in the Gulf of Suez. Ii. The Echinoid Echinometra Mathaei (De Blainville).  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal reproductive changes in several populations of the echinoid Echinometra mathaei near both the head and mouth of the Gulf of Suez were followed for more than a year. Well-defined reproductive periodicities occurred near the head of the Gulf; gamet...

J. S. Pearse

1969-01-01

147

Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

2010-01-01

148

Bilateral bifid mandibular canal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

Sheikhi M; Badrian H; Ghorbanizadeh S

2012-12-01

149

Bilateral bifid mandibular canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary. PMID:23814555

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Badrian, Hamid; Ghorbanizadeh, Sajad

2012-12-01

150

Egypt receives computers from CERN  

CERN Document Server

On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

Anaïs Schaeffer

2013-01-01

151

Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

Jain Nidhi; Tushar Suneja

2008-01-01

152

Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4?g/g and 0.032-0.17 ?g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

1995-01-01

153

Electricity and energy: Egypt case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper shows the evolution of the pattern of the energy consumption in Egypt for the last three decades and indicates that the growth rate of energy consumption will continue with lower growth rates but the trend indicates substantial rate of electric energy consumption. Statistical data on power generation are also given. 6 figs., 6 tabs

1992-01-01

154

U.S.-Egypt Security Cooperation after Egypt's January 2011 Revolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Could the leadership changes resulting from Egypt's January 2011 Revolution uproot 30 years of security cooperation between the United States and Egypt. This monograph examines how the security cooperation between the two countries, which is rooted in the...

S. S. Vogelsang

2011-01-01

155

3 FIELD SQUADRON, SAEC (PART 2)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1884 when Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal became a member of the French Academy, he was welcomed by Ernest Renan. In his speech Renan remarked that not only had two inland seas been connected, but the site of a future battlefield had been marked. During the Second World War his prediction came true when control of the Middle East became of utmost importance for the continuation of the Allied war effort: the economic blockade of Europe and the defence of Allied oil supplies depended on the Allies retaining Egypt and control of the Suez Canal.

A.E. Van Zyl

2012-01-01

156

The potential of electricity generation on the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind characteristics have been analyzed based on long-term measured data of monthly mean wind speed of seven meteorological stations along the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt. It was found that the windiest stations (Region A) namely (Zafarana, Abu Darag, Hurghada and Ras Benas) have annual mean wind speeds (7.3, 7.2, 6.4 and 5.5m/s) at 10m height, respectively. Numerical estimations using measured wind speeds and frequencies to calculate the two Weibull parameters were carried out and two methods were applied. The methodical analysis for the corrected monthly wind power density at a height of 10m above ground level, over roughness class 0 (water), for each station was done. The recommended correlation equation was also stated for Red Sea zone in Egypt. Also the corrected annual wind power density at the heights (50-70)m was obtained for all stations. Moreover, calculations show that the four stations in (Region A) have a huge energy potential available (430-1000W/m{sup 2}) at 70m height, while Quseir and Suez stations (Region B) have good wind power density (170-190W/m{sup 2}) at 50m height. A technical and economic assessment has been made of electricity generation from two turbines machines having capacity of (1000 and 600kW) considered in Regions A and B, respectively, using WASP program. The yearly energy output, capacity factor and the electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the two different turbines in each region were estimated. The production costs of four stations in Region A was found to be less than 2|cent/kWh and compared with retail tariff. (author)

Ahmed Shata, A.S.; Hanitsch, R. [Institute of Energy and Automation Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Technical University Berlin, Einsteinufer 11, EM4, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

2006-08-15

157

Seroprevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia conorii infection among rodents and dogs in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A serological survey of 1813 rodent and 549 dog sera, collected from 1979 to 1986 from animals in 16 Egyptian Governorates were tested for antibody to Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia conorii by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Only three of 82 (4%) sera from Rattus rattus collected near Aswan had antibody to R. conorii. The prevalence of R. typhi antibody in dog sera was only 0.4% (n = 549) while 25% (n = 547) of Rattus norvegicus and 11% (n = 1138) of R. rattus had measurable antibodies. Among the other rodents, antibody was demonstrated in only 2% (n = 45) of Arvicanthis spp., and 1% (n = 83) of Acomys spp. Collectively, rodents captured in the Nile Delta had a higher prevalence (mean 24% (n = 787] than those captured in the Nile Valley (mean 4% (n = 650]. Antibody to R. typhi was detected in rodents collected in all port cities: ismailiya, 13%; Port Said, 9%; Suez, 9%; Safaga, 16%; Quseir, 32% and Alexandria, 34%. These data showed evidence of R. typhi infection among rodents in widespread geographic localities of Egypt and suggested that infected rodents may be a source of human infections.

Soliman AK; Botros BA; Ksiazek TG; Hoogstraal H; Helmy I; Morrill JC

1989-10-01

158

Seroprevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia conorii infection among rodents and dogs in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological survey of 1813 rodent and 549 dog sera, collected from 1979 to 1986 from animals in 16 Egyptian Governorates were tested for antibody to Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia conorii by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Only three of 82 (4%) sera from Rattus rattus collected near Aswan had antibody to R. conorii. The prevalence of R. typhi antibody in dog sera was only 0.4% (n = 549) while 25% (n = 547) of Rattus norvegicus and 11% (n = 1138) of R. rattus had measurable antibodies. Among the other rodents, antibody was demonstrated in only 2% (n = 45) of Arvicanthis spp., and 1% (n = 83) of Acomys spp. Collectively, rodents captured in the Nile Delta had a higher prevalence (mean 24% (n = 787] than those captured in the Nile Valley (mean 4% (n = 650]. Antibody to R. typhi was detected in rodents collected in all port cities: ismailiya, 13%; Port Said, 9%; Suez, 9%; Safaga, 16%; Quseir, 32% and Alexandria, 34%. These data showed evidence of R. typhi infection among rodents in widespread geographic localities of Egypt and suggested that infected rodents may be a source of human infections. PMID:2509729

Soliman, A K; Botros, B A; Ksiazek, T G; Hoogstraal, H; Helmy, I; Morrill, J C

1989-10-01

159

Nasopalatine canal cyst: often missed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nasopalatine canal cyst may occur within the nasopalatine canal or in the soft tissues of the palate, at the opening of the canal, where it is called the 'cyst of the palatine papilla'. These are normally asymptomatic, constituting casual radiological findings. We present a case report of a male patient with infected nasopalatine canal cyst seen clinically as swelling over palate. Radiographic interpretation should be thoroughly performed for maxillary anterior region and any occlusal radiograph in routine radiography to screen this entity and must be distinguished from other maxillary anterior radiolucencies by the clinician. PMID:23536642

Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Neeta; Agarwal, Rashmi; Pandey, Praveen

2013-03-27

160

Nasopalatine canal cyst: often missed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nasopalatine canal cyst may occur within the nasopalatine canal or in the soft tissues of the palate, at the opening of the canal, where it is called the 'cyst of the palatine papilla'. These are normally asymptomatic, constituting casual radiological findings. We present a case report of a male patient with infected nasopalatine canal cyst seen clinically as swelling over palate. Radiographic interpretation should be thoroughly performed for maxillary anterior region and any occlusal radiograph in routine radiography to screen this entity and must be distinguished from other maxillary anterior radiolucencies by the clinician.

Srivastava S; Misra N; Agarwal R; Pandey P

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model for a solar-hydrogen energy system for Egypt has been developed by obtaining relationships for and between the main energy and energy related parameters. The magnitude and trends of the parameters, with and without hydrogen introduction, have been investigated over a period of time. The results indicate that the fossil fuel resources in Egypt could be exhausted within one to two decades. They also indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would extend the availability of fossil fuel resources, reduce pollution, and establish a permanent energy system for Egypt. They show that Egypt could become an exporter of hydrogen. (author)

Abdallah, M.A.H. [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering; Asfour, S.S. [Miami Univ., FL (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering; Veziroglu, T.N. [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States). Clean Energy Research Inst.

1999-07-01

162

Egypt in the framework of global tectonics  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview is presented to explicitly describe the role of global tectonics in the tectonic and geologic history of Egypt. The major global tectonic events that have directly or indirectly affected the geology of Egypt are summarized and those events are described chronologically, emphasizing the regional geological implications of each event. It is shown that the analysis of Egyptian geological history within the framework of global tectonics suggests that most of the major geological features of Egypt can be explained in terms of the interaction of global tectonics. Finally, it appears that Egypt is entering a new phase of the Wilson cycle of opening and closing of oceans.

Morgan, Paul

163

Maxillary second premolar with three canals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case report of a maxillary second premolar with three canals is presented. The tooth had three roots, mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal, each containing a canal. Root canal therapy was performed under aseptic conditions. (author)

1991-01-01

164

Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable ability.

Rossi-Fedele G; Guastalli AR

2013-07-01

165

The Tem Plagues of Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ten Plagues of Egypt described in the Bible were central to the liberation of the Jewish people from the oppression of the Egyptians. The succession of disasters demoralised the Egyptians and were seen as a victory for Jewish monotheistic beliefs. In this essay, natural explanations for most of the Plagues are proposed and a chronology of events is provided. Could the mythological explanation of these arguably natural phenomena still have a profound influence on the modern world?

Roger S. Wotton

2007-01-01

166

The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The a...

Yetiser, Sertac

167

Bilateral internal acoustic canal mass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We reported a case of bilateral internal acoustic canal mass. A 42-year-old man patient was previously treated for colon cancer. After surgery during chemotherapy signs as severe vertigo and bilateral sudden hearing loss occurred. Temporal bone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had bilateral internal acoustic canal masses.

Nazim K; Mehmet Y; Tuna ED; Marlen MA

2013-09-01

168

Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive con...

Jain Nidhi; Tushar Suneja

169

The Economics of Autism in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This was the first study ever done on the cost consequences of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Egypt or any other developing/industrializing country. The following questions were empirically investigated: What are the economic costs of ASD in Egypt and how do they compare...

Roger Lee Mendoza

170

Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

2011-01-01

171

Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dalia M El-Sebaity1, Wael Soliman1, Asmaa MA Soliman2, Ahmed M Fathalla11Department of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, EgyptPurpose: To analyze the patterns, causes, and ou...

El-Sebaity DM; Soliman W; Soliman AMA; Fathalla AM

172

Mandibular first molar with four distal canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mandibular first molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when four of these canals are located in distal roots. This report describes a case of a mandibular first molar with six canals (two mesial and four distal canals in two distal roots). The canals were equipped with a K-file and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25%) and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland). This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. PMID:18037064

Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Naghavi, Neda; Zarei, Mina; Rohani, Ehsan

2007-10-22

173

The Kamil Crater in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on the detection in southern Egypt of an impact crater 45 meters in diameter with a pristine rayed structure. Such pristine structures are typically observed on atmosphereless rocky or icy planetary bodies in the solar system. This feature and the association with an iron meteorite impactor and shock metamorphism provides a unique picture of small-scale hypervelocity impacts on Earth's crust. Contrary to current geophysical models, ground data indicate that iron meteorites with masses of the order of tens of tons can penetrate the atmosphere without substantial fragmentation.

Folco L; Di Martino M; El Barkooky A; D'Orazio M; Lethy A; Urbini S; Nicolosi I; Hafez M; Cordier C; van Ginneken M; Zeoli A; Radwan AM; El Khrepy S; El Gabry M; Gomaa M; Barakat AA; Serra R; El Sharkawi M

2010-08-01

174

Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths) in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver) toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

Mohtaram Najafi

1998-01-01

175

The most common insect pollinator species on sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L.) in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of insect pollinators associated with sesame, Sesamun indicum L. (Pedaliaceae) was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. All different insect pollinators which found on the experimental site were collected for identification. Sampling was done once a week and three times a day. Three methods were used to collect and identify insects from the sesame plants (a sweep net, pitfall traps, digital camera and eye observation). A total of 29 insect species were collected and properly identified during the survey. Insect pollinators which recorded on the plants were divided into four groups, 18 belonged to Hymenoptera, 7 to Diptera, 3 to Lepidoptera and one to Coleoptera. Results revealed that Honybee, Apis mellifera was the most dominant species in the 2011 season and the second one in the 2012 season. Whereas small carpenter bee, Ceratina tarsata was the most dominant species in the 2012 season and the second one in the 2011 season. The percentage of Hymenoptera was higher in the two studied seasons by 90.94% and 89.59%, followed by Diptera by 3.93% and 5.38%, then Lepidoptera by 3.58% and 3.62, and in the last Coleoptera by 1.53% and 1.39%, respectively.

S.M. Kamel; A.H. Blal; H.M. Mahfouz, et al.

2013-01-01

176

Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 2--Patterns of transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution, abundance and seasonality of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were studied for 2 years (1992-1994) in two newly reclaimed areas, namely El Manayef and El-Morra areas located on both sides of Suez Canal near Ismailia City. The results confirm the occurrence of transmission of both Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium since infected snails of both species were recovered in these areas. This consequently proves that reclamation of parts of the desert utilizing Nile water had led to spread of schistosomiasis to these areas. Analysis of the data shows that the infected snails, especially B. alexandrina, were found clustered in a relatively few numbers of transmission sites and furthermore the greater majority of these sites were found located within a less number of transmission foci. This pattern of focality is clearly demonstrated by Geographical Information System (GIS) produced maps. Infected B. alexandrina snails fluctuated seasonally showing 2 peaks, a minor peak in August and a higher one in November. Only one peak of infected B. truncatus was recognized in July. PMID:10605512

Yousif, F; el-Emam, M; Abdel Kader, A; el-Din, A S; el-Hommossany, K; Shiff, C

1999-08-01

177

Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE-SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa-Hurghada coastal zone.

Kaiser MF; Aziz AM; Ghieth BM

2013-07-01

178

Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Source Rock Evaluation of the Lower Miocene Rocks Based on Well Logs: October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available October oil field is one of the largest hydrocarbon-bearing fields which produces oil from the sand section of the Lower Miocene Asl Formation. Two marl (Asl Marl) and shale (Hawara Formation) sections of possible source enrichment are detected above and below this oil sand section, respectively. This study aims to identify the content of the total organic carbon based on the density log and a combination technique of the resistivity and porosity logs (?log R Technique). The available geochemical analyses are used to calibrate the constants of the TOC and the level of maturity (LOM) used in the (?log R Technique). The geochemical-based LOM is found as 9.0 and the calibrated constants of the Asl Marl and Hawara Formation are found as 11.68, 3.88 and 8.77, 2.80, respectively. Fair to good TOC% content values (0.88 to 1.85) were recorded for Asl Marl section in the majority of the studied wells, while less than 0.5% is recorded for the Hawara Formation. The lateral distribution maps show that most of the TOC% enrichments are concentrated at central and eastern parts of the study area, providing a good source for the hydrocarbons encountered in the underlying Asl Sand section.

Aref Lashin; Saad Mogren

2012-01-01

179

Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE-SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa-Hurghada coastal zone. PMID:23688834

Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

2013-05-17

180

Rising Water Table Threatens Egypt's Monuments  

Science.gov (United States)

This article from National Geographic News examines the threat posed to Egyptian monuments by a rising water table. The article details the problems facing antiquities throughout Egypt and presents possible solutions.

Cohen, Chad; Geographic, National

 
 
 
 
181

Depositional environments and sequence architecture of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), west central Sinai, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Cenomanian-Turonian deposits are important reservoirs for many oil fields in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez region of Egypt. Study of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), from five dip-oriented outcrop locations in west central Sinai; indicates deposition of a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system on a ramp setting. The inner ramp facies (bivalve and benthonic foraminiferal wackestone) grades northward to the mid ramp facies (echinoderm calcisphere packstone, and oyster floatstone), and outer ramp facies (planktonic foraminiferal wackestone and calcisphere wackestone).The two studied formations comprise one second-order depositional sequence (duration of approximately 10 Million years). This large scale sequence includes four third-order depositional sequences, three of which are observed in the Raha Formation, with the other one recorded in the Abu Qada Formation. Because west central Sinai was tectonically stable during the Cenomanian and Turonian, the main factor controlling the lateral and vertical distribution of facies tracts is likely due to changes in the relative sea level. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event is known as the largest oceanic anoxic event during the Cretaceous. This global event has been documented in three of the studied sections. The recorded ?13C excursions range from +3.04‰ to +5.24‰. These high positive excursions in ?13C are associated with highly negative values of ?18O (values range from -6.01‰ to -1.38‰).

Anan, Tarek I.; El-Shahat, Adam; Genedi, Adel; Grammer, Michael

2013-06-01

182

Nuclear desalination in Egypt: activities and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main source of freshwater resources in Egypt is the River Nile. The Egyptian share of the Nile water was limited to 55.5x109 m3/year in the Nile Water Treaty concluded with Sudan in 1959. Due to the rapid population growth, the annual per capita freshwater resources declined from 2560 m3 in 1955 to 970 m3 in 1995. Consequently, desalination plants of various sizes and technologies have been introduced to Egypt in the past three decades. The Egyptian desalination inventory increased from less than 2000 m3/day in 1970 to almost 175000 m3/day in 1997, of which 54% was seawater desalination. The energy-intensive seawater desalination technologies are expected to play an increasing role in mitigating future potable water deficit in Egypt. Egypt has been considering for a number of years the introduction of nuclear energy to meet the combined challenge of increasing electricity and water demand on one hand and the limited primary energy and water resources on the other hand. In this regard, Egypt has been carrying a number of national, regional and international activities. This paper presents an overview of the Egyptian activities in the field of nuclear desalination including, feasibility studies and Research and Development activities. The results of recent studies are presented regarding: quantification of seawater desalination market in Egypt and preliminary economic assessment of potable water production by various combinations of energy sources and desalination processes proposed for El-Dabaa site. (author)

183

Suicide trends in Upper Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Suicide is an important problem, ranking among the top 10 causes of death for individuals in all ages in developed countries. This article is a retrospective study evaluating suicide cases in Assiut, one of the largest provinces in Egypt, from 2005 to 2009. There were 117 cases, of which involved 68 male victims (58.12%) and 49 women (41.88%). Suicide rates ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 per 100,000. Age predominance was from 20 to ?30 years. The method of suicide was different between male and female victims, as male victims tried to use more violent methods than females. The most common cause of death in men was usage of toxins and by hanging 29% and 28%, respectively, while in women was usage of toxins (70%). This study showed that suicide rates have increased since 1987, indicating a grave problem that needs to be solved.

Abdel Moneim WM; Yassa HA; George SM

2012-09-01

184

Organophosphorus pesticides residues in fish samples from the River Nile tributaries in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentration of organophosphorus pesticides in fish samples from different tributaries of the Nile River in Egypt was monitored. Fish samples were collected from El Menofiya, canal water supplies (El-Sarsawia, El-Bagoria and Bahr Shebin), in addition to El-Embaby, El-Menofi and Miet Rabiha drainage canals each 2 month during periods of 16 month, June 2007-Septemper 2008. Chloropyrifos, cadusafos, diazinon, prothiphos and malathion were detected in fish tissues samples at level below the maximum residue limit. The highest average amount of chlorpyrifos (9.38 ng g(-1)) and malathion (8.31 ng g(-1)) were detected in El-Embaby drain. Prothiphos were found in tissues collected from El-Sarsawia canal and Miet-Rabiha drain at mean concentration of 4.91 and 6.55 ng g(-1), respectively. Diazinon was only found in one fish sample that collected from El-Menofi drain at the level of 9.23 ng g(-1).

Malhat F; Nasr I

2011-12-01

185

Organophosphorus pesticides residues in fish samples from the River Nile tributaries in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of organophosphorus pesticides in fish samples from different tributaries of the Nile River in Egypt was monitored. Fish samples were collected from El Menofiya, canal water supplies (El-Sarsawia, El-Bagoria and Bahr Shebin), in addition to El-Embaby, El-Menofi and Miet Rabiha drainage canals each 2 month during periods of 16 month, June 2007-Septemper 2008. Chloropyrifos, cadusafos, diazinon, prothiphos and malathion were detected in fish tissues samples at level below the maximum residue limit. The highest average amount of chlorpyrifos (9.38 ng g(-1)) and malathion (8.31 ng g(-1)) were detected in El-Embaby drain. Prothiphos were found in tissues collected from El-Sarsawia canal and Miet-Rabiha drain at mean concentration of 4.91 and 6.55 ng g(-1), respectively. Diazinon was only found in one fish sample that collected from El-Menofi drain at the level of 9.23 ng g(-1). PMID:21953307

Malhat, Farag; Nasr, Islam

2011-09-28

186

Physical properties of root canal filling materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Root canal filling materials are used to obturate the root canal space. Several studies have been made in order to investigate their physical properties. A general review of these properties are discussed in this paper. (author)

1989-01-01

187

78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade...the Notice regarding the Trade Mission to Egypt April 14-16, 2013, published at 78...participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013,...

2013-03-08

188

77 FR 33439 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade...security technology sectors in Cairo, Egypt and Kuwait City, Kuwait, March 10-14...the goal of increasing U.S. exports to Egypt and Kuwait. The mission will include...

2012-06-06

189

77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade...the Notice regarding the Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published...participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013,...

2012-12-04

190

Computed tomography of the thoracic canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 100. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th1, Th2 levels and round at Th3-Th10 and large oval at Th11, Th12. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (author).

1981-01-01

191

PARACONDYLARY CANAL AT THE HUMAN CRANIAL BASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A variable bony canal in 32,5% of the cases, laterally from the occipital condyle named as the "paracondylary canal" that is probably intended for the emissary vein passage is described in the paper.The presented morphological characteristics as well as an important canal incidence are innovation in the referental literature.

Ljiljana Vasovic; Slobodan Vlajkovic; Snezana Pavlovic; Vesna Stojanovic

2003-01-01

192

Canalization of human cervical mucus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cervical mucus forms channels when dried under a coverslip. The aim of the present work was: 1) to prove mucus canalization both in spontaneous ovulatory cycles and during ovulation induction with gonadotropins; 2) to prove the estrogen dependence of this phenomenon; 3) to check the importance of the proteidic and electrolytic concentration on chaneling; and 4) to use this phenomenon clinically, shortening the time in which it occurs. The number and arrangement of channels vary during the cycle. The phenomenon is estrogen-dependent. The comparison between estradiol values and the number of channels during spontaneous ovulatory cycles and treatment with gonadotropins showed a linear relationship. Treatment with estradiol 17 beta-valerate and ethinyl estradiol induced channel formation in women with primary amenorrhea. Canalization and ferning disappeared after dialysis or treatment with proteolytic enzymes. It follows that the two phenomena have similar characteristics. Canalization increases daily, as does estradiol, whereas ferning maintains the same grade for a longer period, and when a grade of + + + is reached, it provides no further indications. With the use of a thermostat, canalization occurred in only a few hours. Chaneling, a more precise index, could therefore substitute for ferning, particularly when monitoring the induction of ovulation.

Garcea N; Giacchi E; Campo S; Messina M; Panetta V; Moneta E

1984-08-01

193

Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior cana...

Mohtaram Najafi

194

Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers  

Science.gov (United States)

Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.1

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2013-10-01

195

Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt/ Monitoramento de cistos parasitarios no cerebro de um rebanho de ovinos no Egito  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Cistos cerebrais parasitários constituem um grande problema para o gado. Entre estes, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são predominantes. Aqui, um número total de 60 ovelhas obtidas em uma fazenda particular na província Suez, Egito, foram examinadas post-mortem para a detecção de cistos parasitários visíveis e microscopicamente para detectar cistos de pequenas dimensões. A necropsia revelou cistos medindo entre 0,5-6,5 cm de diâ (more) metro, preenchidos com um fluido transparente, contendo um grande número de protoscolices. Por conseguinte, os cistos foram identificados como o metacestóide Coenurus cerebralis. Entre as ovelhas examinadas, 11 animais (7 machos e 4 fêmeas) (18,3%) estavam infectados. A maior parte dos cistos estavam localizados nos hemisférios cerebrais, com números variando de um a três em ovinos infectados. O efeito da presença de cistos no tecido do cérebro foi avaliado. Histopatologicamente, pseudocistos de Toxoplasma gondii foram encontrados em dois animais sem reações inflamatórias detectáveis. Em conclusão, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são graves problemas parasitários que desempenham um papel significativo no manejo de ovelhas no Egito, como resultado do contacto íntimo dos animais com os cães e gatos, que desempenham um papel crítico no ciclo de vida desses parasitas. Abstract in english Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to detect small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscoli (more) ces. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites.

Anwar, Shehata; Mahdy, Emad; El-Nesr, Khalid Ali; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Shalaby, Adel; Yanai, Tokuma

2013-09-01

196

Mandibular first premolar with four canals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of endodontic treatment of a mandibular first premolar exhibiting a total of four distinct root canals and four apical foramina is described. This occurrence in mandibular first premolar has rarely been reported in the endodontic literature. Endodontic treatment that considers the anatomic variation of root canal morphology is important to ensure a favorable healing outcome, and its identification could be enhanced by careful examination using a dental operating microscope. Obturation of root canals using a warm vertical compaction technique with a highly-radiopaque root canal sealer, such as AH Plus, after careful ultrasonic activated irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid might allow the flow of sealer into the narrowed but unprepared part of the canal. This offers valuable adjuncts for the successful negotiation of calcified main canals, thereby facilitating optimum chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system.

Du Y; Lee AH; Zhang C

2013-02-01

197

Radiopharmaceuticals production activities in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Applications of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the field of nuclear medicine in Egypt have increased so rapidly in the last few years. At present, a large number of hospitals are utilizing these radioisotopic techniques for both diagnosis and treatment. The following production activities are taking place in the Egyptian Radioisotope Production laboratories. By utilizing the research reactor a large number of radioisotopes which find wide applications in nuclear medicine were produced, such as iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-24, potassium-42 and molybdenum-99 / technetium-99m generators. Gallium-67, indium-111 and iodine-123 will be produced locally after installation of the cyclotron at the end of 1998. A large number of Tc-99m based kits for diagnostic medical applications have been produced. Also, many radiopharmaceuticals labelled with iodine-131 were produced. The radioisotope production laboratory is able to supply many hospitals with the radioimmunoassay kits of the thyroid related hormones (T4, T3 and TSH). Research and development activities are taking place in the field of monoclonal antibodies and tumor markers with special consideration of AFP, CEA, PSA and ?hCG. (author)

1998-04-03

198

Renewable-energy applications in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper illustrates the main activities carried out concerning development and application of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt. Main attention is devoted to biogas technology, solar and wind energy technologies. The main constraints for implementation of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt and the activities carried out for its release are highlighted. The coordination between the Islamic and other developing countries is highly needed, to achieve marked progress in implementation of renewable energy and sustainable development. Establishment of a network for renewable energy among the Islamic countries can play an active role in these aspects. (author)

2005-01-01

199

Reaching women in Egypt: a success story  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

Ahmed Mousa; Ebtehal Rashad; Gamal Ezz El Arab

2009-01-01

200

Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

Reinhardt, R.

1987-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Algae control for hydrogeneration canals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to assess and develop control practices for nuisance algae growth in power canal that delivers water to hydro-generation facilities. This growth results in expenditures related not only to lost generation but also labor and materials costs associated with implementing remediation procedures. On an industry-wide basis these costs associated with nuisance algal growth are estimated to be several million dollars per year.

Grahovac, P.

1997-02-16

202

78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

...Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...pertaining to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The referenced notice is corrected...included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for...

2013-05-07

203

Earth's motions in pharaonic Egypt: Religious interpretations  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will deal with the representations of the earth's movements in pharaonic Egypt. At first, testimonies of an ancient literary pattern, the "sky and earth" figure, will be observed, and then, the pictures where earth is represented "alone". We will explore the different ways the Egyptians depicted and interpreted this phenomena through various texts.

Jambon, Emmanuel

204

Power competition in Nasser´s Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper has a double aim. First, to present briefly part of the basic theoretical aspects of ‘sociology of power’approach and, second, to expose the results obtained by its application on the case of Egypt during the years 1952-1970. This paper is based on a previous research, published under the title “Nasser’s National Interest. A ‘Sociology of Power’ Analysis”. For the purposes of this paper, we develop a part of the theoretical framework of the previous work, we skip its application on the case of Egypt and we present directly in the second part the conclusions we have obtained from the theory’s application in the case study of Egypt during the former research. The first part, the theoretical one, is analysing four main concepts of our approach: actors, elites, circular relations and differential accumulation of power and resources of power. A short reference follows to the pushing need for the international relations’ discipline to study the relations between actors, crossing the national boarders, in accordance to the theoretical framework previously exposed. After the theoretical part, the second part focuses on the empirical case, with the purpose to present the conclusions from the application of the theoretical framework on Nasser’s Egypt.

Kemou, Athina

2009-01-01

205

Investigating ancient Memphis, Pharaonic Egypt's northern capital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1981 the London-based Egypt Exploration Society has been conducting an archaeological survey of the site of Memphis and its surrounding area. The present field director of the project describes some of the aims and results of the most recent phases of the survey.

David Jeffreys

1999-01-01

206

Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment. Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social relationships. Not only do the children grow up in a different physical context, they are also exposed to new norms, values and behaviour that influences their everyday life and shape their identity. Especially the change from living in large, extended families to living in nuclear families as well as women’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed’ countries

Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

2007-01-01

207

School effects on educational attainment in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data for Egypt in 2007, this paper examines the determinants and gender inequality of educational attainment (test scores in Mathematics and Science). The complicated structure of the data is carefully addressed during all stages of...

Badr, Menshawy

208

Investigating ancient Memphis, Pharaonic Egypt's northern capital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since 1981 the London-based Egypt Exploration Society has been conducting an archaeological survey of the site of Memphis and its surrounding area. The present field director of the project describes some of the aims and results of the most recent phases of the survey.

David Jeffreys

209

Security of radiation sources in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The situation of the radiation sources in Egypt is elucidated. The inventory of the sources is being completed to implement a national date base. Compliance with the IAEA code of conduct is being implemented. Security measures are being evaluated (author)

2005-01-01

210

Anthropogenic enhancement of Egypt's Mediterranean fishery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The highly productive coastal Mediterranean fishery off the Nile River delta collapsed after the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1965. But the fishery has been recovering dramatically since the mid-1980s, coincident with large increases in fertilizer application and sewage discharge in Egypt. We...

Oczkowski, Autumn J.; Nixon, Scott W.; Granger, Stephen L.; El-Sayed, Abdel-Fattah M.; McKinney, Richard A.

211

Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

2009-01-01

212

Journey to Egypt: A Board Game  

Science.gov (United States)

This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

Selvidge, Ellen

2006-01-01

213

Byssinosis in the Cotton Industry of Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An epidemiological investigation in 11 ginneries representing the ginning industry in Egypt demonstrated the existence of byssinosis among 38·4% of the workers. Studies of two pressing plants and two card-rooms in Alexandria showed a prevalence of byssinosis of 52·6% and 26·6% respectively. The ages...

Batawi, Mostafa A. El

214

Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5?kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like ? propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the environment shapes the genome. PMID:21248857

Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

2011-01-20

215

Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5?kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like ? propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the environment shapes the genome.

Elsaied H; Stokes HW; Kitamura K; Kurusu Y; Kamagata Y; Maruyama A

2011-07-01

216

Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions and independent experts. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture and a full understanding of the energy industry and market in Egypt, the way they operate and their long-term perspectives

2011-01-01

217

Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture by using a cadaver vertebra. EMI, CT 5005 scanner was used. Best condition to observe the thoracic canal by CT was nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permited within about 100 in configuration and dimention. Configuration of 10 normal thoracic canals at each vertebral level was assessed and the dimentions of the canal at these levels were measured. In the cases of developmental cervical stenosis, the thoracic canal showed narrow especially in sagittal diameter. On the other hand it did not show marked difference in transverse diameter. In 4 cases of ossification of the yellow ligament treated surgically, 3 cases showed narrow thoracic canal on CT scan and narrow cervical canal in conventional radiographs. (author).

1981-01-01

218

Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture by using a cadaver vertebra. EMI, CT 5005 scanner was used. Best condition to observe the thoracic canal by CT was nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permited within about 10/sup 0/ in configuration and dimension. Configuration of 10 normal thoracic canals at each vertebral level was assessed and the dimensions of the canal at these levels were measured. In the cases of developmental cervical stenosis, the thoracic canal showed narrow especially in sagittal diameter. On the other hand it did not show marked difference in transverse diameter. In 4 cases of ossification of the yellow ligament treated surgically, 3 cases showed narrow thoracic canal on CT scan and narrow cervical canal in conventional radiographs.

Nakamura, S.; Hattori, S.; Kawai, S.; Saiki, K.; Oda, H. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-06-01

219

RECENT ADVANCEMENT IN ROOT CANAL TREATMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A root canal is the naturally occurring space within a tooth that consists of the pulp chamber, the main canal(s) and the more intricate anatomical branches that may connect it to each other or to the surface of the root. This article throws light on the recent advancement in root canal treatment using various therapies like endodontic, non surgical and surgical therapies. Root canal treatment not only corrects the damaged tooth but also restores the esthetics, phonetics and function of the tooth. Proper treatment should be done to avoid any complications and to make tooth appear more natural. Patents are the richest source of the latest technological information. A review of some patents on root canal treatment of tooth diseases is provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

Gaurav Solanki

2012-01-01

220

RECENT ADVANCEMENT IN ROOT CANAL TREATMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A root canal is the naturally occurring space within a tooth that consists of the pulp chamber, the main canal(s) and the more intricate anatomical branches that may connect it to each other or to the surface of the root. This article throws light on the recent advancement in root canal treatment using various therapies like endodontic, non surgical and surgical therapies. Root canal treatment not only corrects the damaged tooth but also restores the esthetics, phonetics and function of the tooth. Proper treatment should be done to avoid any complications and to make tooth appear more natural. Patents are the richest source of the latest technological information. A review of some patents on root canal treatment of tooth diseases is provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

Gaurav Solanki

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Assessment of metal status in drainage canal water and their bioaccumulation in Oreochromis niloticus fish in relation to human health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to assess metal concentrations (Al, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni) in Sabal drainage canal (Al-Menoufiya Province, River Nile Delta, Egypt) water as well as their accumulation in some selected organs (skin, muscles and kidneys) of Oreochromis niloticus fish to evaluate their hazard levels in relation to the maximum residual limits for human consumption. Drainage canal water was found to be heavily polluted with metals which far exceeded the permissible limits. It was found that metals accumulated in organs of O. niloticus in concentrations higher than those of canal water. Kidneys of O. niloticus contained the highest concentrations of the detected metals, while skin appeared to be the least preferred site for the bioaccumulation of metals as the lowest metals concentrations were detected in this tissue. The present study shows that fish organs contained high levels of metals exceeding the permissible limits values. Metals in muscle of fish were higher than the maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption. Thus, consuming fish caught from drainage canals is harmful to the consumers.

Authman MM; Abbas HH; Abbas WT

2013-01-01

222

Assessment of metal status in drainage canal water and their bioaccumulation in Oreochromis niloticus fish in relation to human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess metal concentrations (Al, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni) in Sabal drainage canal (Al-Menoufiya Province, River Nile Delta, Egypt) water as well as their accumulation in some selected organs (skin, muscles and kidneys) of Oreochromis niloticus fish to evaluate their hazard levels in relation to the maximum residual limits for human consumption. Drainage canal water was found to be heavily polluted with metals which far exceeded the permissible limits. It was found that metals accumulated in organs of O. niloticus in concentrations higher than those of canal water. Kidneys of O. niloticus contained the highest concentrations of the detected metals, while skin appeared to be the least preferred site for the bioaccumulation of metals as the lowest metals concentrations were detected in this tissue. The present study shows that fish organs contained high levels of metals exceeding the permissible limits values. Metals in muscle of fish were higher than the maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption. Thus, consuming fish caught from drainage canals is harmful to the consumers. PMID:22451326

Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

2012-03-27

223

Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

1995-01-01

224

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

1986-01-01

225

Anatomic variations of the human semicircular canals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anatomic variations of the semicircular canals were investigated in a series of 95 plastic temporal bone preparations. The results showed a wider range of variability than has been assumed previously. An intraindividual correlation was found between the sizes of the superior and lateral semicircular canals. Observations indicate why a semicircular canal is not invariably delineated on one tomographic plane despite correct positioning for its optimum reproduction. (orig.)

1986-01-01

226

The petromastoid canal on computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51{+-}0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57{+-}0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63{+-}0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Weidner, J.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

2002-11-01

227

Mechanized instrumentation of root canals oscillating systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cleaning and shaping are important steps in the root canal treatment. Despite the technological advances in endodontics, K and Hedstroen files are still widely used. In an attempt to be more effective in preparing the root canals, faster and more cutting efficient kinematic, alloys and design alternatives utilizing mechanically oscillating or rotary files are proposed. Even with all these technological innovating alternatives, the preparation of root canals remains a challenge. PMID:23579914

Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Puente, Carlos Garcia; Jaime, Alejandro; Jent, Carol

2013-01-01

228

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid.

Mueller, W.; Bumb, P.

1986-11-01

229

Development of the anterior chordal canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resent advances have led to the reexamination of the intraosseous pathway of the chorda tympani a few years ago and they stated that the nerve never enters the mandibular fossa and its exit the skull base in the sphenopetrosal fissure. In our report, 58 temporal bones were investigated after maceration and formalin fixation in order to understand the development of the anterior chordal canal. Our study revealed that the chorda tympani leaves the tympanic cavity through the tympanosquamosal fissure before formation of the anterior chordal canal of Huguier. This canal is situated parallel to and in front of the musculotubal canal and formed by the processus inferior tegminis tympani and the sphenoid bone between the second and fifth years of age. Prior to the age of 2, only the exit of the bony canal exists which is gradually followed by the appearance of a groove in the growing processus inferior tegminis tympani. The borders of the groove elevate and develop to upper and lower plates which lengthen with similar plates of the sphenoid bone, completing the anterior chordal canal by the fifth postnatal year. The entrance of the canal develops above the petrotympanic fissure and similar to the canal itself, it is also completely formed in the fifth year. In case of an incomplete development the anterior chordal canal remains partially opened laterally which might allow the head of the mandibula to effect the chorda tympani mechanically causing Costen's syndrome. PMID:16447906

Tóth, Miklós; Moser, Gerhard; Patonay, Lajos; Oláh, Imre

2006-01-01

230

Canal Conversion Between Anterior and Posterior Semicircular Canal in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of canal conversion between the anterior and posterior semicircular canals in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Secondary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 709 patients who were treated with the Epley maneuver for BPPV of the anterior or posterior semicircular canal. INTERVENTIONS: Vestibular examinations with videonystagmography and the canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) to treat BPPV. RESULTS: Canal conversion between the anterior and posterior semicircular canals was observed in 18 (2.9%) patients who underwent CRP. In 13 (2.3%) of 564 patients initially diagnosed with posterior canal BPPV (PC-BPPV), switch to anterior canal BPPV (AC-BPPV) was observed at a follow-up visit. In 5 (12.1%) of 41 patients who presented with AC-BPPV, canal switch to PC-BPPV occurred more frequently (p = 0.005). The average number of CRPs before nystagmus resolution was 3.6 in conversion cases versus 1.6 in the nonconversion group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Canal conversion between the anterior and posterior semicircular canals can occur during treatment. The possibility of canal conversions should be considered for appropriate management of BPPV of the vertical semicircular canals.

Park S; Kim BG; Kim SH; Chu H; Song MY; Kim M

2013-08-01

231

Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos/ Bifid mandibular canal: Case series report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro pacientes con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bíf (more) idos bilaterales. La Tomografía Computarizada de Haz de Cono, permite la identificación oportuna de condiciones preexistentes como variaciones en la morfología natural de los canales mandibulares, previniendo efectiva y precozmente las consecuencias neurológicas que se derivan de una lesión del nervio dentario inferior. Abstract in english The location and configuration of the mandibular canal variations are relevant in different clinical procedures of the jaw. In this case series, a radiologist assessed the mandibular canal route identifying the presence and types of bifid canals. Four patients with type bifid mandibular retromolar canal and three subjects with type bifida anterior canal without convergence were observed. In one patient, bilateral bifid tooth foramina was found. Computed Tomography Cone Be (more) am allows identification of preexisting conditions such as variations in the natural morphology of the mandibular canals, preventing effective and early neurological consequences arising from alveolar nerve injury.

Guzmán Zuluaga, C.L.; Guzmán Zuluaga, I.C.; Ardila Medina, C.M.

2012-04-01

232

Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos Bifid mandibular canal: Case series report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro pacientes con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bífidos bilaterales. La Tomografía Computarizada de Haz de Cono, permite la identificación oportuna de condiciones preexistentes como variaciones en la morfología natural de los canales mandibulares, previniendo efectiva y precozmente las consecuencias neurológicas que se derivan de una lesión del nervio dentario inferior.The location and configuration of the mandibular canal variations are relevant in different clinical procedures of the jaw. In this case series, a radiologist assessed the mandibular canal route identifying the presence and types of bifid canals. Four patients with type bifid mandibular retromolar canal and three subjects with type bifida anterior canal without convergence were observed. In one patient, bilateral bifid tooth foramina was found. Computed Tomography Cone Beam allows identification of preexisting conditions such as variations in the natural morphology of the mandibular canals, preventing effective and early neurological consequences arising from alveolar nerve injury.

C.L. Guzmán Zuluaga; I.C. Guzmán Zuluaga; C.M. Ardila Medina

2012-01-01

233

Canal-centring ability of three rotary file systems in simulated curved canals: A comparative study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To compare the canal-centring ability of M two , ProFile and RaCe rotary files, in simulated curved canals. Materials and Methods: About 30 simulated canals were prepared by M two , ProFile and RaCe rotary files. Pre and post-operative pictures were ...

Khalilak Zohreh; Alavi Kaveh; Akhlaghi Nahid; Mehrvarzfar Payman; Dadresanfar Bahareh

234

Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2003-05-01

235

Environmental and Irradiation Effect on the Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Some Local Bacterial Isolates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty eight bacterial isolates were isolated from The Suez Gulf sea water from the coast of the El-Nasr Petroleum Company on Suez Canal and formation water from overhead of an oil well in western desert of Egypt named (M68). Sixteen bacterial isolates were obtained from The Suez Gulf sea water. Twelve bacterial isolates were obtained from formation water (M68). The bacterial isolates were screened for bio surfactant production by using emulsification activity and haemolytic activity. The most potent two isolates N8 and S8 were selected according to three parameters; the ability of isolate to grow and produce surfactant on wide range of ph, temperature and salinity. The most promising bacterial isolates were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve their abilities for bio surfactant production which resulted in a passive effect on bio surfactant production

2010-01-01

236

New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist) have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas) han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como estas prácticas lingüisticas guardan una similitud visual y oral con las grabaciones de vídeo, de baja resolución, que se hacen con teléfonos móviles y que aparecen después en los blogs políticos. Todas estas nuevas prácticas revelan formas emergentes de acción política y de disidencia en el Egipto actual.

Hirschkind, Charles

2010-01-01

237

Osteoma located in the external ear canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteomas of the temporal bone are rare, slowly growing,benign neoplasms. They can cause symptoms of conductivehearing loss and fullness in the ear. We aimed toreport the case of a 43-year-old female patient with osteomalocated in the external ear canal. J Clin Exp Invest2013; 4 (2): 221-222Key words: CT, external auditory canal, osteoma

Ekrem Karaka?; Nihat K?l?caslan; Ömer Karaka?; Ferit Dogan; Ferhat Bozku?

2013-01-01

238

Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

2007-01-01

239

Irrigation canal system identification for control purposes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report gives some guidance on how to obtain black-box models of irrigation canal reaches, using system identification techniques. First of all, some general properties of the irrigation canal reaches are deducted, based on the use of the linearized Sain-Venant equations to model the water beha...

Sepúlveda Toepfer, Carlos; Rodellar Benedé, José

240

Using ArcGIS to Study the New Lakes in the Toshka Basin in Egypt and Evaluate Egypt's New Valley Project  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1978, the Egyptians constructed a canal known as the Toshka Spillway from Lake Nasser into a low area to the west to allow spillover of Lake Nasser water. Despite the fact that the spillway was created in 1978, it wasn't until the late 1990s that Lake Nasser actually filled up to the level of the spillway canal and the overflow lakes began to form. In November of 1998, US astronauts orbiting in the Space Shuttle noticed the lakes filling for the first time, and they have had water in them ever since. Egypt has embarked on a long-term and far-reaching irrigation plan to create habitable land away from the Nile River Valley. The Toshka Lakes are not, however, a formal part of the project. One of the main points of the exercise is to have students use both their knowledge of Saharan hydrogeology and GIS analyses to evaluate whether the Egyptians are wise not to use the lakes as part of the proposed system of water distribution. In this exercise, students download and prepare their own SRTM DEMs and learn how to determine areas and volumes using ArcGIS. They can then ask questions and use ArcGIS to determine the answers. How much water is in the Toshka Lakes? What happens if Lake Nasser rises and more water flows down the canal? Will more lakes form, or will the lakes that are there just get bigger? How much water might be evaporating from the lake surfaces? How much water has to flow down the canal to keep the lakes at a particular level? What might happen as the annual Nile flood fluctuates from year to year? The document posted for downloading contains two homework assignments, two in-class activities, and a wrap-up assignment. You can also download a GIS Primer (Acrobat (PDF) 1.2MB Mar30 10) that we have written, which is a simple GIS "how-to" manual for tasks including those used in this exercise.

Tewksbury, Barbara

 
 
 
 
241

Enhanced otolithic function in semicircular canal dehiscence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The enhanced sound- and vibration-induced vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) and their lower threshold in patients with a thinning of the bony wall of the superior semicircular canal (superior canal dehiscence, SCD) have been interpreted as being due to the dehiscence allowing sound and vibration to activate, unusually, the receptors of the dehiscent semicircular canal. We report a patient with bilateral SCD, as verified by high resolution CT scans, who had bilaterally decreased superior semicircular canal function, as shown by rotational tests of canal function. This patient also showed enhanced VEMPs and reduced thresholds. We conclude that in this patient the enhanced VEMP responses are thus probably due to enhanced otolithic stimulation by sound and vibration after dehiscence.

Manzari L; Burgess AM; MacDougall HG; Curthoys IS

2011-01-01

242

Canal-centering ability: An endodontic challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During instrumentation of the root canal, it is important to develop a continuously tapered form and to maintain the original shape and position of the apical foramen. However, the presence of curvatures may cause difficulty in root canal instrumentation. The ability to keep the instruments centered is essential to provide a correct enlargement, without excessive weakening of the root structure. Several studies have shown that Ni-Ti instruments remain significantly more centered and demonstrated less canal transportation than stainless steel files. Considerable research has been undertaken to understand the several factors related to an instrument?s canal-centering ability. In this article, we have discussed the influence of various parameters such as alloys used in the manufacture of instruments, instrument cross-section, taper, and have given tips on canal-centering ability.

Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu; Porkodi Ilango; Pradeep Gali

2009-01-01

243

Effect of two obturation techniques on the filling of lateral canals and the main canal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system is widely accepted as a key factor for successful endodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the obturation of lateral canals and the main canal using cold lateral condensation versus the gutta-percha coated rigid carrier. Thirty epoxy blocks with five lateral canals placed at varying angles from the main canal were used. Each experimental group was obturated by a board certified endodontist with clinical experience in the respective obturation technique. The length of gutta-percha and sealer in the lateral canals was measured under a microscope (x30, Unitron) to the nearest 0.5 mm. The blocks were sectioned with an Isomet Plus precision saw (Buehler, Lake Bluff, IL) and copious water irrigation perpendicular to the main canal at the apex, the height of contour, and at 0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mm from the canal apex. A microscope (x100, Leitz, Switzerland) was used to determine voids. There was significantly (p < .001) more gutta-percha in the lateral canals with the gutta-percha coated rigid carrier technique. In contrast, the cold lateral condensation technique had significantly (p < .001) more sealer in the lateral canals. However, there was no significant (p < .05) difference, in gutta-percha-plus-sealer filling of the lateral canals, between the two techniques. In the apical 1 mm of the main canal there were significantly (p < .011) fewer voids with the gutta-percha coated rigid carrier technique compared to the cold lateral condensation. In the model chosen, the gutta-percha coated rigid carrier technique and the cold lateral condensation technique were equally effective in filling lateral canals. In filling the main canal, however, the coated rigid carrier technique was more effective.

Wolcott J; Himel VT; Powell W; Penney J

1997-10-01

244

[Our surgical heritage. Surgery in ancient Egypt  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In its 3,000 years History the surgery of the Old Egypt came on to an important development. Some of the antique instruments used in traumatology, the general surgery and in cosmetic-plastic operations, are in a scarcely modified manner employed for the same purposes in modern surgical interventions nowadays. The surgical diagnostics and therapy of that time is demonstrated by the surgical instruments stock being in the possession of the "Agyptisches Museum" of the "Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin". The surgery of Egypt transferred its leading part to the prosperous medical schools of Greece at the late period of the Old Egyptian empire (1085-332 B.C.). Its surgical diagnostics and therapy depending on an empirical rationalism, the applied instruments but also its ethical attitude towards the patients have been one of the dedisive bases influencing the development of the surgery in the antiquity.

Oelschlegel FF; Luther B; Arnst CB

1986-01-01

245

Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

2011-01-01

246

Egypt: Politics in the New Millennium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It seems that with the new millennium, some potentially interesting changes have emerged within the Egyptian political arena. Whether these are linked to attempts at US democratic promotion in the Middle East is difficult to substantiate. What seems clear however is such reforms appear to have produced only the most minor of changes to the prevailing authoritarian system of contemporary Egypt. These changes have included reforms ranging from changes in legislative elections procedures (2000); internal re-structuring within the NDP(2001/2); a proposed revision of presidential referendum procedures (March 2005); followed by the first presidential elections in Egypt (September 2005) and new legislative elections a few months later (November-December 2005). This article will examine these political developments in an effort to gauge the degree to which such changes can potentially contribute towards the democratization of Egyptian politics in the new millennium.

Maye Kassem

2006-01-01

247

Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt  

CERN Multimedia

Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

2013-01-01

248

Murder or Not and other Egypt Stuff  

Science.gov (United States)

The students will discover information about Egypt and decide if the, boy king, Tutankhamun, was murdered or died of natural causes. The first two sites will lead the students to discover all about: *Geography *Egyptian People and their Life Styles *Death and Burial *Egyptian Mythology *Pyramids *Temples and the Pharaohs *Egyptian Writing On the third site the students will learn all about King Tut and write a persuasive essay; taking a stand on if he was murdered or not. The ...

Niebergall, Mrs.

2007-11-06

249

Typical solar radiation year for Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Typical Solar Radiation Year (TSRY) for Egypt is generated by using daily data of global solar radiation obtained by measurements at 10 stations for long periods. Also, the hourly values of different components of solar radiation (direct, diffuse and global) over these 10 stations are estimated for the typical day (midday) of each month by applying empirical models and using the standard meteorological data for each station. (author)

Shaltout, M.A.M. (National Research Inst. of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)); Tadros, M.T.Y. (Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics)

1994-01-01

250

The status of photovoltaic manufacturing in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main obstacle to the large application of photovoltaics at present in Egypt is cost. It is expected that by improving the efficiency and reliability of PV technology, large markets will be created at the end of this decade which in turn will result in a declining price of implementation of the technology. The prospects of local manufacture are considered to further improve costs and develop markets. (Author)

Botros, R.; Rakha, H.H. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

1995-11-01

251

[Maxillary first molar with two palatal canals: a case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maxillary first molar with two palatal canals is rare. Clinicians should be aware of the normal anatomy of root canal system and vigilant about the possible existence of canal variation. A patient with acute episode of chronic pulpitis of 26, as presented by the case report, was examined to have four canals, which were the mesial buccal canal, the distal buccal canal, the mesial palatal canal and the distal palatal canal. When suspecting the existence of canal variation, clinicians should carefully explore the pulpal floor, further by changing the X-ray projection angle to confirm the existence of variation and prevent the missed canals, all of which are necessary for a successful root canal therapy.

Shi JJ

2013-06-01

252

[Preperitoneal alloplasty of inguinal canal  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of treatment of 221 patients for inguinal hernia, including preperitoneal hernioplasty in 117 and hernioplasty according to Lichtenstein method in 104 of them, were analyzed. After the operation the testis shells watering had occurred in 6 patients, the postoperative cicatrix infiltrate--in 6, operative wound hematoma--in 4. The hernia recurrence had occurred, while fol-lowing patients up from 6 months till 4 years, in one patient only after operation, performed according to Lichtenstein method. In patients, to whom preperitoneal plasty of inguinal canal was per-formed, a specific complications, associated with the operation performance, were absent. Preperitoneal plasty secures a safe strengthening of hernial gates. The net implant fixation in preperi-toneal space permits to escape the feeling of a "foreign body" pres-ence in inguinal area of the patients.

Vlasov VV; Babi? IV

2010-03-01

253

Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

2003-01-01

254

Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)[de] Unter einem Scalloping versteht man eine Eindellung der Wirbelkoerperrueckflaeche (Vorderwand des Lumbalkanals), die im typischen Fall mehrere benachbarte lumbale Wirbelsegmente und die Vorderwand des Sakralkanals betrifft. Es kommt nur relativ selten ohne Grundkrankheit, meistens aber bei Chondrodystrophie, Neurofribromatose, Morbus Morquio, Morbus Hurler, Akromegalie, Ehlers-Danlos-Syndrom, Marfan-Syndrom, Zysten, Tumoren und bei periduralen Lipomen vor. (orig.)

1987-01-01

255

Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the i...

Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid; Abdel-Aziz M. Khalid

256

A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT  

Science.gov (United States)

Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

257

Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

Isaac, John

2012-01-01

258

The Fleas (Siphonaptera) of Egypt. Early Records from Mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixteen species of fleas are recorded from 19 species of mammals in Egypt. Nearly all specimens were collected in a 1946-1947 parasite survey under the auspices of NAMRU-3. Three flea-host associations are reported as new for Egypt. (Author)

G. E. Hass P. Q. Tomich

1973-01-01

259

Imaging of the inguinal canal in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inguinal canal is often seen at the edge of the field of view on plain radiography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging and may often not be scanned when performing sonography of the scrotum or abdomen. As a result, pathology in this anatomical region may be easily overlooked. The peculiar embryology of the inguinal canal makes the identification of pathology in the inguinal region significant, as some of the processes that take place within the scrotum may originate in the abdomen, and vice versa. This article reviews the relevant embryology of the inguinal canal, discusses abdominal and scrotal conditions that involve the inguinal region, and illustrates associated pathology.

Williamson ZC; Epelman M; Daneman A; Victoria T; Chauvin N; Oudjhane K; Navarro OM

2013-07-01

260

Bacterial aggregation in infected root canal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial morphotypes in the root canal infection associated with chronic diffuse periapical lesion. In forty cases of asymptomatic teeth with radiographically diagnosed diffuse periapical lesion we took specimens of infected tissue from the root canals at the beginning of endodontic treatment. Fixation and four different staining methods of the specimens were obtained to provide microscope examination. All examined root canal specimens were heavily infected by bacteria. The most commonly identified were cocci 92 %, small mostly G+ diplococci and large G+cocci in clusters and grapelike groups, bacilli found in 67%, coccobacilli 37%, fungi 17%, and spirochetes in 5%.

Lacevi? A; Bilalovi? N; Kapi? A

2005-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to the expected detrimental impacts on coastal zones, agriculture, water security as well as indirect social and health impacts. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although Egypt is a non-annex I country not requiring any specific emission reduction or limitation targets under the Kyoto protocol, its National plans have included mitigation measures to reduce its greenhouse gases. The main sectors contributing to climate change in Egypt are energy, industry, agriculture and waste. Waste, on the other hand, has been accumulating in the streets of Egypt and along its water banks causing considerable air, soil and water pollution and indirect detrimental health impacts. However, this waste which is composed of organic municipal waste, agricultural residues, agro-industrial waste, animal manure and sewage sludge are valuable biomass resources. Utilizing the waste resources of Egypt especially the biomass or the organic component of this waste will not only solve some of the pressing economic needs of Egypt such as animal fodder, fertilizer and fuel but will also alleviate environmental burdens through decreasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in the sector of waste as well as those of energy, industry and agriculture. This paper quantifies the biomass resources in Egypt generated from different waste resources. Then it demonstrates the efforts that Egypt made to contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions reductions through the Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism (CDM). The projects in the waste sector already established in Egypt and approved as CDM projects are listed, which are related to waste management facilities and those which are waste to energy projects. Finally, a list of mitigation projects as proposed by the Egyptian government to decrease GHGs as related to the waste sector are enumerated.

Dalia Adel Nakhla; Mohamed Galal Hassan; Salah El Haggar

2013-01-01

262

[Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. METHODS: The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. RESULTS: The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GTand ProTaperfiles has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups. shaped with different instruments. CONCLUSION: Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

Brkani? T; Ivana S; Vukoje K; Zivkovi? S

2010-09-01

263

Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis  

CERN Multimedia

Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

2012-01-01

264

Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

1991-01-01

265

Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

Muren, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Sabbatsbergs Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadin, K. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Dimopoulos, P. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

1991-08-01

266

Management of a 3-canal mandibular premolar in a patient with unusual root canal anatomy in all mandibular premolars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endodontic treatment of mandibular premolars can be difficult due to their aberrant root canal anatomy. Successful nonsurgical root canal treatment requires knowledge of basic root and root canal morphology, and possible anatomical variations of the root canal system. Mandibular second premolars usually have a single root and a single canal, and the presence of 3 canals in separate roots is very rare. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of such teeth is a challenge. This article presents a rare case of a mandibular second premolar with 3 root canals in separate roots and its endodontic management, with a special emphasis on radiographic interpretation and access refinement during treatment.

Chauhan R; Singh S

2013-09-01

267

[Difficulties in controlling root canal infection and a new concept of three-dimensional root canal preparation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Successful endodontic treatment depends on the effectiveness of the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system. Due to the complexity of the structure of root canal system and the particularity of root canal infections, the equipment and technology currently available for root canal preparation hinder the ability to adequately clean and shape the root canal system. In this review, we summarized the difficulties in the control of root canal infection, the new concept of three-dimensional root canal preparation, and its quality control and assessment.

Ling J

2013-06-01

268

Skin cancers of the external auditory canal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Skin cancers of the external auditory canal are rare tumors treated by a variety of medical and surgical specialties. Treatment of skin cancer is generally successful; however, tumors involving this anatomic location can be aggressive and require a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. This multidisciplinary review provides facial plastic surgeons, caring for these patients, an updated approach to cancers of the external auditory canal focusing on findings that may indicate more aggressive disease and warrant expanded workup and treatment.

Buchmann LO; Wiggins RH; Gurgel RK; Hunt JP

2013-10-01

269

Isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The majority of neoplasms within the external auditory canal are benign. Management of these primary tumors and their local recurrences are discussed herein. We present a case of an isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal with review of the common histopathological and radiographic features. While rare, this highlights the possibility of encountering benign tumor types that carry associated morbidity or mortality due to manifestations outside of the head neck.

Shadfar S; Scanga L; Dodd L; Buchman CA

2013-09-01

270

Two root canals in maxillary central incisor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Case report: This clinical article reports an unusual root canal configuration that was detected in a maxillary central incisor with two root canals, demonstrated by radiographic and computerized tomography exams. Conclusion: Knowledge of endodontic anatomy as well as the obtainment of both preoperative radiographs and tomography is important to detect abnormal tooth morphology.

Fábio de Almeida Gomes; Nadine Luísa Soares de Lima Guimarães; Claudio Maniglia Ferreira; Roberto Alves dos Santos; Marcelo de Morais Vitoriano; Bruno Carvalho de Sousa

2011-01-01

271

Complete atrioventricular canal in a dog.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report details a case of complete, type A atrioventricular (AV) canal, also called complete endocardial cushion defect, in a young dog. Complete AV canal is classified as three types: A, B or C depending on the degree of linkage between common AV valve and ventricular chambers. Despite the defect this dog, which did not undergo surgical treatment, remains in ISACHC class Ib 19 months after the initial diagnosis.

Saponaro V; Staffieri F; Franchini D; Crovace A

2010-08-01

272

Complete atrioventricular canal in a dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report details a case of complete, type A atrioventricular (AV) canal, also called complete endocardial cushion defect, in a young dog. Complete AV canal is classified as three types: A, B or C depending on the degree of linkage between common AV valve and ventricular chambers. Despite the defect this dog, which did not undergo surgical treatment, remains in ISACHC class Ib 19 months after the initial diagnosis. PMID:20615778

Saponaro, Vittorio; Staffieri, Francesco; Franchini, Delia; Crovace, Antonio

2010-07-07

273

[Accessory mandibular canals in the human  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Besides the persisting mandibular canal accessory ducts pass through the bony lower jaw in fetuses and children. 2 of the ducts are more constant than others. They are named according to the first authors canals of Serres and Robinson. By histological and macroscopical methods and by X-ray technique we studied these ducts during development in human fetuses and children and counted their occurrence in the adult.

Bergmann M; Wendler D; Bertolini R

1984-01-01

274

Squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is rather rare and amounts to 3.5% of all rectal neoplasms. Though it has a clear-cut clinical picture, 29.5% of patients admitted for specialized treatment suffer from stage 4 due to inadequate diagnosis. Surgery is the most effective method of management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Radiation therapy may be an adjuvant procedure to surgery.

Knysh, V.I.; Timofeev, Yu.M.; Rattenberg, V.I. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr)

1983-01-01

275

Oil pollution in the Red Sea - Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a Coral area, Gulf of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Red Sea is rapidly developing as one of the world's largest offshore oil production areas. It also comprises a wide range of tropical marine habitats, many of which are internationally recognised for their conservation, scientific, economic or recreational value. Past oil production, refining and transport have resulted in chronic pollution of some areas, and environmental programmes to protect new areas of development from pollution damage are assuming increasing importance. At the initiative of an Egyptian oil company operating in the Gulf of Suez, an environmental protection and management scheme has been prepared for a new offshore oilfield and marine terminal at Ras Budran. This paper describes the form of the scheme and the results of its component environmental surveys. The development area comprises rich and diverse marine communities of fringing coral reefs, nearshore lagoons, seagrass beds, sandy beaches and fine sediments offshore. A baseline survey was designed following detailed discussion of the scope of the development with the company and a preliminary site visit, and the fieldwork was completed in October 1980. On the basis of the findings of the survey, a series of recommendations was made to the company, aimed at reducing environmental impacts during construction and operation to a minimum and acceptable level. These were subsequently implemented and the results of a post-construction survey in February 1983 are reported which show that environmental damage to the nearshore habitats during the construction phase had been relatively small and localised. Recently, the biological information obtained from the two surveys has also been incorporated into oil spill contingency plans.

Dicks, B.

1984-01-01

276

Emergence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in upper Egypt: the Giza governorate.  

Science.gov (United States)

We found an unexpectedly high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in a village in the Upper Egyptian governorate of Giza. Historically, S. mansoni is endemic in the northern Egyptian Nile Delta rather than in the southern Upper Egypt. This observation was made during an evaluation of a rural health care schistosomiasis surveillance program using a cross sectional survey for S. haematobium and S. mansoni in the village of El-Gezira El-Shakra El-Saf district in the Upper Egypt Giza Governorate. A 10% systematic random sample of households of the village was chosen. All persons in the selected houses were invited to submit urine and stool samples. All students from a primary school were also included in the study. Urine was screened by a polycarbonate filtration method and stool was examined using modified Kato-Katz technique. The prevalence of S. mansoni in the population sample and in the school children was 33.7% and 57.7%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the population sample and the school children was 7.4% and 10.6%, respectively. The prevalence of infection was highest in the younger age groups, and males were infected more than females. Review of Ministry of Health records showed that both species of vector snails, Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina, were present from 1991 to 1995, and that B. alexandrina was more abundant than B. truncatus in the canals surrounding this village. The unexpected high prevalence of S. mansoni in this village indicates an urgent need to include training programs for S. mansoni surveillance in the primary health care facilities of Giza and to educate villagers to request examinations for S. mansoni as well as for S. haematobium infection. PMID:10344658

Talaat, M; El-Ayyat, A; Sayed, H A; Miller, F D

1999-05-01

277

Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the aforementioned articles indicate that this laser is effective in combination with a rinsing solution such as sodium hypochlorite.Results from studies including several types of the different Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in disinfecting canals showed that all wavelengths used in disinfection for different thicknesses of dentin were efficacious without damaging thermal effect. Considering that use of different lasers in canals can be accompanied with temperature increase which can sometimes lead to damages to teeth and surrounding tissues, thus the use of photochemical phenomenon for elimination of microorganisms have attracted attention of many researchers. Studies in this field imply the efficacy of this method in reducing canal bacterial count and recommend its use as an adjunctive after biomechanical preparation of canals. Results from performed studies show removal of intra canal debris and smear layer by different lasers and particularly the Erbium laser family. Furthermore various laser wavelengths, particularly of Diode and Nd:YAG lasers can be effective in reducing intra canal microbial count. Maximum effect is obtained when laser light is used in canals in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating substance in appropriate concentration. Therefore use of laser energy can improve success rate of root canal treatments.

Mohammad Asnaashari; Nassimeh Safavi

2012-01-01

278

Solid Waste and Public Clean-Up Project Governorate of Alexandria, Egypt. Report No. 5: Privatizing Solid Waste Management Services. A Summary Guide for the Governorates of Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid waste management is one of the most serious and difficult to solve environmental problems existing in Egypt. Like so many developing countries around the globe, Egypt is being overwhelmed by solid waste generated from various sectors including resid...

2001-01-01

279

THE REVERSAL OF POLITICAL LIBERALIZATION IN EGYPT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine conceptual and analytical issuesbehind the political deliberalization process in Egypt. In order to do that, thearticle will first study the approaches such as international context, civil society,political culture, and political economy, which are considered as significantfactors that shape Arab countries’ political liberalization process. In thisanalysis, the article will concentrate on the most important component of theEgyptian domestic context, “rise of political Islam,” in other words, increasingrole of Islamic fundamentalists in Egyptian politics. The article will examine howthe “rise of political Islam” shapes each approach, which is effective in theprocesses of political liberalization and deliberalization in Egyptian political life.

Müge AKNUR; ?rem A?KAR KARAKIR

2007-01-01

280

Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The pharmacy study results indicated that FOF medical representatives are very effective, and there are no major complaints about overloaded inventories or neglect on the part of FOF representatives. Andreasen recommends that "commercial orientation be allowed to dominate in the future..." An audit planned in Egypt for late summer 1983 will focus on results and activities of geographic expansion, preparations to introduce an oral contraceptive, and implementation of new management techniques. PMID:12279587

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Perceived night length ratios in ancient Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The first record we have of a seasonal night length ratio for Egypt is from the mid 16th century BC. The origin of this estimate is traced to observations made three centuries previously, and the later reinterpretation and instrumental use of this ratio is traced down to 100AD. Extended comment is made on the astronomical dating involved in this description of events, and an attempt is made to reconstruct the alleged confirmation (or calibration) of the new timepiece that plays a central part in the story. It is believed that this is the earliest example of this fundamental scientific practice on record.

Fermor, John

282

Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest). It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.

Geoffrey J. Tassie

2003-01-01

283

Evaluation of sunshine duration from cloud data in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, three empirical formulae have been deduced to estimate relative sunshine duration, n/N, using readily available observed data of cloud amount, C, in Egypt. The monthly mean values of n/N and C recorded at 34 stations during the period (1990-2005) have been used in the present study. The three deduced formulae have been verified for any locality in Egypt which lies above (zone 1) and below latitude 30 (zone 2) and for the whole country of Egypt. The agreement between measured and estimated values of the three deduced formulae were remarkable. It was found that the maximum possible error of estimated values, e (%), of the three deduced empirical formulae have not exceeded {+-}7.27% with mean percentage error (MPE) values range from -0.62% to +0.81%; meanwhile the values of statistical tests of main bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are very close to zero. It has been concluded that Egypt's deduced formula gives precise estimations for n/N and was recommended for use at any location in Egypt. The sunshine distribution and its percentage frequency over Egypt were also studied. The results revealed that latitudinal dependent of n/N. Egypt has minimum value of n/N (0.48) during January at the northern part of the country and maximum value (0.92) during June at the southern part. (author)

Robaa, S.M. [Astronomy and Meteorology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, P.O. Box 12613, Giza (Egypt)

2008-05-15

284

Modeling the spatial spread of Rift Valley fever in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that harms both human health and livestock production. It is believed that RVF in Egypt has been repeatedly introduced by the importation of infected animals from Sudan. In this paper, we propose a three-patch model for the process by which animals enter Egypt from Sudan, are moved up the Nile, and then consumed at population centers. The basic reproduction number for each patch is introduced and then the threshold dynamics of the model are established. We simulate an interesting scenario showing a possible explanation of the observed phenomenon of the geographic spread of RVF in Egypt.

Gao D; Cosner C; Cantrell RS; Beier JC; Ruan S

2013-03-01

285

Modeling the Spatial Spread of Rift Valley Fever in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that harms both human health and livestock production. It is believed that RVF in Egypt has been repeatedly introduced by the importation of infected animals from Sudan. In this paper, we propose a three-patch model for the process by which animals enter Egypt from Sudan, are moved up the Nile, and then consumed at population centers. The basic reproduction number for each patch is introduced and then the threshold dynamics of the model are established. We simulate an interesting scenario showing a possible explanation of the observed phenomenon of the geographic spread of RVF in Egypt.

Gao, Daozhou; Cosner, Chris; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Beier, John C.; Ruan, Shigui

2013-01-01

286

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

2003-06-01

287

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

2003-01-01

288

In vitro evaluation of root canal preparation using oscillatory and rotary systems in flattened root canals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation of flattened root canals using the following systems: Endo-Eze AET stainless steel oscillatory instruments (Ultradent) and RaCe rotary NiTi instruments (FKG Dentaire). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 - Instrumentation with oscillatory Endo-Eze AET files (oscillatory technique); Group 2 - Instrumentation with rotary N (more) iTi RaCe files (rotary technique). The teeth were decoronated, had their apices and coronal openings sealed with sticky wax and were embedded in crystal-clear orthophtalic polyester resin. The roots were sectioned transversally with diamond discs at 10 mm (middle third) and 5 mm (apical third) from the apex and the segments were reassembled for instrumentation. The sections were photographed before and after root canal instrumentation and evaluated with respect to whether the original root canal shape was modified by instrumentation. To evaluate the differences in the root canal shape before and after biomechanical preparation, scores were given regarding the instruments touch on the intracanal walls. RESULTS: In middle third of the root canals instrumented with the rotary system, there was a change in the original canal anatomy (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Under the tested conditions, Endo-Eze oscillatory system yielded the instrumentation of all flattened root canal walls, maintaining the canal original shape throughout the biomechanical preparation, and was more effective than RaCe rotary system.

Rasquin, Luis Cardoso; Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos de; Lima, Regina Karla de Pontes

2007-02-01

289

In vitro evaluation of root canal preparation using oscillatory and rotary systems in flattened root canals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation of flattened root canals using the following systems: Endo-Eze AET stainless steel oscillatory instruments (Ultradent) and RaCe rotary NiTi instruments (FKG Dentaire). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 - Instrumentation with oscillatory Endo-Eze AET files (oscillatory technique); Group 2 - Instrumentation with rotary NiTi RaCe files (rotary technique). The teeth were decoronated, had their apices and coronal openings sealed with sticky wax and were embedded in crystal-clear orthophtalic polyester resin. The roots were sectioned transversally with diamond discs at 10 mm (middle third) and 5 mm (apical third) from the apex and the segments were reassembled for instrumentation. The sections were photographed before and after root canal instrumentation and evaluated with respect to whether the original root canal shape was modified by instrumentation. To evaluate the differences in the root canal shape before and after biomechanical preparation, scores were given regarding the instruments touch on the intracanal walls. RESULTS: In middle third of the root canals instrumented with the rotary system, there was a change in the original canal anatomy (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Under the tested conditions, Endo-Eze oscillatory system yielded the instrumentation of all flattened root canal walls, maintaining the canal original shape throughout the biomechanical preparation, and was more effective than RaCe rotary system.

Luis Cardoso Rasquin; Fabíola Bastos de Carvalho; Regina Karla de Pontes Lima

2007-01-01

290

Morphology and clinical study of thoracic canal on computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In pathomorphological research of thoracic canal constriction, the optimal condition for computed tomography for the thoracic canal were seeked using a skeletal model. Normally thoracic canal is oval at the high and low levels of the vertebra, and circular at the middle level. Constriction of the thoracic canal was found in the cases of developmental stenosis of the cervical vertebra. Morphologically, the canal was oval, depressed in anteroposterior direction, and this suggested narrowing of the canal in the sagittal diameter. There was correlationship between the sagittal diameter of the thoracic canal obtained by plain roentgenography and that obtained by CT. Therefore, the sagittal diameter measured by plain roentgenography can be an indicator for narrowing of the canal at the thoracic vertebral level. Narrowing of the thoracic canal was also observed in many cases of myelosis due to thoracic yellow ligament ossification. (Ueda, J.).

1982-01-01

291

Morphology and clinical study of thoracic canal on computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In pathomorphological research of thoracic canal constriction, the optimal condition for computed tomography for the thoracic canal was sought using a skeletal model. Normally thoracic canal is oval at the high and low levels of the vertebra, and circular at the middle level. Constriction of the thoracic canal was found in the cases of developmental stenosis of the cervical vertebra. Morphologically, the canal was oval, depressed in anteroposterior direction, and this suggested narrowing of the canal in the sagittal diameter. There was correlationship between the sagittal diameter of the thoracic canal obtained by plain roentgenography and that obtained by CT. Therefore, the sagittal diameter measured by plain roentgenography can be an indicator for narrowing of the canal at the thoracic vertebral level. Narrowing of the thoracic canal was also observed in many cases of myelosis due to thoracic yellow ligament ossification.

Nakamura, Shuji; Hattori, Susumu; Kawai, Shinya; Saiki, Katsuhiko; Oda, Hirotsugu (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

1982-04-01

292

Endodontic management of middle mesial canal of the mandibular molar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for successful endodontic treatment. Although the most common configuration is two roots and three root canals, mandibular molars might have many different combinations. In the literature, it is less described about three mesial canals and two distal canals in mandibular second molars, indicating a rare anatomical configuration. A case of unusual root canal morphology is presented to demonstrate anatomical variations in mandibular molars. Endodontic therapy was performed in a mandibular second molar with five separate canals, three mesial and two distal. This report points out the importance of looking for additional canals and unusual canal morphology, because knowledge of their existence might occasionally enable clinicians to treat a case successfully that otherwise might have ended in failure. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth.

Sundaresh KJ; Srinivasan R; Mallikarjuna R; Rajalbandi S

2013-01-01

293

Endodontic management of middle mesial canal of the mandibular molar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for successful endodontic treatment. Although the most common configuration is two roots and three root canals, mandibular molars might have many different combinations. In the literature, it is less described about three mesial canals and two distal canals in mandibular second molars, indicating a rare anatomical configuration. A case of unusual root canal morphology is presented to demonstrate anatomical variations in mandibular molars. Endodontic therapy was performed in a mandibular second molar with five separate canals, three mesial and two distal. This report points out the importance of looking for additional canals and unusual canal morphology, because knowledge of their existence might occasionally enable clinicians to treat a case successfully that otherwise might have ended in failure. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth. PMID:23349182

Sundaresh, K J; Srinivasan, Raghu; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Rajalbandi, Sandeep

2013-01-23

294

Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions.

Fanous AA; Couldwell WT

2012-04-01

295

Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions. PMID:22224784

Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

2012-01-06

296

Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

2004-01-01

297

Compliance with haemodialysis practice guidelines in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evidence- and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines for haemodialysis have recently been developed in Egypt. This study aimed to measure compliance with the guidelines in a sample of 16 government hospitals in Cairo and Giza governorates. Each haemodialysis unit was visited to assess the haemodialysis unit and patient care practices for all patients under dialysis at the time of the visit. The mean percentage compliance with haemodialysis guidelines among all study hospitals was 59.3% (SD 11.2%) overall. Within the 5 separate domains, compliance was: 58.8% (SD 12.4%) for personnel, 68.5% (SD 16.0%) for patient care practices, 61.3% (SD 15.4%) for infection prevention and control, 51.5% (SD 18.2%) for the facility and 56.5% (SD 7.1%) for documentation/ records. There were no statistically significant differences between Cairo and Giza governorates except for facility measures which were slightly better in Giza. Overall, compliance with the developed practice guidelines for haemodialysis in Egypt was not satisfactory and was not uniform across facilities.

Ahmed AM; Allam MF; Habil ES; Metwally AM; Ibrahiem NA; Radwan M; El-Gaafary MM; Gadallah MA

2013-01-01

298

Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role. PMID:19892106

York, George K; Steinberg, David A

2010-01-01

299

Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role.

York GK 3rd; Steinberg DA

2010-01-01

300

Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the most important developments in the existence of human society was the successful shift from a subsistence economy based on foraging to one primarily based on food production derived from cultivated plants and domesticated animals. The shift to plant food production occurred in only a few independent centers around the world and involved a commitment to increased sedentism and social interaction and to permanent agricultural fields and canals. One center was Peru, where early civilization and food production were beginning to develop by at least 4,500 years ago. New archeological evidence points to 5,400- and possible 6,700-year-old small-scale gravity canals in a circumscribed valley of the western Andean foothills in northern Peru that are associated with farming on low terrace benches at the foot of alluvial fans in areas where the canals are drawn from hydraulically manageable small lateral streams. This evidence reveals early environmental manipulation and incipient food production in an artificially created wet agroecosystem rather than simply the intensive harvesting or gardening of plants in moist natural areas. This finding is different from previously conceived notions, which expected early canals in lower-elevated, broad coastal valleys. The evidence also points to communal organization of labor to construct and maintain the canals and to the scheduling of daily activities beyond individual households. The development of early organized irrigation farming was combined with a hunting and gathering economy to support an increase in the local population size.

Dillehay TD; Eling HH Jr; Rossen J

2005-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been much debate over the costs for trade, the costs for the environment, national and regional security concerns, as well as major concerns related to political and economic relations in the region. Therefore, one of the main purposes of this study is to contribute to the debate on the possible impact of the devel-opment of the Kra Canal on ASEAN’s regional relations. In particular, it proposes that the development of the Kra Canal could threaten regional solidarity as it would physically divide maritime Southeast Asia from main-land Southeast Asia, which would ultimately result in an economic, cultural and political divide of ASEAN itself.

Rini Suryati Sulong

2012-01-01

302

Surgical capping of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical plugging and resurfacing are well established treatments of superior semicircular canal dehiscence, while capping with hydroxyapatite cement has been little discussed in literature. The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of the capping technique. Charts of patients diagnosed with superior semicircular canal dehiscence were reviewed retrospectively. All patients answered the dizziness handicap inventory, a survey analyzing the impact of their symptoms on their quality of life. Capping of the dehiscent canal was performed via the middle fossa approach in all cases. Ten out of 22 patients diagnosed with superior semicircular canal dehiscence were treated with surgical capping, nine of which were included in this study. No major perioperative complications occurred. In 8 out of 9 (89 %) patients, capping led to a satisfying reduction of the main symptoms. One patient underwent revision surgery 1 year after the initial intervention. Scores in the dizziness handicap inventory were lower in the surgically treated group than in the non-surgically treated group, but results were not statistically significant (P = 0.45). Overall, capping is a safe and efficient alternative to plugging and resurfacing of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. PMID:23640386

Mueller, S A; Vibert, D; Haeusler, R; Raabe, A; Caversaccio, M

2013-05-01

303

Surgical capping of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surgical plugging and resurfacing are well established treatments of superior semicircular canal dehiscence, while capping with hydroxyapatite cement has been little discussed in literature. The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of the capping technique. Charts of patients diagnosed with superior semicircular canal dehiscence were reviewed retrospectively. All patients answered the dizziness handicap inventory, a survey analyzing the impact of their symptoms on their quality of life. Capping of the dehiscent canal was performed via the middle fossa approach in all cases. Ten out of 22 patients diagnosed with superior semicircular canal dehiscence were treated with surgical capping, nine of which were included in this study. No major perioperative complications occurred. In 8 out of 9 (89 %) patients, capping led to a satisfying reduction of the main symptoms. One patient underwent revision surgery 1 year after the initial intervention. Scores in the dizziness handicap inventory were lower in the surgically treated group than in the non-surgically treated group, but results were not statistically significant (P = 0.45). Overall, capping is a safe and efficient alternative to plugging and resurfacing of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.

Mueller SA; Vibert D; Haeusler R; Raabe A; Caversaccio M

2013-05-01

304

Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

1996-12-31

305

Economic evaluation of radiation inhibition of potato sprouting in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study reviews the status of potato cultivation in Egypt, annual production, local consumption and export volume during the period 1976-1978. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual crop loss due to sprouting, fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of potatoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of potatoes harvested in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of potatoes for sprouting inhibition has always been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Extensive studies have been carried out in Egypt since the 1960s to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated potatoes. Nevertheless, not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. This is the objective of the paper. (author)

1985-01-01

306

75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco  

Science.gov (United States)

...product (GDP) grew over five percent from 2009 to 2010. The financial sector escaped many negative impacts of the global financial crisis, due to Egypt's improved banking supervision, conservative lending practices and central bank guarantee...

2010-09-24

307

Wind atlas for Egypt. Measurements and modelling 1991-2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wind Atlas for Egypt is the result of an investigation of the climatic wind conditions over the entire land area of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The investigation was conducted from 1998-2005 by the New and Renewable Energy Authority, the Egyptian Meteorological Authority and Riso National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the governments of Egypt and Denmark. The Atlas is an attempt to provide an updated overview of the wind-climatological conditions over Egypt, based on reliable wind data and employing contemporary meso- and micro-scale meteorological models. It further seeks to provide an up-to-date methodology for applying the wind statistics and model results for the purpose of wind resource assessment and siting of wind turbines and wind farms. (au)

Mortensen, N.G. (ed.); Hansen, Jens Carsten; Badger, J. (and others)

2005-12-01

308

U.S. in the World: Arizona/Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Residents of Arizona and Egypt face a daily challenge: living in increasing numbers and concentrations in desert ecosystems. Read about how both face surprisingly similar conflicts and issues over water, land and industry.

Bureau, Population R.

309

Correlation of global solar radiation with meteorological parameters over Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global solar radiation measurements on a horizontal surface (G{sub m}), mean daily maximum temperature (T), mean daily relative humidity (RH), mean daily sea level pressure (MSL), mean daily vapor pressure (V) and hours of bright sunshine (S) are presented, analyzed, arranged in tables and graphs and discussed for five selected locations over Egypt. The locations chosen represent the different weather conditions of Egypt. Matrough and AI Arish are in the north, Cairo in the middle and Kharga and Aswan in the south of Egypt. A correlation between the measurements of global solar radiation and the meteorological parameters were given for the considered locations. The common relationship for all Egypt was also estimated. The correlation and the regression coefficients and the standard errors of estimate are listed in Table 1. The values of correlation coefficients vary from 89% to 99% and the errors of estimation are between 0.01 and 0.04. (author)

Trabea, A.A. [Suez Canal University, Al-Arish (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Shaltout, M.A.M. [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Cairo (Egypt)

2000-10-01

310

Conserving Egypt's Cultural Heritage: Priority Sites Needing Restoration and Protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report offers proposals for cultural heritage preservation that were outlined in the Government of Egypt's Environmental Action Plan of March 1992. The 1992 Action Plan cited seven cultural sites that particularly needed conservation, protection, and ...

K. Weeks

1993-01-01

311

Plant Fragments from Tufa Deposits (Quaternary), Kharga Oasis, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Impressions of fragments of dicotyledon (Acer, Dicotylophyllum, Ficus, Salix) and monocotyledon (Cyperus) leaves are described from Quaternary Tufa deposits in Kharga Oasis, Egypt. The present record of Acer, Dicotylophyllum, Salix and Cyperus is the first f...

Mona H. Darwish; Samir A. Awad

312

Nematodes associated with soybean (Glycine max) in upper Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dix-sept espèces de nématodes phytoparasites ont été récoltées dans les champs de soja des Gouvernorats de Menia, Assiut et Sohag, en Haute Egypte. Les espèces #Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Longidorus pisi, Pratylenchoides ritteri, P. variabilis, rotylenchulus parvus$ et #Tylenchorhynchus annulat...

Salem, A.A.; El-Morshedy, M.M.F.; El-Zawahry, A.M.

313

Plant Fragments from Tufa Deposits (Quaternary), Kharga Oasis, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Impressions of fragments of dicotyledon (Acer, Dicotylophyllum, Ficus, Salix) and monocotyledon (Cyperus) leaves are described from Quaternary Tufa deposits in Kharga Oasis, Egypt. The present record of Acer, Dicotylophyllum, Salix and Cyperus is the first from Quaternary strata. All fossils have not been recorded from Kharga Oasis except Ficus. Fossil remains of Salix and probably also of Acer are recorded for the first time from Egypt.

Mona H. Darwish; Samir A. Awad

2002-01-01

314

Disposal external auditory canal supporting tube  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model belongs to the technical field of medical instruments and relates to a disposal external auditory canal supporting pipe used in the ear section of an ear-nose-throat department. The external auditory canal supporting pipe takes the shape of a long trumpet and is provided with an inner opening (1) and an outer opening (2) which are connected into a trumpet shape by a pipe body (3). The utility model adopts a silica gel material and is thus harmless to a patient and the utility model reduces untoward effects caused by oily yarn stuffing, does not affect the sound transfer of an auditory canal, has the advantages of simple structure, low cost and convenient operation, and is easy to be mastered by a doctor and convenient for generalization and application.

JIRONG LIU; LIHUA DAI; JIANXIA SUN; BENMEI FAN; LING SUN

315

Surgical treatment of atrioventricular canal malformations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports our experience with a consecutive series of 106 patients with atrioventricular (AV) canal malformations operated on between March, 1972, and June, 1985. There were 11 ostium primum defects, 90 partial forms of AV canal, and 5 complete forms of AV canal. Associated cardiovascular lesions were found in 26 patients. Operation was performed under total-body perfusion. There were 5 postoperative deaths, and the overall mortality was 4.7%. Eighty-seven patients were followed up. Follow-up averaged 6 years 7 months. The study shows that the long-term results in patients with mild preoperative mitral insufficiency are better than those with severe mitral insufficiency, and suggests that partial approximation of the mitral cleft is probably the method of choice in most patients.

Pan-Chih; Chen-Chun

1987-02-01

316

Interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Opinion is still divided over a standard surgical procedure to decompress lumbar canal stenosis. Both, laminectomy with or without facetectomy and foraminotomy and interlaminar fenestration have been advocated. In the present communication interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis has been discussed. Sixteen consecutive patients (7 males and 9 females) with clinical, neurological and radiological features of lumbar canal stenosis were treated by interlaminar (fenestration) decompression. The age of onset of symptoms ranged between 22-57 years. Adjoining lamina around interlaminar space of involved segment along with ligamentum flavum and part of facet joint (undercutting facetectomy), extending laterally (foraminotomy) were removed at single or multiple levels. Follow-up response (93.7%) over a period of two and half years showed the results as good in 73.3% and fair in 26.7% of cases, with uniformly uneventful post-operative period.

Patond K; Kakodia S

1999-01-01

317

Treatment of external auditory canal exostoses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exostoses of the external auditory canal can occur in patients living in coastal, southern California communities with a history of cold-water aquatic activities such as ocean surfing and swimming. Although most canal exostoses are asymptomatic, patients with canal obstruction greater than 80% can have recurrent episodes of external otitis and a related conductive hearing loss. In most cases, medical treatment resolves the symptomatic external otitis and related hearing loss. Patients recalcitrant to medical treatment are candidates for surgical removal of the exostoses. This report reviews the authors' surgical experience with 18 patients (27 ears) who have undergone surgical removal of exostoses. Their preferred surgical technique of transmeatal removal of exostoses with a specialized mallet and thin chisel under local anesthesia is described.

Whitaker SR; Cordier A; Kosjakov S; Charbonneau R

1998-02-01

318

CANALES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN Y COMPETITIVIDAD EN ARTESANÍAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se explica cómo la relación entre canales de distribución y competitividad se ve influenciada por variables contextuales como el tipo de negocio, su ubicación, su antigüedad y el tipo de producto, en un ambiente de negocio que vive la artesanía en tres estados de la República Mexicana: Oaxaca, Jalisco y Guanajuato. La teoría central se enmarca en la mercadotecnia y sus estrategias. Los canales de distribución, dentro de la mezcla de mercadotecnia, sobresalen porque la creciente competencia global hace más difícil entrar, controlar y mantenerse en cualquier mercado.

José de la Paz Hernández Girón; Ma. Luisa Domínguez Hernández; Arelí Orquídea Ramos Sánchez

2002-01-01

319

33 CFR 117.849 - Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal).  

Science.gov (United States)

...Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). 117.849 Section 117.849...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.849 Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). The draw of the Conrail...

2009-07-01

320

Bufadienolides from Urginea maritima from Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forty-one bufadienolides were isolated from the bulbs of Urginea maritima agg. from Egypt; 26 of them are new natural compounds. Structure elucidation was performed by comparison with authentic substances or by means of 1H, 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy. Sixteen of the glycosides derive from nine structurally new aglycones: 16 beta-hydroxy-scillarenin, 16 beta-O-acetyl- scillarenin, 12 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-4,5-dihydro-scillirosidin, 16 beta- hydroxy-5 alpha-4,5-dihydro-scillirosidin, 16 beta-O-acetyl-5 alpha-4,5- dihydro-scillirosidin, 12 beta-hydroxy-scillirubrosidin, 16 beta-O-acetyl- scillirubrosidin, 9-hydroxy-scilliphaeosidine and 12 beta-hydroxy-desacetyl- scillirosidine.

Kopp B; Krenn L; Draxler M; Hoyer A; Terkola R; Vallaster P; Robien W

1996-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

Status of marine protected areas in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc.), and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.). Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc.) to improve the current situation.

Samy, M.; Sánchez Lizaso, J. L.; Forcada, A.

2011-01-01

322

Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World  

Science.gov (United States)

While ancient Egyptian civilization has captured the public interest and imagination in recent decades, this well-designed site from the National Geographic Society places its focus on the pyramids created several millennia ago. In the site's most compelling feature, titled Explore the Pyramids, visitors can scroll across the different pyramids, revealing their interior organization and a number of facts about their construction and so on. A brief timeline also gives some information about each of the different Egyptian dynasties. Educators will find much to enjoy here, as the site provides different lesson plans for students, complete with critical questions for discussion and lesson objectives. Finally, there is an online journal written by National Geographic reporter Nancy Gupton that documents her own personal experiences traveling around the pyramids of Egypt.

2002-01-01

323

Math Around the World (Part 1): Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the week, we will be studying Math in different cultures around the world incuding African, Indian, Babylonian, Mayan and others. Our first area of study will be Egypt, home to some of the greatest mathematical-based structures in the world. Any guesses to what those might be? _ _ R _ _ _ D S Today\\'s lesson will focus on several aspects of Egyptian Math. First, let\\'s learn where Math came from. After reading the information from the link below, please write down your opinion and reasoning on a separate sheet of paper. Was Mathematics Invented or Discovered? Now let\\'s read about the History of Egyptian Math: History of Egyptian Math Overview of Egyptian Math For the rest of today\\'s ...

Hoskins, Mr.

2005-11-20

324

Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

Mansour SA

2008-01-01

325

Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration. They were important to insure the acceptance and success of the proposed project that takes Egypt to a new era of environmental protection. (author)

2002-01-01

326

Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration. They were important to insure the acceptance and success of the proposed project that takes Egypt to a new era of environmental protection. (author)

Elleboudy, A.M. [Banha Univ., Geotechnical Engineering (Egypt)

2002-06-15

327

The effect of peritrich ciliates on some freshwater leeches from Assiut, Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During October 2004 to April 2005, when water temperature ranged between 18 and 22 degrees C, over than 500 specimens of leeches namely Alboglossiphonia polypompholyx, Batracobdelloides tricarinata, Helobdella conifera (Rhynchobdellida), Barbronia assiuti, and Salifa delicata (Arhynchobdellida) were collected from Al-Sont canal near Assiut city. About 80% of these specimens were infected with the peritrich ciliate Epistylis sp. The infection occurred in the field, both rhynchobdellid and arhynchobdellid leeches were infected, but Epistylis can infect rhynchobdellids more than arhynchobdellids. Both light and scanning electron microscopy showed the morphology of this parasite which attached to the surface of the leech body by a stalk. Histopathological studies revealed the damage of cuticle, epidermis, and dermis of the leech body wall at the area of attachment and the leech body seemed to be sloughy. Presence of this parasite in high numbers covering large areas of the body can impede gas exchange leading to leech suffocation and finally its death. Like the other sessile single-celled ciliates Epistylis spp. feed on bacteria and suspended organic debris, which are prevalent in nutrient-rich water, hence, Epistylis is a good indicator of poor water quality (pollution). The present study represents the first report of the effect of Epistylis on leeches collected from Egypt.

Gouda HA

2006-11-01

328

Occurrence of Fungal Species and Mycotoxins from Decayed Sugarcane (Saccharrum officinarum) in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-three fungal species belonging to forty-three genera were isolated from 40 samples of Saccharrum officinarum (collected from Naage-Hamadi canal in Qena Governorate, Egypt). Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Mucor and Pythium were the most common genera on the two isolation media. The dominant species of Aspergillus were A. niger, A. flavus, A. ustus, A. terreus and A. wentii. Some species were dominant on 40 g/l sucrose such as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Emericella nidulans, Trichoderma viride, Torula herbarum and Mamaria echinoeotryoides, while the dominant species on 10 g/l glucose were Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus niger, Torula herbarum and Trichoderma viride. Mycotoxins including aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone and diacetoxyscirpenol were detected in the examined samples of Saccharrum officinarum. The mycelial growth of A. flavus, A. niger, Fusarium moniliforme and Torula herbarum decreased with the increase in Dimethoate concentrations, although 25 ppm was less effective than the higher levels of the insecticide (75~200 ppm). Dimethoate stimulated the activity of Go-T in A. niger, F. moniliforme and T. harbarum, while the Go-T activity was inhibited in A. flavus with the Dimethoate treatments. PMID:24049478

Abd-Elaah, Gamalat A; Soliman A, Samya

2005-06-30

329

Occurrence of Fungal Species and Mycotoxins from Decayed Sugarcane (Saccharrum officinarum) in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seventy-three fungal species belonging to forty-three genera were isolated from 40 samples of Saccharrum officinarum (collected from Naage-Hamadi canal in Qena Governorate, Egypt). Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Mucor and Pythium were the most common genera on the two isolation media. The dominant species of Aspergillus were A. niger, A. flavus, A. ustus, A. terreus and A. wentii. Some species were dominant on 40 g/l sucrose such as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Emericella nidulans, Trichoderma viride, Torula herbarum and Mamaria echinoeotryoides, while the dominant species on 10 g/l glucose were Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus niger, Torula herbarum and Trichoderma viride. Mycotoxins including aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone and diacetoxyscirpenol were detected in the examined samples of Saccharrum officinarum. The mycelial growth of A. flavus, A. niger, Fusarium moniliforme and Torula herbarum decreased with the increase in Dimethoate concentrations, although 25 ppm was less effective than the higher levels of the insecticide (75~200 ppm). Dimethoate stimulated the activity of Go-T in A. niger, F. moniliforme and T. harbarum, while the Go-T activity was inhibited in A. flavus with the Dimethoate treatments.

Abd-Elaah GA; Soliman A S

2005-06-01

330

78 FR 20372 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...objects to be included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

2013-04-04

331

78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum,'' imported from...

2013-07-26

332

77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1)(C) of the Department...with respect to the provision of Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

2012-04-24

333

76 FR 73759 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Egypt-Art and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures From the Foundation Gandur pour...that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures from the Foundation Gandur...

2011-11-29

334

78 FR 50023 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

...Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States AGENCY: Animal...importation of oranges and tangerines from Egypt. Based on the findings of a pest list...and tangerines [[Page 50024

2013-08-16

335

Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Following Endolymphatic Sac Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence is a rare otologic entity which presents with third window signs and symptoms. Petrous apex cholesteatoma, fibrous dysplasia, high riding jugular bulb, and eosinophilic granuloma have been reported to be associated with posterior semicircular canal dehiscence. Here we report a case of development of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following an endolymaphatic sac surgery for the first time.

Kiumehr, Saman; Mahboubi, Hossein; Djalilian, Hamid R.

2012-01-01

336

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following endolymphatic sac surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence is a rare otologic entity that presents with third window signs and symptoms. Petrous apex cholesteatoma, fibrous dysplasia, high riding jugular bulb, and eosinophilic granuloma have been reported to be associated with posterior semicircular canal dehiscence. Here we report a case of development of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following an endolymphatic sac surgery for the first time.

Kiumehr S; Mahboubi H; Djalilian HR

2012-09-01

337

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following endolymphatic sac surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence is a rare otologic entity that presents with third window signs and symptoms. Petrous apex cholesteatoma, fibrous dysplasia, high riding jugular bulb, and eosinophilic granuloma have been reported to be associated with posterior semicircular canal dehiscence. Here we report a case of development of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following an endolymphatic sac surgery for the first time. PMID:22689472

Kiumehr, Saman; Mahboubi, Hossein; Djalilian, Hamid R

2012-06-11

338

5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714...GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

2010-01-01

339

Computed tomography of the thoracic canal. Experimental and clinical studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 10/sup 0/. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th/sub 1/, Th/sub 2/ levels and round at Th/sub 3/-Th/sub 10/ and large oval at Th/sub 11/, Th/sub 12/. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis.

Nakamura, S. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-05-01

340

Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present.

Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-12-01

342

CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC) of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic re...

Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

343

Lime Stabilization on Friant-Kern Canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since construction in the late 1940's, the Friant-Kern Canal has experienced cracking, sliding, and sloughing of the side slopes in areas of expansive clays in both the concrete-lined and earth-lined portions. In the early 1970's, Bureau of Reclamation de...

A. K. Howard J. P. Bara

1976-01-01

344

The Panama Canal and Social Justice.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

345

LOVE CANAL MONITORING PROGRAM. VOLUME 1  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the prime contractor activities during the monitoring phase of the Love Canal project. Since GCA Corporation was only responsible for data collection, no analytical results appear in this report. The program involved a multifaceted sampling and analytical e...

346

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

347

Panama Canal - Should We Give Up Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues listed herein concern the relevancy of the U.S.-Panama Treaty of 1903, the effect of U.S. control of the Canal on relations with Latin America, and alternatives open to the U.S. in solving the Panama Problem. (Modified author abstract)

R. G. Fuszard

1973-01-01

348

Neuroendocrine tumor of the anal canal/ Tumor neuroendócrino do canal anal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Relatamos um caso raro de tumor neuroendócrino do canal anal e seu mau prognóstico, bem como a necessidade de imuno-histoquímica para o diagnóstico correto e para orientar o tratamento. Abstract in english We report a rare case of neuroendocrine tumor of the anal canal and its poor prognosis, plus discuss the need of immunohistochemical for an acurate diagnosis and to guide treatment.

Christiano, Adriana Borgonovi; Gullo, Caio Eduardo; Palmejani, Marianna Angelo; Marques, Aline Maria de Vita; Barbosa, Amanda Pires; Basso, Marcelo Pandolfi; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de; Netinho, João Gomes

2012-09-01

349

Revisão sistemática de Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae) Systematics revision of Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyuleptidae, Pachylinae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ogloblinia Canals, 1933 is revised and Quitete Mello-Leitão, 1936 is considered its synomym. The following new synonyms are here established: Ogloblinia calcarata H. Soares & Bauab, 1970, O. dentei Soares, 1945 and O. intermedia Soares, 1944 = O. loretoensis Canals, 1933; Quitete marginata Mello-Leilão, 1936 = O. argenteopilosa (Mello-Leitão, 1935). Ogloblinia pulchra, sp.n. (type-localily Brazil, Paraná: Guaratuba) is described.

Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha; Helia Eller Monteiro Soares

1995-01-01

350

78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

...Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States AGENCY: Animal...associated with oranges and tangerines from Egypt that identifies pests of concern. Subsequently...fruit fly in oranges and tangerines from Egypt. Based on that evaluation, we have...

2013-04-18

351

Sero-prevalence of Avian Influenza in Animals and Human in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In opposite to most countries, avian influenza virus H5N1 became endemic in Egypt. Since, its first emerge in 2006 in Egypt, the virus could infect different species of birds and animals and even human. Beside the great economic losses to the local poultry industry in Egypt, the virus infected 166 c...

A. El-Sayed; A. Prince; A. Fawzy; Nadra-Elwgoud; M.I. Abdou; L. Omar; A. Fayed; M. Salem

352

Canal-centring ability of three rotary file systems in simulated curved canals: A comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To compare the canal-centring ability of M two , ProFile and RaCe rotary files, in simulated curved canals. Materials and Methods: About 30 simulated canals were prepared by M two , ProFile and RaCe rotary files. Pre and post-operative pictures were super-imposed and transportations recorded. Measurements were carried out at five different points: Canal orifice (O); half-way to the orifice in the straight section (HO); the beginning of the curve (BC); the apex of the curve (AC); the end point (EP). Intra- and inter-group comparisons were carried out by Wilcoxon`s signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis test respectively, using SPSS 14.0 software. Results: ProFile did not change canal centricity in any point. RaCe kept centricity at HO, BC, AC and EP. M two changed canal centricity in points BC, AC and EP. M two group kept the centricity significantly less than the other two groups at BC (P = 0.004), AC (P = 0.015) and EP (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference between these three rotary files at HO. However, the difference between RaCe, M two and ProFile was significant at O (P = 0.015). Conclusion: ProFile and RaCe rotary files remained better centred than M two rotary files

Khalilak Zohreh; Alavi Kaveh; Akhlaghi Nahid; Mehrvarzfar Payman; Dadresanfar Bahareh

2009-01-01

353

Cardiac septation in atrioventricular canal defect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the relative contributions of the atrial and ventricular septa to total cardiac septation in patients with atrioventricular (AV) canal defect, two-dimensional echocardiography was used to measure the length of each portion of the septum in 14 patients with partial AV canal and 13 patients with the complete form of this lesion. Results were compared with similar data from 30 normal children, 10 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and 11 patients with ostium secundum atrial septal defect. In patients with partial AV canal, the portion of total cardiac length occupied by the atrial septum did not differ from normal (24.8 +/- 9.9% versus 28.7 +/- 7.9%, p greater than 0.05), but there was a deficiency of both AV and ventricular septal tissue, the latter occupying only 48.2 +/- 7.0% of total cardiac length (versus 57.9 +/- 4.1% in normal subjects, p less than 0.05). Similarly, patients with complete AV canal had a normal amount of atrial septal tissue, a deficiency of AV septal tissue and a deficiency of ventricular septal tissue which was even greater than that of patients with a partial defect (39.4 +/- 5.0% versus 48.2 +/- 7.0%, p less than 0.05). Thus, although partial AV canal defect is often called ostium primum atrial septal defect, the amount of atrial tissue is usually normal, the defect being formed by a deficiency of AV and ventricular septal tissue. In the complete form of the lesion, the deficiency of ventricular septal tissue is greater.

Gutgesell HP; Huhta JC

1986-12-01

354

Barriers to the Use of Basic Health Services among Women in Rural Southern Egypt (Upper Egypt)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined potential demand-side barriers to women’s use of basic health services in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). Face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire were carried out on 205 currently-married women, inquiring about their use of health facilities: regular antenatal care (ANC) during the last pregnancy and medical treatment services when they suffered from common illness. Questions about their perceptions of barriers to the use of health services were categorized into three primary dimensions: structural, financial, and personal/cultural barriers. Distance and transportation to health facilities (structural barriers) prevented about 30 % of the women from seeing a doctor. Forty-two percent of them felt the difficulty paying for health services (financial barriers). Approximately a quarter of women answered that gaining family permission, allocating time to go to health facilities, or concern about lack of female physicians (personal/cultural barriers) was a big problem for them. After controlling for potential confounding factors, structural barriers showed an inverse association with the use of health services. Financial barriers indicated a strong association (OR=0.18, P<0.001) with the use of curative services (medical treatment), but not with the use of preventive services (regular ANC). Contrary to our expectation, personal/cultural barriers had no statistical significance with women’s use of health services. Although the Egyptian government had successfully extended basic health service delivery networks throughout the country, women in rural Upper Egypt were still facing various barriers to the use of the services, especially structural and financial barriers.

CHIFA CHIANG; SHOKRIA ADLY LABEEB; MICHIYO HIGUCHI; ASMAA GHAREDS MOHAMED; ATSUKO AOYAMA

2013-01-01

355

Diagnosis of optic canal fracture by CT-scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preoperative confirmation of optic canal fructure is not easy, but our two cases were easily diagnosed as optic canal fructure by CT-scan. This is a report of such cases and from the data of several other authors including our cases, the following results were obtained, 1) Prognosis of the optic canal decompression is influenced considerably by the days between the onset and surgery. 2) Diagnosis of optic canal fructure is not easy by radiographically. 3) CT-scan is useful in diagnosis of optic canal fructure. (author).

1983-01-01

356

Research on Canal System Operation Based on Controlled Volume Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An operating simulation mode based on storage volume control method for multireach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved algorithm was proposed, that is the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pools, the simulation results indicate that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool can be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm was adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, if the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pool is still adopted, then it certainly will cause some unnecessary regulation, and consequently increases the disturbed canal reaches. Therefor, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and its algorithm was designed. Through simulation to practical project, the results indicate that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating condition can comparatively obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturbed canal pools for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, thus the control efficiency of canal system was improved. The controlled volume method of operation is specially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system which possesses complex operation requirements.

Zhiliang Ding; Changde Wang

2009-01-01

357

Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective?Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods?Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results?Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion?Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students. PMID:23730547

Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

2012-06-01

358

Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective?Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods?Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results?Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion?Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students.

Ezer H; Banerjee AD; Thakur JD; Nanda A

2012-06-01

359

Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

Goell, Edgar

2012-02-15

360

Egypt's Policy Concerning Food Irradiation Research and Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypt's policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Oil and gas exploration in Egypt past, present, and future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt was among the early countries in which exploration for hydrocarbons took place. Back to 1886 when the first oil discovery was achieved and since then exploration operations were carried out covering almost every prospective area in Egypt. The history of oil exploration in Egypt passed through six stages, each of which is characterized by its own activities and reflects the impact of certain developments not only in the applied exploration techniques, but also in the work style and prevailing exploration concepts, in addition to the development in the agreement terms. Six areas could add new oil and gas reserves to Egypt, namely: N. Sinai (onshore and offshore); Nile Delta (onshore and offshore); Western Desert (onshore and offshore); Nile Valley; Red Sea; and the Gulf of Aqaba. Such areas have the prerequisites for commercial oil and/or gas accumulations including potential source rocks, good reservoirs and adequate traps in addition to effective seals. It is believed that the undiscovered oil and gas reserves of Egypt could be several times that which have been discovered so far.

Halim, M.A.

1995-08-01

362

Solar energy distribution over Egypt using cloudiness from Meteosat photos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Egypt, there are 10 ground stations for measuring the global solar radiation, and five stations for measuring the diffuse solar radiation. Every day at noon, the Meteorological Authority in Cairo receives three photographs of cloudiness over Egypt from the Meteosat satellite, one in the visible, and two in the infra-red bands (10.5-12.5 {mu}m) and (5.7-7.1 {mu}m). The monthly average cloudiness for 24 sites over Egypt are measured and calculated from Meteosat observations during the period 1985-1986. Correlation analysis between the cloudiness observed by Meteosat and global solar radiation measured from the ground stations is carried out. It is found that, the correlation coefficients are about 0.90 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regressions. Also, the correlation coefficients for the cloudiness with the diffuse solar radiation are about 0.80 for the simple linear regression, and increase for the second and third degree regression. Models and empirical relations for estimating the global and diffuse solar radiation from Meteosat cloudiness data over Egypt are deduced and tested. Seasonal maps for the global and diffuse radiation over Egypt are carried out.

Mosalam Shaltout, M.A.; Hassen, A.H. (National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Cairo (Egypt))

1990-01-01

363

Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

2012-11-01

364

Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la implantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C). Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegradosThe mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the present study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtained of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C). The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames; Carlos Andrés Morales Herrera; Mario Gonzalo Cantín López; Daniela Alejandra Zavando Matamala

2007-01-01

365

Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular/ Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la implantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo (more) femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C). Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegrados Abstract in english The mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the present study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtaine (more) d of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C). The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

Suazo Galdames, Iván Claudio; Morales Herrera, Carlos Andrés; Cantín López, Mario Gonzalo; Zavando Matamala, Daniela Alejandra

2007-12-01

366

Ambient lead measurements in Cairo, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) has established a network of 36 stations to monitor airborne lead levels in the Greater Cairo Area. Data obtained during the first 4 months of the monitoring program indicates that lead levels in ambient air significantly exceed the Government of Egypt's (GOE) Law Number 4 (1994) limit of 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} (annual mean) in areas downwind of secondary lead smelters and in heavily trafficked areas. The highest mean and single sampling event lead levels were observed in the heavily industrialized areas of Shoubra el-Kheima and Tebbin. At two sites in Shoubra el-Kheima, mean and maximum lead levels were determined to be approximately 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and 79 {micro} g/m{sup 3}, respectively. At three sites located in areas of high motor vehicle traffic in the central part of the city, the mean lead level was about 4 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and the maximum levels ranged from approximately 10 x 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Of the remainder of the sites, the mean lead concentrations were 2fd3 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at three sites, 1 P2 {mu} g/m{sup 3} at 16 sites, and below 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at eight sites. Lead levels in areas devoted primarily to residential use were generally less than 2 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum mean monthly PM{sub 10} lead value measured at fugitive emission monitoring sites near lead smelters was approximately 73 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum lead concentration measured during a single sampling event was 180 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Generally lower lead levels were observed in December due to regulation action that resulted in some suspension of smelting operations and to approximately 180-degree wind direction shifts that typically occur during this period of the year. The GOE is working vigorously to eliminate the lead problem in Egypt through implementation of the Lead Exposure Action Plan (LEAP). A major component of LEAP is the Lead Smelter Action Plan (LSAP).

Howes, J.E. Jr.; Labib, M.; Samaha, N.; Sabry, M.; Araby, H.E.

1999-07-01

367

Uranium resources and reserves in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Resources and reserves of radioactive raw materials in Egypt include some conventional and nonconventional types discovered at some localities in the Eastern Desert, Sinai and the Western Desert. The conventional-type uranium and/or thorium include replacements in granitic rocks, and in alkaline dikes and sills. The nonconventional-types comprise marine phosphorites and black sand concentrations along the Mediterranean. Latent resource include some anomalous areas in carbonaceous shales, clays and phosphatized sandstones in the Western Desert. Some target areas are by now under development. In one locality some 3,000 tons of ore assayed at 0.108% U are proved through drilling and drifting. Marine phosphorites represent potential resources for uranium. The total estimated reserve and potential reserve of phosphatic rocks in Egypt amounts approximately to 2.5 billion tons. Assuming an average of 100 gm U3O8/ton, the above reserve contains as much as 250,000 tons U3O8. The economic potentiality of black sands with respect to uranium and thorium content must be viewed in terms of industrialization of the whole products coming out from black sands. Nevertheless, the estimated reserve of heavy minerals amounts to over 30 million tons in the top meter and over 600 million tons with 27% heavy minerals to a depth of 20 meters in the area of Damietta East, Rosetta East and West. Some other 42.6 million tons grading about 9% heavy minerals are proved to a depth of 20 meters east and west of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. Assuming an annual production of 12,000 tons monazite (this amount yields 54 tons U3O8, 720 tons Th O2 7,500 tons RE and 3,360 tons P2O5) and marketing of the other products coming out of black sands, it is estimated that the production cost of one pound. U3O8 amounts to $15 to $30. 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

1989-09-01

368

Evaluation Of Soil And Water Resources In Wadi Wardan, Sinai, Egypt, Using Electrical Resistivity Method ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of 15 Vertical Electrical Soundings were carried out in the Delta of Wadi Wardan, on the western coastal zone of Sinai, about 55 km south of Suez. The study objectives were to find out the change in thickness of the soil cover in depth to water table across the area where ground is the only...

Sayed, Mokhtar Abdulaziz [????? ??? ?????? ???

369

THE FIRST TURKISH GOVERNOR OF EGYPT IN EARLY MIDDLE AGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, to Egypt in the early medieval period, the governor was given information about Abu Salih al-Haresi. Abbasid rule during the administration of the state’s role in the Turks spoke of Turkey’s first governor of Egypt from the previous situation was briefly explained. Abu-l-Abbas es-Seffah of the first Abbasid caliph in time, the Turks took place in the army while during the second Caliph Abu Jafar Al-Mensur was brought up to the task state. The third caliph al-Mahdi gave the Egyptian governor to Abu Salih al-Haresi, having Turkish origin. Abu Salih’s personality, his beeing governor to Egypt and the information about his activities were analysed basing on international resources.

Rafik ISMAYILOV

2010-01-01

370

Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

2009-01-01

371

Political challenges to biomedical universalism: kidney failure among Egypt's poor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Why do patients in need of kidney transplants in Egypt decline offers of kidney donation from their family members out of reluctance to cause them harm? Is it not universally the case that a living donor could live in complete health with a single remaining kidney? To address this conundrum, I discuss a case study from Egypt, in which patients reveal social, political, and environmental stresses on organ function that challenge the presumed universal efficacy and safety of kidney transplantation. I demonstrate that the biomedical position on the tolerable risks posed to the living donor is conditional and premised on particular social and historical contingencies that can be misaligned when applied in other contexts. Drawing on the work of Margaret Lock, I illustrate how analytical contributions of medical anthropologists can shed light on a political and public health impasse about how to legally regulate organ transplantation in Egypt.

Hamdy SF

2013-01-01

372

Deployment of Coherent Ionospheric Doppler Receiver Chain IN EGYPT  

Science.gov (United States)

This project was by and between University of Texas at Austin in USA and Helwan University in Egypt in order to conduct joint scientific investigations of the Earth's ionosphere. The parties will develop a network of passive radio instruments to monitor the ionospheric weather associated with the equatorial fountain situated over southern and central Egypt. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal scales over which the equatorial fountain varies, a network of three Coherent Ionospheric Doppler Receiver (CIDR) systems will be deployed in a roughly north-south chain in Egypt. By analyzing the CIDR data set as a function of time and ionospheric drivers, this project will gain valuable new insights into the weather of the equatorial fountain and the radio environment.

Mahrous, A. M.; Garner, T.

2008-05-01

373

Flavonoids from Albizia chinensis of Egypt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se llevo a cabo el aislamiento de los flavonoides Kaemferol-3-O-?-L-ramnopirano-sida, quercetina-3-O-?-L-ramnopiranosida, luteolina, kaemferol y quercetina, del extracto metanolico de las hojas de Albizia chinensis colectada de Egipto. La identificación de los compuestos se llevo a cabo mediante el análisis espectroscópico. Se valoro la actividad antimicrobiana de los tres primeros compuestos mostrando actividad moderada contra bacterias gram-positivas y gram-negativas. No se observo actividad antifungicida de estos compuestos. Abstract in english The flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside together with luteolin, kaempferol and quercetin, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Albizia chinensis collected from Egypt. Identification of the flavonoid constituents was carried by analysing their spectroscopic data and/or by comparing these data with those reported in the literature. The first three isolates were tested for their antimicrobial acti (more) vity and the results revealed that the tested compounds exhibited moderate inhibiting activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria while no antifungal activity was observed.

Ghaly, Neveen S.; Melek, F. R.; Abdelwahed, Nayera A. M.

2010-12-01

374

Low Job Satisfaction Among Physicians in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: Physician?s job satisfaction is a cornerstone for improving the quality of health care, and its continuity. To identify the extent of job satisfaction and explain its main components among physicians, together with finding out the main indicators for job satisfaction. METHODS: We randomly selected physicians from the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population Hospitals. All participants were asked to fill a self administrated questionnaire which included data pertaining socio-demographic characteristics and job satisfaction regarding salaries/incentives, monitoring, administration system, management, career satisfaction, relationship with colleagues, social support, opportunities for promotion, and job responsibilities. Satisfied was defined as satisfaction of>60%. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty eight physicians participated in this study; with mean age of 37.1+ 9.4 years, and 70.2% were males. Only 42.9% of the physicians? reported job satisfaction. Relationship with colleagues was the most important component of satisfaction with mean of 81.3+19.6 while, salaries/incentives were the least one with mean of 16.2+ 14. The overall current satisfying domains were not significantly associated with marital status or educational level, however it was significantly associated with specialty. Neither age nor gender was significantly associated with the degree of job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Our results call for paying more attention to improve physicians? job satisfaction in Egypt, to meet needed higher standards in health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000): 91-96

Amira Gamal Abdel-Rahman; Fatma Meky; Amany Waheed Eldin Abdel Halim; Mohamed Farouk Allam

2008-01-01

375

The national waste management system in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislative umbrella. The legal framework is well defined by both the Decree No. 288 (1957) which allowed the establishment of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Commission (now it is the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA)) and the Law 59 (1960) which assigned the full responsibilities for licensing, management and control of the use of radioactive materials and the waste arisings to the AEA. The operational capabilities are allocated to the Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Centre (HLWMC). These capabilities include, beside the operators, the facilities for treating and conditioning liquid and solid radioactive waste. The liquid radioactive waste facility has been completed under the IAEA Technical Assistance Project. The facility can treat 10 m3/day of low level liquid radioactive waste and 2 m3/ day of medium level liquid waste. The facility was commissioned in December 1993. It uses three methods for treating liquid radioactive waste: precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. Sludges and concentrates resulting from the treatment are conditioned by cementation in the cementation plant which is a part of the facility. The solid radioactive waste treatment includes compaction and incineration. The compacted waste will be conditioned by cementation in the cementation plant. 10 refs, 4 figs.

1993-12-00

376

Low Job Satisfaction Among Physicians in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: Physician?s job satisfaction is a cornerstone for improving the quality of health care, and its continuity. To identify the extent of job satisfaction and explain its main components among physicians, together with finding out the main indicators for job satisfaction. METHODS: We randomly selected physicians from the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population Hospitals. All participants were asked to fill a self administrated questionnaire which included data pertaining socio-demographic characteristics and job satisfaction regarding salaries/incentives, monitoring, administration system, management, career satisfaction, relationship with colleagues, social support, opportunities for promotion, and job responsibilities. Satisfied was defined as satisfaction of>60%. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty eight physicians participated in this study; with mean age of 37.1+ 9.4 years, and 70.2% were males. Only 42.9% of the physicians? reported job satisfaction. Relationship with colleagues was the most important component of satisfaction with mean of 81.3+19.6 while, salaries/incentives were the least one with mean of 16.2+ 14. The overall current satisfying domains were not significantly associated with marital status or educational level, however it was significantly associated with specialty. Neither age nor gender was significantly associated with the degree of job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Our results call for paying more attention to improve physicians? job satisfaction in Egypt, to meet needed higher standards in health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2): 91-96

Amira Gamal Abdel-Rahman; Fatma Meky; Amany Waheed Eldin Abdel Halim; Mohamed Farouk Allam

2008-01-01

377

Maternal mortality in Indonesia and Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty-three percent of deaths to women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Bali, Indonesia and Menoufia, Egypt were due to maternal causes. Among the younger women, the percentage was even higher. In both areas complications of pregnancy and childbirth were a leading cause of death (the first cause in Bali, the second in Menoufia). In both sites, postpartum hemorrhage was the most common cause of maternal death. Relative to the United States, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births was 20 times higher in Menoufia and 78 times higher in Bali. Families of women of reproductive age who died were interviewed about the conditions leading to death and other characteristics of the deceased. Completed histories were reviewed by a Medical Panel who were able to assign a cause of death in more than 90% of cases. Two-thirds of the maternal deaths occurred to women who were over 30 and/or who had 3 children--the usual targets of family planning programs. Other possible intervention strategies include antenatal outreach programs, training of traditional birth attendants, and better hospital management of obstetric emergencies.

Fortney JA; Susanti I; Gadalla S; Saleh S; Feldblum PJ; Potts M

1988-02-01

378

Maternal mortality in Indonesia and Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-three percent of deaths to women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Bali, Indonesia and Menoufia, Egypt were due to maternal causes. Among the younger women, the percentage was even higher. In both areas complications of pregnancy and childbirth were a leading cause of death (the first cause in Bali, the second in Menoufia). In both sites, postpartum hemorrhage was the most common cause of maternal death. Relative to the United States, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births was 20 times higher in Menoufia and 78 times higher in Bali. Families of women of reproductive age who died were interviewed about the conditions leading to death and other characteristics of the deceased. Completed histories were reviewed by a Medical Panel who were able to assign a cause of death in more than 90% of cases. Two-thirds of the maternal deaths occurred to women who were over 30 and/or who had 3 children--the usual targets of family planning programs. Other possible intervention strategies include antenatal outreach programs, training of traditional birth attendants, and better hospital management of obstetric emergencies. PMID:2892734

Fortney, J A; Susanti, I; Gadalla, S; Saleh, S; Feldblum, P J; Potts, M

1988-02-01

379

Impact of cross-sectional root canal shape on filled canal volume and remaining root filling material after retreatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To assess the impact of cross-sectional root canal shape (CSRCS) on the canal volume that can be filled and the root filling material that remains following a subsequent retreatment procedure. METHODOLOGY: A total of 15 extracted two-rooted human maxillary premolars and 15 mandibular first molars were used. Both root canals in the premolars (N = 30) and the distal root canal in the molars (N = 15) were prepared using ProFile instruments and filled by lateral compaction using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Canals were later retreated using the last ProFile used for instrumentation followed by two ProFiles of increasing size. Teeth were viewed in a ?CT scanner before and after each treatment step. Defined and validated threshold levels were used to differentiate empty root canal volumes, root dentine and root filling materials from each other. CSRCS was defined as the averaged ratio between bucco-lingual and mesio-distal canal diameter (round ? 1, oval 1-2, long oval 2-4 and flattened ? 4), determined for each 1 mm over the total root length. Data were averaged between the two canals in premolars, only the distal canals were assessed in molars. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to statistically compare the data, alpha = 0.01. RESULTS: Canals in premolars had a round CSRCS after preparation (1.0 ± 0.0), whereas distal counterparts in molars were oval (1.6 ± 0.5). Significantly (P < 0.01) more canal volume could be filled, and significantly less filling material remained after retreatment in premolars compared with mandibular molar distal canals. There was a high correlation between CSRCS, filled canal volume and remaining filling material. CONCLUSIONS: The endodontic procedures under investigation were significantly influenced by the cross-sectional root canal shape.

Rechenberg DK; Paqué F

2013-06-01

380

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of External Auditory Canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma is extremely rare tumour that accounts for approximately 5% of primary malignancy of external auditory canal. These tumours are related with a high risk of recurrences and significant morbidities from surgical management and adjuvant radiotherapy. Despite the aggressive management for these tumours, many patients succumb to distant metastasis, making overall prognosis of these tumours poor. Although ACC of EAC has been reported in 5th decade, but its occurrence in young patient is very rare. We report a rare case of ACC in a young 22 years old female, who presented with ear canal mass and ear pain. Biopsy suggested mass to be ACC. Patient underwent wide local excision followed by adjuvant radiotherapy.

Sanjeev Bhagat; Saurabh Varshney; Sampan Singh Bist; Sarita Mishra; Vinish Aggarwal

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Partial atrioventricular canal: pitfalls in technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Partial atrioventricular (AV) canal represents approximately 25% of all AV septal defects. While often grouped with secundum ASD from the perspective of cardiopulmonary physiology, clinical presentation, and timing of surgical correction, their optimal management truly requires an understanding of their anatomic similarities to other forms of common AVC defects. By most measures, outcomes for surgical management of partial AV canal has improved over the last four decades, though some aspects of these defects continue to pose important challenges. Current experience has witnessed the reduction in early mortality and only rare complete heart block. Left AV valve dysfunction remains the most common indication for reoperation (10%) with LVOT stenosis the next most common reason (10% to 15% incidence, 5% to 10% reoperation rate). It is important to understand in this population that postoperative left AV valve problems and LVOT stenosis may be intimately linked, both from an etiologic standpoint, and with respect to their management.

Manning PB

2007-01-01

382

Partial atrioventricular canal: pitfalls in technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial atrioventricular (AV) canal represents approximately 25% of all AV septal defects. While often grouped with secundum ASD from the perspective of cardiopulmonary physiology, clinical presentation, and timing of surgical correction, their optimal management truly requires an understanding of their anatomic similarities to other forms of common AVC defects. By most measures, outcomes for surgical management of partial AV canal has improved over the last four decades, though some aspects of these defects continue to pose important challenges. Current experience has witnessed the reduction in early mortality and only rare complete heart block. Left AV valve dysfunction remains the most common indication for reoperation (10%) with LVOT stenosis the next most common reason (10% to 15% incidence, 5% to 10% reoperation rate). It is important to understand in this population that postoperative left AV valve problems and LVOT stenosis may be intimately linked, both from an etiologic standpoint, and with respect to their management. PMID:17433990

Manning, Peter B

2007-01-01

383

Recent results after repair of atrioventricular canal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tweleve patients with the complete form of persistent atrioventricular (AV) canal were operated upon at the University of Wisconsin between May, 1972, and November, 1975. The technique originally described by Rastelli and his associates was used. All 12 patients are asymptomatic and well, with no hospital or late deaths. Postoperative cardiac catheterization in 8 patients showed a return to near normal dynamics, with minimal residual mitral insufficiency. Half of these children had type A and half type C malformations; both types could be repaired without the need for valve replacement. Since 3 of these patients were less than 2 years of age, we now feel that complete repair of the AV canal can be undertaken in children between 12 and 18 months of age for optimal management.

Kahn DR; Levy J; France NE; Chung KJ; Dacumos GC

1977-03-01

384

Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

2010-07-01

385

External auditory canal paraganglioma: an atypical presentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We present the first published description of a painful paraganglioma of the external auditory canal. Atypical histopathology made the diagnosis difficult. We discuss the potential pitfalls of clinical diagnosis and treatment of such a case. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old woman presented with left-sided otalgia, hearing loss and tinnitus. Physical examination revealed a firm swelling arising from the superior portion of the left external auditory canal. A clinical diagnosis of otitis externa was made. INTERVENTION: There was minimal response to medical treatment. The swelling was aspirated, leading to brisk bleeding. A tumour was suspected from the computed tomography scan, and confirmed by a biopsy. The patient underwent excision of the paraganglioma. The histopathology was atypical, making diagnosis difficult. CONCLUSION: Such unusual masses of the external ear should always be borne in mind, especially when dealing with atypical presentations of commonly encountered diseases. Clinicians should have a low threshold for early intervention with imaging and biopsy.

Grover N; Amen F; Gallimore A; Brookes G

2012-12-01

386

Sediment analysis of sewage contaminated canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sediments of sewage contaminated Fuleli canal was sampled before and after addition of sewage for over 25 k.m. and analyzed for loss on ignition, pH, conductance, organic carbon, water soluble chloride, sulphate, carbonate, phosphates, Na, K, Ca and Mg. The sediments were also examined for total (Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, Zn, Pb, Co and Cd) and bioavailable (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) metal contents. The sediment showed alkaline character and contain wide rang of variation soluble salts. The major cations and total metal contents indicated following decreasing pattern Ca>Mg>Na>K; Fe>>Mn>Zn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Co>Cd. The bioavailability metal contents cross the save limits the for the use of sediments of contaminated portion of the canal for agriculture purposes. (author)

2005-01-01

387

Variaciones Anatómicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales/ Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interacción entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimático subyacente durante la Odontogénesis. La interacción anormal de estos tejidos podría resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupción de un diente anómalo, ectópico o con variación anatómica. El presente reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatómicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxil (more) ar. El diagnóstico en los tres casos se efectuó por medio del análisis de radiografías. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos raíces y dos canales, el premolar maxilar presentó tres raíces y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este último, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitación. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatómicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologías que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicación de exámenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatómicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento. Abstract in english Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was perfo (more) rmed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

Oporto V, Gonzalo H; Fuentes F, Ramón E; Soto P, Camila C

2010-09-01

388

Variaciones Anatómicas Radiculares y Sistemas de Canales Tooth Root and Pulp Canal Anatomical Variations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El desarrollo dentario resulta de una complicada interacción entre el epitelio oral y el tejido mesenquimático subyacente durante la Odontogénesis. La interacción anormal de estos tejidos podría resultar en el desarrollo y/o erupción de un diente anómalo, ectópico o con variación anatómica. El presente reporte muestra tres casos de variaciones anatómicas radiculares y al sistema de canales: un canino mandibular, un premolar mandibular y un primer premolar maxilar. El diagnóstico en los tres casos se efectuó por medio del análisis de radiografías. El canino y premolar mandibular presentaron dos raíces y dos canales, el premolar maxilar presentó tres raíces y tres conductos. Dada la presencia de una caries penetrante en este último, fue derivado a un especialista en endodoncia para su tratamiento y posterior rehabilitación. Idealizar el sistema de canales como una entidad simple es un error, por lo que es importante considerar estas variaciones anatómicas especialmente ante presencia de dientes con patologías que requieran tratamientos de endodoncia o cualquier procedimiento al interior del sistema de canales, ya que la oportuna y adecuada indicación de exámenes complementarios permite pesquisar y diagnosticar variaciones anatómicas de este tipo, para minimizar la ocurrencia de accidentes durante el tratamiento.Teeth development results from a complicated interaction between oral epithelium and underlying mesenchematic tissue during odontogenesis. Abnormal interaction between this tissues could result in development and eruption of an ectopical, anomalous teeth or with an anatomical variation. This report shows three cases of teeth with anatomical variations at root and pulp canal in mandibular canine and bicuspid, and maxillary first bicuspid. Diagnosis of these cases was performed through radiographical analysis. Mandibular canine and bicuspid shown two root and two pulp canals, maxillary first bicuspid presented three roots and three pulp canals. Considering that maxilar tooth showed caries closer to pulp chamber, patient was derived to an endodontic specialist to perform an endodontic treatment and rehabilitation. Idealizing root canal as a simple and invariable structure is a mistake. Clinicians always ought to take into consideration potential anatomical variations in teeth, especially in those that require endodontic treatments or any kind of procedure inside root canal system. Timely and adequate indication of imagenological complementary exams allow an adequate diagnosis of anatomical variations that will decrease chances of accidents during treatment.

Gonzalo H Oporto V; Ramón E Fuentes F; Camila C Soto P

2010-01-01

389

Epidermoid carcinoma of the external auditory canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 43 years-old, urban, male patient assists the consultation of Otolaryngology with a long evolving otorrhea (around two years), receiving several treatments against the external otitis he suffered. With those antecedents and what we found when examining him, we decided to take a sample (biopsy) of the area, diagnosing an epidermoid carcinoma of the left external canal, an infrequent pathology in our settings

2009-01-01

390

Pulp canal obliteration: an endodontic diagnosis and treatment challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To review the literature on pulp chamber and root canal obliteration in anterior teeth and to establish a clear protocol for managing teeth with fine, tortuous canal systems. SUMMARY: Pulp canal obliteration (PCO) occurs commonly following traumatic injuries to teeth. Approximately 4-24% of traumatized teeth develop varying degrees of pulpal obliteration that is characterized by the apparent loss of the pulp space radiographically and a yellow discoloration of the clinical crown. These teeth provide an endodontic treatment challenge; the critical management decision being whether to treat these teeth endodontically immediately upon detection of the pulpal obliteration or to wait until symptoms or signs of pulp and or periapical disease occur. The inevitable lack of responses to normal sensibility tests and the crown discoloration add uncertainty to the management; however, only approximately 7-27% of teeth with PCO will develop pulp necrosis with radiographic signs of periapical disease. Root canal treatment of teeth with pulpal obliteration is often challenging. This article discusses the various management approaches and highlights treatment strategies for overcoming potential complications. KEY LEARNING POINTS: Up to 25% of traumatized anterior teeth can develop pulp canal obliteration; Discolouration is a common clinical finding in teeth with pulp canal obliteration; Up to 75% of teeth with pulp canal obliterations are symptom-free and require no treatment other than radiographic monitoring; Routine pulp sensibility tests are unreliable in the presence of pulp canal obliteration; Teeth with pulp canal obliteration in need of root canal treatment pose particular diagnostic and treatment challenges.

McCabe PS; Dummer PM

2012-02-01

391

An Inflation Targeting Regime in Egypt: A Feasible Option?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses first whether scientific evidence—theoretical and empirical—exists to support the inflation targeting regime and, secondly whether inflation target is worthwhile for Egypt. The method in this paper builds on a literature review of the theoretical and empirical research in the field of economics. Our conclusion shows that there is incomplete evidence from a number of countries supporting the inflation targeting regime as an effective monetary policy framework for the achievement of macroeconomic stability. The paper concludes that the Central Bank of Egypt and the Egyptian economy is not yet ready for the implementation of an inflation targeting regime.

Tarek Ghalwash

2010-01-01

392

Surgical management of complete atrioventricular canal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Successful correction of complete atrioventricular (AV) canal depends on accurate assessment of surgical anatomy and preservation of valve tissue to avoid postoperative valvular insufficiency. From 1975 to 1980 there were 68 patients aged 2 months to 17 years (median age 12 months) who underwent correction for the complete form of AV canal. Forty-six percent had associated anomalies which included patent ductus arteriosus, right aortic arch, pulmonic stenosis, and ostium secundum defect. Two types of repairs were employed: group I-Teflon patch closure of the ventricular septal defect (VSD) by division of the common leaflets into mitral and tricuspid components: Group II-Teflon patch closure of the VSD without division of common leaflets by fashioning the patch between the chordae tendineae and under the common leaflets. The atrial septal defect component was closed separately with pericardium or Teflon. Overall mortality is related to presence of (1) elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (Wood units greater than 4), (2) prior palliative operations, or (3) associated cardiovascular anomalies. Repair of complete AV canal without splitting the common leaflets preserves valve tissue. The act of splitting the common leaflets and reattaching the mitral and tricuspid components to the VSD patch by necessity sacrifices valve tissue. Although this may not be significant in older children, it becomes important in infants, for the sacrificed valve tissue comprises a greater proportion of the whole. Moreover, patch disruption of the reattached mitral and tricuspid components can be avoided if the common leaflets are not split.

Mavroudis C; Weinstein G; Turley K; Ebert PA

1982-05-01

393

[Intratubular penetration of root canal sealers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of penetration of four endodontic sealers (Endo Fill, Sealapex, AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer) into dentinal tubules. Seventy-two extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were utilized in this study. The teeth were cleaned and shaped by means of the balanced-forces technique. The work length was established at 1 mm beyond the apex. Copious irrigation with 10 ml of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite was carried out. The teeth were divided in 8 groups - 4 had the smear layer maintained, and 4 had it removed. The smear layer was removed with a commercial solution of 17% EDTA, and the root canal system was flushed for 3 min. Finally, the roots were irrigated with 3 ml of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. All teeth were sealed by means of the technique of the condensation wave with a medium nonstandardized cone. After filling, the roots were grooved, longitudinally split and examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The focus of observation was the interface between the dentin and the sealing material. The Rickert sealer (Pulp Canal) presented the maximum penetration depths into the dentinal tubules, and Sealapex, the minimum. The Spearman test was used to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups. The removal of smear layer allowed significant penetration of the sealers (p <= 0.01).

de Deus G; Gurgel Filho ED; Ferreira CM; Coutinho Filho T

2002-10-01

394

Ligadura videotoracoscópica da persistência do canal arterial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a técnica de fechamento da Persistência do Canal Arterial (PCA), destacando a simplicidade e singularidade do método. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: No período de março de 1994 a novembro de 1999, 40 pacientes (pac), com idade entre 8 meses e 17 anos e predominando o sexo masculino, foram submetidos a operação de fechamento da PCA através de videotoracoscopia. O paciente é colocado em decúbito lateral direito, sob anestesia geral com intubação seletiva do pulmão direito. São usados quatro trocateres: um de 3 mm no 3º espaço intercostal (EIC) esquerdo na linha axilar anterior e outro trocater de 5 mm no 3º (EICE) na linha axilar média. A ótica 30 graus infantil é introduzida em um trocater de 3 mm no 5º EICE na linha axilar posterior e outro trocater de 5 mm no 5º EICE na linha axila anterior. A identificação do canal é feita tendo como parâmetro anatômico os nervos frênico e vago. Após o isolamento, o canal é duplamente clipado ou ligado com fio de algodão grosso com nó interno. Terminado o procedimento, o pulmão é expandido sob visão direta, não havendo necessidade de drenar o tórax. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos sucesso inicial em 37 pac (92,5%), sendo necessária reversão para operação convencional em 3 pac (7,5%). Não houve óbito nem complicações e o tempo médio de hospitalização foi de 48 horas. CONCLUSÃO: Acreditamos ser o procedimento eficaz, seguro, com pequeno índice de complicações, custo baixo e uma curva de aprendizado também pequena.

SOUTO Gladyston Luiz de Lima; TINOCO Renan Catharina; TINOCO Augusto Claúdio de A.; CAETANO Celme da Silva; SOUZA José Bruno; PAULA Ary Getúlio de; TEIXEIRA Marco Antonio; CARVALHO Márcio Roberto; BOTELHO Antonio Carlos; COELHO Sandro B. P.; SOUTO Hanry B.

2000-01-01

395

Antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All root canal sealers should have antimicrobial activity so that they could act against any remaining bacteria after root canal obturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five root canal sealers: AH26, a resin based paste; Apexit, calcium hydroxide based paste; Endomethasone and Tubliseal, zinc oxide eugenol based materials and Ketac Endo Aplicap, glass ionomer based sealer. Matherials And Methods: Antimicrobial activity was tested against S. mutans 70C and L.casei ATCC 27773 using ADT (agar diffusion inhibitory test) on TYC SB, blood and MRS agars. Freshly prepared paste or cement was placed in grooves of 4 mm in diameter in agar plates. Prepared agar plates were incubated at 37ºC in GAS PAC system for 24hours. The antimicrobial effect was determined according to the diameter of growth inhibition zone around tested materials. Three measurements were done for each material and values were recorded in millimeters. Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney test. The results confirmed that epoxy resin and zinc oxide eugenol based sealers had the greatest antimicrobial effect. Calcium hydroxide and glass ionomer based sealers showed significantly lower antimicrobial activity compared to AH26, Endomethasone and Tubliseal. Conclusion: The greatest antimicrobial activity was found for epoxy resin based sealer (AH26) for both tested microorganisms.

Vujaškovi? Mirjana; Radosavljevi? Branka

2006-01-01

396

gastropods as pollution indicators in the red sea coast, egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] thirty samples of Nerita albicilla and canarium (Gibberulus) gibbosus from fifteen stations along the Egyptian Red Sea coast from Abu Darag on the gulf of suez southwards to Berenice were selected for chemical analysis. the present work focuses on the environment-sensitive elements and their possible hazards. Nerita is a geochemical marker for a sizeable group of trace elements including; Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Th , Ba, Ti, S, Sc and Se, while canarium is a good accumulator of the elements, Mo, U, Au and K. both species have the same selectivity for Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Sr and P. these differences are attributed to mode of life and incorporation of the elements within the crystal lattice of carbonates composing the shells. on basis of the obtained data, the study area can be divided into three zones namely; almost pristine, moderately polluted zone and markedly polluted one . pollution is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

2010-01-01

397

No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance; N. 3017. Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete relative au projet de fusion entre Gaz de France et Suez, aux conditions de sa preparation et de son annonce et aux consequences de la privatisation de Gaz de France pour les usagers et l'equilibre du marche de l'energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

Balligand, J.P.; Ayrault, J.M.; Hollande, F.; Besson, E.; Migaud, D.; Emmanuelli, H.; Brottes, F.; Bataille, Ch.; Ducout, P.; Gaubert, J.; Habib, D

2006-04-15

398

Optic canal location by computed tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to provide anatomic data for optic canal decompression. One hundred twenty people (55 males and 65 females) were involved in this study anonymously. Twelve parameters are measured in computed tomography: P1 is the nasal bone tip; P2 is the middle point of tuberculum sellae; P3 is the root of columella nasi; P4 is the cranium end of the optic canal; P5 is the orbit end of the optic canal; P1' is P1's projection on L2; L1 is the line that links P1 and P2; L2 goes through P3 and parallel to L1; L3 is the bisector of right and left and goes through P1. The distance between LI and L2 was 30.47 ± 3.71 mm. The distance between P3 and P1' was 11.66 ± 2.82 mm. The medial canal wall length was 10.64 ± 1.10 mm on the right and 10.51 ± 1.07 mm on the left (P = 0.001). The distance between P1 and P4 was 66.74 ± 5.97 mm. The distance between P1 and P5 was 73.04 ± 6.33 mm on the right and 72.82 ± 6.33 mm on the left (P = 0.004). The distance between P5 and L3 was 6.62 ± 1.33 mm. The distance between P4 and L3 was 12.26 ± 1.63 mm. The distance between P3 and P4 was 75.82 ± 4.63 mm. The distance between P3 and P5 was 82.87 ± 4.60 mm on the right and 82.25 ± 4.86 mm on the left (P = 0.003). The angle between P1P4 and L3 was 12.26 ± 1.63 degrees. The angle between P1P5 and L3 was 5.28 ± 1.13 degrees. The angle between P3P5 and P3P4 was 5.80 ± 0.97 degrees. These results provide a precise location of the optic canal. PMID:23348301

Liu, Shuaichen; Chen, Yu; Song, Junxue; Tian, Yong; Xia, Changli; Li, Youqiong

2013-01-01

399

Optic canal location by computed tomography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to provide anatomic data for optic canal decompression. One hundred twenty people (55 males and 65 females) were involved in this study anonymously. Twelve parameters are measured in computed tomography: P1 is the nasal bone tip; P2 is the middle point of tuberculum sellae; P3 is the root of columella nasi; P4 is the cranium end of the optic canal; P5 is the orbit end of the optic canal; P1' is P1's projection on L2; L1 is the line that links P1 and P2; L2 goes through P3 and parallel to L1; L3 is the bisector of right and left and goes through P1. The distance between LI and L2 was 30.47 ± 3.71 mm. The distance between P3 and P1' was 11.66 ± 2.82 mm. The medial canal wall length was 10.64 ± 1.10 mm on the right and 10.51 ± 1.07 mm on the left (P = 0.001). The distance between P1 and P4 was 66.74 ± 5.97 mm. The distance between P1 and P5 was 73.04 ± 6.33 mm on the right and 72.82 ± 6.33 mm on the left (P = 0.004). The distance between P5 and L3 was 6.62 ± 1.33 mm. The distance between P4 and L3 was 12.26 ± 1.63 mm. The distance between P3 and P4 was 75.82 ± 4.63 mm. The distance between P3 and P5 was 82.87 ± 4.60 mm on the right and 82.25 ± 4.86 mm on the left (P = 0.003). The angle between P1P4 and L3 was 12.26 ± 1.63 degrees. The angle between P1P5 and L3 was 5.28 ± 1.13 degrees. The angle between P3P5 and P3P4 was 5.80 ± 0.97 degrees. These results provide a precise location of the optic canal.

Liu S; Chen Y; Song J; Tian Y; Xia C; Li Y

2013-01-01

400

CORDLESS COMPLEX ROOT CANAL PLUGGER FOR DENTAL CLINIC  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cordless complex root canal plugger for dental clinics is disclosed. The rootcanal plugger according to the present invention includes a battery charger;a pen-type vertical spreader having a rechargeable battery unit and a controlunit therein; and a gun-type injection device having both a rechargeable batteryunit and a control unit therein. The battery charger, the pen-type vertical spreaderand the gun-type injection device are provided as a group of complementary products.The cordless complex root canal plugger allows an endodontist to move freelyin a dental clinic while executing a root canal plugging procedure using the cordlesscomplex root canal plugger during nerve treatment. Thus, the endodontist canmore easily, rapidly and precisely pack a root canal with a filler material and,therefore, the cordless complex root canal plugger induces en- dodontists tobuy it.

OH Suk-song; KIM Hae-joong; JI Chang-jin; KIM Do-yeon; CHOI Young-muk; CHOI Sung-joon; HA Sung-min

 
 
 
 
401

Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the ?S? shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an ?S? shaped root canal.

Reuben Joseph; Velmurugan Natanasabapathy; Vasanthi Santhanam; Priya; Vijaylakshmi

2008-01-01

402

Osteoma of the external auditory canal : a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An osteoma is a protruding mass composed of abnormally dense but otherwise normal bone and arises in the periosteum. It is usually found in the skull or facial bone, most often in the frontal or ethmoid sinuses, rarely occurring in the external auditory canal. The mass is usually hard and painless, and is connected to the osseous canal by its stalk or neck. Differential exestotic diagnosis is important. We report a case osteoma of the external auditory canal

2001-01-01

403

Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

de Almeida-Gomes Fabio; de Sousa Bruno; de Souza Fabricio; dos Santos Roberto; Maniglia-Ferreira Claudio

2009-01-01

404

Complete atrioventricular canal with guarded primum septal defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common atrioventricular canal (CAVC) is a common congenital heart lesion resulting from a defect in development of the endocardial cushions during early embryogenesis. Depending on the type of defect, CAVC can encompass a spectrum of lesions ranging from partial atrioventricular (AV) canal to complete AV canal. We describe a case of CAVC with unique anatomy in a 4-month-old male infant with Down syndrome. PMID:21188369

Kumar, Susheel; Donofrio, Mary; Frank, Lowell; He, Dingchao; Jonas, Richard

2010-12-25

405

Complete atrioventricular canal with guarded primum septal defect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Common atrioventricular canal (CAVC) is a common congenital heart lesion resulting from a defect in development of the endocardial cushions during early embryogenesis. Depending on the type of defect, CAVC can encompass a spectrum of lesions ranging from partial atrioventricular (AV) canal to complete AV canal. We describe a case of CAVC with unique anatomy in a 4-month-old male infant with Down syndrome.

Kumar S; Donofrio M; Frank L; He D; Jonas R

2011-04-01

406

Does Egypt Represent an Ecological Limit to Desiccation Tolerant Plants? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A search of arid areas adjacent to the Nile in Egypt revealed a notable lack of desiccation tolerant vascular plants on ecological sites on which they would be abundant in Kenya and further south in Africa. Relative water contents (RWC); the water content of the tissue as a percentage of its water c...

Fahmy, Gamal, M [???? ???? ????; Gaff, D. F. [??? ? ???; Abd El Ghani, M. M. [???? ???? ??? ?????

407

Interpretatin of geopotential field anomalies in area Around Sohag, Egypt ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ? ?? ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The investigated area Ues in the central part of Egypt (around Sohag). The present study aims at obtaining information about the subsurface geological conditions in the area from the analysis and interpretation of both gravity and magnetic data. The resuls obtained suggest a general northward increa...

Ibrahim, H. A. [???? ???? ???????

408

On A New Haemogregarine Of Varanus Griseus From Egypt ??? ???? ?? ???????????????? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten monitors, Varanus griseus collected from various localities in Egypt were examined for protozoan blood parasites. A new species of the genus Haemogregarina senso lato is reported from six of these monitors. Blood forms of Haemogregarina roshdyi n.sp. are described. These forms produce changes to...

Ramadan, Nadia F. [????? ???? ?????

409

Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Carbonaceous Shale Deposits from Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present investigations focus on an integrated sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical evaluation of the carbonaceous shales from Egypt. The analysis of the black shales of the Ataqa Formation and the Safa Formation in both, Southern and Northern Sinai, indicate improved depositional envi...

Temraz, Mostafa Gouda Mohamed Attia

410

The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

1991-01-01

411

The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth.

Parmenter, B.M.

1991-01-01

412

African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

Henry, Hani M.

2012-01-01

413

El-Dab'a ground water aquifer assessment, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

El-Dabaa area is an area located in the norther part of the western desert, Egypt and planed to be nuclear power point. Some vertical electrical sounding have been done there to evaluate the ground water aquifer there to monitor the effect of sea water intrusion and its effect on the fresh water aquifer

Tarabees, Elhamy

414

Air Quality Monitoring and Information System for Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The publication relates to the main objectives and design of a modern monitoring and information system developed in Norway. The system is to be installed in Egypt. Themes being discussed cover technical features of the system, meteorological data, environmental indicators, data transfer and quality assurance, the data bases, data presentation - graphics and GIS, and environmental information to the public. 11 figs., 1 tab.

Sivertsen, B.

1996-06-01

415

Joint venture: Jacques Giordano Industries, France and REEFCO, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Joint venture arrangements can provide mutually advantageous links between developed and developing countries. Jacques Giordano, President of Jacques Giordano Industries and Mohamed Ibrahim Saleh of REEFCO, Egypt describe their successful partnership which brings quality solar water heaters to the Egyptian market. The topics include technology transfer, manufacturing, marketing, legal aspects, financing, and government policy

1992-01-01

416

78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

...gateway of trade for Africa and the Middle East. It is a prime location for the...products and services in the Middle East. The United States is Egypt's...energy producing countries in the Middle East. Over the next ten years,...

2013-02-04