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Environmental aeroradioactivity levels in the Suez-Canal Zone, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study deals essentially with the establishment of the environmental radioactivity levels in the Suez Canal Zone. It will provide basic information that can be used as a reference to detect and determine the amount and extent of any possible future variations in the natural radioactivity level in that part of Egypt, that might result from nuclear testing or accidents involving release of nuclear radiations and fallout of nuclear fission products that might affect both the terrestrial and atmospheric environments. According to the statistical analysis of the radio active measurements recorded over the Suez Canal Zone, it was found that its mean radiometric background is 7.76 millirem/year. Seven lithological units were separated, each was found to be homogeneously distributed, as far as radioactivity is concerned and has its own characteristic statistics. They form the environmental terrestrial aeroradioactivity map of the area. The Suez Canal Zone is characterized by the presence of extensive water surfaces represented by the Gulf of Suez, Bitter Lakes, El Temsah and El Manzalah Lakes. These represent the lowest radiometric level (0.03-5.16 millirem/year) in the studied zone in spite of the presence of a slightly higher level around the rim of the great Bitter Lake. The highest radiometric level was (4.4-15.3 millirem/year) found associated with El Shat formation of Middle Miocene age and which is composed mainly of sandstone, clay, limestone and gypsum. In sandstone, clay, limestone and gypsum. In that regard the present study demonstrated that periodical aerial radiometric surveying for the entire Suez Canal area is highly recommended for monitoring changes in its environmental radioactivity levels. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

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Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI) is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Meth...

Rania Mohammed Kishk; Mohamed Fouad Mandour; Rasha Mohamed Farghaly; Ahmed Ibrahim; Nader Attia Nemr

2014-01-01

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Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI) is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3%) developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value < 0.001). The overall mortality rates among infected and noninfected neonates were 38.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a significant difference. Klebsiella spp. were the most common pathogen (27.8%) followed by Pseudomonas (21.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4%). Conclusion. The rate of BSIs in NICU at Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%). PMID:25389439

Kishk, Rania Mohammed; Mandour, Mohamed Fouad; Farghaly, Rasha Mohamed; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Nemr, Nader Attia

2014-01-01

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Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eight surface sabkha soils samples were collected from Ismailia—Suez roadbed, southwestern of Suez Canal district. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses were conducted using grain size; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Grain size analysis indicates high contents of fine sand and mud as well as presence of salts. X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDAX tool clarified that the sabkha soils are enriched by quartz, sulfate minerals (gypsum, ...

Aboulela, Hamdy A.; El-omla, Mohamed M.

2012-01-01

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Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight surface sabkha soils samples were collected from Ismailia—Suez roadbed, southwestern of Suez Canal district. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses were conducted using grain size; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Grain size analysis indicates high contents of fine sand and mud as well as presence of salts. X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and EDAX tool clarified that the sabkha soils are enriched by quartz, sulfate minerals (gypsum, anhydrite, carbonate minerals (calcite-dolomite-aragonite, chlorides (halite and bischofite, and clay minerals. The results elucidate that the appearance of sabkha deposits and their distribution in the study area are controlled mainly by the content of water soluble salts through parent materials; ground water table; subsurface structural; and physiographic features for instance surface relief or topography; and human activity.

Hamdy A. Aboulela

2012-07-01

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Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal beaches, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal

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Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

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Taxonomic Study on the Feather Stars (Crinoidea: Echinodermata from Egyptian Red Sea Coasts and Suez Canal, Egypt  

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Full Text Available A taxonomic study on the crinoids (feather stars collected from 34 sites from the Red Sea coasts and islands as well as the Suez Canal was done during the period from 1992 to 2003. A total of 15 species are now known from the Red Sea belonging to eleven genera under six families. Among them four species are endemic to the Red Sea and the two spe- cies, Decametra chadwicki and Lamprometra klunzingeri, are recorded from the Suez Canal for the first time. Also, the two species, Oligometra serripinna and Dorometra aegyptica, are new record from Gulf of Suez, and Decametra mollis from Gulf of Aqaba and Northern Red Sea. This study represents the first proper documentation of crinoid species in the study area. Summaries are provided of the specific habitats and geographical distribution.

Ahmed M. Hellal

2012-04-01

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Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Analyses Techniques For Optimum Land Use Planning, West of Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current study aims at using remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for optimum landuse planning of the area located north Ismaillia - south Port Said Governorates on the western side of Suez Canal. It is bounded by longitudes 32 degree 10 and 32 degree 20 E and latitudes 300 4 rand 31 0 00' N. Great part of this area is under reclamation and suffering from improper landuse. Ten geomorphologic units were recognized i.e. clay flats, decantation basins, overflow basins, sand sheets, gypsiferous flats, old river terraces, sand flats, turtle backs, lake beds, and recent river terraces. Using US Soil Taxonomy, two soil orders could be identified; Entisols and Aridisols which are represented by ten great groups: Typic Haplosalids, Typic Haplogypsids, Typic Toriorthents, Vertic Argigypsids, Vertic Torrijluvents, Vertic Natrargids ,Typic Torripsamments, Typic Torrifluvens, Aquic Torriorthents and Typic Psammaquents. Surface and ground water with respect to salinity and alkalinity hazards were investigated ,where surface water of the main canals was classified as C2-S 1, C3-S 1 ,C4-S2 and C4-S4, meanwhile the ground water was classified as C3-S 1, C3 -S 1 ,C4-S2 ,C4-SI and C4-S4 .Optimum landuse planning of the studied area includes three approaches i.e., physical planning, optimum cropping pattern and other uses. Physical planning includes designing of three geospatial models. I-treatment plant site selection model. 2-c-treatment plant site selection model. 2-central village site selection model and 3- shortest path for new Canal model. Current cropping pattern was obtained by matching the crop requirements with soil characteristics, where soils of high sand flats and low gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, alfalfa and cotton, soils of low sand flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for olive, citrus and melon, soils of low recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for sugar beat, cotton, corn and rice ,soils of moderately recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, potato and rice, soils of high recent river terraces are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, melon, rice and cotton, soils of high gypsiferrous flats are currently highly suitable (S2) for corn, cotton, and citrus, soils of decantation basins are currently highly suitable (S2) for wheat, rice, corn, cotton, soils of turtle bake are currently highly suitable (S2) for melon, potato, cotton, soils of overflow basins are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus, peach, soils of sand sheets and old river terraces are currently of moderate suitability (S3) for olive, citrus

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Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF6 packages traversing the Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF6 shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF6 on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resultinhe toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

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Sorption behaviour of cobalt-60 on Suez Canal bottom sediments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mineralogical, elemental analysis and sorption behaviour of the Suez Canal bottom sediments in the Port Said area were investigated. It was found that the bottom sediment consist mainly of quartz, feldspars and traces of calcite mineral. The cation-exchange capacity was found to increase as the particle size of the sediment decreased. Sorption of 60Co by the bottom sediment increased with contact time up to 6 h. Variation of the solution pH from 4 to 9 showed limited increase in the sorption of 60Co. As carrier concentrations increase from 10-7N to 10-3N, sorption of Co was found to increase linearly following Freundlich isotherm. The presence of Mg2+ and Fe3+ in solution depressed the sorption of 60Co by the sediments. The desorption of 60Co from bottom sediment with distilled and Suez Canal water was found to increase with contact time. (author)

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Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF6) packages tracking Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF6) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF6) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF6) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested

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Uptake study of some radionuclides by Suez Canal bottom sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical and physical analyses of Suez Canal bottom sediment at its south entrance (Port Taweffek) were carried out. The sediment was separated into its particle size fractions (clay, silt and sand). The different sediment fractions can be arranged with respect to their sorption capacity as follows: clay, natural sediment, sit and sand. The increase of pH results in small increase in the uptake reaching in some cases a maximum value of pH 6 or 8. More significant increase of uptake is observed when the carrier concentration is increased from 10-6 to 10-2 M/L

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Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt  

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Full Text Available Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

Magdy G. Samuel

2014-03-01

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Direct gamma-ray measurement of different radionuclides in the surface water of Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity levels of naturally-occurring 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K and anthropogenic 137Cs in surface water from eight locations in the Suez Canal have been assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The samples were further characterized by determination of the common cations and anions using ion chromatography. A comparison of 137Cs radioactivity levels in surface water from the Suez Canal with those of other sea waters is presented. The radioactivity levels of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K from sea water are also reported. The effect of total dissolved solids (T.D.S.), chloride, sulphate ion concentrations on the radioactivity levels of 238U, 232Th and 226Ra is discussed. (authors)

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Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt  

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Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.

Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER

2013-03-01

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Use of the INTERTRAN code for risk assessment of radioactive materials being transported through the Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The INTERTRAN computer code developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency was used to predict the radiological risks resulting from the transport of radioactive materials through the Suez Canal under both normal and accident conditions. Large amounts of input data were used, including the actual statistical accident rates, standard shipment data for the period 1980-1985, population density data, and meteorological dispersion parameters based on analysis of actual data from the Ismailia region during the year 1986. The results indicate that there has been a considerable increase in the transport of radioactive materials through the canal since 1980. The increase in 1984 and 1985 was 7 and 11 times that of 1980, respectively. The average collective dose per year was found to be 4.5 man·rem, which is negligible value if the high population density within the Suez Canal zone is considered. Low specific activity materials such as uranium and thorium make the most significant contribution to the total collective dose to the public. In general, of the different population subgroups involved, handlers receive more than 97% of the total dose. The radiological risks calculated from actual input data were found to be lower by a factor of 106 than those calculated from default input data. This can be attributed to the low accident probability in the Suez Canal compared with that in the open sea. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs

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Facies and sequence stratigraphy of some Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The shallow-water siliciclastics and carbonates of the Miocene sediments in the Cairo-Suez District, Egypt represent an epiric ramp. The facies are characterized by stacked high-frequency cycles with restricted ramp to shoal margin sequences. Based on an extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, six lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. A sequence-stratigraphic analysis was carried out by integrating lithostratigraphic marker beds, facies relationships, stratigraphic cycles, and biostratigraphy. The investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. S1, is interpreted to correspond to the Late Burdigalian stage (18-16.38 My), S2 corresponds to the Late Burdigalian-Early Langhian stage (16.38-14.78 My), and S3 represents the Late Langhain-Early Serravallian stage (14.78-13.66 My). Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles.

Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Mowafi, Ahmed; Al-Malky, Mazen

2015-01-01

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Distribution of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia thurstoni Herdman, 1890 (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae along Suez Canal and Egyptian Red Sea coasts  

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Full Text Available Ecteinascidia thurstoni is a colonial sea squirt. It has a seasonal rhythm and a tropicaland subtropical distribution; it is usually present during the summer months.It synthesizes a group of molecules called ecteinascidins. One of these is ET-743, a compound that has a most original anti-tumoral activity and is today considered to be one of the most promising substances effective against various solid-type tumors (currently sold under the trade name of Yondelis for the treatment of sarcomas and related tumors; it is undergoing phase II/III clinical trails for other kinds of tumors.Worldwide, Ecteinascidia species represent the only available source of this bioactivecompound, which was first discovered in E. turbinata.During the present study, the ecology of E. thurstoni along the Suez Canal and Red Seawas investigated. Its populations were observed to be highly gregarious due in partto their low larval dispersal, which is very localized; larvae therefore tendto settle close to their parent colonies. It is only recorded in shallow waters (0.5-1.5 mas an epiphyte on the pneumatophores of mangroves by the Red Sea, on the pilings of jetties,and the metal or cement banks of the Suez Canal. The morphometric characteristics(zooid length, zooid weight, colony weight of the Suez Canal population differsignificantly from those of the Red Sea. Studying the distribution of this speciesand locating its different populations along the Suez Canal and Red Sea could helpto characterize their genetics, chemistry and bacterial communities at differentisolated locations.Ultimately, this will help to define the sources of ET-743 and hence promote itsbiosynthesis on a commercial scale.

Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

2008-06-01

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Egypt and Red Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its...

Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-dieter; El-rayes, Ahmed E.

2008-01-01

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Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates  

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Full Text Available Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric parameters, the frequency of occurrence, abundance and density analyses, the seaweed C. prolifera is more frequent, abundant and dense in Suez Canal than the seagrass H. stipulacea, which is very rare. Instead C. prolifera forming extended dense meadows with percentage cover nearly 100% m–2 at many sites. This mainly happened; due to the competitive success of C. prolifera which seems to be related to its big size, high density, rapid growth, high efficiency in dim light conditions, high tolerance to severe nutrient limitation and salinity and temperature fluctuations and to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. The presence of these toxic secondary metabolites explains why C. prolifera is avoided by many of macro invertebrates as a habitat or feeding grounds.

Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

2007-01-01

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Desorption of Sr 89, Co 60 and Cs 134 from Suez Canal bottom sediments (Port Tawfeek Area)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical and physical properties of Suez Canal Bottom Sediments (S.C.B.S) and seawater at Port Tawfeek, the south entrance of Suez Canal, were studied. The (S.C.B.S) was separated into its size fractions (natural sediment, sand, silt and clay). These different sediment fractions were allowed to be in equilibrium with Strontium 89, Cobalt 60 and Cesium 134 solutions. Desorption studies were carried out on these contaminated sediments. The release of Strontium 89 and Cesium 134 was found to be identical and the sequence of this release was as follows : sand> silt> natural sediment> clay. The effect of seawater is 6-8 times that of bidistilled water. In case of Cobalt 60 the above sequence was disturbed and the salinity effect was only 2 times that of bidistilled water. It was also found that Strontium and Cobalt were more easily desorbed from the sand fraction a behaviour which can be explained by their loose attachment to the crystal surface

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Application of well log analysis for source rock evaluation in the Duwi Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Several models were developed to use the conventional wireline logs for evaluating the thermal maturity of the source rock and calculating the total organic carbon (TOC) content. Application of these models for the Duwi Formation, southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt, is the main purpose of this paper. Gamma ray, density, sonic, resistivity and neutron are the commonly used wireline logs to identify and quantify source rock. The results, which compared with the results obtained from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis show that cautions must be taken into consideration when applied these models because most of the models are empirical and their validation takes place under certain conditions. It can be concluded that the Duwi Formation represents very good source rock capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbon of oil-prone type II. The kerogen is waxy sapropel related to marine plankton deposited under reduced condition.

El Sharawy, Mohamed S.; Gaafar, Gamal R.

2012-05-01

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Geothermal studies in oilfield districts of Eastern Margin of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of geothermal studies carried out at 149 onshore oil wells have been used in evaluation of temperature gradient and heat flow values of the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez. The investigations included temperature logs in boreholes, calculation of amplitude temperature, geothermal gradients and heat flow. The results obtained indicate that geothermal gradient values are in the ranges of 0.02-0.044 °C/m and regionally averaged mean heat flow values are found to fall in the interval of 45-120 mW/m2. Temperature gradients and heat flow values change from low values eastward to high values toward the axial of Gulf of Suez rift. The result of this research work has been highly successful in identifying new geothermal resources eastward of the Gulf of Suez. Additionally, this study shows that the areas with relatively higher temperature gradients have lower oil window, mature earlier, than those with low gradient values. Thus, high temperature gradients cause to expedite the formation of oil at relatively shallow depths and narrow oil windows. On the other hand, low temperature gradient makes the oil window to be quite broad when locate at high depths.

Abdel Zaher, Mohamed; El Nuby, Mohamed; Ghamry, Essam; Mansour, Khamis; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Atef, Heba

2014-06-01

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Petrology and geochemistry of the Tertiary Suez rift volcanism, Sinai, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tertiary basaltic rocks of Southwestern Sinai, situated along the Wadi Nukhul-Wadi Matullah-Wadi El Tayiba join, were selected to study the Gulf of Suez rift related-lavas and their geochemical and petrological relation with the rifting process. Whole rock samples were studied petrographically and analysed for major and trace elements. The samples from dykes, sills and flows from multiple magmatic events display a large variety in texture and in modal mineral compositions. They range from olivine dolerites and olivine-bearing basalts to vitrophyric, texturally heterogeneous basalts and crystal lithic tuffs. The transitional tholeiitic basalts display low compatible element concentrations and an enrichment of the whole spectrum of the incompatible elements. Major, trace and Rare Earth Element data suggest that the melts formed by 5% melting of mantle peridotite at the spinel-garnet transition zone (80-90 km depth), in the presence of 2-4% residual garnet. During the melt ascent, the fractionating phases were olivine, clinopyroxene and, to a lesser extent, plagioclase. Thermobarometric calculations indicate the presence of two crystallization levels beneath the Gulf of Suez rift: a shallower stage at 15-20 km and a deeper stage at depths of 25-30 km. The mantle source consists of streaks and blobs of enriched mantle, preserved in the geochemical signatures of these rocks. The enriched mantle sources melted preferentially compared to the surrounding ambient mantle and thus led to a preferential enrichment of the sources of the Gulf of Suez rift.

Shallaly, N. A.; Beier, C.; Haase, K. M.; Hammed, M. S.

2013-11-01

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Structural evolution of the southern transfer zone of the Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a detailed study about the initiation and reactivations of Zeit-El Tor transfer zone, south Gulf of Suez rift, and its structural setting and tectonic evolution with respect to the Cretaceous-Cenozoic tectonic movements in North Egyptian margin. NE trending zone of opposed-dipping faults (22 km wide) has transferred the NE and SW rotations of the sub-basins in central and south Gulf of Suez rift, respectively. The evolution of this zone started by reactivation of the NE oriented late Neoproterozoic fractures that controlled the occurrence of Dokhan Volcanics in the rift shoulders. Later, the Syrian Arc contraction reactivated these fractures by a sinistral transpression during the Late Cretaceous-Eocene time. N64°E extension of the Oligo-Miocene rift reactivated the NE fractures by a sinistral transtension. During this rifting, the NE trending faults forming the transfer zone were more active than the rift-bounding faults; the Upper Cretaceous reverse faults in the blocks lying between these NE trending faults were rotated; and drape-related reverse faults and the positive flower structures were formed. Tectonic inversion from contraction to extension controlled the distribution and thickness of the Upper Cretaceous-Miocene rocks.

Abd-Allah, Ali M. A.; Abdel Aal, Mohamed H.; El-Said, Mohamed M.; Abd El-Naby, Ahmed

2014-08-01

28

Oligocene lacustrine tuff facies, Abu Treifeya, Cairo-Suez Road, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Field investigations in the Abu Treifeya area, Cairo-Suez District, revealed the presence of Oligocene lacustrine volcaniclastic deposits of lacustrine sequences associated with an Oligocene rift regime. The present study represents a new record of lacustrine zeolite deposits associated with saponite clay minerals contained within reworked clastic vitric tuffs. The different lithofacies associations of these clastic sequences are identified and described: volcaniclastic sedimentary facies represent episodic volcaniclastic reworking, redistribution and redeposition in a lacustrine environment and these deposits are subdivided into proximal and medial facies. Zeolite and smectite minerals are mainly found as authigenic crystals formed in vugs or crusts due to the reaction of volcanic glasses with saline-alkaline water or as alteration products of feldspars. The presence of abundant smectite (saponite) may be attributed to a warm climate, with alternating humid and dry conditions characterised by the existence of kaolinite. Reddish iron-rich paleosols record periods of non-deposition intercalated with the volcaniclastic tuff sequence.

Abdel-Motelib, Ali; Kabesh, Mona; El Manawi, Abdel Hamid; Said, Amir

2015-02-01

29

Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biome...

Gab-alla, Ali A-f A.

2007-01-01

30

Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and reservoir quality of the sandstones of the Kareem Formation, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Middle Miocene Kareem sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their diagenesis and provenance and their impact on reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Zeit Bay Oil Field, and the East Zeit Oil Field represent the Lower Kareem (Rahmi Member) and the Upper Kareem (Shagar Member), were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rahmi sandstones have an average framework composition of Q95F3.4R1.6, and 90% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Upper Shagar sandstones are only slightly less quartzose with an average framework composition of Q76F21R3 and 82% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. The Kareem sandstones are mostly quartzarenite with subordinate subarkose and arkose. Petrographical and geochemical data of sandstones indicate that they were derived from granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks and deposited in a passive continental margin of a syn rift basin. The sandstones of the Kareem Formation show upward decrease in maturity. Petrographic study revealed that dolomite is the dominant cement and generally occurs as fine to medium rhombs pore occluding phase and locally as a grain replacive phase. Authigenic quartz occurs as small euhedral crystals, locally as large pyramidal crystals in the primary pores. Authigenic anhydrites typically occur as poikilotopic rhombs or elongate laths infilling pores but also as vein filling cement. The kaolinite is a by-product of feldspar leaching in the presence of acidic fluid produced during the maturation of organic matter in the adjacent Miocene rocks. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

Zaid, Samir M.

2013-09-01

31

Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Rudies sandstone (Lower Miocene), Warda Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Miocene Rudies sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southeastern part, Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their provenance and diagenesis and their impact in reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Warda field, representing the Lower and Middle Rudies, were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rudies sandstones have an average framework composition of Q85F7.2R7.8, and 83% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Middle Rudies sandstones are only slightly more quartzose with an average framework composition of Q90F7R3 and 86% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. Rudies sandstones are mostly quartz arenite with subordinate subarkose and sublithic arenites and their bulk-rock geochemistry support the petrographic results. The modal analysis data of studied samples suggest influence of granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks. The geochemical data interpretation on the basis of discriminate function diagrams reveal the source material was deposited on a passive margin. Textural attributes possibly suggest long-distance transport of grains from the source region and indicates a cratonic or a recycled source. Tectonic setting of Rudies Formation reveals that the lower Rudies sandstones are typically rift sandstone and their deposition constrained the beginning of the faulting, while the middle Rudies sandstones were transported from the far along the rift. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

Zaid, Samir M.

2012-05-01

32

Mapping Geological Structures In Wadi Ghoweibaarea, Northwest Gulf Of Suez, Egypt, Using Aster-Spot Data Fusion And Aster DEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Practical and economical constraints prompt the need of obtaining lithological and structural information for development of desert areas with reduced field effort. The fusion of multi-sensor satellite data is an effective mean of exploiting the complimentary nature of different data types. This technique allows fusion of spectral-spectral information of multi-source data with high accuracy. In the present study, fusion of SPOT and ASTER data was applied to test the potentiality of this technique in mapping geological formations and structural lineaments in Wadi Ghoweiba area, to the west of the northwestern tip of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. ASTER data is characterized by a wide range of spectral bands (14 bands), while SPOT panchromatic data is characterized by high (10 meters) spatial resolution. Based on spectral characteristic analysis (SCA) of the 3 VNIR and the 6 SWIR bands of ASTER data, two false-color band-ratio images (1/3, 2/5, and 4/ 9) and (1/5, 8/9, and 4/6) in R, G, B were produced for better lithological discrimination. SPOT panchromatic image data was fused with ASTER band ratio images data using principal component (PC) and color normalization or Brovey transformation techniques. The fused images proved to be excellent for lithological discrimination. ASTER data includes bands 3N (Nadir) and 3B (Backward) that are acquired in the spectral range of near infrared region (from 0.78 to 0.86 microns) allowing extraction of digital elevation model (DEM). Thrtion of digital elevation model (DEM). Three-dimensional perspective views were generated by draping SPOT-ASTER ratio fused images over ASTER DEM. This technique was used to enhance morphologically-defined structures. The fused images and the 3D perspective views were interpreted to produce a photo geological-structural map that was verified using the available geological maps and subsequent field check. The produced photo geological map indicates that fusion of SPOT and ASTER ratio image's data is a reliable technique for geological mapping especially in remote and inaccessible areas

33

Sea transport of radioactive materials in Egypt (invited paper)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the experience gained. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the Canal from 1963 to 1996 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. (author)

34

Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. ? 13C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the westher hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of time during the burial history, where the oil kitchens are deep and thermally high that are capable for generating highly mature oil. This could enhance segregation of light hydrocarbon from the heavier oil molecules prior oil expulsion and hydrocarbon generation. These constant differences in burial history and organic matter influx specifying each area are the reason of the restricted isotopic results for each one. The deviation of oil characteristics from one environmental condition to the other reflects a mixing of those cases. This clear evidence of 13C isotopic signature implies easier specification of oil origin that could be used in other locations

35

Palynology, palynofacies and petroleum potential of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynological, palynofacies and organic geochemical results of 46 samples retrieved from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt are presented. The two latter formations are not dated palynologically as their lithology is not promising for palynological yield. However the Matulla Formation is dated as Turonian-Santonian age, based on the combined evidence of pollen and dinocysts. Palynofacies analysis carried out under both transmitted and fluorescent microscopy indicated that both the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations are deposited under a distal suboxic-anoxic environment. On the other hand, the Turonian-Santonian Matulla Formation supported the existence of a marginal marine deposition under dysoxic-anoxic basin to proximal suboxic-anoxic shelf environments. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and TOC results indicated that most of the studied formations are thermally immature to marginally mature and have a good petroleum potential. They are organically-rich in both oil- and gas-prone kerogen Type-II and II/III, deposited under marine reducing conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Abo Ghonaim, A. A.; Mostafa, A. R.; El Atfy, H.

2014-07-01

36

Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt) and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various...

Elsayed, Ehab A.

2014-01-01

37

Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f0) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A0) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest

38

Excavation of a Qattara Canal in Egypt: two-dimensional nuclear cratering calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of single-charge nuclear cratering calculations were performed. Results from these calculations are being used in a study of the technical feasibility of the Qattara Project. The project would use nuclear explosives with yields ranging between about 200 and 1750 kilotons to excavate a canal about 73 km long connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the below sea-level Qattara Depression in northwestern Egypt. Computer simulations of explosive excavations were carried out at four locations near the proposed Qattara alignment. Holes were drilled in Egypt at these locations to depths of 372, 514, 632, and 701 m, respectively, to provide geophysical information needed to properly characterize each site for computer calculations. The calculated results for ground motion, particle velocity, and crater dimensions for these nuclear excavations are presented

39

Geophysical Constraints on the Hydrogeologic and Structural Settings of the Gulf of Suez Rift-Related Basins: Case Study from the El Qaa Plain, Sinai, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater has been identified as one of the major freshwater sources that can potentially meet the growing demands of Egypt's population. Gravity data (from 381 ground gravity stations) were collected, processed, and analyzed together with the available aeromagnetic (800 line-km) data to investigate the hydrogeologic and structural settings, areal distribution, geometry, and water storage of the aquifers in El Qaa coastal plain in the southwest Sinai Peninsula, and to assess their longevity given projected extraction rates. Findings include (1) complete Bouguer anomaly and total magnetic intensity maps show two connected sub-basins separated by a narrow saddle with an average basin length of 43 km and an average width of 12 km; (2) two-dimensional modeling of both gravity and magnetic data indicates basin fill with a maximum thickness of 3.5 km; (3) using anomalous residual gravity, the volume of water in storage was estimated at 40-56 km3; and (4) progressive increases in extraction rates over time will deplete up to 40 % of the aquifers' volume in 200-230 years and will cause the water quality to deteriorate due to seawater intrusion in 45 years. Similar geophysical exploration campaigns, if conducted over the entire coastal plains of the Red Sea and the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, could assist in the development of sound and sustainable management schemes for the freshwater resources in these areas. The adopted techniques could pave the way toward the establishment of sustainable utilization schemes for a much larger suite of similar aquifers worldwide.

Ahmed, Mohamed; Sauck, William; Sultan, Mohamed; Yan, Eugene; Soliman, Farouk; Rashed, Mohamed

2013-11-01

40

The Procedures for Transit of Ships Carrying Radioactive Materials in Regional Waters and Sea Ports of Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Egyptian Legislation related to the safe transport of radioactive materials, a license is required for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Egyptian territorial water and sea harbors of Egypt including Suez Canal. The License is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the license have been developed according to the International and Egyptian Legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive material in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive material in the Egyptian territorial water and its sea harbors including Suez Canal according to the national and international regulations

 
 
 
 
41

Wind farm planning at the Gulf of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wind Atlas for Egypt project is an element in a national effort to provide the best possible basis for planning of future environmentally sustainable development and utilization of wind energy resources and technology in Egypt. The present report compiles the data, information and recommendations available for planning of wind farm projects in the Gulf of Suez. (au)

Clausen, N.E.; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Clausager, I. [Hedeselskabet A/S, Viborg (Denmark); Pagh Jensen, F. [National Environmental Res., Copenhagen (Denmark); Georgy, L.; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt, (Egypt)

2004-11-01

42

Depositional framework and sequence stratigraphic aspects of the Coniacian Santonian mixed siliciclastic/carbonate Matulla sediments in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Superb outcrops of mixed siliciclastic/carbonate rocks mark the Coniacian-Santonian Matulla Formation exposed in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks, west central Sinai. They are built up of various lithofacies that reflect minor fluctuations in relative sea-level from lower intertidal to slightly deep subtidal settings. Relying on the facies characteristics and stratal geometries, the siliciclastic rocks are divided into seven depositional facies, including beach foreshore laminated sands, upper shoreface cross-bedded sandstone, lower shoreface massive bioturbated and wave-rippled sandstones, shallow subtidal siltstone and deep subtidal shale/claystone. The carbonate rocks comprise lower intertidal lime-mudstone, floatstone and dolostone, shallow subtidal skeletal shoal of oyster rudstone/bioclastic grainstone, and shoal margin packstone. Oolitic grain-ironstone and ferribands are partially intervened the facies types. Deposition has taken place under varied conditions of restricted, partly open marine circulation, low to high wave energy and normal to raised salinity during alternating periods of abundant and ceased clastic supply. The facies types are arranged into asymmetric upward-shallowing cycles that record multiple small-scale transgressive-regressive events. Lime-mudstone and sandstone normally terminate the regressive events. Four sequence boundaries marking regional relative sea-level falls divide the Matulla Formation into three stratigraphic units. These boundaries are Turonian/Coniacian, intra-Coniacian, Coniacian/Santonian and Santonian/Campanian. They do not fit with those sequence boundaries proposed in Haq et al.'s global eustatic curves (1988) except for the sea-level fall associated with the intra-Coniacian boundary. Other sequence boundaries have resulted from regional tectonic impact of the Syrian Arc Fold System that has been initiated in north Egypt during the Latest Turonian-Coniacian. These boundaries enclose three well-defined 3rd order depositional sequences; their enclosing shallowing-upward cycles (i.e. parasequences) record the 4th order relative sea-level fluctuations. 34 and 20 parasequence sets, in the order of a few meters to tens of meters thick, mark the Matulla sequences in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks respectively. Each sequence shows an initial phase of rapid sea-level rise with retrogradational sets, followed by lowering sea-level and progradation/aggradation of the parasequence sets. The transgressive deposits display predominance of deep subtidal lagoonal facies, while highstand deposits show an increase in siliciclastic and carbonate facies with the progressive decrease of lagoonal facies. The sedimentary patterns and environments suggest that the regional, partly eustatic sea-level (i.e. intra-Coniacian) changes controlled the overall architecture of the sequence distribution, whereas changes in the clastic input controlled the variations in facies associations within each depositional sequence.

El-Azabi, M. H.; El-Araby, A.

2007-04-01

43

Impact of human activities on Aluminum contamination in the drainage canals in the Nile Delta, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aluminum is released into Sabal drainage canal through the emissions of recycled aluminum industries, the discharge of stations of water purification that contain huge amount of aluminum sulfate (alum) and the extensive use of clay in the industry of packed bricks. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of human activities on Al accumulation on water and fish consumption. The field and laboratory studies of water samples and different fish tissues (muscles, liver and ovary) revea...

Alne-na-ei A. A.; Authman M.

2013-01-01

44

Habitat and Plant Communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt II. Irrigation and Drainage Canal Bank Habitat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study provides quantitative analysis of the vegetation and spatial variations of environmental factors controlling the abundance and distribution of vegetation in canal and drain banks in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Five vegetation groups have been recognized: group A codominated by Arundo donax and Polygonum equisetiforme, group B codominated by Rumex dentatus and Polypogon monspeliensis, group C dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, group D codominated by Phragmites australis and Echinochloa stagnina and group E dominated by Typha domingensis. The total number of weeds recorded in the study area is 113 species belonging to 36 families. Therophytes (48.67% and geophytes (14.16% are the most frequent life-forms. The major chorotypes in the study area are Mediterranean (42.48%, Cosmpolitan (19.47%, Pantropical (13.27% and Palaeotropical (12.39%. The relationships between the vegetation gradients and edaphic factors showed that, potassium and sodium cations, potassium adsorption ratio, chlorides, sodium cation adsorption ratio, pH value and water-holding capacity are the main controlling edaphic factors.

I.A. Mashaly

2009-01-01

45

Habitat and plant communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt. II. Irrigation and drainage canal bank habitat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study provides quantitative analysis of the vegetation and spatial variations of environmental factors controlling the abundance and distribution of vegetation in canal and drain banks in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. Five vegetation groups have been recognized: group A codominated by Arundo donax and Polygonum equisetiforme, group B codominated by Rumex dentatus and Polypogon monspeliensis, group C dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, group D codominated by Phragmites australis and Echinochloa stagnina and group E dominated by Typha domingensis. The total number of weeds recorded in the study area is 113 species belonging to 36 families. Therophytes (48.67%) and geophytes (14.16%) are the most frequent life-forms. The major chorotypes in the study area are Mediterranean (42.48%), Cosmpolitan (19.47%), Pantropical (13.27%) and Palaeotropical (12.39%). The relationships between the vegetation gradients and edaphic factors showed that, potassium and sodium cations, potassium adsorption ratio, chlorides, sodium cation adsorption ratio, pH value and water-holding capacity are the main controlling edaphic factors. PMID:19777781

Mashaly, I A; El-Habashy, I E; El-Halawany, E F; Botany, G Omar

2009-06-15

46

Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host-parasite relationship at a molecular level. PMID:23938396

Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

2013-09-01

47

The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nmmon fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection agency on water quality criteria (W.Q.C.)

48

Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (?3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

49

Wind Atlas for Egypt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step forward in the application of the wind atlas methodology in Egypt. Not only does it provide a coherent and consistent overview of the wind energy resource over the entire land (and sea) area of Egypt, the results of the mesoscale modelling are further available in a database (numerical wind atlas) which may be employed directly for detailed wind resource assessments and siting of wind turbines and wind farms. Utilising this database together with elevation maps derived from the Space Shuttle Topography Mission and land-use maps constructed from satellite imagery, the wind resource and likely power production of a given wind farm can be estimated in a matter of hours – anywhere in Egypt. In addition to the very high wind resource in the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, the wind atlas has discovered a large region in the Western Desert with a fairly high resource – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published in a Wind Atlas for Egypt.

Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama

2006-01-01

50

The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recru...

Claire Dupont; Perrine Ferauge; Romina Giuliano

2013-01-01

51

Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62 and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48; 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12; Hepatitis B (HBV-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54% developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

Galal H El-Gazzaz

2010-04-01

52

Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

Abbas, A.M.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

1997-12-01

53

Assets and liabilities : refugees from Hungary and Egypt in France and in Britain, 1956-1960  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates the reception and treatment of the refugees from Hungary and Egypt who arrived in France and in Britain after the Hungarian revolution and the Suez crisis. The thesis argues that the reception of the refugees from Hungary and from Egypt was primarily linked to the French and British immigration policies and influenced by the Cold War context. The first part deals with the creation of the Hungarian refugees and their reception in France and Britain. Chapter two giv...

Aranjo, Alexandre G. A.

2013-01-01

54

Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m2, and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

55

The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recruitment and employment access, training and career development, and well-being in the workplace. These HRM practices seem important to analyse given the context in which companies will have to evolve: ageing of the population, risks of labour shortage, or the war for talent. Our results imply that CSR has a positive influence on employees’ advocacy role (Ulrich & Brockbank, 2005 because the Group integrates concerns regarding equal treatment, health and safety, and diversity. We also believe that GDF SUEZ Group desires to develop its brand further by presenting itself as a responsible employer to harvest the benefits that flow from that label.

Claire Dupont

2013-11-01

56

Development of El-Salam Canal Automation System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Egypt irrigation water is becoming more scarce with the continuously increasing demand for agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes. To face this increasing irrigation demand, the available water supply in Egypt is supplemented by the reuse of agricultural drainage water as in El-Salam Canal that do not satisfy water quality standards defined for the canal. This paper introduces an automation system for El-Salam Canal to control the flow of the fresh water and drainage water supplied to the canal. This automatic control system (ACS is able to process data of various flows and water quality data along the canal. This control system is represented by a canal computer model. This system computes the required control actions at the Damietta branch and the feeding drains. It is also able to generate optimum solutions for the canal to satisfy the pre-defined canal conditions and standards.

Noha Samir Donia

2012-08-01

57

GdF Suez, the real energy champion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During summer 2010, France discovered that she owned a second energy giant, GdF Suez, ranked number two as a power producer just behind EdF, but world number one in the energy domain thanks to the taking over of International Power (UK) in 2010. Until now, GdF Suez and EdF were confronting with each other in a fair game, keeping their respective seizure on their historical monopolies, gas for GdF Suez and electricity for EdF. From now onward the two giants have started an open fight on all markets, with the exception of nuclear energy for which the French government continues to favour EdF. This paper recalls the main steps of the last 15 years of GdF Suez progress, from the Suez investment bank in 1995 to the merger with GdF in 2008 and the acquisition of International Power in 2010. Then it makes a comparative portrait of both GdF Suez and EdF energy groups with their respective advantages and, finally, it ends with an interview of G. Mestrallet, president of GdF Suez who explains the strategy of his group. (J.S.)

58

Suez and Gaz de France: the merger in question  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A project of merger between the French energy groups Suez and Gaz de France (GdF) was announced by the French government on February 25, 2007. The complete merging between a private group and its public competitor has taken the shape of an absorption of Suez by GdF, but this operation, which aimed at avoiding a takeover bid of the Italian group Enel for Suez, has raised several reactions. This press kit gathers all articles published in Les Echos journal about this merger: details of the merger operation, juridical aspects, political aspects, description of both groups, reactions in France, reactions abroad, economic analyses. (J.S.)

59

GdF Suez, the real energy champion;GdF Suez, le vrai champion de l'energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During summer 2010, France discovered that she owned a second energy giant, GdF Suez, ranked number two as a power producer just behind EdF, but world number one in the energy domain thanks to the taking over of International Power (UK) in 2010. Until now, GdF Suez and EdF were confronting with each other in a fair game, keeping their respective seizure on their historical monopolies, gas for GdF Suez and electricity for EdF. From now onward the two giants have started an open fight on all markets, with the exception of nuclear energy for which the French government continues to favour EdF. This paper recalls the main steps of the last 15 years of GdF Suez progress, from the Suez investment bank in 1995 to the merger with GdF in 2008 and the acquisition of International Power in 2010. Then it makes a comparative portrait of both GdF Suez and EdF energy groups with their respective advantages and, finally, it ends with an interview of G. Mestrallet, president of GdF Suez who explains the strategy of his group. (J.S.)

Dupin, L.

2010-09-15

60

The isolation of lumpy skin disease virus and bovine herpesvirus-4 from cattle in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) virus (LSDV) was isolated for the first time from cattle in Egypt in 2 disease outbreaks. Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) and LSDV were detected in a pooled sample from the first outbreak (Suez). Only LSDV was isolated from the second outbreak (Ismalia). The capripoxviruses were identified as LSDV by neutralization with specific antiserum and by their ability to produce generalized LSD in experimentally inoculated cattle. PMID:1965577

House, J A; Wilson, T M; el Nakashly, S; Karim, I A; Ismail, I; el Danaf, N; Moussa, A M; Ayoub, N N

1990-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Threats and control of the brown necked ravens (Corvus ruficollis) in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Suez Canal region is a small fertile area in Egypt that is placed under enormous pressure of existing resources. In these areas, intensive agricultural practices are performed in combination with high population densities. The described problem is that together with agricultural practices and urbanization, Brown necked ravens (Corvus ruficollis) are in huge amounts attracted. The birds are very aggressive and showed to be a serious pest. They spread germs and diseases for human health and food production. Therefore, the birds need to be controlled. Our research focuses on identifying food preferences of raven and on the way raven control is most effective. Ravens are omnivorous birds. From our laboratory study it was seen that most preferable foods were, in descending order: fresh fishes, cow liver, crustacean, watermelons, tomatoes and yoghurt. Under field conditions where stomach content was dissected, animal matters showed to a more preferred food source than plant matters. Observations on olfactory sensitivity showed that ravens could easily locate their food. Biological observations in the field on reproduction of ravens showed that raven females lay two to six eggs. Average number of babies per nest was between one and four. Average number of raven flock before sun rise was more than 100, while it was less than 100 before sun set. The impact of mechanical, biological and chemical control was investigated. Without control, approximately flock numbers of more than 100 ravens were recorded. The average number of raven flock was 60 before mechanical control operation (nests destroyed and using net), while it was 40 after mechanical control. Results of the biological control showed that kestrel (Falco tinnunculus rupicolaeformes) predated raven babies more effective than barn owls (Tyto alba). Within the chemical control experiments, Brodifacoum (0.0005%) was most effective against ravens, followed by Zink phosphide (19%) and Methomyl (90%, carbamate compound). PMID:18399444

El-Bahrawy, Awad A F; Vijver, Martina G; De Snoo, Geert R

2007-01-01

62

Realizm in the International Relations in the Example of French Invasion of Egypt //// M?s?r'?n Frans?zlar Taraf?ndan ??gali Örne?inde Uluslarras? ?li?kilerde Realizm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Osmanl? (Ottoman State struggled for its very existenceagainst the imperialist powers’ partition plans, particularly, in thenineteenth century. The imperialist competition of the Europeanpowers on Egypt influenced on the Osmanl? rulers’ internationalpolicies. Egypt was an important place in the region andinternational relations from the ancient to the modern periods. Theopening of the Suez Canal increased this geo-political significancefurther, which fuelled the confrontation among the Europeanpowers. The Osmanl? rulers’ policies regarding on Egypt wereadapted to the internal and external developments.Egypt’s proximity to the French colonies in the north andcentral African countries were important for France as well as forGreat Britain. Egypt shortened the way to India and South EastAsian colonies, which made Egypt a focal point for France, Russiaand Britain. European power struggles in Europe and other partsof the world were reflected in their Egyptian policies and itsimmediate region. The Osmanl? authorities were well aware of thefact that the Armed forces could not be able to deal with all theseimperialist powers at a time. Therefore, policies were finely tuned‘balanced policies’ one to another between the imperialist powers’expectations and confrontations. Egypt with its all specialities wasperfectly used for the policies of the Osmanl? State and others.This study discusses the confrontation and power strugglesof the imperialist powers for Egypt, and how the Osmanl? Stateresponded to such policies. What kinds of roles Egypt played in thecreation of the Osmanl? policies towards the European powers?What would be beneficial outcome of such policies for the Osmanl?State and Egypt? The study highlighted that how an internalmatter can be an international issue to determine the influential powers’ policies. How international interests creates internationalconflicts and alliances as in the examples at the beginning of thenineteenth century in Egypt. //// Osmanl? Devleti özellikle 19ncu yüzy?lda emperyalistgüçlerin bölme planlar?na kars? hayatta kalma mücadelesivermistir. Avrupal? Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerindeki yar?slar?Osmanl? yönetiminin uluslararas? politikalar?n? etkilemistir. M?s?r,Eskiça?’dan günümüze bölgede ve uluslararas? iliskilerde önemlibir yere sahiptir. Süveys kanal?n?n aç?lmas? M?s?r’?n jeopolitikönemini art?r?rken Avrupal? güçlerin aralar?ndaki mücadeleleri deateslemistir. Osmanl?’n?n M?s?r ile ilgili politikalar? da içte ved?sar?da meydana gelen yeni gelismelere göre sürekli uyarlanm?st?r.M?s?r’?n Kuzey ve Orta Afrika’daki Frans?z kolonilerine olanyak?nl??? Fransa için önemli oldu?u kadar Büyük Britanya için dehayatidir. M?s?r’?n Hindistan ve Güney Do?u Asya ülkelerindekisömürgelere giden yolu k?saltmas? Fransa, Rusya ve ?ngiltere içinönemli bir ilgi oda?? haline gelmesine sebep olmustur. Avrupal?güçlerin Avrupa ve dünyan?n di?er bölgelerindeki mücadeleleriM?s?r politikalar?nda yans?maktad?r. Osmanl? eskisi gibi silahl?kuvvetlerinin emperyalist güçlere kars? ayn? anda mukabeleedemeyece?i gerçe?inin fark?ndad?r. Bu yüzden oldukça hassasayarlar gerektiren “denge politikalar?” Emperyalist güçlerinbeklentileri ve çat?smalar? dikkate al?narak ayarlanm?st?r. BöyleceM?s?r kendine has bütün özellikleriyle Osmanl? Devleti’nin özel vegenel ç?karlar? için de?erlendirilmistir.Bu çal?sma, Emperyalist güçlerin M?s?r üzerinde güçmücadeleleri ve çat?smalar?n? ele al?rken Osmanl? Devleti’nin bupolitikalara nas?l cevap verdi?ini incelemektedir. Avrupal? güçlerekars? Osmanl? politikalar?nda M?s?r nas?l bir rol oynam?st?r? Bupolitikalar?n Osmanl? Devleti ve M?s?r için olumlu sonuçlar? nelerolmustur? Çal?smada, bir iç meselenin etkili güçlerinmüdahaleleriyle nas?l bir uluslararas? konu haline getirildi?i vepolitikalar? etkiledi?i gösterilmektedir. Uluslararas? ç?karlar

Halil Erdemir

2009-12-01

63

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male and S. mucronata (both sexes. They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif

2009-01-01

64

Diagenetic history of Cambrian quartzarenites, Ras Dib Zeit Bay area, Gulf of Suez, eastern desert, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

In the northern corner of the El Zeit range, 370 m of sandstone overlie Precambrian granite and underlie Cretaceous marine strata. The sandstones include the marine Lower Cambrian(?) Araba Formation and the overlying, dominantly fluvial, Upper Cambrian(?) Naqus Formation. The framework compositions of both sandstones are almost entirely quartz, with trace amounts of muscovite, K-feldspar and heavy minerals. Up to 21% oversize pores, some filled with younger cements, attest to extensive dissolution loss of detrital grains. Because the final mineralogical maturation of these quartzarenites reflects diagenesis, they are diagenetic quartzarenites. During burial diagenesis, the introduction of up to 8% quartz cement (inhomogeneously distributed, mean = 3%) was followed by local, pore-occluding calcite cement, which halted compaction. Sandstones without calcite cement underwent additional mechanical and chemical compaction sufficient to develop sutured quartz grain contacts and reduce porosity (˜27%). These events were followed by: (1) extensive dissolution loss of carbonate cement, detrital feldspars, micas, and heavy minerals; (2) formation of local patches of kaolinite (mean = 3%); and (3) formation of extensive iron-oxide cements, including specular hematite. These features suggest extensive invasion by oxidizing meteoric water. The timing of this event can only be dated as post-Cambrian(?) and pre-Cenomanian. Some outcrop samples contain pore-occluding gypsum cement, or mixtures of gypsum and halite. Sr 87/Sr 86 ratios of four samples of gypsum cement have values (0.7079 and 0.7085) that indicate Miocene and slightly younger seawater. Evaporites were evidently leached by modern meteoric water from nearby outcrops of Miocene and younger marine evaporite-bearing strata, transported in surface and ground water to the topographically low terrain where the Cambrian sandstones crop out, and reprecipitated by evaporation. Initial primary porosity (45%) was reduced to ˜27% by compaction in sands with minor quartz cement; compaction ceased where calcite was precipitated. Subsequent dissolution of some calcite cement and unstable detrital grains generated considerable secondary porosity.

Abdel Wahab, Antar

1998-10-01

65

Structural analysis of a relay ramp affecting Eocene carbonate rocks in the Suez Rift, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detailed fault zone and relay ramp characterization have only to some extent previously been done in carbonate rocks. This study aims to use field data to contribute a better understanding of the deformation related to normal faults and relay ramps in carbonate rocks. Specifically, the study focuses on characterization of damage zone deformation variations along normal faults, relay ramp complexity and implications for permeability and fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs. The study area is loc...

Laukemann, Michael

2013-01-01

66

Strong motion simulation at Abu Zenima city, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquake hazard assessments are an important task for the design of earthquake resistant structures and insurance industry. Such assessments get more importance when the site of interest is located near an active earthquake zone. Such situation is present for the location of Abu Zenima city. The city is characterized by the presence of industrial and Maritime platform in addition to other Oil production facilities. These industrial facilities motivated the present work. The simulated earthquake ground motion time histories are conducted using stochastic technique. The magnitude used for simulation is obtained using both probabilistic and deterministic approaches. An analysis using both approaches shows that moderate earthquakes in the vicinity of the site could have the largest effects on the area. Thus an earthquake of magnitude 4.5 at a distance of 21 km is chosen as design earthquake. The simulated ground motions are presented in terms of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time histories. In addition the response spectra are also presented that may be used for engineering purposes.

Khalil, Amin Esmail

2013-06-01

67

GdF-Suez. The challenges of a merger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 18 months of stamping, the GdF-Suez merger is finally started. This operation will lead to the creation of a major actor of the European energy scene in particular for natural gas and LNG. This paper reviews the stakes of this merger in terms of employment and its impacts on energy prices and markets. One goal of this merger is to gain market shares in electricity and to compete with EdF (Electricite de France), the French electric utility. (J.S.)

68

GdF-Suez inflates its underground gas stocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Storengy, a daughter-company of GdF-Suez, is investing 1.4 billion euros for the development of gas underground storage. The company now owns a storage capacity of 10 billion m3 shared between 12 sites in France, 3 in Germany and one in England. The overall of these sites represents 17% of the European storage capacity. Moreover, thanks to its participation to Intragaz, Storengy exploits 120 million m3 of gas in Quebec (Canada). In France, Storengy has to share its activities with another smaller operator, TIGF (former Elf) settled in the region of Pau (SW of France). (J.S.)

69

Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes and the genesis of some crude oils from Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The delta13C values obtained from 25 crude oil samples representing the main producing oil fields in Egypt indicate a significant difference between the Gulf of Suez Province and the Western Desert Province, which is attributed to environmental differences in the source rocks of the two provinces. Variations within each of the two provinces were compared and related to age, thermal maturity as well as migration processes. Variations of the delta13C values were also related to changes in the GOR (gas/oil ratio) and API gravity values

70

What is killing? People's knowledge about coronary heart disease, attitude towards prevention and main risk reduction barriers in Ismailia, Egypt (Descriptive cross-sectional study)  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a public health concern everywhere, especially ischemic or coronary heart diseases (CHD) which are on top of causes list of mortality and morbidity in both genders globally. From which nearly 80% can be because of modifiable risks. In Egypt, there is a lack of studies on the knowledge of people about coronary heart diseases and its modifiable risks. So, this research reported here we designed to measure the dimensions of peoples knowledge about CHD and their attitude towards prevention, and to identify the main risk reduction barriers. Methods By using comprehensive cross-sectional, descriptive research design, all adult individuals attending the family health clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital were eligible for inclusion with total number 125 participants. An interview questionnaire designed and used to collect data. Results The study revealed that (10.4%) of participants had a history of CHD, and (7.2%) had a family history of CHD. 79.2% Had a satisfactory total knowledge about CHD, and (94.4%) had a positive total attitude towards prevention. Risk reduction barriers as a medical setting barriers were (24%), patient related barriers were (22.4%). Community-societal barriers were almost the same as knowledge barriers which were around (16%). At last the systemic-organizational barriers were (9.6%). Conclusion The findings settled that, total knowledge about CHD was satisfactory but lower than the level total of attitude. More effort the health system needs to improve the settings and engage patients in their plans and breaking related barriers, with development of health education programs based on needs assessment. Further studies we recommend to explore the reasons and follow up the changes. PMID:24319527

Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders; Stafström, Martin

2013-01-01

71

Western Desert of Egypt: geology and new petroleum exploration concepts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Western Desert of Egypt has had a sporadic history of exploration. Production has been continuous since the discovery of the Alemein field in 1967, but the emergence of the Gulf of Suez as a giant oil field province has overshadowed Western Desert production. Recent discoveries in the Abu Gharidig subbasin, and better quality seismic data from the basin to the north, indicate that there are significant untested structures. A simple extension tectonic model may not completely answer the history of basin evolution. However, by invoking a tectonic model with some wrenching components, both facies and structure can be placed in a coherent regional framework. This new model introduces significant new exploration play concepts.

Hantar, G.; Alloui, M.

1985-02-01

72

Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Assessment of Water Resources in Beni Suef Governorate, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main target of this research is to investigate the hydrogeochemical characteristics of surface and groundwater resources in Beni Suef Governorate, Egypt. A combination of major and heavy metals has been used to characterize surface and groundwater in Beni Suef Governorate, Egypt. Twenty water samples were collected from the water resources: River Nile, El-Ibrahimia canal, Bahr Youssef, irrigation and drainage channels and Quater...

Ahmed Melegy; Ahmed El-Kammar; Mohamed Mokhtar Yehia; Ghadir Miro

2014-01-01

73

75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.  

Science.gov (United States)

...EA-372] Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA...applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada...GSEMNA for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

2010-09-23

74

Study optimizes gas lift in Gulf of Suez field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study using PVT data combined with fluid and multiphase flow correlations optimized gas lift in the Ramadan field, Nubia C, oil wells, in the Gulf of Suez. Selection of appropriate correlations followed by multiphase flow calculations at various points of injection (POI) were the first steps in the study. After determining the POI for each well from actual pressure and temperature surveys, the study constructed lift gas performance curves for each well. Actual and optimum operating conditions were compared to determine the optimal gas lift. The study indicated a net 2,115 bo/d could be gained from implementing its recommendations. The actual net oil gained as a result of this optimization and injected gas reallocation was 2,024 bo/d. The paper discusses the Ramadan field, fluid properties, multiphase flow, production optimization, and results.

Abdel-Waly, A.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Darwish, T.A.; Osman Salama, A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt); El-Naggar, M. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

1996-06-24

75

Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The ?- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

76

Soil-parasites particularly Toxocara eggs in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) remain a major threat to the human health throughout the world, mostly in developing nations. Soil is usually contaminated by different parasitic stages through promiscuous defecation of man particularly children. This is more liable to occur in fields, public gardens and sides of streets or canals. Also, feces of domestic and wild animals & birds play a role in soil contamination. This study was conducted at Mansoura city and Batra village & El-Minia city and Zohra village representing the urban and rural areas of Dakahlia Governorate, Lower Egypt and Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt respectively. The most common helminthic stage presents in the soil of the two Governorates was Toxocara eggs. No ova was detected in-door yards in the urban areas, but only in the sides of streets, crop fields and fruit gardens, around houses and canal banks of both Governorates, and the highest intensity was 13-19 eggs/10 gm soil at canal banks at Zohra village, El-Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt. PMID:19530617

El-Shazly, Atef M; Mohammed, Rabae M; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Azab, Manar S; El-Ghareeb, Aza S; Abdeltawab, Ahmed Hussien; Zalook, Tarek K H

2009-04-01

77

Childbirth in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicine in ancient Egypt was much more advanced than the rest of the Biblical world, especially in trauma surgery. Care at the time of childbirth was however virtually non-existent. There were no trained obstetricians or midwives but a galaxy of gods were at hand. This article traces what we can piece together about pregnancy of childbirth from the evidence we have in tombs and papyri of Egypt. PMID:15602999

Chamberlain, Geoffrey

2004-11-01

78

Geodynamics Studies in the active seismic regions in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent crustal movement studies have a great role for evaluating the geodynamics of the seismo-active areas in the country. The crustal deformations must be in mind where it connecting significantly with the human life and its resources. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active areas in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes gad been occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt, Cairo, Aswan, Red Sea, Sinia and Nile Delta regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated areas and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS will be used where geodetic networks are covering such seismic-active areas, around Nasser Lake, gulf of Suez, Cairo, Sinai and the Nile Delta. The main goal of these studies are monitoring of the crustal deformations associated with the earthquake occurrence in these seismo-active areas in order to study its geodynamical behavior and reducing the earthquake losses. The results of these movements at all networks in Egypt represent the form of the dynamic models for the deformations occurred during the different epochs of measurements. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis will threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active areas.

Mohamed, A. S.

2003-04-01

79

Animal brucellosis in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification. PMID:25390047

Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

2014-11-01

80

GdF Suez sees himself as a prophet in his own country; GdF Suez se voit prophete en son pays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The GdF Suez group is on the way to become a main actor of the French nuclear industry thanks to the imminent signature of an agreement with Areva. The group already exploits 7 reactors in Belgium representing 6000 MW, and nuclear energy represents 20.5% of its production. The group owns 33% of the building company of the second French EPR reactor, and owns 5% of the shares of the future George Besse II uranium enrichment plant of the Areva NC Tricastin site. GdF Suez is also active abroad, in particular in UK and Romania for the construction of new reactors and in Brazil where the group is the first private hydropower producer of the country. (J.S.)

Dupin, L

2010-02-15

 
 
 
 
81

Five offshore wind farms by EDF, GDF Suez and Iberdrola. France; Vijf offshore windparken door EDF, GDF Suez en Iberdrola. Frankrijk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five offshore wind farms are planned to be built off the Northwest coast of France. On 11 January 2012, three international consortia, led by the French businesses EDF EN (Energie Nouvelles), GDF Suez and the Spanish business Iberdrola, submitted their project proposals to this end. The French government highly values the contribution that offshore wind farms can make to the development of a new industrial sector. This would bring highly needed benefits to the French economy [Dutch] Voor de Noordwest-kust van Frankrijk moeten vijf offshore windparken komen. Op 11 januari 2012 hebben drie internationale consortia onder leiding van de Franse bedrijven EDF EN (Energies Nouvelles), GDF Suez en het Spaanse Iberdrola hun projectvoorstellen hiervoor ingediend. De Franse regering hecht veel waarde aan de bijdrage die offshore windparken kunnen leveren aan de ontwikkeling van een nieuwe industriele sector. De Franse economie zou dit goed kunnen gebruiken.

Polo-Leemreis, J. [TWA Netwerk, Paris (France)

2012-02-15

82

Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

Kozma, Chahira

2006-02-15

83

Structural set-up of Southern Sinai and Gulf of Suez areas indicated by geophysical data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work deals with the evaluation of the structural set-up of the southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez and western part of Gulf of Suez from magnetic, gravity, and seismic data. The utilised techniques including the Least Squares separation method suggest NW, NE, and E-W trends. The trend analysis shows north 35°-45° west, north 15°-25° east and E-W which may be related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea stresses.The Euler deconvolution illustrates that the area is highly affected by these trends. Depths range from 1 km to more than 3 km below sea level and its magnetic susceptibility ranges between 1 to 3 SI units. The 2.5D magnetic modelling and analytical signal techniques confirm the depths to the magnetic sources deduced by the Euler method, whereas the depth to the basement rocks ranges between 0 km to about 3 km indicating that it is subjected to strong tectonic activities. In addition, two seismic sections (EG-31 and MP-70, compiled by the Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation (EGPC, were interpreted together with a geologic cross section. The studied area may be divided into several major blocks along the Gulf of Suez area. It can be concluded that the sedimentary was affected by basement tectonics as revealed by the two seismic sections.

T. Rabeh

2003-06-01

84

Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. - Highlights: ? The positive DRAD values indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. ? Thorium normalization was applied to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities. ? The conventional well logs are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in wells. ? Determining hydrocarbon potentialities zones using spectrometric gamma-ray logs

85

The petromastoid canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The embryology and anatomy of the petromastoid canal is reviewed. This structure may be responsible for the passage of some infections of the middle ear cleft into the posterior fossa. It also transmits important blood vessels to a portion of the bony labyrinth, to the facial canal, and to the mucosa of the mastoid air cell system. PMID:6660757

Proctor, B

1983-01-01

86

The establishment of the national gravity standard base net of Egypt (N.G.S.B.N.-77)  

Science.gov (United States)

The earliest gravity measurements in Egypt were carried out by the Anglo-Egyptian Oil Company using Holweck-Lejay pendulum in the period 1937-1940. The measurement comprised few stations (about 41) in restricted areas along both the Western and Eastern coasts of the Gulf of Suez. During the period 1950-1951 Prof. G. Woolard made 21 gravimetric measurements in Egypt as a part of the world-wide gravity base net. Thi was refeered to Potsdam absolute value which was considered as the World Gravity Datum. In 1974, a new world-wide gravity net was published (I.G.S.N.71) which introduced a new concept for the world gravity reference datum, and consequently has replaced the Potsdam System. Since then, it was recommended that a national gravimetric network of base stations in Egypt on the basis of the I.G.S.N.-71 be established within the frame of establishing a gravity map of Egypt. In the period from January 1975, The General Petroleum Company carried out 624 gravity observations throughout the country. These measurements have been combined with the I.G.S.N.-71 values to form 65 gravity base points which in turn from the N.G.S.B.N. (Fig. 1).

Kamel, H.; Nakhla, A.

1987-07-01

87

77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.  

Science.gov (United States)

...EA-386] Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing...applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico...GSEMNA for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

2012-07-05

88

Comparative study of multi-data fusion techniques in mapping geological features: Wadi Ghoweiba, Northwest Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study SPOT-panchromatic image with 10 m spatial resolution was fused with ASTER-band ratio images with 30 m spatial resolution. The fusion of SPOT image with ASTER band-ratio data using PC, Brovey, HPF and IHS transform techniques proved to be excellent for both lithological and structural mapping as it preserves the spectral information of ASTER and SPOT data. By visually comparing of these data fusion, the HIS and CNT, methods produce high color distortion with respect to the original image, while it preserve a perfect spatial resolution. The PCA fusion method produce very low color distortion but it dose not preserve all the spatial information. The HPF fusion method produce very low color distortion as well as preserve all the spatial information which look sharper than the other images. This study revealed that, the HPF fusion method looks the best method comparing with the other methods in terms of the quality of spectral and spatial information. By quantitatively analyzed using the correlation coefficient, The CC is ranging from 0.406 to 0.455 using HIS fusion method. While by using Brovey transform, the CC ranging from 0.955 to 0.988. Wherever, The CC between the multispectral input data and the output fused image is ranging from 0.988 to 0.996 using automatic PCA fusion technique. By using manual PCA fusion technique, the CC is ranging from 0.978 to 0.997, so there is no big different between the automatic and the manual PCA methods. The best CC between the multispectral input data and the output fused image is ranging from 0.989 to 0.999 using HPF fusion technique.

Hassan, S. M.; El Leithy, B. M.

2010-10-01

89

Characterisation of extensional faults in carbonate rocks (Suez Rift, Egypt); with particular focus on the role of shale smear  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution, composition and flow-properties of fault core and shale smear along faults in carbonate reservoirs is less well understood compared to faults in siliciclastic rocks. This study uses field data to characterize and quantify fault zone properties that are critical for understanding structural heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. The study focus on; (1) variability and co-dependence of displacement, shale smear, fault- thickness, -composition and -geometry; (2) the effect of s...

Elvik, Lillian

2012-01-01

90

Sarcosaprophagous flies in Suez governorate, Egypt IV--persistence of human pathogenic bacteria in the developmental stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The persistence of three species of human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Staphylococcus epidermidis) in sterile artificially fed larvae was examined till adult emergence after ingestion by three species of sarcosaprophagous flies (House fly, Musca domestica, Oriental latrine blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Australian cheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina). The number of bacteria present in mature maggots, pupae and emerging adults declined significantly (P C. megacephala > L. cuprina). No detection for S. epidermidis from emerged C. megacephala and L. cuprina flies, moreover S. sonnei was not detected in the emerged flies of L. cuprina. PMID:19530618

Gabre, Refaat M

2009-04-01

91

Mental health in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances. PMID:16342608

Okasha, Ahmed

2005-01-01

92

On canalizing Boolean functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boolean networks are an important model of gene regulatory networks in systems and computational biology. Such networks have been widely studied with respect to their stability and error tolerance. It has turned out that canalizing Boolean functions and their subclass, the nested canalizing functions, appear frequently in such networks. These classes have been shown to have a stabilizing effect on the network dynamics. One measure for the stability is the average sensitivity of Boolean fun...

Klotz, Johannes Georg

2014-01-01

93

Some predicted peak ground motions for nuclear cratering explosions along the Qattara alignment in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some predicted peak free-field ground motions at shot depth for the nuclear explosive excavation of a canal in Egypt are summarized. Peak values of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and radial stress are presented as a function of slant range from the working point. Results from two-dimensional TENSOR cratering calculations are included. Fits to ground motion measurements in other media are also shown. This summary is intended to help specify engineering design requirements for detonating nuclear explosive salvos which are required to efficiently excavate the canal. It also should be useful in guiding estimates for gage response ranges in ground motion measurements

94

Distribution of Different Organotin and Organolead Compounds in Sediment of Suez Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organotin and organolead compounds were determined in sediments of the Suez Gulf The concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT ranged from 0.27 to 2.77 with an average value of 1.37 µgg-1; dry wt. However, the concentrations of dibutyltin (DBT ranged from 0.07 to 2.27 with an average value of 0.58 µgg-1; dry wt. A significant correlation was found between TBT and DBT with r = 0.82, (p = 0.05 indicating that the occurrence of DBT is mainly related to the degradation of TBT. Generally, the high concentration of TBT was attributed to shipping activity in harbours. In addition, Diphenyltin (DPhT concentrations ranged from not detected to 2.09 with an average of 1.10 µgg-1 dry wt. Antifouling agents, industrial discharge and the influence of sewage discharge are the main sources of pollution by DPhT compounds in Suez Gulf. On the other side, organolead (OLC concentrations ranged from 10.88 - 440.2 with an average of 168.7 ngg-1; dry wt. A significant setting of OLC recorded in sediments of Suez Gulf was mainly attributed to cars exhaust and/or spelling and direct evaporation of fuels.

Mohamed A. Shreadah

2011-07-01

95

Transient deformations in the Suez-Sinai area from GPS observations  

CERN Document Server

We analyze data from four GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2002 on a network of 11 sites in the Suez-Sinai, the area of collision between the African and the Arabian plates. This is the key area to understand how and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played between seismic and geodetic (long term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion (in terms of ITRF00 velocities) matches African plate motion (NNR-NUVEL-1A model). However, the baseline length variations show transient deformations in Sinai and across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of about 1.5 cm in five years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we worked under the hypothesis that a contribute may be due to post-seismic relaxation. Under this hypothesis, we compared the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occ...

Riguzzi, F; Pietrantonio, G; Mahmoud, S M

2005-01-01

96

Evaluation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic species of Suez Gulf water along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Egyptian Red Sea environment especially along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries (Suez) is severely contaminated with organic compounds, as well as overfishing. This may be well contributory to recent serious declines in fish stocks. Fish embryos are also particularly vulnerable to oil exposure, even at extremely low concentrations of less than one part per billion. Consequently, even traces of oil pollution at levels often considered safe for wildlife can cause severe damage to fish. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in ten fish species of aquatic species by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples were measured in order to use them as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollutants in the studied region. The total content of these16 PAHs ranged from 399.616 up to 67,631.779 ng/g wet weight. The data show that these values are considered to be alarmingly high enough to cause lethal toxicity effect by accumulation. All studied aquatic species samples are characterized by relatively high concentrations of the six-membered ring PAHs. The origin of PAHs in the collected samples is either petrogenic, biogenic, or mixed petrogenic and biogenic. PMID:24092254

Ali, Nabila A; Ahmed, Omayma E; Doheim, Mamdouh M

2014-02-01

97

Environmental radioactivity studies in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radioactivity studies in Egypt are grouped as follows: National Network of radiation monitoring stations was used to measure exposure rate in air and water. In situ sample collection and detection using gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation or radioactivity measurements at various regions of Egypt. Environmental monitoring using TLD and exposure rate devices was used in 8 cities in Egypt. Radon monitoring using active and passive detectors was used at various cities in Egypt. Radioactivity in foodstuffs was assessed for typical food in several cities. Radioactivity in NORM was assessed at several petroleum companies. The present study is aimed to review the results obtained in order to have national map of natural radiation of Egypt. (author)

98

Egypt at the crossroads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt is the location of the 1994 International Population and Development Conference. Conditions in Egypt due to expected population growth rates are anticipated as headed for "ecological breakdown." There is loss of prime agricultural land to urban expansion and difficulties in providing employment and vital services. The fertility decline to 4 children/family is still inadequate to meet resource needs; a 2-child family norm must be adopted because the country can barely meet the needs of 90 million people. Cairo is becoming a mega-city of squatter settlements and slums. Population densities approach 140,000/sq. kilometers. The family planning (FP) program receives top political support. The contraceptive prevalence rate has risen to just over 50%, a 10% increase since 1988. Egypt is the first Muslim country to surpass the 50% mark. Credit for this accomplishment is given to public information and education campaigns to reduce family size, expansion of maternal and child health services and FP, the cooperation of Muslim clerics, and better educated women. Nongovernmental organizations have played an active role in FP. The future challenge is to improve services and outreach and keep up with demand. Attitudes in rural areas have changed, so that desiring children to help with farm work is the exception. Progress on arresting environmental destruction has not been as successful. There are still poor irrigation practices. The breadbasket the Nile River sustained no longer exists; Egypt is a net importer of food. Water shortages and water quality limit productivity. 57.2 billion cu. meters out of 58.4 billion cu. meters of freshwater available from the Nile River are used primarily for irrigation of the 17.6 million hectares of agricultural land along the river and its delta. Salts have polluted the river from fertilizers and pesticides and municipal and industrial wastes. Industrial dumping is illegal, but continues. Treatment plants are inadequate and water pipes are in need of repair. In order to meet water needs in the year 2000, irrigation water needs to be reclaimed. There is a race against time toe correct mismanagement. PMID:12344703

Hinrichsen, D

1992-01-01

99

Gastroenterology in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physicians in ancient Egypt devoted their care to disorders of individual organs. Notable among the specialties was gastroenterology, a subject matter that occupied a major portion of the surviving medical papyri. Although they did not name diseases as we know them, Pharaonic physicians described a host of gastroenterological symptoms for which an extensive array of therapeutics was prescribed. Their clinical accounts indicated an impressive knowledge of gastric and anorectal conditions. In their thinking on disease mechanism, the circulating materia peccans absorbed from feces represented a major cause of medical symptoms and disorders. This served as the rationale for the popular practice of self-purgation with enemas. PMID:2033225

Chen, T S; Chen, P S

1991-04-01

100

Multistate nested canalizing functions  

CERN Document Server

The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to detect small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscolices. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites. PMID:24142161

Anwar, Shehata; Mahdy, Emad; El-Nesr, Khalid Ali; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Shalaby, Adel; Yanai, Tokuma

2013-01-01

102

Responding t o the Challenges of Breast Cancer in Egypt and Other Arab Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt.

103

[Spinal canal stenosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. PMID:25398571

Papanagiotou, P; Boutchakova, M

2014-11-01

104

Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the pra...

Nissrin Hoffmann

2013-01-01

105

On Canal Surfaces in E³  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we deal with the geometric properties of canal surfaces in E³. Further, the first and second fundamental form of canal surfaces are presented. By the use of the second fundamental form, the Gaussian and mean curvature of canal surfaces are obtained. Finally, the visualization of canal surfaces which their spine curves are unit circle and a straight line are presented.

G. Öztürk

2010-12-01

106

Effect of the Aswan High Dam on prevalence of schistosomiasis in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increase in the prevalence of schistomiasis in Egypt, as a result of the Aswan High Dam, has for long time been predicted because of reclamation of land and conversion of annual flooding (basin irrigation) into perennial irrigation in Upper Egypt. Two aspects, neglected in the predictions, have been investigated in the present study, and these are: the ecological changes, relevant to the transmission of the disease, in the Nile itself, and those in irrigation canals and drains in areas which had been under perennial irrigation before the constriction of the dam. The findings indicate that the Nile, at least in the Delta, has become a favorite habitat for breeding of the snail hosts of both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, a center for human activities and evidently for transmission, and that irrigation canals and drains now harbor throughout the year undisturbed and stable populations of these snail hosts. This has resulted from the elimination in these canals, of the so-called 'winter closure', because it is no more needed. Before the dam the closure was enforced for about 40 days, during which the canals were closed and dried up, and the silt deposited on their beds during the Nile flood dredged out together with the snails and aquatic weeds. PMID:1216315

Malek, E A

1975-12-01

107

A Coastal Aquifer Study Using Magnetotelluric and Gravity Methods in Abo Zenema, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetotelluric (MT) soundings and gravity methods were employed to study the deep freshwater aquifer in the area north of Abo Zenema city on the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Seven MT sites and 48 gravity stations were surveyed along northeast-southwest profiles as close as possible to a line perpendicular to the coast of the Gulf of Suez. The MT survey was conducted using high and low frequencies to investigate shallow and deep areas, respectively. One-dimensional inversion was conducted using a heuristic inversion scheme of the Bostick algorithm. The MT data were also inverted with a 2-D smooth model inversion routine using the nonlinear conjugate gradient method to infer variation in vertical and lateral resistivity inside the Earth. A 100-Ohm-m homogeneous half-space initial model was used to invert the TE mode data only. Then, the inverted model obtained from the TE mode data was used as an initial model for inversion of the TM mode data. The inverted model thus obtained from the TM mode data inversion was used as an initial model for the inversion of the joint TE and TM responses. Two-dimensional (2-D) forward modeling of the gravity data was conducted using the 2-D polygon method of Talwani's algorithm for an arbitrarily shaped body and was based on the subsurface information from the MT survey and the available information about the geological structure of the study area. This method enabled us to obtain the basement structure of the coastal aquifer in the study area. The results from the analysis and the interpretation of MT and gravity data were used to detect and delineate the groundwater coastal aquifer in the study area.

Abdelzaher, Mohamed; Nishijima, Jun; Saibi, Hakim; El-Qady, Gad; Massoud, Usama; Soliman, Mamdouh; Younis, Abdellatif; Ehara, Sachio

2012-09-01

108

Internal structure and deformation of an accommodation zone in the northern part of the Suez rift  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed structural study of the eastern (onshore) part of the Gharandal accommodation zone that separates the northern (SW-dipping) and central (NE-dipping) half grabens of the Suez rift helpeddecipher the internal structure and deformation of accommodation zones of continental rifts. This 60 km-wide zone is affected by pure normal faulting. The NE-dipping faults of the northern half graben extend southward into the accommodation zone where they interfinger with SW-dipping faults extending from the central half graben. These two sets of rift-parallel faults form several horsts and grabens in the accommodation zone. Areas dipping parallel to the northern or southern half grabens form several intermixing dip domains in the accommodation zone. Smaller-scale accommodation of dip between these dip domains proceeds by the development of rift-parallel folds (twist zones). In contrast to the southern accommodation zone of the Suez rift, the internal structure of the Gharandal accommodation zone is believed to be representative of accommodation zones in regions (a) unaffected by prerift structures lying at high angles to the rift; and (b) experiencing relatively small extension. Accommodation zones in areas having pre-rift structures lying at high angle to the rift have relatively narrow width and are characterized by transverse, strike-slip faults. Strike-slip movement on these faults is related to the torsional strain resulting from the opposite tilt directions and transport of fault blocks of adjacent half grabens.

Moustafa, Adel R.

1996-01-01

109

Canalization: what the flux?  

Science.gov (United States)

Polarized transport of the hormone auxin plays crucial roles in many processes in plant development. A self-organizing pattern of auxin transport--canalization--is thought to be responsible for vascular patterning and shoot branching regulation in flowering plants. Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that membrane localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN)-family auxin efflux carriers in proportion to net auxin flux can plausibly explain canalization and possibly other auxin transport phenomena. Other plausible models have also been proposed, and there has recently been much interest in producing a unified model of all auxin transport phenomena. However, it is our opinion that lacunae in our understanding of auxin transport biology are now limiting progress in developing the next generation of models. Here we examine several key areas where significant experimental advances are necessary to address both biological and theoretical aspects of auxin transport, including the possibility of a unified transport model. PMID:24296041

Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; Leyser, Ottoline

2014-02-01

110

Canal Lock Displacement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this project we determine the time needed for a pump to raise the water level in a canal lock in order for a boat to continue upstream. Using calculus methods and elementary physics, it was determined that it would take roughly 5 minutes for a single 60 horsepower pump to raise the water level the required 10 feet. We conclude that the lock is fairly efficient but offer some suggestions to increase the time efficiency of the lock system.

Rick Blanton

2010-01-01

111

Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

112

Analysis of sedimentation of canals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The t...

Agunwamba, J. C.; Dike, C. C.; Ogarekpe, N. M.; Dike, B. U.

2013-01-01

113

Wetland Loss: Digging of Canals  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity has students build a model canal and perform experiments with it to illustrate the destruction of wetlands, resulting from the digging of canals for oil and gas exploration in the coastal wetlands and cypress logging in the swamps. Older students will examine topographic maps of the area in which they live to identify natural and constructed canals in the wetlands, and find older maps to compare the area of wetlands before and after major canals were built. Students can also research the relationship between channel building, subsidence and salt-water intrusion, and wetland loss in both fresh and salt-water wetlands across the United States.

114

Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

Nissrin Hoffmann

2013-07-01

115

Solar Energy for Rural Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

116

Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine. PMID:15081501

Brier, Bob

2004-03-01

117

Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4?g/g and 0.032-0.17 ?g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs

118

Egypt’s Exchange Rate Regime Policy after the Float  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major purpose of this paper is to analyze the actual exchange rate policies followed by Egypt since the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE announced its adoption of a floating ER regime in January 2003. Based on our analytical and empirical approaches to analyzing the actual degree of flexibility of exchange rate policies we concluded the following. First, the de jure “Free Floating” ER Regime that the CBE announced in January, 2003 was not preserved during the period of the study. Second, the changes in the IMF’s de facto classifications of Egypt’s actual exchange rate policies were broadly accurate. Third, the move from light to heavy exchange market management in 2011 leads to what has been called a one way speculative option. Fourth, too much attention has been paid to the US dollar in setting exchange rate policies. Since the dollar exchange rate sometimes moves substantially against some of these other currencies such as the Euro, it is important that such fluctuations should also be taken into account. 

Ali Attia Massoud

2014-10-01

119

MAJOR PROJECTS THAT INFLUENCE WORLD TRADE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1869, with the opening of the Suez Canal, world trade entered a new era of development. The commercial routes linking the Far East to the western countries were shortened considerably as compared to the maritime corridor around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal sealed the new deal in world trade, opening for business the shortest commercial routes around the world. After 145 years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal, world trade is on the eve of a new expansion. Two major projects: the expansion of both the Suez and Panama canals, planned to be completed in the next two years, will double their transit capacity. This paper does a comparative analysis of these two strategic projects, underlining the main benefits for Egypt, Panama and world trade, based on the available statistical data, reports and literature in the field.

GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

2014-11-01

120

[Theoretic medicine in Egypt].  

Science.gov (United States)

Egyptian medical writings - especially those surviving on papyri - provide a rich material for historical research. They did not only serve the memory of old healing methods and practices, but that of contemporary medical theories and views as well. On the one hand, Egyptians knew illnesses caused by factors physicians could easily identify by mere empirism, or by their anatomical or physiological knowledge. (Their main physiological theory was probably based on the idea of specific materials circulating through a system of canals (mtw) in the body. It produced illness, either by the system being blocked, or by its original materials changed into the pathogenic material (wxdw). On the other hand however, they supposed the existence of illnesses, caused by the activity of supernatural forces or demons. The two different but parallel etiologies demanded different therapies. Consequently, besides physical also magical therapies were used, and in the healing process the healer him/herself played a double role. Egyptian thinking regarded both ways of healing - the physical and the magical - as equally useful and rational. This richly documented article gives an overview of the Egyptian medical heritage, as illustrated by the original texts and objects. PMID:12800853

Györy, Hedvig

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 5 Vols. Annexes 6--10  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annex 6, which investigates the possible hydroelectric resources of Egypt, reveals that presently the only existing sites are on the upper Nile at the High and Aswan Dams. There are 8 sites on the Nile where it is practical to add hydroelectric generation and, of these, only 4 are feasible for immediate construction. There are also pumped-storage sites on the Nile and the Red Sea. There is also the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert which can be utilized for conventional, as well as pumped-storage generation, by bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea to the depression by canal or tunnel. The options were considered for construction of hydro plants to met the electric load growth of Egypt when other forms of energy supply would be integrated into a comprehensive supply pattern. In Annex 7, the prospective use of nuclear energy to meet Egypt's resources (uranium and thorium) to implement a nuclear energy program, and potential effects of the expanded use of nuclear energy are discussed. Annex 8 discusses solar energy (technology descriptions and impacts, solar thermal power, photovoltaics). Also wind power generation, biomass utilization, desalination, solar air conditioning and refrigeration, and cost of power from diesel engines are discussed. Annex 9 covers geothermal potentials in Egypt, discussing resources with temperatures above 180/sup 0/C; from 150 to 180/sup 0/C; from 100 to 150/sup 0/C; and with temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. Annex 10 discusses the electric power systems in Egypt. The following subjects are covered: existing electric power systems; electrical power facilities under construction or planned for construction by 1985; past and projected growth of electrical energy; distribution; and electrical power system projected from 1985 to 2000. (MCW)

1979-04-01

122

Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

2014-11-15

123

Egypt air radioactive sources warehouse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I would like to give me this chance, of being here among famous scientists. I wish to thank the general director of cargo division, and the general manager of import for providing all facilities for me to be present at this scientific meeting. At this conference, I wish to explain the role played by egypt air (as public sector company) in the officiant of radiation physics. The atomic energy authority, ministry of health, and ministry of civil aviation; have provided instructions that were essentially required to complete the work of the national radioactive warehouse located in egypt air terminal in Cairo. Now the license for operating the store has been granted. Prior to constructing the warehouse, the radioactive sources were distributed among the foreign cargo terminals at Cairo airport, such as swiss air, air france, saudi arabia, the Ice stores, as well egypt Air. Cargo terminals. The control of radiation hazard was therefore difficult. The ministry of Civil aviation then issued a decree dictating the storage of all radioactive sources exclusively at the national store of egypt air. All foreign cargo terminals should transfer all imported radioactive sources to the national warehouse at Cairo air port. According to that decree. 6 figs, 2 tabs

124

Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neither systemic nor primary cutaneous cryptococcosis has ever been reported in Egypt. The case of a 14-year-old girl with a solitary primary cutaneous cryptococcosis lesion is presented. A surgical specimen proved the diagnosis, although the lesion resembled a rapidly growing epithelioma. Follow-up for 4 months did not reveal evidence of systemic involvement. PMID:1176246

Abdel-Fattah, A; Zeid, M S; Ghaly, A F

1975-10-01

125

The Elasticities Approach to Egypt’s Balance of Payments and Equilibrium Exchange Rate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aims to calculate Egypt’s real effective exchange rate at both the bilateral and multilateral levels, estimates the effect of real cross-rate movements on trade in goods and services and on foreign direct investment, and determines the fundamental equilibrium exchange rate for Egypt’s balance of payments. As part of this process, the study specifies and estimates a balance of payments model with considerable disaggregation in its trade components. The model provides a theory-con...

Lord, Montague J.

1999-01-01

126

Suez-Gaz de France merger, E.ON's public takeover bid on Endesa... The new energy fight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy sector is in fever. In less than a week (February 21 to 26, 2006), the Europe of energy has fallen into a frenzy of mergers and acquisitions: the German E.ON offered 29.1 billion euros to get the Spanish Endesa, Electricite de France (EdF), who already got the Italian Edison in 2005, is ready for more major acquisitions, the Italian Enel is candidate for the repurchasing of Suez, while Gaz de France (GdF) and Suez have started a surprise merger. The stake of this match between giants is their growing up and the penetration of foreign markets before their complete liberalization in July 2007. The potential victims of these actions are the competition and the clients, the industrial ones first. (J.S.)

127

The biology of Oreochromis niloticus in a polluted canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation, length-weight relationship, condition factor, age, growth, mortality, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and fecundity of tilapias (Bolti in Arabic): Oreochromis niloticus, from Shanawan drainage canal (SDC), Al-Minufiya Province, Egypt, were studied. This was carried out on 162 fish samples collected during the period from April 1992 to May 1993. Oreochromis niloticus was found to attain sexual maturity early (8-9 cm), was more fecund (1,234-3,893) and has high mortality rates (91% for males and 94% for females). A comparison of the various parameters of O. niloticus from SDC with those of other authors in different localities and times in Egypt revealed year-to-year and geographically significant differences in relation to variation in weight with length, condition factor, fecundity, growth and mortality rates. These differences were discussed and were found to be attributed to the effect of eutrophication and pollution on the growth, age and other biological aspects of O. niloticius. Multiple regression analysis showed that only female GSI correlated significantly with pesticides and heavy metals contamination. PMID:14649423

Khallaf, Elsayed A; Galal, Mansour; Authman, Mohammad

2003-10-01

128

3 FIELD SQUADRON, SAEC (PART 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1884 when Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal became a member of the French Academy, he was welcomed by Ernest Renan. In his speech Renan remarked that not only had two inland seas been connected, but the site of a future battlefield had been marked. During the Second World War his prediction came true when control of the Middle East became of utmost importance for the continuation of the Allied war effort: the economic blockade of Europe and the defence of Allied oil supplies depended on the Allies retaining Egypt and control of the Suez Canal.

A.E. Van Zyl

2012-02-01

129

Safsaf Oasis, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The radar image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/ X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The Landsat Program is managed jointly by NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the United States Geological Survey.Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations, and data processing of X-SAR.

1998-01-01

130

Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

1990-01-01

131

The Economics of Autism in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This was the first study ever done on the cost consequences of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Egypt or any other developing/industrializing country. The following questions were empirically investigated: What are the economic costs of ASD in Egypt and how do they compare with developed/industrialized countries? Why are cost consequences important in formulating ASD policy in Egypt and comparable countries? Approach: A statistical sample of 185 households, w...

Roger Lee Mendoza

2010-01-01

132

Geodynamical behavior of some active area in Egypt, as deduced from geodetic and gravity data  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal gravity variation in parallel with the space geodetic technique (GPS) had been started in Egypt for real campaigns in 1997. The geodetic networks around the High Dam, Aswan area was the first net to be measured. More than five measurement epochs were performed. The results had a considerable limit of coincidence between gravity and GPS observations. The trend of gravity changes indicated a positive stress and had the vertical displacement observed for leveling points. The lowest gravity changes along Kalabsha fault reflect extensional and/or strike component of the stress field. Also, the areas around Cairo (Greater Cairo) and due to the occurrence of an earthquake of 1992, such type of measurements were useful for monitoring the recent activity. The data of the geodetic network around Cairo after 5 campaigns showed that, the estimated horizontal velocities for almost all points are 5.5± mm/year in approximately NW-SE direction. The non-tidal changes can explain the dynamic process within the upper crust related to the development of local stress conditions. The trends of gravity changes are more or less coincident with that deduced from GPS deformation analysis and the occurrence of the main shocks in the area. In additions, in 2005 the geodetic network around the southern part of Sinai and the Gulf of Suez were established. One campaign of measurements had been performed and the gravity values were obtained.

Issawy, E.; Mrlina, J.; Radwan, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.

2009-04-01

133

Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

Mohtaram Najafi

1998-03-01

134

The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2011-01-01

135

Computed tomography of the thoracic canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 100. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th1, Th2 levels and round at Th3-Th10 and large oval at Th11, Th12. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (authiagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (author)

136

[Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].  

Science.gov (United States)

First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied. PMID:19617021

Ziskind, Bernard

2009-12-01

137

Egypt Post Success Story: Distinguished Services Made Possible with ICT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Without exaggeration, Egypt Post (EP) is the oldest and most honored governmental institute in Egypt. Its headquarters, located in Ataba Square in downtown Cairo, is considered a central and prominent place in Cairo and Egypt. Khedive Ismail unveiled the inauguration of the headquarters officially.However, sometime within its lifespan until 2005, Egypt Post (EP) was considered one of the worst governmental institutes in Egypt from a quality of service point of view. In addition, EP had not be...

Amr Badr-El-Din

2013-01-01

138

Root Canal Treatment from Start to Finish  

Science.gov (United States)

Illustrations: Root Canal Treatment From Start to Finish 1. A Deep Infection Root canal treatment is needed when an ... infected or inflamed. 2. A Route to the Root The dentist numbs the tooth. An opening is ...

139

33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117...Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8 at Franklin, shall open on signal from...

2010-07-01

140

Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Oil spills detection. • Image enhancement techniques. • Aeromagnetic data processing and interpretation. -- Abstract: Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE–SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa–Hurghada coastal zone

 
 
 
 
141

Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Source Rock Evaluation of the Lower Miocene Rocks Based on Well Logs: October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available October oil field is one of the largest hydrocarbon-bearing fields which produces oil from the sand section of the Lower Miocene Asl Formation. Two marl (Asl Marl and shale (Hawara Formation sections of possible source enrichment are detected above and below this oil sand section, respectively. This study aims to identify the content of the total organic carbon based on the density log and a combination technique of the resistivity and porosity logs (?log R Technique. The available geochemical analyses are used to calibrate the constants of the TOC and the level of maturity (LOM used in the (?log R Technique. The geochemical-based LOM is found as 9.0 and the calibrated constants of the Asl Marl and Hawara Formation are found as 11.68, 3.88 and 8.77, 2.80, respectively. Fair to good TOC% content values (0.88 to 1.85 were recorded for Asl Marl section in the majority of the studied wells, while less than 0.5% is recorded for the Hawara Formation. The lateral distribution maps show that most of the TOC% enrichments are concentrated at central and eastern parts of the study area, providing a good source for the hydrocarbons encountered in the underlying Asl Sand section.

Aref Lashin

2012-09-01

142

Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Source Rock Evaluation of the Lower Miocene Rocks Based on Well Logs: October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

October oil field is one of the largest hydrocarbon-bearing fields which produces oil from the sand section of the Lower Miocene Asl Formation. Two marl (Asl Marl) and shale (Hawara Formation) sections of possible source enrichment are detected above and below this oil sand section, respectively. This study aims to identify the content of the total organic carbon based on the density log and a combination technique of the resistivity and porosity logs (?log R Technique). The available geoche...

Aref Lashin; Saad Mogren

2012-01-01

143

The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

144

Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery. PMID:24665522

Blomstedt, Patric

2013-01-01

145

Preliminary thoughts on Egypt’s Law Concerning Trafficking in Human Beings  

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This article analyses the most important provisions of Egypt’s Law Concerning the Trafficking in Human Beings (‘Law’). Human trafficking in Egypt takes several forms and targets Egyptians and foreign nationals alike. While the Law is progressive and is largely pro victim, the author expresses concerns respecting the interpretation of some sections of the Law. For example, the Law evokes the existing tensions between shariah, which constitutes the main sources of legislation ...

Badawy, Tarek

2011-01-01

146

Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

Nightingale, S.

1989-01-01

147

Dupuytren's disease involving Guyon's canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic localization of Dupuytren's contracture is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only six cases reported in the literature. The authors present a case with Dupuytren's contracture involving Guyon's canal where the patient had limited wrist range of motion and ulnar neuropathy. PMID:24874274

Juvenspan, M; Schlur, C; Thomsen, L; Colom, A; Audren, J-L

2014-06-01

148

Paraganglioma of external auditory canal  

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In the ear, paragangliomas are commonly found in the tympanic cavity or in juglar bulb. We, here, present a case of paraganglioma originating from the external auditory canal as it has not been reported in the world literature. The clinico-pathologic features of such a case has been described.

Kundu, Indranath; Goswami, Saileswar; Barman, Debasis; Biswas, Saumitra

2001-01-01

149

Security of radiation sources in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation of the radiation sources in Egypt is elucidated. The inventory of the sources is being completed to implement a national date base. Compliance with the IAEA code of conduct is being implemented. Security measures are being evaluated (author)

150

Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, Southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of 137Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of 226Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The 226Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg-1 for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg-1 for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l-1 for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, 226Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ?14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the 232Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while 137Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place. (authors)

151

Report on Highly Skilled Migration in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides an analysis of the relevant laws that cover the migration of highly skilled persons who originate from, or settle in, Egypt. Highly skilled foreign nationals with unique professional skills are given advantages (in investment, property ownership for investors and taxation) that make their settlement in Egypt relatively easy when compared to the treatment given to non-skilled foreign workers. Non-skilled workers usually do not obtain work permits, they are employed in the i...

Badawy, Tarek

2010-01-01

152

Egypt : Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often viewed as insular disciplines, with their own special history and set of material remains. The kinds of theoretically informed approaches and analyses with which the wider archaeological discipline has engaged over the past decades has often been viewed with scepticism, in terms of what it has to offer to a discipline whose historical materials seem to be so rich and varied. The reason for this study is to challenge such insularity and to demonstrate the utility of integrating theoretical ideas with specific studies of ancient Egyptian material. The chapters in this volume explore a variety of ancient and modern Egyptian material and practices, from a wide range of prehistoric and historical periods, entwining interpretation of source material with explicitly theoretical approaches to provide new perspectives and interpretations of aspects of the Ancient Egyptian past. This volume is one of the first to demonstrate the emerging interdisciplinary nature in Ancient Egyptian studies and the first to suggest new avenues of approach whilst seeking to open a discussion about how the Egyptian past can be known and understood. The book engages with wider trends from the humanities, which have found currency in archaeological studies, such as materiality, performativity, corporeality, embodiment, identity, and popular culture studies. Egyptian material is explored via these themes, to create nuanced and contextual interpretations of particular sites, events, artefacts and practices. Egypt: Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies makes an important contribution to furthering the fields of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology, as well as in the wider context of archaeological theory.

2013-01-01

153

Paragangliomas of the spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an aggressive growth pattern with early, local paraspinal recurrence and, eventually, intradural metastatic spread. This type of growth pattern has not been described previously. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal are more common than previously thought and can be located anywhere along the spine, although the lumbosacral level is the most common. Their appearance on MRI can not disinguish them from other tumours in the spinal canal. Even though paragangliomas in general are benign and slowly growing their growth pattern can vary and be more aggressive, to the point of metastatic spread. (orig.)

154

Paragangliomas of the spinal canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an aggressive growth pattern with early, local paraspinal recurrence and, eventually, intradural metastatic spread. This type of growth pattern has not been described previously. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal are more common than previously thought and can be located anywhere along the spine, although the lumbosacral level is the most common. Their appearance on MRI can not disinguish them from other tumours in the spinal canal. Even though paragangliomas in general are benign and slowly growing their growth pattern can vary and be more aggressive, to the point of metastatic spread. (orig.)

Sundgren, P.; Annertz, M.; Holtaas, S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Lund (Sweden); Englund, E. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital of Lund (Sweden); Stroemblad, L.G. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital of Lund (Sweden)

1999-10-01

155

Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

Reinhardt, R.

1987-07-01

156

Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)

157

The petromastoid canal on computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51±0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57±0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63±0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can ehe images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

158

Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture by using a cadaver vertebra. EMI, CT 5005 scanner was used. Best condition to observe the thoracic canal by CT was nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permited within about 100 in configuration and dimention. Configuration of 10 normal thoracic canals at each vertebral level was assessed and the dimentions of the canal at these levels were measured. In the cases of developmental cervical stenosis, the thoracic canal showed narrow especially in sagittal diameter. On the other hand it did not show marked difference in transverse diameter. In 4 cases of ossification of the yellow ligament treated surgically, 3 cases showed narrow thoracic canal on CT scan and narrow cervical canal in conventional radiographs. (author)

159

Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

160

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

 
 
 
 
161

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid.

Mueller, W.; Bumb, P.

1986-11-01

162

Surgical Approaches to the Hypoglossal Canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To describe and illustrate three distinct surgical approaches that permit exposure and resection of extradural, intradural, and transdural lesions involving the hypoglossal canal. Study design: Case series. Setting: University medical center. Patients: Four patients with lesions of the hypoglossal canal were reviewed to illustrate our philosophy when selecting a surgical approach to the hypoglossal canal. Interventions: Three separate surgical approaches were used to approach lesio...

Calzada, Gabriel; Isaacson, Brandon; Yoshor, Daniel; Oghalai, John S.

2007-01-01

163

Anatomic variations of the human semicircular canals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anatomic variations of the semicircular canals were investigated in a series of 95 plastic temporal bone preparations. The results showed a wider range of variability than has been assumed previously. An intraindividual correlation was found between the sizes of the superior and lateral semicircular canals. Observations indicate why a semicircular canal is not invariably delineated on one tomographic plane despite correct positioning for its optimum reproduction. (orig.)

164

Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a concept inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular ...

Li, Yuan; Adeyeye, John O.; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

2012-01-01

165

The petromastoid canal on computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51{+-}0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57{+-}0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63{+-}0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Weidner, J.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

2002-11-01

166

The petromastoid canal on computed tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51+/-0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57+/-0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63+/-0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. PMID:12386772

Krombach, G A; Schmitz-Rode, T; Prescher, A; DiMartino, E; Weidner, J; Günther, R W

2002-11-01

167

MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital) lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spon...

Maryam Barzin

2010-01-01

168

A New Look at an Old Canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attempts to explain abducens vulnerability have centered around the petroclival segment of its pathway in the skull base, in particular, its relations to the Dorello's canal and the petrosphenoidal ligament of Grüber. This study aims to contribute to the definition of the Dorello's canal and to the understanding of abducens vulnerability from an evolutionary perspective. The petroclival region and the Dorello's canal in particular were examined in a sample of 86 primate skulls. The sample co...

Marom, Assaf

2011-01-01

169

The Economics of Autism in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This was the first study ever done on the cost consequences of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD in Egypt or any other developing/industrializing country. The following questions were empirically investigated: What are the economic costs of ASD in Egypt and how do they compare with developed/industrialized countries? Why are cost consequences important in formulating ASD policy in Egypt and comparable countries? Approach: A statistical sample of 185 households, with at least 1 autistic family member, in the Greater Cairo Region was surveyed. Households were drawn from 3 distinct geographic clusters (urban, suburban and rural. Cluster sampling results were Chi-square (?2 tested. In addition, relevant ASD policies were content-analyzed. Results: We discovered that care and support for autistic Egyptian children and adults are typically based on a household-provider model, in contrast to western, institution-based models. ASD costs in Egypt largely derive from much higher investments in time, attention and behavioral adaptation on the part of family caregivers. Hence, autism cost consequences in Egypt significantly differ from many developed countries. Conclusion: Opportunity and transaction costs, feedback effects and spillover consequences of the household-provider model should be carefully considered in health policy formulation. Making autism care and support available, affordable and reliable should be a major health concern of the state.

Roger Lee Mendoza

2010-01-01

170

The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion  

Science.gov (United States)

The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously. PMID:17576932

Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M.; Silcox, Mary T.; Walker, Alan

2007-01-01

171

Computed tomography of the facial canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiological details of the facial canal was investigated by computed tomography. In the first part of this study, dry skulls were used to delineate the full course of the facial canal by computed tomography. In the second part of this study, the patients with chronic otitis media and secondary cholesteatoma were evaluated. The labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the canal were well demonstrated with the axial scanning, and the mastoid part with the coronal scanning. Moreover, computed tomography showed excellent delineation of the middle ear contents. In patients with secondary cholesteatoma, the destructions of the intratympanic course of the bony facial canal were also assessed preoperatively.

Kiuchi, Sousuke (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan))

1983-02-01

172

Computed tomography of the facial canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological details of the facial canal was investigated by computed tomography. In the first part of this study, dry skulls were used to delineate the full course of the facial canal by computed tomography. In the second part of this study, the patients with chronic otitis media and secondary cholesteatoma were evaluated. The labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the canal were well demonstrated with the axial scanning, and the mastoid part with the coronal scanning. Moreover, computed tomography showed excellent delineation of the middle ear contents. In patients with secondary cholesteatoma, the destructions of the intratympanic course of the bony facial canal were also assessed preoperatively. (author)

173

Comparison of the effect of five root canal preparation techniques on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many methods and techniques of canal preparation work well in large and relatively straight canals. However, in severely curved canals, the complexity increases markedly, and techniques rendering good results in usual cases may be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five root canal preparation techniques on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 100 simulated canal blocks with similar hardness were made from polyester. The degree of curvature was 45º with a radius of 2.55 mm and a straight part of 8mm. The blocks were prepared with five different techniques (20 canals in each group as follows: 1-Stepback 2- Passive step back 3- Balanced force using flex-R files 4- Balanced force using Ni-Ti hand instruments 5- Hybrid using a rotary Ni-Ti system (XtremRace. Digital photographs were taken from pre- and post instrumentation colored canals. Then images were superimposed and analyzed by an image editing software. The amount of removed material from the inner and outer canal walls was measured at five levels: 1-The canal orifice (O 2-The halfway between the orifice and the beginning of the curve (HO 3-The beginning of the curve (BC 4-The apex of the curve (AC and 5-The endpoint of preparation (EP. Additionally, the time of instrumentation, instrument failure and changes in working length were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Mean transportation was towards the outer aspect of the curve at the EP in all canals but there were no significant differences between the studied groups. At the BC point, all of the canals were transported towards the inner aspect of the curve and there were significant differences for both transportation values & direction among different groups. The highest amount of transportation was in step back and the lowest, in hybrid group. The highest transportation value was in step back and the lowest in balanced force group. Fractured and deformed instruments were observed in Flex-R files. The shortest canal preparation time was seen in XtremRace and the slowest, in Passive step back groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, changes in canal curvature were less with techniques using nickel titanium instruments and the fastest technique with least transportation was XtremRace.

Sheykhrezaee MS

2007-01-01

174

77 FR 42644 - Safety Zone; Canal Fest of the Tonawandas, Erie Canal, Tonawanda, NY  

Science.gov (United States)

...encompass all waters of the Erie Canal, Tonawanda, NY within a 210...anchor in a portion of the Erie Canal on the evening of July 22...responsibilities among the various levels of government. We have analyzed...165.T09-0609 Safety Zone; Canal Fest of the Tonawandas,...

2012-07-20

175

Earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams and nuclear power plants. Setting of nuclear power plants becomes of increasing important in northern Egypt with the commitment towards promoting nuclear electric generation. Therefore, the annual seismic hazard maps with non-exceedence probability of 80%, 85% and 90% are given. These maps show that northern Egypt is severely affects by earthquakes from potential sources around Sinai peninsula. Three sites (Nile Delta, Cairo, and Ismailia region) have been chosen to estimated the earthquake hazard in more detailes to serve as a basic parameter to the safety factor of different projects in these regions. A seismic safety factor of intensity 8.5 should be considered in designing the vital projects in northern Egypt. (author)

176

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2010-04-01

177

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2010-04-01

178

76 FR 21253 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Lockport, LA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Lockport, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...across Company Canal, mile 0.4, at Lockport, Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. The...across Company Canal at mile 0.4 in Lockport, Lafourche Parish, Louisiana....

2011-04-15

179

Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

180

Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2003-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Assessment of metal status in drainage canal water and their bioaccumulation in Oreochromis niloticus fish in relation to human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess metal concentrations (Al, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni) in Sabal drainage canal (Al-Menoufiya Province, River Nile Delta, Egypt) water as well as their accumulation in some selected organs (skin, muscles and kidneys) of Oreochromis niloticus fish to evaluate their hazard levels in relation to the maximum residual limits for human consumption. Drainage canal water was found to be heavily polluted with metals which far exceeded the permissible limits. It was found that metals accumulated in organs of O. niloticus in concentrations higher than those of canal water. Kidneys of O. niloticus contained the highest concentrations of the detected metals, while skin appeared to be the least preferred site for the bioaccumulation of metals as the lowest metals concentrations were detected in this tissue. The present study shows that fish organs contained high levels of metals exceeding the permissible limits values. Metals in muscle of fish were higher than the maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption. Thus, consuming fish caught from drainage canals is harmful to the consumers. PMID:22451326

Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

2013-01-01

182

Reaching women in Egypt: a success story  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

Ahmed Mousa

2009-06-01

183

Renewable-energy applications in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper illustrates the main activities carried out concerning development and application of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt. Main attention is devoted to biogas technology, solar and wind energy technologies. The main constraints for implementation of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt and the activities carried out for its release are highlighted. The coordination between the Islamic and other developing countries is highly needed, to achieve marked progress in implementation of renewable energy and sustainable development. Establishment of a network for renewable energy among the Islamic countries can play an active role in these aspects. (author)

184

Monitoring of parasitic cysts in the brains of a flock of sheep in Egypt / Monitoramento de cistos parasitarios no cerebro de um rebanho de ovinos no Egito  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cistos cerebrais parasitários constituem um grande problema para o gado. Entre estes, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são predominantes. Aqui, um número total de 60 ovelhas obtidas em uma fazenda particular na província Suez, Egito, foram examinadas post-mortem para a detecção de cistos parasitários visív [...] eis e microscopicamente para detectar cistos de pequenas dimensões. A necropsia revelou cistos medindo entre 0,5-6,5 cm de diâmetro, preenchidos com um fluido transparente, contendo um grande número de protoscolices. Por conseguinte, os cistos foram identificados como o metacestóide Coenurus cerebralis. Entre as ovelhas examinadas, 11 animais (7 machos e 4 fêmeas) (18,3%) estavam infectados. A maior parte dos cistos estavam localizados nos hemisférios cerebrais, com números variando de um a três em ovinos infectados. O efeito da presença de cistos no tecido do cérebro foi avaliado. Histopatologicamente, pseudocistos de Toxoplasma gondii foram encontrados em dois animais sem reações inflamatórias detectáveis. Em conclusão, coenurosis e toxoplasmose são graves problemas parasitários que desempenham um papel significativo no manejo de ovelhas no Egito, como resultado do contacto íntimo dos animais com os cães e gatos, que desempenham um papel crítico no ciclo de vida desses parasitas. Abstract in english Cerebral parasitic cysts constitute a major problem for livestock. Among these, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are predominant. Here, a total number of 60 sheep obtained from a private farm in Suez province, Egypt, were examined postmortem to detect visible parasitic cysts, and microscopically to dete [...] ct small-sized entities. Necropsy revealed bladder-like cysts measuring 0.5-6.5 cm in diameter that were filled with a translucent fluid containing a large number of protoscolices. Accordingly, the cysts were identified as the metacestode Coenurus cerebralis. Among the sheep examined, 11 animals (7 males and 4 females) (18.3%) were infected. Most of the cysts were located in the cerebral hemispheres, with numbers ranging from one to three per infected animal. The effect of the presence of cysts in the brain tissue was evaluated. Histopathologically, pseudocysts of the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii were found in two animals with no detectable inflammatory cell reactions. In conclusion, coenurosis and toxoplasmosis are serious parasitic problems that play a significant role in sheep management in Egypt, as a result of close contact between livestock and dogs and cats, which play a critical role in the life cycle of these parasites.

Shehata, Anwar; Emad, Mahdy; Khalid Ali, El-Nesr; Khaled Mohamed, El-Dakhly; Adel, Shalaby; Tokuma, Yanai.

2013-09-01

185

Posterior semicircular canal nystagmus is conjugate and its axis is parallel to that of the canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient with a postoperative fistula of the left posterior semicircular canal is presented. Negative pressure in the external ear canal produced upbeat-torsional nystagmus, which was recorded in three dimensions using binocular scleral search coils. The nystagmus was conjugate, without skew deviation, and its trajectory corresponded to the anatomic axis of the left posterior canal. The current study helps validate Ewald's first law in humans: the axis of nystagmus should match the anatomic axis of the semicircular canal that generated it. This law is clinically useful in diagnosing pathology of the vestibular end-organ, such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or the superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome. PMID:10822450

Cremer, P D; Migliaccio, A A; Pohl, D V; Curthoys, I S; Davies, L; Yavor, R A; Halmagyi, G M

2000-05-23

186

Metoptic canal, duplication of the optic canal and Warwick’s foramen in human orbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The region of the optic strut is sometimes traversed by some minor canals whose incidence and general characteristics have never been studied. As such canals could be the route for vessels that could interfere in the surgery of the orbital apex, we undertook a detailed anatomical study on a vast collection of dry skulls. The examination of 943 dry adult skulls and 360 foetal skulls was carried out to precise the anatomy of canals in the optic strut area, their development and relationships with the optic canal. A canal traversing the optic strut was present in 8.54 % of the orbits. Based on diameter, position within the optic strut, and thickness of the bony plate separating it from the optic canal or from the superior orbital fissure, the canals piercing the optic strut were classified into four types, which include the well-known duplication of the optic canal, different aspects of the metoptic canal and a type of canal that to our knowledge has never been reported. Warwick’s foramen was found in 0.74 % of orbits. The area of the optic strut is the frequent site of canals joining the orbit with the middle cranial fossa. Some of them can host the ophthalmic artery; others could be run by minor vessels which, however, could be the source of annoying bleedings in surgical procedures. PMID:23959928

Bertelli, Eugenio

2014-01-01

187

Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

188

Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

Weon, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Sung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea); Koo, Ja-Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea)

2007-10-15

189

[Chemoradiotherapy and anal canal cancer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Local control and sphincter preservation are the two challenges of anal canal cancer treatment. These tumors are radio- and chemo-sensitive and treatment moved from surgical approach, with abdominoperineal resection, to definitive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Randomised trials proved the benefit of combined modality with chemoradiotherapy and of mitomycine C (MMC) compared with radiotherapy alone, with a toxic death rate of about 2%. Indications of chemoradiotherapy are locally advanced tumor T2 > or = 4 cm, T3-4 or N1-3 but the best modalities of combined treatment are still under debate. Standard chemotherapy is 5 flurouracile (5FU) + MMC, but cisplatinum (CDDP) is an effective and well tolerated substitute for MMC. Favourable results with CDDP-containing regimen in term of toxicity and carcinologic control have been reported in phase II and retrospective studies. Total radiation dose, overall duration of radiation therapy, duration of the gap and indications of additional boost are not clear, but it is demonstrated that overall duration of treatment should be as short as possible to improve the therapeutic radio. Phase II and III studies are ongoing, to evaluate the best chemotherapy regimen between 5FU+MMC and 5FU+CDDP, the benefit of neoadjuvant or maintenance chemotherapy and the interest of increased total dose. Next future could be the utilisation of oral 5FU. This article is a review of past randomised trials, phases II and retrospective study on radiochemotherapy of anal canal carcinoma. PMID:16396750

Ortholan, Cécile; François, Eric; Gérard, Jean-Pierre

2005-12-01

190

Coupled effects of canal lining and multi-layered soil structure on canal seepage and soil water dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ponding tests were conducted in the Shiyang River Basin in Northwest China to assess canal leakage characteristics. Four anti-seepage constructions (concrete lining, pebble lining, clay lining plus compacted canal bed, compacted canal bed only) were performed on four canal sections, which were situated in multi-layered soils. The canal sections were tested using a two-stage approach; first a stable water level was maintained followed by a stage where the water level in the canal section was p...

Yao, Liqiang; Feng, Shaoyuan; Mao, Xiaomin; Huo, Zailin; Kang, Shaozhong; Barry, David Andrew

2012-01-01

191

MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

Maryam Barzin

2010-05-01

192

Essor des recettes en devises et intervention de l'Etat : le syndrome rentier : approches dans le cas égyptien  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

THIS STUDY IS A TEST INTERPRETATION OF THE EFFECT OF FLUCTUATIONS IN CURRENCY REVENUE ON A DEVELOPING ECONOMY WHEN THE STATE IS THE MAIN ACTOR. OUR CASE IS THAT THESE CHANGES DETERMINE PUBLIC ACTION BECAUSE OF THE INFLUENCE OF STATE AND POSITIVE IMPACT OF INCOME OVER ITS INTERVENTION. TO CLARIFY THAT PROBLEM THEORY, WE CHOSE EGYPT AS EXTERNAL LESAPPORTS (OIL REVENUE AND SUEZ CANAL, of remittance PUBLIC AND FOREIGN AID) ARE IMPORTANT: THEY QUICKLY INCREASE FROM 1974 TO 1980 FLAG UNTIL 1996. FI...

Vernier, Marie-france

1999-01-01

193

Comparison of minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy and conventional thyroidectomy: a single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gouda Mohamed El-labbanDepartment of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAim: We aimed to test the hypothesis that minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) affords comparable safety and efficacy as open conventional surgery in patients with unilateral thyroid nodules or follicular lesions in terms of cosmetic results, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative pain, and hospital stay.Methods: A single-blinded randomized...

Gouda Mohamed El-labban

2010-01-01

194

Retinopathy and risk factors in diabetic patients from Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mohamed F El-Bab1, Nashaat Shawky2, Ali Al-Sisi3, Mohamed Akhtar31Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Faculty of Medicine, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, Egypt; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ohud Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by chronic and dangerous microvascular changes affecting most body systems, es...

Al-Sisi A; Shawky N; Mf, El-bab; Akhtar M

2012-01-01

195

Nanomedicine for drug targeting: strategies beyond the enhanced permeability and retention effect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hayley Nehoff,1 Neha N Parayath,1 Laura Domanovitch,1 Sebastien Taurin,1 Khaled Greish1,2 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt Abstract: The growing research interest in nanomedicine for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory-related pathologies is yielding encouraging results. Unfortunately, enthusiasm is tempered by the limited specificity of the enhanced permeabi...

Nehoff H; Nn, Parayath; Domnanovich L; Taurin S; Greish K

2014-01-01

196

Triangular model integrating clinical teaching and assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adel Abdelaziz,1,2 Emad Koshak3 1Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt; 3Dean and Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indi...

Abdelaziz A; Koshak E

2014-01-01

197

Review of parasitic zoonoses in egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

Youssef, Ahmed I; Uga, Shoji

2014-03-01

198

Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

2009-01-01

199

Multicenter Study of Brucellosis in Egypt  

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Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes.

Samaha, Hassan; Al-rowaily, Meshref; Khoudair, Ramadan M.; Ashour, Hossam M.

2008-01-01

200

Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions and independent experts. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture and a full understanding of the energy industry and market in Egypt, the way they operate and their long-term perspectives

 
 
 
 
201

Using ArcGIS to Study the New Lakes in the Toshka Basin in Egypt and Evaluate Egypt's New Valley Project  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1978, the Egyptians constructed a canal known as the Toshka Spillway from Lake Nasser into a low area to the west to allow spillover of Lake Nasser water. Despite the fact that the spillway was created in 1978, it wasn't until the late 1990s that Lake Nasser actually filled up to the level of the spillway canal and the overflow lakes began to form. In November of 1998, US astronauts orbiting in the Space Shuttle noticed the lakes filling for the first time, and they have had water in them ever since. Egypt has embarked on a long-term and far-reaching irrigation plan to create habitable land away from the Nile River Valley. The Toshka Lakes are not, however, a formal part of the project. One of the main points of the exercise is to have students use both their knowledge of Saharan hydrogeology and GIS analyses to evaluate whether the Egyptians are wise not to use the lakes as part of the proposed system of water distribution. In this exercise, students download and prepare their own SRTM DEMs and learn how to determine areas and volumes using ArcGIS. They can then ask questions and use ArcGIS to determine the answers. How much water is in the Toshka Lakes? What happens if Lake Nasser rises and more water flows down the canal? Will more lakes form, or will the lakes that are there just get bigger? How much water might be evaporating from the lake surfaces? How much water has to flow down the canal to keep the lakes at a particular level? What might happen as the annual Nile flood fluctuates from year to year? The document posted for downloading contains two homework assignments, two in-class activities, and a wrap-up assignment. You can also download a GIS Primer (Acrobat (PDF) 1.2MB Mar30 10) that we have written, which is a simple GIS "how-to" manual for tasks including those used in this exercise.

Tewksbury, Barb

202

Brief communication: Y-chromosome haplotypes in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed Y-chromosome haplotypes in the Nile River Valley in Egypt in 274 unrelated males, using the p49a,f TaqI polymorphism. These individuals were born in three regions along the river: in Alexandria (the Delta and Lower Egypt), in Upper Egypt, and in Lower Nubia. Fifteen different p49a,f TaqI haplotypes are present in Egypt, the three most common being haplotype V (39.4%), haplotype XI (18.9%), and haplotype IV (13.9%). Haplotype V is a characteristic Arab haplotype, with a northern geographic distribution in Egypt in the Nile River Valley. Haplotype IV, characteristic of sub-Saharan populations, shows a southern geographic distribution in Egypt. PMID:12687584

Lucotte, G; Mercier, G

2003-05-01

203

Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files  

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Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The resea...

Živkovi? Slavoljub; Brkani? Tatjana; Stojšin Ivana; Vukoje Karolina

2010-01-01

204

Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

Živkovi? Slavoljub

2010-01-01

205

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)rcular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

206

Laser irradiation of the semicircular canal: occlusion of the canal or duct.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of argon laser irradiation of the semicircular canals using computed tomography (CT) images and to examine the basis for laser treatment for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). CT images of the posterior canal were evaluated postoperatively in a patient with intractable BPPV, in whom the unilateral posterior and lateral semicircular canals were irradiated with an argon laser. In addition, bootstrap analysis of 20 patients with normal CT findings of the temporal bone was performed and previous experimentally obtained histologic findings were compared. Cross-sections of the posterior canals of 20 patients were found to show no difference in size between the right and left sides. The laser-irradiated posterior canal became narrower than that on the non-irradiated healthy side in our patient. There was a discrepancy between the CT images and experimentally obtained histologic findings that showed complete occlusion of the canal. CT images of a patient with severe vertigo demonstrated that argon laser irradiation to the blue-lined semicircular canals did not occlude the canal of the corresponding areas, while the canal of the guinea pig histologically showed complete obstruction with new bone after irradiation with the same energy (1.5 W, 0.5 s, spot size: around 200 ?m in diameter). The patient has been free from vertigo for 16 years. Marked constriction of the semicircular duct corresponding to the irradiated area appeared to be effective in treating intractable BPPV. PMID:22053860

Nomura, Yasuya; Kobayashi, Hitome

2012-01-01

207

Semicircular Canal Geometry, Afferent Sensitivity And Animal Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The geometry of the semicircular canals has been used in evolutionary studies to predict the behaviors of extinct animals. These predictions have relied on an assumption that the responses of the canals can be determined from their dimensions, and that an organism’s behavior can be determined from these responses. However, the relationship between a canal’s sensitivity and its size is not well known. An intraspecies comparison among canal responses in each of three species (cat, squirrel ...

Hullar, Timothy A.

2006-01-01

208

Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

209

Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis  

CERN Document Server

Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

2012-01-01

210

Amyloidosis in bilateral external auditory canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 76-year-old man, a retired farmer, presenting with bilateral external auditory canal obstruction. Skin examination revealed multiple pruritic nodules and periorbital purpura. Ear canal opening surgery was performed. Skin and ear canal biopsy revealed extensive amyloid depositions. Immunoelectrophoresis for urinary Bence-Jones protein was positive, and bone marrow examination showed plasma cell dyscrasia. He received chemotherapy for amyloid light-chain amyloidosis secondary to light-chain multiple myeloma but died from myeloma progression. This case demonstrated how infiltrative conditions such as amyloidosis can lead to bilateral auditory canal obstruction and that the diagnosis of amyloidosis can be missed if a clinician focuses solely on a single organ. PMID:24825551

Hosoi, Takahiro; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet; Tokuda, Yasuharu

2014-01-01

211

77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department...States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

2012-12-04

212

Irrigation canal system identification for control purposes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report gives some guidance on how to obtain black-box models of irrigation canal reaches, using system identification techniques. First of all, some general properties of the irrigation canal reaches are deducted, based on the use of the linearized Sain-Venant equations to model the water behavior. Then different aspects of the system identification procedure like the sampling time, the model structure, the experiment design, etc., are studied, in order to avoid possible modellin...

Sepu?lveda Toepfer, Carlos; Rodellar Benede?, Jose?

2005-01-01

213

Mechanics of the Panama Canal slides  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Becker visited the Canal Zone in 1913 as a geologist of the United States Geological Survey and since that time has given the problem the benefit of his study. His appointment as a member of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences has made it appropriate for his conclusions, based upon his personal observations and already reported in part to the Canal Commission, to be stated for the benefit of his associates and other American scientists and engineers.

Becker, George F.

1917-01-01

214

Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

215

Egypt: Politics in the New Millennium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It seems that with the new millennium, some potentially interesting changes have emerged within the Egyptian political arena. Whether these are linked to attempts at US democratic promotion in the Middle East is difficult to substantiate. What seems clear however is such reforms appear to have produced only the most minor of changes to the prevailing authoritarian system of contemporary Egypt. These changes have included reforms ranging from changes in legislative elections procedures (2000; internal re-structuring within the NDP(2001/2; a proposed revision of presidential referendum procedures (March 2005; followed by the first presidential elections in Egypt (September 2005 and new legislative elections a few months later (November-December 2005. This article will examine these political developments in an effort to gauge the degree to which such changes can potentially contribute towards the democratization of Egyptian politics in the new millennium.

Maye Kassem

2006-10-01

216

Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

217

Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the aforementioned articles indicate that this laser is effective in combination with a rinsing solution such as sodium hypochlorite.Results from studies including several types of the different Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in disinfecting canals showed that all wavelengths used in disinfection for different thicknesses of dentin were efficacious without damaging thermal effect. Considering that use of different lasers in canals can be accompanied with temperature increase which can sometimes lead to damages to teeth and surrounding tissues, thus the use of photochemical phenomenon for elimination of microorganisms have attracted attention of many researchers. Studies in this field imply the efficacy of this method in reducing canal bacterial count and recommend its use as an adjunctive after biomechanical preparation of canals. Results from performed studies show removal of intra canal debris and smear layer by different lasers and particularly the Erbium laser family. Furthermore various laser wavelengths, particularly of Diode and Nd:YAG lasers can be effective in reducing intra canal microbial count. Maximum effect is obtained when laser light is used in canals in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating substance in appropriate concentration. Therefore use of laser energy can improve success rate of root canal treatments.

Mohammad Asnaashari

2012-12-01

218

MERS coronaviruses in dromedary camels, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified the near-full-genome sequence (29,908 nt, >99%) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a nasal swab specimen from a dromedary camel in Egypt. We found that viruses genetically very similar to human MERS-CoV are infecting dromedaries beyond the Arabian Peninsula, where human MERS-CoV infections have not yet been detected. PMID:24856660

Chu, Daniel K W; Poon, Leo L M; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S; Siu, Lewis Y; Guan, Yi; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Peiris, Malik; Kayali, Ghazi

2014-06-01

219

Murder or Not and other Egypt Stuff  

Science.gov (United States)

The students will discover information about Egypt and decide if the, boy king, Tutankhamun, was murdered or died of natural causes. The first two sites will lead the students to discover all about: *Geography *Egyptian People and their Life Styles *Death and Burial *Egyptian Mythology *Pyramids *Temples and the Pharaohs *Egyptian Writing On the third site the students will learn all about King Tut and write a persuasive essay; taking a stand on if he was murdered or not. The ...

Niebergall, Mrs.

2007-11-06

220

Anthropogenic enhancement of Egypt's Mediterranean fishery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The highly productive coastal Mediterranean fishery off the Nile River delta collapsed after the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1965. But the fishery has been recovering dramatically since the mid-1980s, coincident with large increases in fertilizer application and sewage discharge in Egypt. We use stable isotopes of nitrogen (?15N) to demonstrate that 60%–100% of the current fishery production may be from primary production stimulated by nutrients from fertilizer and sewage runoff. A...

Oczkowski, Autumn J.; Nixon, Scott W.; Granger, Stephen L.; El-sayed, Abdel-fattah M.; Mckinney, Richard A.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt  

CERN Document Server

Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

2013-01-01

222

Hezbollah’s Man in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In November 2008, Egyptian authorities broke up what they said was a Hezbollah network plotting attacks in Egypt. While some of the charges appear to have been exaggerated, and it is clear that not all those arrested were in fact Hezbollah operatives, a careful examination reveals that a Hezbollah network was, in fact, operating on Egyptian soil. That it was originally tasked with carrying out neither surveillance nor attacks makes the case all the more intriguing, especially when comp...

Matthew Levitt

2014-01-01

223

School effects on educational attainment in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data for Egypt in 2007, this paper examines the determinants and gender inequality of educational attainment (test scores in Mathematics and Science). The complicated structure of the data is carefully addressed during all stages of the analysis by employing plausible values and jackknife standard error technique to accommodate the measurement error of the dependant variable and the clustering of students in classes and schoo...

Badr, Menshawy

2012-01-01

224

Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

1991-01-01

225

Endomyocardial fibrosis in Egypt: an illustrated review.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The detailed features of right sided endomyocardial fibrosis are described in 15 out of 10,000 consecutive patients who all had infection with Schistosoma mansoni and came from rural Egypt. Laboratory investigations, 12 lead electrocardiography, chest radiography, and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients. Cardiac catheterisation and angiography were performed in eight. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained from the right ventricles of two patients and pericardial bi...

Rashwan, M. A.; Ayman, M.; Ashour, S.; Hassanin, M. M.; Zeina, A. A.

1995-01-01

226

Policy of SRS management in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the establishment of nuclear activities in Egypt in the late fifties, these activities give rise to an appreciable quantity of liquid and solid wastes as well as a big number of spent sealed sources from different applications in industry, medicine, agriculture and research activities all over the country. This paper is concerned only with the management of SRS management in Egypt, with special reference to the conditioning process, interim storage and long-term storage specifically designed for spent radium sources. The Egyptian strategy considers the total waste inventory, waste treatment methods for the range of different waste types, timescales for the treatment for interim storage, waste acceptance criteria and availability of ultimate disposal facilities. A well-developed waste management strategy helps to eliminate investment in poorly specified facilities and as a result, substantial cost savings are likely to result. From the Regulatory point of view, Egypt has already succeeded to promulgate and enforce Waste Management Regulations since the beginning of the year 1996. (author)

227

Rinderpest surveillance in Egypt 1992/1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rinderpest control in Egypt has focussed for many years on the annual vaccination of all animals. In 1992 it was decided to vaccinate adult animals only twice and to cease vaccination of animals under the age of one year in an attempt to detect any circulating rinderpest virus. A national serological survey was undertaken to determine the level of immunity of cattle to rinderpest, linked with a serological and clinical survey of cattle and buffaloes under one year of age to determine if rinderpest virus was circulating in this population. At the same time a survey was undertaken of sheep and goats to determine if any serological evidence could be found of rinderpest virus in this group. The results show that levels of immunity in cattle are around 70% and in buffaloes around 50%. No substantive evidence could be found indicating the presence of rinderpest virus in cattle, buffalo, sheep or goats in Egypt. Based on the above it is appropriate that Egypt cease rinderpest vaccination and make the OIE declaration of provisional freedom from rinderpest. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

228

5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Comprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que ac [...] tualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades Abstract in english The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are current [...] ly being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseases

A. Rosalie, David.

2000-01-01

229

5000 YEARS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN EGYPT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evolution of disease is one of medicine's most challenging questions. This paper considers the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt over a 5000 year period. Evidence from mummies demonstrates the presence of this disease in ancient Egypt, and several diagnostic laboratory methods are currently being developed and used to examine the palaeopathology of schistosomiasis in the mummies. This data will be compared with information being gathered about the disease in Egypt today. An Egyptian Mummy Tissue Bank, currently being established at Manchester University Museum, will provide a unique and important research for the current project, and also for future studies on the evolution of other diseasesComprender la evolución de las enfermedades es uno de los más grandes desafíos de la medicina. Este trabajo considera la epidemiología de schistosomiasis en Egipto a través de un período de 5000 años. La evidencia de las momias demuestra la presencia de la enfermedad en Egipto antiguo, por lo que actualmente se están desarrollando y usando varios métodos de diagnóstico de laboratorio para examinar la paleopatología de schistosomiasis en las momias. Estos datos serán comparados con la información que hoy se está obteniendo acerca de la enfermedad en Egipto. Actualmente, un Banco de Tejidos de Momias Egipcias, establecido en el Museo de la Universidad de Manchester proveerá un recurso único e importante para este proyecto, y para estudios futuros sobre la evolución de otras enfermedades

A. Rosalie David

2000-01-01

230

Environmental and Irradiation Effect on the Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Some Local Bacterial Isolates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty eight bacterial isolates were isolated from The Suez Gulf sea water from the coast of the El-Nasr Petroleum Company on Suez Canal and formation water from overhead of an oil well in western desert of Egypt named (M68). Sixteen bacterial isolates were obtained from The Suez Gulf sea water. Twelve bacterial isolates were obtained from formation water (M68). The bacterial isolates were screened for bio surfactant production by using emulsification activity and haemolytic activity. The most potent two isolates N8 and S8 were selected according to three parameters; the ability of isolate to grow and produce surfactant on wide range of ph, temperature and salinity. The most promising bacterial isolates were subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve their abilities for bio surfactant production which resulted in a passive effect on bio surfactant production

231

The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid agitation using a closely fitting instrument or by sonic or ultrasonic activation. This review highlights a way forward by understanding the physical processes involved through physical models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. (topical review)

232

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

2003-06-01

233

In vitro evaluation of root canal preparation using oscillatory and rotary systems in flattened root canals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation of flattened root canals using the following systems: Endo-Eze AET stainless steel oscillatory instruments (Ultradent and RaCe rotary NiTi instruments (FKG Dentaire. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 - Instrumentation with oscillatory Endo-Eze AET files (oscillatory technique; Group 2 - Instrumentation with rotary NiTi RaCe files (rotary technique. The teeth were decoronated, had their apices and coronal openings sealed with sticky wax and were embedded in crystal-clear orthophtalic polyester resin. The roots were sectioned transversally with diamond discs at 10 mm (middle third and 5 mm (apical third from the apex and the segments were reassembled for instrumentation. The sections were photographed before and after root canal instrumentation and evaluated with respect to whether the original root canal shape was modified by instrumentation. To evaluate the differences in the root canal shape before and after biomechanical preparation, scores were given regarding the instruments touch on the intracanal walls. RESULTS: In middle third of the root canals instrumented with the rotary system, there was a change in the original canal anatomy (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Under the tested conditions, Endo-Eze oscillatory system yielded the instrumentation of all flattened root canal walls, maintaining the canal original shape throughout the biomechanical preparation, and was more effective than RaCe rotary system.

Luis Cardoso Rasquin

2007-02-01

234

Morphology and clinical study of thoracic canal on computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In pathomorphological research of thoracic canal constriction, the optimal condition for computed tomography for the thoracic canal were seeked using a skeletal model. Normally thoracic canal is oval at the high and low levels of the vertebra, and circular at the middle level. Constriction of the thoracic canal was found in the cases of developmental stenosis of the cervical vertebra. Morphologically, the canal was oval, depressed in anteroposterior direction, and this suggested narrowing of the canal in the sagittal diameter. There was correlationship between the sagittal diameter of the thoracic canal obtained by plain roentgenography and that obtained by CT. Therefore, the sagittal diameter measured by plain roentgenography can be an indicator for narrowing of the canal at the thoracic vertebral level. Narrowing of the thoracic canal was also observed in many cases of myelosis due to thoracic yellow ligament ossification. (Ueda, J.)

235

Cucullanus egyptae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cucullanidae) infecting the European eel Anguilla anguilla in Egypt. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 80 specimens of the European eel Anguilla anguilla were collected during the period from February 2013 to March 2014 at the coast of the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea, Egypt). A new species of parasitic nematodes was recovered and described as Cucullanus egyptae. It was found in the eel's intestine with a prevalence of 68.7%. The morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worms had a wide cephalic extremity with a slit-like oral aperture being surrounded by a cuticular ring and delimited internally by a row of small teeth in addition to four sub-median cephalic papillae and one pair of lateral amphids. Body measurements showed that the male worms were smaller than females measuring 7.5-8.9 mm (8.3?±?0.2) in length and 1.6-1.9 mm (1.8?±?0.1) in width. Females measured 12.9-13.5 mm (13.1?±?0.2) in length and 2.9-3.2 mm (3.1?±?0.1) in width. The posterior end of the males is provided with ten pairs of caudal papillae and two long spicules which are slightly sclerotized, equal in size measuring 0.59-0.65 mm (0.62?±?0.01) in length. Comparing the present worms with other species of the genus Cucullanus, several similarities were observed. However, peculiar new characteristics such as the precloacal sucker (especially the spicula length), the arrangement and the distribution of the post-cloacal papillae, and the position of the excretory pore make it reasonable to describe a new species. The sequence data of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) obtained from the present nematode supported its taxonomic position within the genus Cucullanus. The new species is closely related to the first clade of Spirurina and even more closely related to Cucullanus dodsworthi as a sister taxon with a high percentage of identity. The sequence of the recorded SSU rDNA of this parasite is deposited in the GenBank with the accession no. KF681520. It is proposed to name the new species C. egyptae as the first representative of Cucullanidae in Egypt with a new host record. PMID:25030116

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Morsy, Kareem; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mohammed, Sanna

2014-09-01

236

A radiographic study of mandibular canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1987-11-15

237

A radiographic study of mandibular canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

238

Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

Pahl, Ronald H.

1998-01-01

239

Public Libraries Development Reconsidered: The Case of Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the development and current decline of public libraries in Egypt based on a study of international influences which helped shape national discourses about development and provided the context for policymaking and resource allocation in Egypt. The role of UNESCO is examined, and further research is suggested. (LRW)

Bouri, Elizabeth N.

1994-01-01

240

Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut  

Science.gov (United States)

Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Function of lateral line canal morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. () examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. PMID:24920149

Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

2015-01-01

242

Contemporary diagnostic imaging of spinal canal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spinal canal tumors occur relatively rarely in comparison with intracranial mass lesions. Because of their unspecific clinical symptoms the imaging methods play fundamental role in diagnosis of these tumors. New imaging methods - computed tomography (CT) and especially magnetic resonance (MR) - the imaging procedure of choice in diagnosis of spinal canal tumors - markedly reduced the significance of the older ones, like plain X-ray films, myelography and angiography, which are used nowadays occasionally. MR should be performed as soon as possible in any patient in whom a spinal canal neoplastic pathology is clinically suspected. Very good results in evaluation of staging of neoplastic processes are obtained with positron emission tomography (PET). Biopsy of the tumor, which can be performed under CT guidance or in open MR units, makes possible the definitive diagnosis. According to the space of origin spinal canal tumors are divided into extradural, intradural extramedullary and intramedullary. The most frequent neoplasmatic lesions in the spinal canal, which can localize in each of the spaces mentioned above are metastases. The most uncommon are intramedullary tumors. Some lesions occupy two of neighbouring spaces, most often neurinomas, which as '' dumbbell '' tumors, involve extradural and intradural extramedullary spaces. (authors)

243

Oil pollution in the Red Sea — Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a coral area, Gulf of Suez  

Science.gov (United States)

The Red Sea is rapidly developing as one of the world's largest offshore oil production areas. It also comprises a wide range of tropical marine habitats, many of which are internationally recognised for their conservation, scientific, economic or recreational value. Past oil production, refining and transport have resulted in chronic pollution of some areas, and environmental programmes to protect new areas of development from pollution damage are assuming increasing importance. At the initiative of an Egyptian oil company operating in the Gulf of Suez, an environmental protection and management scheme has been prepared for a new offshore oilfield and marine terminal at Ras Budran. This paper describes the form of the scheme and the results of its component environmental surveys. The development area comprises rich and diverse marine communities of fringing coral reefs, nearshore lagoons, seagrass beds, sandy beaches and fine sediments offshore. A baseline survey was designed following detailed discussion of the scope of the development with the company and a preliminary site visit, and the fieldwork was completed in October 1980. On the basis of the findings of the survey, a series of recommendations was made to the company, aimed at reducing environmental impacts during construction and operation to a minimum and acceptable level. These were subsequently implemented and the results of a post-construction survey in February 1983 are reported which show that environmental damage to the nearshore habitats during the construction phase had been relatively small and localised. Recently, the biological information obtained from the two surveys has also been incorporated into oil spill contingency plans.

Dicks, Brian

244

The epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt: Minya Governorate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk factors, prevalence, and intensity of infection with Schistosoma sp. and prevalence and magnitude of morbidity caused by schistosomiasis was assessed in a stratified random sample of 16,433 subjects from 2,409 households in 33 rural communities in Minya Governorate, Egypt. The prevalence of S. haematobium ranged from 1.9% to 32.7% among the communities and averaged 8.9%. The average intensity of infection was a geometric mean egg count (GMEC) of 8.5 per 10 ml of urine and ranged from 1.6 to 30.9. Prevalence was maximum (18-20%) in those 10-20 years of age and higher in males than in females. Intensity of infection followed the same pattern. Infection with S. mansoni was present almost exclusively in a single village, confirming spread of this species up the Nile River and its focality in Minya. Risk factors for S. haematobium infection were an age from 11 to 20; male gender; males bathing in, women washing clothing or utensils in, and children swimming or playing in canals; and a history of, or treatment for, schistosomiasis. Recent history of burning micturition was associated with infection in children but not in adults, while a history of blood in urine correlated with S. haematobium infection in both age groups. Reagent strip-detected hematuria and proteinuria were highly associated, particularly in children, with S. haematobium infection. The presence of hepatomegaly or splenomegaly on physical examination was not associated with S. haematobium ova in the urine. Hepatomegaly, as measured by ultrasonography in the midclavicular line or the midsternal line, or ultrasonography-detected splenomegaly were not present more frequently in infected subjects than in uninfected subjects. Schistosoma ova were not detected more frequently in urine of subjects with ultrasonography-detected periportal fibrosis than in the urine from subjects without this finding. Ultrasonography-detected urinary bladder wall lesions were detected in only 6 (0.3%) subjects and obstructive uropathy was observed in 54 (2.7%) subjects. The absence of an association between prevalence of urinary tract morbidity and S. haematobium infections was surprising. Two possible explanations are 1) that repeated chemotherapy has reduced the prevalence of urinary tract morbidity and 2) that morbidity was not being detected by the ultrasonographic operators. PMID:10813502

Gabr, N S; Hammad, T A; Orieby, A; Shawky, E; Khattab, M A; Strickland, G T

2000-02-01

245

The epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt: Ismailia governorate.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multi-stage stratified sample of 12,515 individuals from 1,941 households in 42 villages in the Ismailia governorate of Egypt were surveyed for schistosomal infection. A subset of 2,390 subjects were surveyed for morbidity by physical and ultrasonographic examination. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in rural Ismailia was 42.9% and the geometric mean egg count (GMEC) was 93.3 eggs/gram of stool, with considerable variability between communities. Prevalence and intensity peaked in the 20-30-year-old age group and was higher in males than in females. Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium was very low: 1.8% and 3.5 ova/10 ml of urine GMEC, respectively. Canal water exposure risk factors for S. mansoni infection were males bathing (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2), females washing clothes (OR = 1.9), and children playing or swimming (OR = 2.3). Presence of in-house piped water supply and latrine lowered infection rates (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Histories of S. mansoni infection (OR = 1.6) or treatment (OR = 1.5) and blood in feces (OR = 3.5) were associated with infection. Hepatomegaly (16.0%) was more frequently detected than splenomegaly (3.6%) by physical examination, with both being more frequent in older age groups. Splenomegaly, but not hepatomegaly, was associated with presence of S. mansoni ova in stools (OR = 1.4) and the community burden of infection (P = 0.02). Ultrasonographically detected hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and periportal fibrosis (PPF) were detected in 43.0%, 17.4%, and 39.7% of the subjects, respectively. The higher grades of PPF were rare. Ultrasonographically detected splenomegaly, not hepatomegaly, was associated with S. mansoni infection, community burden of infection, and PPF. Risk factors for PPF were the same as for S. mansoni infection. There was a marginal association of PPF with infection and none (P = 0.33) with the intensity of infection in individuals or in the community. We conclude that in rural Ismailia, S. haematobium infection is rare but the prevalence and intensity of infection with S. mansoni is high. The risk of infection is associated with environmentally detected factors and behaviors. Hepatosplenic morbidity attributable to S. mansoni infection is low, presumably because of the favorable effect of wide application of praziquantel therapy. PMID:10813498

Nooman, Z M; Hasan, A H; Waheeb, Y; Mishriky, A M; Ragheb, M; Abu-Saif, A N; Abaza, S M; Serwah, A A; El-Gohary, A; Saad, A; El-Sayed, M; Fouad, M

2000-02-01

246

Computed tomography of the thoracic spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to obtain the adequate CT picture of thoracic spinal canal using a cadaver vertebra. EMI CT 5005 scanner was used and 13 mm thick slice of cadaver vertebra was obtained. After obtaining of CT picture, we made a same thick specimen of cadaver vertebra and compared CT picture to softex x-ray picture. The best condition of thoracic spinal canal by CT showed nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle of thoracic spinal cannal was permitted within 100 in measurement and in configuration. The precise location of being scanned was known by using different length of radiopaque catheter markers taped on a patient's back and comparing CT pictures to x-ray picture. Normal thoracic spinal canal was examined and we observed normal thoracic spinal configurations and confirmed that the ratio of frontal diameter to sagittal diameter had a pattern. (author)

247

[Alcock's canal syndrome and perineal neuralgia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen cases of perineal neuralgia are reviewed, the lesion arising from a canal syndrome due to compression of the pudendal nerve in the ischiorectal fossa (Alcock's canal syndrome). The clinical characteristic of the pain syndrome was its postural nature with the existence of a true Tinel sign (increased pain on sitting). Diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by a perineal electrophysiological which showed peripheral neurogenic signs on examination of perineal muscles and an increase in sacral evoked potentials latencies (latency of bulbocavernous or clitorido-anal reflexes, cortical somesthetic evoked potential from pudendal nerve). Treatment was infiltration of cortisone derivatives into the pudendal nerve canal, under CT guidance because of the difficulty of infiltrating the pudendal nerve by an external perineal approach. Results were satisfactory in 9 of the 15 patients. PMID:3187310

Amarenco, G; Lanoe, Y; Ghnassia, R T; Goudal, H; Perrigot, M

1988-01-01

248

Interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Opinion is still divided over a standard surgical procedure to decompress lumbar canal stenosis. Both, laminectomy with or without facetectomy and foraminotomy and interlaminar fenestration have been advocated. In the present communication interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis has been discussed. Sixteen consecutive patients (7 males and 9 females with clinical, neurological and radiological features of lumbar canal stenosis were treated by interlaminar (fenestration decompression. The age of onset of symptoms ranged between 22-57 years. Adjoining lamina around interlaminar space of involved segment along with ligamentum flavum and part of facet joint (undercutting facetectomy, extending laterally (foraminotomy were removed at single or multiple levels. Follow-up response (93.7% over a period of two and half years showed the results as good in 73.3% and fair in 26.7% of cases, with uniformly uneventful post-operative period.

Patond K

1999-10-01

249

Computed tomography in lumbar canal stenosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preoperative CT was done in 39 patients with lumbar canal stenosis. Marked symmetrical narrowing of the whole vertebral canal was seen in the group with nervous symptoms in the cauda equina. Deformed bilateral intervertebral joints were seen in the group with both nervous symptoms in the cauda equina and radicular sciatica. The lateral recess on the affected side was markedly narrowed by the projection of the upper and lower joints and herniation. In the group with radicular sciatica, the vertebral canal itself was not so narrowed, but the unilateral intervertebral joint was extremely deformed, causing a narrowing of the lateral recess. There were large differences in the angle of the left and right intervertebral joints. (Namekawa, K)

250

The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das soluções introduzidas no espaço peridural.

Edmundo Zarzur

1996-09-01

251

Demographic Surprises Foreshadow Change in Neoliberal Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

in the Egypt of 2008, half the population has known only one president, Husni Mubarak. And the rate of population growth, at its peak when Mubarak assumed office in 1981, has stopped declining as it had been in the 1990s. A new kind of population increase has begun. Such are the lessons of the provisional results of the Egyptian general population and housing census, conducted in November 2006 in accordance with the regular ten-year cycle. These demographic surprises have important implicatio...

Denis, Eric

2008-01-01

252

Horseshoe lung with cor triatriatum and partial atrioventricular canal defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cor triatriatum with partial atrioventricular canal defect is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. We report a case of cor triatriatum and partial atrioventricular canal defect in association with horseshoe lung. PMID:25548349

Garg, Pankaj; Mishra, Amit; Shah, Ritesh; Panchal, Jigar; Parmar, Divyakant

2015-01-01

253

GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

Benea Ciprian Beniamin

2009-01-01

254

CANALES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN Y COMPETITIVIDAD EN ARTESANÍAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se explica cómo la relación entre canales de distribución y competitividad se ve influenciada por variables contextuales como el tipo de negocio, su ubicación, su antigüedad y el tipo de producto, en un ambiente de negocio que vive la artesanía en tres estados de la República Mexicana: Oaxaca, Jalisco y Guanajuato. La teoría central se enmarca en la mercadotecnia y sus estrategias. Los canales de distribución, dentro de la mezcla de mercadotecnia, sobresalen porque la creciente competencia global hace más difícil entrar, controlar y mantenerse en cualquier mercado.

Jos\\u00E9 de la Paz Hern\\u00E1ndez Gir\\u00F3n

2002-01-01

255

Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization. PMID:23066258

Vijayaraghavan, Rangasamy; Mathian, Veerabathran Mahesh; Sundaram, Alagappan Meenakshi; Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Vinodh, Selvaraj

2012-08-01

256

Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and related irrigation projects in Southwestern Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed to investigate the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and the major land reclamation projects that use excess lake water in southwest Egypt. Egypt constructed (1964-1971) the Aswan High Dam, creating the Lake Nasser reservoir (length: 500 km; average width: 12 km) and is constructing the Tushka Canal to channel 5.0×10 9 m 3/yr of Lake Nasser water to reclaim 0.5×10 6 acres of desert lands. The model, constrained by regional-scale groundwater flow and near-lake head data, was successfully calibrated to temporal-observation heads from 1970 to 2000 that reflect variations in lake levels. Predictive analyses for the subsequent 50-yr period were conducted by employing the calibrated model. Simulations of long-term effects, beyond year 2000, of Lake Nasser on recharge and temporal groundwater head (base case scenario) show that recharge from the lake will continue at a much slower rate than during the 30-yr period of 1970-2000 (with approximately 86% reduction in 30-yr recharge). The modest projected pumping and injection activities in the study area are not expected to cause major deviation in the overall head distribution compared to the base case scenario. The investigation of effects of the new irrigation land development on the Nubian aquifer indicated that many of the proposed irrigation areas, especially those with small aquifer thickness, will become fully saturated with introduced water, resulting in potential flooding and salinization.

Kim, Jeongkon; Sultan, Mohamed

2002-05-01

257

VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases o...

Janet Kirilova; Snezhanka Topalova-Pirinska; Dimiter Kirov

2014-01-01

258

Coordinated model predictive reach control for irrigation canals:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irrigation canals are large-scale systems, covering vast geographical areas, and consisting of many interconnected canal reaches that interact with control structures such as pumps and gates. The control of such irrigation canals is usually done in a manual way, in which a human operator travels along the irrigation canal to adjust the settings of the gates and pumps in order to obtain a desired water level. In this paper we discuss how distributed model predictive control (MPC) can be applie...

Negenborn, R. R.; Overloop, P. J.; Schutter, B.

2009-01-01

259

Adaptive Predictive Controller Applied to an Open Water Canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper concerns to the application of adaptive control to a large scale water canal experimental plant. Water canals are complex spatially distributed systems which aim at distributing water either for irrigating, or domestic, or industrial purposes. In this paper a predictive adaptive control algorithm (MUSMAR) is applied to a large scale experimental water canal prototype. The experimental facilities with a fully instrumented canal, a PLC network and a SCADA system, are br...

Rato, Lui?s; Salgueiro, Pedro; Lemos, Joa?o Miranda; Rijo, Manuel

2007-01-01

260

Root canal preparation techniques using nickel-titanium rotary instruments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction The main purpose of endodontic treatment is to clean the root canal system, eliminate the infected and toxic contents, and shape it in order to get a tridimensional obturation. The aim of this paper is to inform dental practitioners about crown-down techniques for root canal preparation using nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Root canal preparation Today most endodontists believe that root canal preparation is more officious, cleaning and shaping are better, if pre-enlargement ...

Brkani? Tatjana; Živkovi? Slavoljub; Drobac Milan

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Isotope techniques in the study of groundwater in the eastern Nile Delta and the transport of pollution from drainage water into Lake Manzala, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-two water samples were collected from eastern Nile Delta groundwater, Lake Manzala, surface water and main drainage stations during 1993-1995. The water samples were analysed for major, minor and tracer elements and for oxygen-18 and deuterium. The hydrochemical studies indicate that the groundwater of the eastern Delta can be classified into three groups of low, medium and high salinity. The fresh water is mostly encountered near the Nile and near irrigation canals in the south. The brackish and saline water occurs near the Bitter Lakes, the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea. The salinity is attributed to the leaching of terrestrial salts and to seawater intrusion. Nitrate concentration was found to be relatively high because of extensive fertilizer use. In general, the stable isotope contents of groundwater differ widely depending upon the contribution of each recharging source (present Nile, old Nile, precipitation, seawater intrusion and possibly palaeowater contribution in some localized areas). Investigation of Lake Manzala revealed that the water salinity is rather inhomogeneous, and high concentrations of trace elements were detected, which could be attributed to drainage water discharging into the lake. A stable isotope balance was developed to estimate seepage and evaporation from the lake. (author)

262

33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117...Requirements Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan...Drawbridge, SR 3, mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open...

2010-07-01

263

75 FR 45477 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Bourg, LA  

Science.gov (United States)

...lift span bridge across Company Canal, mile 8.1, at Bourg, Terrebonne...lift span bridge across Company Canal at mile 8.1 in Bourg, Terrebonne...Elevation 3.0 feet Mean Sea Level. In accordance with 33 CFR...of the bridge along Company Canal or Bayou Terrebonne. The...

2010-08-03

264

The canals of Mars - An assessment after Mariner 9  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lowellian canal network has been compared with the results of Mariner 9 photography of Mars. A small number of canals may correspond to rift valleys, ridge systems, crater chains, and linear surface albedo markings. But the vast bulk of classical canals correspond neither to topographic nor to albedo features, and appear to have no relation to the real Martian surface.

Sagan, C.; Fox, P.

1975-01-01

265

Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal aor portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present

266

Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present.

Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-12-01

267

Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role. PMID:19892106

York, George K; Steinberg, David A

2010-01-01

268

Avian influenza vaccination in Egypt: Limitations of the current strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vaccination of domestic poultry against avian influenza (AI) has been used on a large-scale in South East Asia since 2003 and in Egypt since 2006 to fight H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics. The decision to use mass vaccination against HPAI in Egypt was taken as an emergency measure based on positive impact of such control measures in Vietnam and the People's Republic of China. However, three years on, the impact on disease control of AI vaccination in Egypt has been very...

Peyre, Marisa; Samaha, Hamid; Makonnen, Yilma Jobre; Saad, Ahmed; Abd-elnabi, Amira; Galal, Saber; Ettel, Toni; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Lubroth, Juan; Roger, Franc?ois; Domenech, Joseph

2009-01-01

269

Cavernous hemangioma of the internal auditory canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemangiomas rarely occur in the internal auditory canal. These tumors originate from the capillary bed of the epineurium surrounding the nerve and can either compress or infiltrate the nerve. Depending on location and the nerve of origin, these lesions can cause severe and progressive sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, facial nerve palsy, or vertigo even when they are relatively small. The presence of a small contrast-enhancing tumor in the internal auditory canal accompanied by severe sensorineural hearing loss and facial nerve palsy, should raise the suspicion of a hemangioma. Early recognition and surgical intervention in these benign tumors may improve the chance of preserving the functional integrity of the facial nerve and provides better results after nerve reconstruction. Due to their relative small size, the temporal bone CT-scan may show no evidence of pathological widening of the internal auditory canal or the typical intralesional calcifications at the time of presentation. MRI with Gadolinium is the imaging method of choice and a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for the diagnosis of these tumors. In this paper we report about a 51-year-old male presented with right-sided sensory-neural deafness and facial nerve palsy, accompanied by severe tinnitus and ipsilateral loss of vestibular function due to a cavernous hemangioma in the internal auditory canal. PMID:17235534

Lenarz, Minoo; Durisin, Martin; Kamenetzki, Petr; Becker, Hartmut; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Lenarz, Thomas

2007-05-01

270

33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the S1 bridge, mile 0.4 at Lockport, shall open on signal; except that, from 6 p.m. to 10 a.m. the draw shall open on signal if at least four...

2010-07-01

271

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

272

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

273

LOVE CANAL MONITORING PROGRAM. VOLUME 1  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the prime contractor activities during the monitoring phase of the Love Canal project. Since GCA Corporation was only responsible for data collection, no analytical results appear in this report. The program involved a multifaceted sampling and analytical e...

274

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

275

In vitro evaluation of root canal preparation using oscillatory and rotary systems in flattened root canals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation of flattened root canals using the following systems: Endo-Eze AET stainless steel oscillatory instruments (Ultradent) and RaCe rotary NiTi instruments (FKG Dentaire). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human mandibul [...] ar incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 - Instrumentation with oscillatory Endo-Eze AET files (oscillatory technique); Group 2 - Instrumentation with rotary NiTi RaCe files (rotary technique). The teeth were decoronated, had their apices and coronal openings sealed with sticky wax and were embedded in crystal-clear orthophtalic polyester resin. The roots were sectioned transversally with diamond discs at 10 mm (middle third) and 5 mm (apical third) from the apex and the segments were reassembled for instrumentation. The sections were photographed before and after root canal instrumentation and evaluated with respect to whether the original root canal shape was modified by instrumentation. To evaluate the differences in the root canal shape before and after biomechanical preparation, scores were given regarding the instruments touch on the intracanal walls. RESULTS: In middle third of the root canals instrumented with the rotary system, there was a change in the original canal anatomy (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Under the tested conditions, Endo-Eze oscillatory system yielded the instrumentation of all flattened root canal walls, maintaining the canal original shape throughout the biomechanical preparation, and was more effective than RaCe rotary system.

Luis Cardoso, Rasquin; Fabíola Bastos de, Carvalho; Regina Karla de Pontes, Lima.

2007-02-01

276

Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective?Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods?Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results?Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion?Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students. PMID:23730547

Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

2012-06-01

277

Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular / Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la im [...] plantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C). Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegrados Abstract in english The mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the pr [...] esent study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtained of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C). The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

Iván Claudio, Suazo Galdames; Carlos Andrés, Morales Herrera; Mario Gonzalo, Cantín López; Daniela Alejandra, Zavando Matamala.

2007-12-01

278

Economic evaluation of radiation inhibition of potato sprouting in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study reviews the status of potato cultivation in Egypt, annual production, local consumption and export volume during the period 1976-1978. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual crop loss due to sprouting, fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of potatoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of potatoes harvested in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of potatoes for sprouting inhibition has always been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Extensive studies have been carried out in Egypt since the 1960s to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated potatoes. Nevertheless, not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. This is the objective of the paper. (author)

279

Policy aspects of electricity and the environment in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt is facing many challenges, most of which stem from the high population growth rate. Efforts to improve the standard of living require substantive development of Egypt's economic, technical, community, electricity and energy infrastructures. Over the past three decades, the electric energy demand has increased more than 15 fold, requiring development of sound national electric energy policies based on rational use of indigenous resources which are, unfortunately, limited. Realization of such policies faces a number of economic and social constraints, all of which need great efforts to overcome. Environmental considerations within Egypt's electric energy policies are focusing more attention on the degradation in environmental conditions, which is in line with growing public concern about this issue, both locally and internationally. An alarming increase in pollution levels in the urban areas of Egypt has necessitated the creation of new laws to curb pollution of the air and the environment, in addition to adhering to strict standards for effluents from thermal power stations. (author)

280

78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

...East. Over the next ten years, Egypt plans to expand its electricity capacity to...Investment announced the following major plans for infrastructure development: The...priority post-revolution), airports and seaports will need upgraded security...

2013-02-04

 
 
 
 
281

The political economy of food price policy in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study focuses on the period 2004-09 during which Egypt experienced food crisis. The political economy context on how the government responded to the crisis is analysed while pinpointing to what extent there was a pass-through effect from international to domestic prices. The complexity of food price policy issues and their entanglement with poverty, agricultural, and economic policies in Egypt together with the structural aspects of the food subsidy policies are discussed and evaluated fr...

Ghoneim, Ahmed Farouk

2012-01-01

282

Perceived stress among tomorrow’s attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: Few data are available on the level and sources of stress among law students in the Middle East generally and in Egypt specifically. We conducted this study to identify the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among law students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study covered 426 law students selected through a stratified cluster sampling method. The questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items on so...

Mostafa Amr; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

2010-01-01

283

Mycotoxigenic fungi in peanuts from different geographic regions of Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand the importance of mycotoxigenic fungi in Egyptian peanuts, samples from five regions (Alexandria, El-Beheira, El-Sharqiya, El-Daqahelaya in northern Egypt and Asyut, southern Egypt) in two seasons (2007, 2008) were collected. Aspergillus was consistently the most frequent genus in seeds and in- shell peanuts and was the dominant mycotoxigenic component of the mycobiota. There was no direct correlation between the moisture content of the samples and the fungal p...

Sultan, Y.; Magan, Naresh

2010-01-01

284

Egypt:- Setting the Rules for the Tunisian Democratic Transition - OECD  

... Alaa Kotb, vice president of the State Council of Egypt. The workshop included discussions on the experiences of Portugal, Chile and the Czech Republic .    Workshop Outcomes   Participants agreed that the group, initially composed by Tunisia and Egypt, could be extended to countries that announce constitutional reform. The work of the Task Force will be supported by OECD peers who will share their experience on the transition process to democracy.    Seminar Overview   Popular demands for democracy and good governance have produced unprecedented political ...

285

Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

1992-01-01

286

Plant Fragments from Tufa Deposits (Quaternary, Kharga Oasis, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Impressions of fragments of dicotyledon (Acer, Dicotylophyllum, Ficus, Salix and monocotyledon (Cyperus leaves are described from Quaternary Tufa deposits in Kharga Oasis, Egypt. The present record of Acer, Dicotylophyllum, Salix and Cyperus is the first from Quaternary strata. All fossils have not been recorded from Kharga Oasis except Ficus. Fossil remains of Salix and probably also of Acer are recorded for the first time from Egypt.

Mona H. Darwish

2002-01-01

287

Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses / Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los def [...] ectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V) sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M)). Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en todos los niveles. Las alturas de los primeros dos cuerpos vertebrales lumbares mostraron variabilidad en los grupos adyacentes. Lo mismo se observó en los tres siguientes, que crecieron constantemente con el crecimiento de los fetos. El canal sacro mostró un crecimiento variable en longitud en los diferentes grupos. El crecimiento constante en la longitud y el diámetro del canal lumbar pueden ser utilizados para determinar la edad aproximada de los fetos por razones médico-legales. Abstract in english Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an [...] accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V) based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were anal

, Sumayya; Nafis A, Faruqi; Mohd Salahuddin, Ansari; Farah, Ghaus.

2011-09-01

288

Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World  

Science.gov (United States)

While ancient Egyptian civilization has captured the public interest and imagination in recent decades, this well-designed site from the National Geographic Society places its focus on the pyramids created several millennia ago. In the site's most compelling feature, titled Explore the Pyramids, visitors can scroll across the different pyramids, revealing their interior organization and a number of facts about their construction and so on. A brief timeline also gives some information about each of the different Egyptian dynasties. Educators will find much to enjoy here, as the site provides different lesson plans for students, complete with critical questions for discussion and lesson objectives. Finally, there is an online journal written by National Geographic reporter Nancy Gupton that documents her own personal experiences traveling around the pyramids of Egypt.

2002-01-01

289

Status of marine protected areas in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

Samy, M.

2011-06-01

290

Hezbollah’s Man in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In November 2008, Egyptian authorities broke up what they said was a Hezbollah network plotting attacks in Egypt. While some of the charges appear to have been exaggerated, and it is clear that not all those arrested were in fact Hezbollah operatives, a careful examination reveals that a Hezbollah network was, in fact, operating on Egyptian soil. That it was originally tasked with carrying out neither surveillance nor attacks makes the case all the more intriguing, especially when compared with other cells that faced similar reassignments. As a case study, the Hezbollah network—which demonstrated the use of several known Hezbollah modus operandi—underscores how Hezbollah operates around the world in general, and in the Middle East in particular.

Matthew Levitt

2014-04-01

291

Bronze Age Acrobats : Denmark, Egypt, Crete  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A Danish eighteenth-century find of some bronze figurines tells the story of the practising of similar ritual performances across Bronze Age Europe from Egypt to Scandinavia. The Danish figurines, as well as Swedish rock carvings, show backwards-bending female acrobats doing backward handsprings. The exact same appearance is found on Egyptian depictions related to ceremonies and festivals.OnMinoan Crete backwards-bent acrobats are related to bull leaping and bull ceremonies. Despite local variations, backwards-bent acrobatic performances carried out by topless female actorswere part of the immaterial, ritual and cosmological exchange that characterized the second and early firstmillennium BC.Beliefs and ritual practices went hand in hand with the adoption of a series of elite items and an aristocratic lifestyle, thereby creating a unique and fascinating European Bronze Age.

Iversen, Rune

2014-01-01

292

Dealing with the Increasing Public Debt in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the magnitude of the public debt problem in Egypt and to provide some guidelines for policymakers in dealing with the increasing public debt. In the paper, the issue of public debt is looked at as a result of the interaction of fiscal policy and the economic performance, and not as a statistical concept only. It consists of four sections and an introduction. Section (1 provides an identification of the magnitude of the public debt problem in Egypt. Section (2 presents a forecast of the level of public debt in Egypt till the year 2020 using a VAR model. Section (3 provides a forecast for the size of the public debt in Egypt under various scenarios where both economic growth and fiscal policy were considered. Section (4 summarizes the findings and policy recommendations that came out of this study. The conclusions drawn from this research may be summarized as follows. (1 Based on the model used in the paper and public debt indicators, public debt in Egypt is expected to be sustainable till the year 2020. (2 Economic growth has a very strong impact on reducing public debt in Egypt. (3 Fiscal consolidation is very important in reducing public debt because of its impact on economic growth. However, in the process of fiscal consolidation, the Egyptian government has to consider rationalizing spending and not to cut investment spending.

Ali A. Massoud

2015-01-01

293

Occurrence of Fungal Species and Mycotoxins from Decayed Sugarcane (Saccharrum officinarum) in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-three fungal species belonging to forty-three genera were isolated from 40 samples of Saccharrum officinarum (collected from Naage-Hamadi canal in Qena Governorate, Egypt). Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Mucor and Pythium were the most common genera on the two isolation media. The dominant species of Aspergillus were A. niger, A. flavus, A. ustus, A. terreus and A. wentii. Some species were dominant on 40 g/l sucrose such as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Emericella nidulans, Trichoderma viride, Torula herbarum and Mamaria echinoeotryoides, while the dominant species on 10 g/l glucose were Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus niger, Torula herbarum and Trichoderma viride. Mycotoxins including aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone and diacetoxyscirpenol were detected in the examined samples of Saccharrum officinarum. The mycelial growth of A. flavus, A. niger, Fusarium moniliforme and Torula herbarum decreased with the increase in Dimethoate concentrations, although 25 ppm was less effective than the higher levels of the insecticide (75~200 ppm). Dimethoate stimulated the activity of Go-T in A. niger, F. moniliforme and T. harbarum, while the Go-T activity was inhibited in A. flavus with the Dimethoate treatments. PMID:24049478

Abd-Elaah, Gamalat A; Soliman A, Samya

2005-06-01

294

Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

2010-07-01

295

Dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a condition of the inner ear wherein the temporal bone adjacent to the vestibular apparatus thins or erodes completely. It has no clear epidemiological predisposing factors that have been identified to date. Its diagnosis is made difficult by a clinical presentation that often overlaps with other pathologies of the ear. Symptoms of SCD are believed to result from a "third-window" phenomenon, which disrupts the transmission of acoustic energy in the inner ear. Symptoms, when present, may change or worsen over time, confounding the diagnosis. We present a case of SCD of the posterior canal that mimicked Meniere's disease for several decades. We also discuss the clinical findings that may steer clinical suspicion towards this diagnosis. PMID:25241030

Peress, Lilia; Telian, Steven A; Srinivasan, Ashok

2015-01-01

296

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of External Auditory Canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma is extremely rare tumour that accounts for approximately 5% of primary malignancy of external auditory canal. These tumours are related with a high risk of recurrences and significant morbidities from surgical management and adjuvant radiotherapy. Despite the aggressive management for these tumours, many patients succumb to distant metastasis, making overall prognosis of these tumours poor. Although ACC of EAC has been reported in 5th decade, but its occurrence in young patient is very rare. We report a rare case of ACC in a young 22 years old female, who presented with ear canal mass and ear pain. Biopsy suggested mass to be ACC. Patient underwent wide local excision followed by adjuvant radiotherapy.

Sanjeev Bhagat

2012-04-01

297

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

Martin, F T

2012-01-31

298

Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most important developments in the existence of human society was the successful shift from a subsistence economy based on foraging to one primarily based on food production derived from cultivated plants and domesticated animals. The shift to plant food production occurred in only a few independent centers around the world and involved a commitment to increased sedentism and social interaction and to permanent agricultural fields and canals. One center was Peru, where early civili...

Dillehay, Tom D.; Eling, Herbert H.; Rossen, Jack

2005-01-01

299

Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

Young, O

2009-02-01

300

Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

Young, O

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

Periodismo ambiental en Canal Sur Televisión  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El autor estudia el origen histórico del periodismo ambiental, la evolución en España y Andalucía y su aparición en Canal Sur TV Realiza un análisis sobre la información medioambiental, especialidad del periodismo que en la década de los noventa despierta nuevamente gran interés entre el público. La televisión autonómica ha dedicado, desde su creación numerosos programas sobre el medio ambiente. Actualmente sus Servicios Informativos tienen la sección Medio Ambiente. De la impor...

Lic. Miguel Montaño Montaño

1999-01-01

302

Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

Shanahan, D J

2011-07-01

303

Anal canal plasmacytoma - An uncommon presentation site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are rare plasma cell tumors that arise outside the bone marrow. They are most often located in the head and neck region, but may also occur in the other locations. The lower gastrointestinal EMP represents less than 5% of all cases, and location in the anal canal is exceedingly rare. Aim: We present an exceedingly rare case of anal canal plasmacytoma, aiming to achieve a better understanding of this rare entity. Methods: We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a bulky mass in the anal canal. The lesion measured about 6 cm and invaded in all layers of the anal canal wall. The biopsy was performed and revealed a round and plasmocitoid cell population with a solid growth pattern and necrosis. The tumoral cells have express CD79a and CD138 with lambda chains. There was no evidence of disease in other locations and these features were consistent with the diagnosis of an extra-osseous plasmacytoma. The patient was submitted to conformal radiotherapy 50.4 Gy total dose, 1.8 Gy per fraction. After 24 months, the patient is asymptomatic and the lesion has completely disappeared. Conclusions: EMP accounts for approximately 3% of plasma cell malignancies. The median age is about 60 years, and the majority of patients are male. The treatment of choice for extramedullary plasmacytoma is radiation therapy in a dosage of about 50 Gy. Patients should be followed-up for life with repeated bone marrow aspiration and protein studies to dmarrow aspiration and protein studies to detect the development of multiple myeloma. (authors)

304

Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the...

Vijayaraghavan, Rangasamy; Mathian, Veerabathran Mahesh; Sundaram, Alagappan Meenakshi; Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Vinodh, Selvaraj

2012-01-01

305

The crazy project – Canal Istanbul Il “Crazy Project” - Canale di Istanbul  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign. The proposed project consisted of construction of an entirely new city, an airport, a seaport and recreational areas. But the most important and striking element was a new maritime transportation canal which is to be constructed as an alternative to the Bosphorus Strait. Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it has been initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, and no scientific or technical study about the feasibility and environmental impacts of such a project has been presented, the “crazy” project immediately set a large number of debates among scholars and professionals. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to technological and legal possibilities for construction, feasibility of the canal in operational terms, potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment, international relations and urban life. Since the only information about the project was a digital animation, presented in the election speech of the Prime Minister, there is little information about the scope of the project. Such large scale investments in Istanbul have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector on one hand and social and economic shifts on the other. The “crazy” project initiated by the ruling party which is known to be ambitious in real estate projects has therefore raised hot debates across scholars and professionals. A variety of articles were produced in response, discussing the scope of the project and its potential impacts on the environment, the city of Istanbul, Turkey’s international relations and the economy of Turkey. However, these articles often focused only on the fictional “Canal”, and neglected the full scope of the project. Since the project is ambitious, large, but little is known about its exact location and land use pattern, it deserves an evaluation with a wider perspective than current articles that may be found in popular science magazines or daily newspapers. In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated mostly according to the speech of the PM, which provides basic motivations and claims for the project. The second group of sources is the past ideas and projects of an artificial canal initiated almost 500 years ago. The third group of sources consists of scientific and journal articles published in the Turkish media after the speech. We try to describe challenges and limitations which the project is likely to face by implying a multi-perspective view. Then we speculate on the implementation approach, basing on the current planning experience and the recently approved Master Plan of Istanbul. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

Mete Ba?ar Bayp?nar

2011-11-01

306

Joint inversion of VES and TEM data for investigation of geothermal resources and sea water intrusion at Hammam Mousa hot spring, Sinai, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Geoelectrical methods are pioneer in geothermal resources exploration. With the advent of computing technology, it has become convenient to apply sophisticated data analysis and joint inversion to different field data sets. Numerous studies have shown that, the joint interpretation of galvanic and inductive data, where a single model satisfies both data sets, will generally enhance the resolution of the subsurface resistivity structure. Thus, the inclusion of inductive data in the VES data set is expected to reduce problems with layer suppression, reduce the low and high resistivity equivalences that may be encountered with this method. In this work, DC resistivity and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at Hammam Mousa area, Sinai, Egypt to explore the geothermal resources, groundwater aquifer and the effect of sea water invasion on this aquifer. The field survey comprises 19 DC resistivity soundings (VESes) with AB/2 up to 1000m and 27 transient electromagnetic (TEM) stations using a square loop of 25 m side length. Both data sets were firstly inverted in 1-D scheme using a nonlinear least-squares method and gave a layered-earth resistivity model. Besides, the joint interpretation of both VES and TEM data, using the available geological information as a constraining factor, could successfully enhance the inversion results. The geoelectrical cross section resulted from the inversion process shows the effect of the Suversion process shows the effect of the Suez Gulf water intrusion in the western part of the study area. Meanwhile, hot water reduces the resistivity values drastically near the hot spring.

307

Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the 'S' shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an 'S' shaped root canal. PMID:20351976

Reuben, Joseph; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Vasanthi, Santhanam; Priya; Vijayalakshmi

2008-10-01

308

Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the ?S? shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an ?S? shaped root canal.

Reuben Joseph

2008-01-01

309

Root canal preparation techniques using nickel-titanium rotary instruments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The main purpose of endodontic treatment is to clean the root canal system, eliminate the infected and toxic contents, and shape it in order to get a tridimensional obturation. The aim of this paper is to inform dental practitioners about crown-down techniques for root canal preparation using nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Root canal preparation Today most endodontists believe that root canal preparation is more officious, cleaning and shaping are better, if pre-enlargement of coronal two thirds is performed first, and shaping of the apical part later. Machine driven rotary instruments provide much quicker and better root canal preparation. Conclusion Contemporary endodontic rotary files vary in regard to their taper, cutting blades, guiding tip and material they are made of. The usage of rotary nickel-titanium files adds a new quality to root canal preparation.

Brkani? Tatjana

2005-01-01

310

Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

311

SCADA system with predictive controller applied to irrigation canals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper applies a model predictive controller (MPC) to an automatic water canal with sensors and actuators controlled by a network (programmable logic controller), and supervised by a SCADA system (supervisory control and a data acquisition). This canal is composed by a set of distributed sub-systems that control the water level in each canal pool, constrained by discharge gates (control variables) and water off-takes (disturbances). All local controllers are available through an industria...

Figueiredo, Joa?o; Botto, Miguel; Rijo, Manuel

2013-01-01

312

Research on Canal System Operation Based on Controlled Volume Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An operating simulation mode based on storage volume control method for multireach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved algorithm was proposed, that is the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pools, the simulation results indicate that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool can be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm was adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand...

Zhiliang Ding; Changde Wang

2009-01-01

313

Alternative Ear-Canal Measures Related to Absorbance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level (SIL), (2) forward-pressure level (FPL), (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance (TDR), and (4) cochlear reflectance (CR). These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wide-band stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from abs...

Neely, Stephen T.; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S.

2013-01-01

314

Design and implementation of an irrigation canal SCADA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Portugal all of the upstream controlled canal systems work with flexible water delivery schedules and therefore canal operational losses can be significant. Real-time technologies can allow the canal managers to continuously compare the real operation with its optimal or target value and to take appropriate corrective steps as required and minimize the water operational losses. The paper presents the design, field solutions and tuning of an implemented SCADA system on a Portuguese upstrea...

Rijo, Manuel

2005-01-01

315

Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shaalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration. They were important to insure the acceptance and success of the proposed project that takes Egypt to a new era of environmental protection. (author)

316

A review on fascioliasis in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola species, is a disease of herbivorous animals. It has a worldwide distribution in a large variety of grass-grazing animals as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, horses and rabbits. In Egypt, donkeys and camels as well, are hosts for F. gigantica. Fascioliasis may occasionally affect man. Human infection causes serious hepatic pathological sequences that add to the already known threats to the liver of the Egyptian population. Two clinical stages are recognized in human fascioliasis. An acute stage coincides with the larval migration and worm maturation in the hepatic tissue, and a chronic stage coincides with the persistence of Fasciola worms in the bile ducts. Human infection with fascioliasis was very sporadic until the last three decades where clinical cases and outbreaks were reported. The estimated the number of people currently having fascioliasis to be 360,000 in Bolivia, 20,000 in Ecuador, 830,000 in Egypt, 10,000 in Islamic Republic of Iran, 742,000 in Peru, and 37,000 in Yemen. The total estimated number of people infected is 2.4 million in 61 countries and that the number at risk is more than 180 million throughout the world. Human fascioliasis has to be differentially diagnosed from some diseases as acute hepatitis, infection with other liver flukes as schistosomiasis, visceral toxocariasis, biliary tract diseases and hepatic amoebiasis. The parasitological diagnosis is based on identification of eggs in stool, duodenal contents or bile, also by the recovery of adult worm during surgical exploration, after treatment or at autopsy. However, the eggs may be present in very small number at irregular intervals, hence difficult to be found. Besides, the eggs may be transiently present in stool after ingestion of raw or undercooked liver from infected animals. The direct methods of diagnosing the egg are usually unsatisfactory. The symptoms may be present for several weeks before eggs are recovered in stool. Thus, the serologic tests are the alternative method of confirming early and extrabiliary human fascioliasis. However, cross-reactions with other helminthic antigen may confuse the interpretation of the results. PMID:12049266

Haseeb, Ahmad N; el-Shazly, Atef M; Arafa, Magdy A S; Morsy, Ayman T A

2002-04-01

317

Structural influence on the evolution of the pre-Eonile drainage system of southern Egypt: Insights from magnetotelluric and gravity data  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wadi Kubbaniya in the Western Desert of Egypt north of the City of Aswan has been interpreted as the downstream continuation of the Wadi Abu Subeira, comprising an ancient W- and NW-flowing river system originating from the Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Red Sea Hills which were uplifted during the Miocene in association with the opening of the Red Sea. This drainage system is thought to have been active before the onset of the N-flowing Egyptian Nile which started ˜6 Ma with the Eonile phase; an event that resulted in carving of ˜1000 km long canyon (the Eonile canyon) extending from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Aswan in the south due to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This study utilizes geophysical data to examine the role of regional tectonics and local structures in controlling the evolution of the pre-Eonile drainage system. Magnetotelluric (MT) and gravity surveys were conducted along two ˜5 km-long profiles across the NW-trending Wadi Kubbaniya. Two-dimensional (2D) inversion of MT data and gravity models indicate the Wadi Kubbaniya is filled with loosely-consolidated sandstone and conglomerate that extend to a depth of ˜150-200 m into Cretaceous sandstone formations which overlie Precambrian crystalline rocks. These results were evaluated in terms of two end-member models; an incision model in which the 150-200 m thick sedimentary rocks were considered as being deposited within an incised valley that was carved into bedrock, or a structural model in which the sedimentary rocks are considered as filling a NW-trending graben controlled by normal faults that deform the Cretaceous sandstone formations and the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks. Geological observations as well as supporting seismic data favor the interpretation that the Wadi Kubbaniya is a NW-trending graben similar to other extensional structures found 400 km northwest along-strike of Wadi Kubbaniya. These structures are impressively parallel to the western shorelines of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez suggesting a regional tectonic link between them. Strain localization of these grabens (which are likely Miocene in age) might have been facilitated by inherited Precambrian and Jurassic - Early Cretaceous structures, such as the NW-trending Najd fault system, the most dominant regional structural grain in the Red Sea Hills of Egypt as well as the NW-trending grabens, such as the Kom Ombo graben located ˜25 km to the northeast of Wadi Kubbaniya.

Roden, Jeff; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella; El-Qady, Gad; Tarabees, Elhamy Aly

2011-12-01

318

Le Canal du Midi au 17e siècle :  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pierre-Paul Riquet fit construire au 17e siècle le canal royal du Languedoc, qui devint ensuite le canal du Midi. En son temps, ce fut le projet européen le plus important. Inspiré par d'autres modèles de canaux construits depuis l'Antiquité, il servit de modèle ou d'exemples à beaucoup d'autres. Pour construire leur canal, Riquet et ses collaborateurs choisirent une approche systémique et surent concilier l'aspect global et les détails techniques du projet. Le financement du canal n...

Degos, Jean-guy; Prat Dit Hauret, Christian

2010-01-01

319

Radioactivity level of the gamma emitters in Ismailia Canal environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity level of the ?-emitting radionuclides was measured in the different component of Ismalia Canal (bottom sediment, biota and water) by ?-spectrometry. The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq/kg for the detected natural radionuclides. The annual external ?-dose to the living organisms in the canal, close to the sediment beds, was found to be in the range of 1.21±0.24 mSv/y and does not present any significant hazards when compared with the natural ?-ray background around the Ismalia Canal(IC) environment which ranges from 0.80 to 1.73 mSv/y. (orig.)

320

100 years of ion beams: Willy Wien's canal rays  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When Goldstein's report on the "positive light" (or what is known as "Kanalstrahlen", canal rays) in gas discharge tubes first appeared in 1886, Willy Wien had just finished his thesis at the Helmholtz Institute in Berlin. Eleven years later he performed his first experiments on canal rays and found [...] that they consisted of inert, charged and neutral particles. The charged component in canal rays could be de ected using electric and magnetic fields, enabling Wien to roughly determine their mass-to-charge ratio. Improving vacuum conditions and detection efficiency, Thomson finally resolved the lightest constituents of canal rays: the hydrogen ions H+ and H2+. This marked the beginning of mass spectrometry. The first mass spectrographs were parabola-image instruments being used by Thomson to discover isotopes. Until about 1923, canal rays became the most common ion source. Also Aston used canal rays as an ion source for the first double focussing mass spectrometer. - Wien continued his work on canal rays up to the end of his life (he died in 1928). He investigated their interaction with matter, i.e. the mean free path of canal rays in gases with respect to charge exchange and atomic excitation. His particular interest was addressed to the physics of light emission by canal rays, such as the line spectrum and the splitting of these lines in magnetic and electric fields, the Doppler effect and lifetimes.

Karl, Wien.

1999-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

322

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity. PMID:18943166

Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

2003-07-01

323

Mine detection in Egypt: Evaluation of new technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the central geographical location between Africa, Asia and Europe, Egypt was location for many battles. As a result of these battles, Egypt often cites a figure of twenty three million landmines and UXO emplaced in the country as a result of many wars since the World War II. The presence of such active mines caused many problems to Egypt. First, it obscures the development in the locations where it had been planted. Beside, many civilians and soldiers have been killed or maimed because of its unknown zones. Recently with the advances of geophysical techniques it becomes possible to use them in detecting landmines and UXO. Geoelectrical resistivity technique as a low cost, simple technique was used successfully to model the buried landmines and UXO objects in 2D. The technique was tested in Egypt using a newly adopted array of electrodes proposed by Kyushu University Mine Action Group (QMAG). The results are promising for future application using this tool in Egypt. Moreover, a new Advanced Landmine Imaging System (ALIS) developed at Tohoku University was also successfully evaluated at the Egyptian environment. The results show high efficiency for detecting both AP and AT mines. Accordingly, a new proposal for adopting both systems with robotic facility, to be applicable for wide area survey that can meet the Egyptian demand to solve the landmines problem there, is considered. (author)

324

Assessment of Urban Sprawl on El Minya Archeological Sites, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Egypt, thousands of known and unknown archaeological sites are at risk of destruction from urban sprawl and expanding development. Population growth is the main factor driven urban sprawl, Egypt’s population has witnessed a remarkable increase over the previous decades. The population rose from 35.3 million in 1970 to around 90 million today, doubling in less than 40 years. Hence, population issues are of the highest priority to the Government of Egypt. El Minya Governorate have a high population growth (i.e., 3.1% per year and hence the urban sprawl over the archeological sites in the desert fringes of the Nile valley is expected. Remote sensing and GIS are now providing new tools for advanced ecosystem management. The collection of remotely sensed data facilitates the synoptic analysis of earth’s system function patterning and change at local, regional and global scales. Overtime such data also provide an important link between intensive localized ecological research and regional, conservation and management of archeological areas. The basic premise in using remote sensing data and GIS for change detection is that the process can identify change between two or more dates that is uncharacteristic of normal variation. This research aims to assess the extent of urban sprawl and its impact on archeological sites in El Minya Governorate, Egypt.

G. El-Bayomi

2015-01-01

325

The electrical power equipment and services market in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a market overview of the electrical power equipment and services in Egypt and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Between 1997 and 2001, energy consumption in Egypt increased by 17 per cent. Electricity demand is expected to rise rapidly due to population and economic growth. Plans are underway to add 8,000 MW of installed energy capacity to Egypt's current 15,200 MW by 2010. Priority will be on providing universal access to electricity and reliability in rural areas. Egypt is also taking part in many international projects to link its electricity grid with nearby countries. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Recent legislation exempts foreign companies from corporation tax and from tax on income from movable capital for 5 to 10 years. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve electric power generation and transmission projects. Considerations for market-entry in Egypt were outlined. 29 refs., 3 tabsabs

326

The national waste management system in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislative umbrella. The legal framework is well defined by both the Decree No. 288 (1957) which allowed the establishment of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Commission (now it is the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA)) and the Law 59 (1960) which assigned the full responsibilities for licensing, management and control of the use of radioactive materials and the waste arisings to the AEA. The operational capabilities are allocated to the Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Centre (HLWMC). These capabilities include, beside the operators, the facilities for treating and conditioning liquid and solid radioactive waste. The liquid radioactive waste facility has been completed under the IAEA Technical Assistance Project. The facility can treat 10 m3/day of low level liquid radioactive waste and 2 m3/ day of medium level liquid waste. The facility was commissioned in December 1993. It uses three methods for treating liquid radioactive waste: precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. Sludges and concentrates resulting from the treatment are conditioned by cementation in the cementation plant which is a part of the facility. The solid radioactive waste treatment includes compaction and incineration. The compacted waste will be conditioned by cementation in the cementation plant. 10 refs, 4 figsefs, 4 figs

327

Atom Trap, Krypton-81, and Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

We are developing the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method for the analysis of two long-lived rare krypton isotopes, ^81Kr (t_1/2=2.3 × 10^5 years, I.A. ˜ 10-13) and ^85Kr (t_1/2=10.8 years, I.A. ˜ 10-11). ^81Kr analyses can be used to determine the ages of old ice and groundwater in a range (5 × 10^4 - 2 × 10^6 years) beyond the reach of radio-carbon dating; Analyses of ^85Kr , a fission product of uranium and plutonium, can serve as a means to help verify compliance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In ATTA, individual atoms of the desired isotope are selectively captured into a laser trap and detected by observing the fluorescence of trapped atoms. The first application of ATTA is dating the ancient groundwater of the Nubian Aquifer underneath the Western Desert of Egypt. This is one of the largest aquifers in the world. The residence time of its water are of great interest in fundamental geology as well as for utilitarian reasons. This work marks the beginning of a useful tool in Earth sciences. * This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Nuclear Physics, under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

Lu, Zheng-Tian

2003-10-01

328

Implications of terrain movements in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

Nassar, Mohamed M.

1988-10-01

329

Ex-Vivo Evaluation of X-Ray Horizontal Angle for Separating the Canals of Four-Canal First Mandibular Molars  

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INTRODUCTION: A variety of mesial and distal projections have been suggested for separating the canals in a multi-canaled root. But there is no general agreement on the best angulation for each tooth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the X-ray horizontal angle for separating the canals of four-canal first mandibular molars.

Haghani, Jahangir; Raoof, Maryam; Pourahmadi, Sadegh

2008-01-01

330

Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were analyzed by using Student's 't' test. Lumbar canal starts growing in length significantly in group III foetuses onward. There was consistency in the growth of lumbar canal diameters with gestational age at all levels. Heights of vertebral bodies of Ist two lumbar vertebrae showed variability in some adjacent groups. The same in the next three grew constantly with the growth of foetuses. Sacral canal showed variable growth in lengths in different groups. Steady growth in the length and diameter of the lumbar canal may be used for approximate age of foetuses for medicolegal reasons.La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los defectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M. Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en

Sumayya

2011-09-01

331

Effectiveness of a silicon-based root canal sealer for filling of simulated lateral canals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo in vitro foi avaliar a capacidade de um cimento a base de silicone, em obturar canais laterais simulados, em comparação a um cimento à base de oxido de zinco e eugenol e um cimento resinoso. Trinta dentes humanos unirradiculares extraídos foram selecionados, a abertura coroná [...] ria foi feita e o comprimento de trabalho foi determinado 1 mm aquém do forame apical. Foram confeccionados três canais laterais, um em cada terço radicular, em ambas as faces mesial e distal da raiz, usando um alargador 15 acoplado a um contra-ângulo em baixa rotação. Os canais foram instrumentados com sistema Protaper até a lima F3, sob irrigação com hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5%, seguido de EDTA. Os dentes foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=10) e obturados com o cimento de Grossman, RoekoSeal ou Sealer 26, pela técnica da condensação lateral da gutta-percha. Foram feitas tomadas radiografias pós-operatórias, projetadas em aumentos de 20X para avaliação da qualidade das obturações. Os dados foram analisados estaticamente pelo teste de Kruskal Wallis com nível de significância de 5%. Os resultados mostraram que o cimento de Grossman obturou um numero maior de canais laterais que o cimento RoekoSeal (p Abstract in english The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the ability of a silicon-based root canal sealer, compared to zinc oxide and eugenol and an epoxy resin-based sealers, for filling of simulated lateral canals. Thirty extracted single-rooted human teeth were selected, conventional access was made an [...] d the working length was established 1 mm from the apical foramen. Three simulated lateral canals, one in each root third (coronal, middle and apical) were prepared in both the mesial and distal surfaces of each tooth using a size 15 reamer adapted to a low-speed handpiece. Each root canal was instrumented using ProTaper rotary files up to file F3 at the working length, and then irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl followed by EDTA. The teeth were assigned to 3 groups (n=10), according to the root canal sealer: Roeko Seal (Group 1), Sealer 26 (group 2) and Grossman's sealer (Group 3). Gutta-percha cold lateral condensation technique was performed in all groups. Postoperative radiographs were taken and the images were projected for evaluation of the quality of lateral canal filling. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Kruskal Wallis test at 5% significance level. The results showed that Grossman's sealer filled a larger number of lateral canals than Roeko Seal (p

João Vicente Baroni, Barbizam; Matheus, Souza; Doglas, Cecchin; Jakob, Dabbel.

332

Missed canal...call from radix entomolaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive understanding of root and root canal morphology of primary teeth is valuable for successful endodontic therapy. A supernumerary root is a developmental anomaly which can affect any tooth. An extra root placed lingually (radix entomolaris) or buccally (radix paramolaris) can be seen in mandibular molars nonetheless; bilateral association of an additional root in deciduous mandibular molars is rare. This report aimed to describe the diagnosis, significance and management of an extra root in deciduous mandibular molars bilaterally in perspective of modern clinical paediatric endodontics. PMID:24626381

Patil, Anil; Shigli, Anand; Tamagond, Sridevi B; Pushpalatha, C

2014-01-01

333

[Perineal neuralgia and Alcock's canal syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

Perineal neuralgia is characterised clinically by pain (burning type of perineal pain) exacerbated in the sitting position. It is secondary to impairment of the internal pudendal nerve in its musculo-osteo-aponeurotic tunnel composed by the ischium and the obturator internus muscle (ischiorectal fossa or pudendal canal). As in any nerve tunnel syndrome, pre-existing neuropathy constitutes a predisposing factor and should therefore be identified. The diagnosis of pudendal tunnel syndrome is confirmed by perineal electrophysiological investigations (detection of neurogenic muscles of the perineal floor, increased sacral latency). Treatment consists of infiltration, possible repeated, of the pudendal tunnel with a sustained-release corticosteroid under CT guidance. PMID:2619263

Amarenco, G; Savatovsky, I; Budet, C; Perrigot, M

1989-01-01

334

CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

1993-06-01

335

Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000 years were obtained. As a key national cultural relic, candidate of the world cultural heritage, and route of the South-to-North Water Diversion, the China Great Canal is a worthy subject of a study. Results presented in this paper therefore have high realistic significance.

Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

2014-03-01

336

Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

Vujaškovi? Mirjana

2008-01-01

337

Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CB?CT) was used first. After the CB?CT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CB?CT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

2010-04-01

338

NRIAG's Effort to Mitigate Earthquake Disasters in Egypt Using GPS and Seismic Data  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been estimated that, during historical time more than 50 million people have lost their lives in earthquakes during ground shaking, such as soil amplification and/or liquefaction, landslides and tsunamis or its immediate aftereffects, as fires. The distribution of population takes generally no account of earthquake risk, at least on a large scale. An earthquake may be large but not destructive, on the other hand, an earthquake may be destructive but not large. The absence of correlation is due to the fact that, great number of other factors entering into consideration: first of all, the location of the earthquake in relation to populated areas, also soil conditions and building constructions. Soil liquefaction has been identified as the underlying phenomenon for many ground failures, settlements and lateral spreads, which are a major cause of damage to soil structures and building foundations in many events. Egypt is suffered a numerous of destructive earthquakes as well as Kalabsha earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near Aswan city and the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks at, Aswan, Hurghada, Aqaba, Abu Dabbab and Dabbaa. On the other hand the soil condition, soil amplification, soil structure interaction, liquefaction and seismic hazard are carried out in particular the urbanized areas and the region near the source zones. All these parameters are integrated to obtain the Egyptian building code which is valid to construct buildings resist damages and consequently mitigate the earthquake disasters. Since the year of 1994 till now, the geodetic observations by means of Global Positioning System (GPS) were applied instead of the terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. These regions include Sinai, Gulf of Suez, Greater Cairo, Aswan and the Middle part on the River Nile. Data adjustment and analysis of the repeated GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which may help in more understanding the geodynamics of these regions. In the meantime, GPS measurements of crustal motions for 189 sites extending east-west from the Caucasus Mountains to the Adriatic Sea and north-south from the southern edge of the Eurasian plate to the northern edge of the African plate were carried out for the period from 1988 till 2005. Estimate of plate motions at stations located at different plates were determined.

Mahmoud, Salah

339

Mandibular Second Molar with a Single Root and a Single Canal: Case Series  

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The variability of root canal system morphology of multirooted teeth represents a continuous challenge to endodontic diagnosis and therapeutics. This report extends the range of known possible anatomical variations to include teeth with lesser number of root and root canals. Variations of root canal systems need not always be in the form of extra canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of existence of fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anat...

Roy, Anna; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Suresh, Nandhini

2013-01-01

340

Management of mandibular first molar with four canals in mesial root  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Successful root canal treatment depends on adequate cleaning, shaping, and filling of the root canal system. The presence of middle mesial (MM) root canal of mandibular molars has been reported by various authors. But incidence of four canals in mesial root of mandibular molar is very rare. The aim of this case report is to present and describe the identification and management of a mandibular first molar with four canals in the mesial root and single canal in the distal root.

Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Kumar, Krishnamurthy Sathish; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Prakash, Venkatachalam

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Apical Dimension of Root Canal Clinically Assessed with and without Periapical Lesions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To clinically evaluate the dimension of the more apical extent of the root canal after appropriate preflaring in the case of primary treatment and retreatment with and without the presence of periapical radiolucency, 392 single-rooted teeth with only one canal were evaluated during endodontic therapy. The canals were divided in two groups depending on the presence or absence of periapical radiolucency. After preflaring of the root canal the size of the root canal terminus (apical canal dimens...

Andrea Gesi; Paolo Mareschi; Tiziana Doldo; Marco Ferrari

2014-01-01

342

gastropods as pollution indicators in the red sea coast, egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

thirty samples of Nerita albicilla and canarium (Gibberulus) gibbosus from fifteen stations along the Egyptian Red Sea coast from Abu Darag on the gulf of suez southwards to Berenice were selected for chemical analysis. the present work focuses on the environment-sensitive elements and their possible hazards. Nerita is a geochemical marker for a sizeable group of trace elements including; Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Th , Ba, Ti, S, Sc and Se, while canarium is a good accumulator of the elements, Mo, U, Au and K. both species have the same selectivity for Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Sr and P. these differences are attributed to mode of life and incorporation of the elements within the crystal lattice of carbonates composing the shells. on basis of the obtained data, the study area can be divided into three zones namely; almost pristine, moderately polluted zone and markedly polluted one . pollution is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

343

Development of radon daughter measurement programme in egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon daughter measurement programme in Egypt is an important part of the radiation safety programme. It aims at risk evaluation, equipment calibration, establishment of techniques and personnel training. Measurements during this programme indicated that there is no radon environmental problem in Egypt, however, a potential problem may exist in occupational practices in underground mines. This work involved general consideration about the programme, monitoring methods for radon gas and its decay products as well as monitoring probable errors, other methods of monitoring and objectives of the programme as well as the main achievements

344

Behavior of the Sq Diurnal Magnetic Variation over Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The diurnal variation of the solar quiet (Sq) in the geomagnetic north-south component (H) and geomagnetic eastwest component (D), along the Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) stations in Egypt during year 2009 have been studied. MAGDAS was successfully installed at two stations in Egypt Fayum (FYM) and Aswan (ASW). Several forms of Abnormal Quiet Days (AQDs) have been found in both of Sq (H) and Sq (D). These AQDs of Sq (H) are expected to be related to counter or reversed electrojet while AQDs of Sq (D) is presumably due to the currents of the (2, 3) mode.

Ghamry, E.; Mahrous, A.; El-Hawary, R.; Yumoto, K.

2011-12-01

345

Puccinia pimpinellae, a New Pathogen on Anise Seed in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Routine seed health inspection of anise seeds showed Puccinia pimpinellae to be a commonally observed fungus on seed samples collected from different locations and the commercial markets of Egypt. Symptoms were shown as black discolorations on seeds. Masses of uredio- and teliospores of the fungus were visually seen. In some samples, a seed washing technique was essential to inspect for the presence of the fungal spores. This is the first report of Puccinia pimpinellae as a seed-borne pathogen of anise in Egypt.

K.M. Ghoneem

2009-01-01

346

Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch), Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag ...

El-Tallawy H; Farghaly W; Metwally N; Rageh T; Ga, Shehata; Badry R; El Moselhy E; Hassan M; Mm, Sayed; Aa, Abdelwarith; Hamed Y; Shaaban I; Mohamed T; Abd El Hamed M; Kandil, MR

2013-01-01

347

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

Shaban Lamyaa

2009-09-01

348

MRI diagnosis of intraspinal dermoid ruptured into central spinal canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the appearances of intraspinal dermoid ruptured into the central spinal canal, as well as the MRI diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: Eleven cases of intraspinal dermoid ruptured into the central spinal canal were reviewed. Six cases underwent whole spine MRI scan, 2 cases with thoracic and lumbar spine MRI, as well as 3 cases only with lumbar spine MRI. Results: Free fat droplets within spinal cord central canal demonstrated high signal intensity on T1WI, slight declined signal intensity on T2WI, and extremely low signal on fat suppression sequence. Of the 11 cases, 2 cases broke into neighboring central spinal canal of the dermoid, 3 cases scattered within thoracic spinal cord central canal, 4 cases discontinuously distributed in the whole spinal cord central canal, 2 cases showed continuous distribution. Conclusion: Intraspinal dermoid ruptured in the central spinal canal had specific appearance on MRI, when a dermoid tumor is suspected, MRI of the entire spine were recommended to detect possible leakage of' fat within central spinal canal. (authors)

349

33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the Ferry Street bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

350

RCRA closure of the Building 3001 Storage Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 3001 Storage Canal is located under portions of Buildings 3001 and 3019 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and has a capacity of approximately 62,000 gallons of water. The term canal has historically been used to identify this structure, however, the canal is an in-ground reinforced concrete structure satisfying the regulatory definition of a tank. From 1943 through 1963, the canal in Building 3001 was designed to be an integral part of the system for handling irradiated fuel from the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor. Because one of the main initial purposes of the reactor was to produce plutonium for the chemical processing pilot plant in Building 3019, the canal was designed to be the connecting link between the reactor and the pilot plant. During the war years, natural uranium slugs were irradiated in the reactor and then pushed out of the graphite matrix into the system of diversion plates and chutes which directed the fuel into the deep pit of the canal. After shutdown of the reactor, the canal was no longer needed for its designed purpose. Since 1964, the canal has only been used to store radioisotopes and irradiated samples under a water pool for radiation protection. This report describes closure alternatives

351

Comparison of two canal preparation techniques using Mtwo rotary instruments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Root canal preparation is an important process in endodontic therapy. Nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary file system can be used in single length technique(simultaneous technique without early coronal enlargement, as well as in crown-down method. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare single length with crown-down methods’ shaping ability using Mtwo NiTi files. MATERIALS & METHODS: Fifteen acrylic-resin blocks containing simulated canals were divided into two experimental groups. In group A, single length technique was used and in group B root canals were prepared by crown-down technique. Pre- and post-preparation canals were photographed in a standardized manner and were superimposed. The inner and outer walls of canal curvature were evaluated at three points (apical, middle and coronal to determine the greatest change. The data was statistically analyzed using the Student t-test by Statistical Analysis System (SAS software. RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed that in group B, dentine was equally removed within the canal coronal to the curvature, whereas in group A, the inner wall was predominantly removed (P < 0.01. The two groups had no significant difference at the apical and middle points of the canal curvature. CONCLUSION: Our in vitro study revealed no significant difference between the single length method and crown-down technique using Mtwo for preparation of apical and middle portion of canal curvature.

Faeze Hamze

2011-09-01

352

Safe transit of radioactive cargoes through the Panama Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost 12,000 ocean-going vessels transit the Panama Canal annually. About 30% carry dangerous goods, including radioactive material. A high level of safety has been achieved. There is a demonstrated effort to maintain and improve this by requiring compliance with the relevant regulations, exercising strict control of transit operations, inspecting transiting vessels, and by continuously making improvements to the Canal. (author)

353

Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and related irrigation projects in southwestern Egypt.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed to investigate the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and the major land reclamation projects that use excess lake water in southwest Egypt. Egypt constructed (1964-1971) the Aswan High Dam, creating the Lake Nasser reservoir (length: 500 km; average width: 12 km) and is constructing the Tushka Canal to channel 5.0x10{sup 9} m{sup 3}/yr of Lake Nasser water to reclaim 0.5x10{sup 6} acres of desert lands. The model, constrained by regional-scale groundwater flow and near-lake head data, was successfully calibrated to temporal-observation heads from 1970 to 2000 that reflect variations in lake levels. Predictive analyses for the subsequent 50-yr period were conducted by employing the calibrated model. Simulations of long-term effects, beyond year 2000, of Lake Nasser on recharge and temporal groundwater head (base case scenario) show that recharge from the lake will continue at a much slower rate than during the 30-yr period of 1970-2000 (with approximately 86% reduction in 30-yr recharge). The modest projected pumping and injection activities in the study area are not expected to cause major deviation in the overall head distribution compared to the base case scenario. The investigation of effects of the new irrigation land development on the Nubian aquifer indicated that many of the proposed irrigation areas, especially those with small aquifer thickness, will become fully saturated with introduced water, resulting in potential flooding and salinization.

Kim, J.; Sultan, M.; Environmental Research

2002-05-10

354

Update on Schlemm's Canal Based Procedures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical options for glaucoma have expanded in recent years. This article provides an evidence-based update on the novel or emerging surgical techniques for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma that are based on the Schlemm's canal (SC). Canaloplasty is an ab externo approach and was developed as an alternative to traditional filtering surgeries. The Hydrus microstent (Ivantis Inc., Irvine, CA) is a so-called SC scaffold that directly bypasses the trabecular meshwork to drain aqueous humor into the SC, which it keeps dilated over approximately one quadrant. Canaloplasty has also been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 40% and combined with cataract surgery. IOP was lowered 44% at 24 months while maintaining a favorable safety profile. The Hydrus device has been proposed as an adjunct to cataract extraction surgery. To date, no published evidence from clinical trials is available on its in vivo safety and efficacy. Schlemm's canal based glaucoma procedures show promise as alternative treatments to traditional glaucoma surgery. Surgeons must be comfortable with angle anatomy. A prerequisite for functionality of these techniques is the integrity of the distal outflow system. At present, however, it is not possible to conclude whether these novel procedures will be viable alternatives to standard filtering surgery over the long-term. PMID:25624672

Mansouri, Kaweh; Shaarawy, Tarek

2015-01-01

355

Trumpet laminectomy microdecompression for lumbal canal stenosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Henky, Jefri; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-10-01

356

Visibility of the central canal on MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral 1/3 and dorsal 2/3 of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

357

Visibility of the central canal on MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

2000-10-01

358

Evaluation and Analysis of Oil Shale in Quseir-Safaga and Abu-Tartur Western Desert, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seeking ways to diminish Egypt’s dependency on foreign oil imports, we had to look for the obvious resources to exploit. Oil shale is one of Egypt’s resources that are left abandoned and not used. This project is aiming at introducing both experimental analysis for oil shale in Egypt and the best production technique for it. This study is about experimentally analyzing different samples of...

El-Abbas Moustafa; Ahmed Noah; Adel Salem

2014-01-01

359

VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

Janet Kirilova

2014-09-01

360

Direct solutions for normal depths in curved irrigation canals  

CERN Document Server

The normal depth is an important hydraulic element for canal design, operation and management. Curved irrigation canals including parabola, U-shaped and catenary canals have excellent hydraulic performance and strong ability of anti-frost heave, while the normal depths in the governing equations of the current common methods have no explicit analytical solution. They are only indirect methods by using trial procedures, numerical methods, and graphical tools. This study presents new direct formulas for normal depth in curved irrigation canals by applying for Marquardt method. The maximum relative error of the proposed formulas is less than 1% within the practice range by comparative analysis, and they are simple and convenient for manual calculations. The results may provide the reliable theoretical basis and useful reference for the design and operation management of irrigation canals.

Zhang, X Y

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Canalization and symmetry in Boolean models for genetic regulatory networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canalization of genetic regulatory networks has been argued to be favoured by evolutionary processes due to the stability that it can confer to phenotype expression. We explore whether a significant amount of canalization and partial canalization can arise in purely random networks in the absence of evolutionary pressures. We use a mapping of the Boolean functions in the Kauffman N-K model for genetic regulatory networks onto a k-dimensional Ising hypercube (where k = K) to show that the functions can be divided into different classes strictly due to geometrical constraints. The classes can be counted and their properties determined using results from group theory and isomer chemistry. We demonstrate that partially canalizing functions completely dominate all possible Boolean functions, particularly for higher k. This indicates that partial canalization is extremely common, even in randomly chosen networks, and has implications for how much information can be obtained in experiments on native state genetic regulatory networks

362

Semi-Circular Canals Anomalies//Idiopathic Scoliosis  

CERN Document Server

Thanks to a novel modelling programme to detect anomalies in the membranous semi circular canals (SSC) of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) we found severe anomalies mainly located in lateral SCC devoted to trunk rotation and lateral deviations. We also found a specific communication between the lateral and posterior canal involving the utricular chamber which is also highly suspected in scoliosis. Key points: - Membranous semi circular canals (SCC) modelling based on MRI revealed significant anomalies in IS patients compared to normal subjects. - Frequent aplasias located in the lateral canal were found in IS. - We also discovered a, never described, abnormal communication between lateral and posterior canal. - Lateral SCC is involved in trunk rotation and lateral deviation: these movements are frequently abnormal in IS. Supports: Fondation Yves Cotrel pour la recherche en pathologie rachidienne. Institut de France, Paris. SHFJ/CEA Orsay in the frame of the cooperation through IFR 49 INSERM/CNRS France.

Rousie, D L; Joly, O; Salvetti, P; Vasseur, J; Berthoz, A

2010-01-01

363

Retrieval of amalgam from the root canal space.  

Science.gov (United States)

Removal of foreign objects from the root canal can be very frustrating. The use of a variety of instruments and techniques has been suggested for the retrieval of obstacles from root canals during endodontic treatment. This article describes a method for retrieving a large mass of amalgam restoration that was wedged into the root canal. The amalgam, which had served as the provisional restorative material during apexification of an immature ante rior tooth, was inadvertently pushed into the root canal. After the mass was bypassed, the amalgam was loosened with the aid of copious irrigation, chelation, and flotation. Hedstrom files twisted around the object allowed sufficient grip for its retrieval, enabling completion of the root canal treatment. PMID:16594364

Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Moshonov, Joshua

2006-04-01

364

Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s-2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults.

Deif, A.; Hamed, H.; Ibrahim, H. A.; Abou Elenean, K.; El-Amin, E.

2011-12-01

365

The prospective nuclear desalination market in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the unavoidable decline in the per capita share of the more or less constant natural fresh water resources in Egypt, water desalination is expected to play an increasing role in mitigating a future deficit in potable water supply, particularly in remote desert areas. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the evolution of potable water supply, demand and deficit, as well as the portion to be covered by sea water desalination. The future potable water supply was determined as the difference between the projected total renewable fresh water supply and the projected combined demand of the other consuming sectors. To project the future demand of potable water, the history of past consumption was studied and correlated with the population and gross domestic product. Three scenarios were contemplated for economic development, reflecting low, medium and high economic growth rates. The difference between potable water supply and demand is the deficit that has to be compensated for. Part of the future deficit may be covered through various means other than sea water desalination. Therefore, it was assumed that sea water desalination will cover only 10% of the deficit in potable water supply. It is concluded that there will be a demand for an additional desalination capacity of a sufficiently large magnitude around the year 2012 and beyond that will support the installation of desalination facilities larger than 100,000 m3/d. Desalination pln 100,000 m3/d. Desalination plants in this range coupled to nuclear power plants could be competitive with fossil fired plants. (author)

366

Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s?2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clein 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults

367

No 3017. Resolution proposal aiming at creating an inquiry commission relative to the project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez, to the conditions of its preparation and announcement and to the consequences of Gaz de France privatization on users and on the energy market balance; N. 3017. Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete relative au projet de fusion entre Gaz de France et Suez, aux conditions de sa preparation et de son annonce et aux consequences de la privatisation de Gaz de France pour les usagers et l'equilibre du marche de l'energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On February 25, 2006, the French government took the decision of merging together Gaz de France and Suez energy companies as an answer to Enel's project of takeover bid on Suez. This document wonders about: the real motivations of Gaz de France (the French gas utility) privatization, the possible intervention of public authorities in Enel and Veolia companies project of controlling the Suez group, the governing way of the share-holding government and the preservation of its industrial interests, and the consequences for consumers. Therefore, the creation of a parliamentary inquiry commission is requested to shade light on these different points and to give notice of any bad practices in this affair. (J.S.)

Balligand, J.P.; Ayrault, J.M.; Hollande, F.; Besson, E.; Migaud, D.; Emmanuelli, H.; Brottes, F.; Bataille, Ch.; Ducout, P.; Gaubert, J.; Habib, D

2006-04-15

368

Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

2014-07-01

369

The radiological hazards of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus Lakes, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mariout and Brullus were considered two of the highly fish productive lakes in Egypt as well as they widely used to drain huge quantities of industrial wastewater, sewage and agriculture drainage. Thousands of peoples inhabited the areas around the lakes and depend on them completely in their lives. The activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured in the upper most part of the surface sediments of the two lakes using gamma ray spectrophotometery. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher 238U and 232Th and lower 40K (17.22±2.49 Bq/kg, 10.0 ±56 Bq/kg and 299.7±17.78 Bq/kg) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53 Bq/kg, 7.24±0.76 Bq/kg and 518.75±46.24 Bq/kg respectively). Inversely, the mean average of absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose rate (mSvy-1), radium equivalent (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex) and the representative level index (I?r) were; 32.01 nGy/h, 0.04 mSv/y, 62.95 Bq/kg, 0.17 and 0.50 at Mariout Lake higher than those in Brullus lake (26.42 nGy/h, 0.03 mSv/y, 54.25 Bq/kg, 0.15 and 0.41) respectively. The recorded and calculated values were lower than the acceptable limits published in the different localities around the world. The activity distributions of the radiological hazards show the highest intensities in the western part of Mariout Lake and decreasing gradually eastward and north eastward affecting by the drainage agriculture water from Kabary Drain, Umum Drain, S.W. Basin and Nubaria Canal. At Brullus Lake, the radiological hazard intensities were concentrated in the west and southwest influenced by Zaglul Drain, Rosetta Drain, Brembal canal, Drain 11, Drain 9, Drain 8 and partially by Drain 1 while the lowest intensities were in the north and northeast affecting by the interaction with the Mediterranean Sea. K-40 recorded positive correlations and significant linear regression relationships with radiological hazard parameters at Mariout Like meaning that 40K is the main gamma emitter in the lake, while the different radioelements are participating gamma emitters at Brullus Lake.

370

Struggles of Distinction: Young Women Constructing Their Class Identity in Egypt’s Americanized Milieu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In urban Egypt, class is omnipresent in structuring people’s lives and the social sphere as well as being operative in selfdescription. For understanding an individual’s position within the horizontally and vertically stratified society, however, the usual distinction of three classes needs to be refined. Based on biographical interviews, I reconstruct what my interviewees consider their “Americanized Society” and try to grasp their self-categorization as upper middle class. In line with much of Bourdieu’s thinking on social stratification, I treat their self-positioning as upper middle class as a form of discursive categorization which can only be understood if contextualized by the negative image of “the poor” and “the rich.” The Americanized Society, on the other hand, can best be conceptualized as a milieu where different classificatory principles intersect.

Sina Birkholz

2014-05-01

371

Use of mass balance and statistical correlation for geochemical and isotopic investigation of the groundwater in the quaternary aquifer of the nile delta, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hydrochemical and environmental isotopic studies were conducted in the nile delta region, to investigate the sources of salinity and replenishment for the groundwater reservoir which are of importance for land reclamation projects and the establishment of new communities on the west and east side of the nile delta. The hydrogeological properties of the main exploitable aquifer (quaternary) was described. The chemistry of the collected surface and ground-waters was outlined through the analysis of major cations (Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++) and major anions (Ci-, SO4-, HCO3-). The variation in chemical composition of examined waters is attributed to the use of fertilizers, leaching of terrestrial salts and ion exchange between soil's minerals and water, in addition to, sea water intrusion in some isolated areas near by saline bodies (mediterranean sea, manzala lake, suez canal). Oxygen-18 and deuterium concentrations were used to identify the mechanism of recharge. The results show a mixing between different sources of water: recent Nile, old Nil water before construction of high Aswan dam, coastal precipitation as well as some contribution from both sea water toward north and palaeo-water at the eastern and western fringes of the nile delta. In some localities the recharge occurs indirectly after evaporation and/or vertical leakage of deep water due to over-pumping rates. Thisdeep water due to over-pumping rates. This paper also demonstrates the implementation of statistical correlation and mass balance approaches to present the chemical and isotopic characterization of the nile delta quaternary aquifer. Recommendations are given for optimal use of water resources in the area of study

372

Mandibular Canal Duplication Prevalence, Digital Panoramic Radiography Analysis / Prevalencia de las Bifurcaciones del Canal Mandibular, Análisis en Radiografías Panorámicas Digitales  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El aumento de los procedimientos quirúrgicos realizados en la región mandibular requiere dar una nueva mirada a los reparos anatómicos como el canal mandibular y su aspecto imagenológico. El presente estudio tuvo como propósito determinar la prevalencia de las alteraciones de número del canal mandib [...] ular en imágenes panorámicas del período de marzo a diciembre de 2008, obtenidas de pacientes de un centro radiológico privado de la región del Maule. Para el efecto se analizaron 350 radiografías panorámicas digitales, examinándolas por hemiarcada (n = 700) y cuantificando las alteraciones de número del canal mandibular. Se encontraron 35 casos de bifurcaciones de canal mandibular correspondientes al 5% de la muestra en estudio. Los datos obtenidos indican una prevalencia mayor a la descrita por la literatura, lo que refuerza la necesidad de un estudio acabado de las imágenes radiográficas del canal mandibular, considerando el difícil manejo de una complicación quirúrgica sobre esta estructura anatómica. Abstract in english The increase in the number of surgical procedures in the mandibular region requires a new perspective into anatomical landmarks such as the mandibular canal and its imagenological aspect. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of the alterations in the number of mandibular canals in dig [...] ital panoramic images obtained from patients of a private radiological center of the Maule region. The study period was from March to December 2008. A total of 350 panoramic digital X-ray images were analyzed by examining them for hemi-mandibles (n = 700) and quantifying the alterations of the number of mandibular canal. There were 35 cases of bifurcations to the mandibular canal, corresponding to 5 % of the sample in the study. The obtained information indicates a major prevalence described by the literature, which reinforces the need of a larger study of the radiographic images of the mandibular canal, considering the difficult managing of a surgical complication on this anatomical structure.

Juan, Schilling Lara; Alejandro, Schilling Quezada; Jaime, San Pedro Valenzuela.

2010-12-01

373

Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

Smith, Arthur F.

1982-01-01

374

[Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11 items). The packet also includes readings on…

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

375

Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

Hubbard, Janie

2010-01-01

376

The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

Stone, Brian

2008-01-01

377

Seroprevalence of bluetongue in sheep and goats in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to understand the epidemiological status of bluetongue infection in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected sheep and goats. Samples were collected during the vector breeding season from September to November 2010, from 14 Egyptian governorates which represent different geographical regions of Egypt, and were tested by Agar Gel Immuno-precipitation Test (AGPT. Results: Out of total 1293 animal serum samples (sheep-1028 and goats-265, 17.5% of sheep and 14.7% of goats serum samples were found positive. The overall prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different governorates was 16.9%. The highest prevalence of bluetongue group specific antibodies was detected in Beni-Suef, Giza, and Al Sharqia governorates (13.2%. The results indicate that there is a necessity to run further studies to identify the negative governorates. In addition, there is a lack in information regarding the BTV serotypes in Egypt. Conclusion: This study reflected high seroprevalence of bluetongue infection in sheep than goats. The results indicated that further studies are needed to identify the vectors from different agro-climatic zones, in addition, the BTV serotypes that are circulating in Egypt.

M. A. Mahmoud

2014-04-01

378

Visceral leishmaniasis among hypersplenic patients in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Generally speaking, with rapid international travel, it is very common to diagnose infectious diseases in areas where they were not known before. Nowadays, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is documented in Egypt mainly in Al Agamy, Alexandria. Another case of infantile visceral leishmaniasis was identified in an adult farmer (unusual host) in Banha. Other studies all over Egypt (based on clinical and or serological diagnosis rather than demonstration of the parasites) raised the possibility of adult affection with visceral leishmaniasis. The point is that visceral leishmaniasis, shares many clinical manifestations with other diseases known in Egypt as schistosomiasis mansoni, hepatic amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, and malaria. In the present study, out of 22 human cases with hypersplenism and suggesting manifestations, four gave seropositivity for VL, by the indirect haemagglutination tests (128 & more). Two of these four patients gave seropositivity by dot-ELISA (1:8000). Amastigotes of Leishmania parasite were demonstrated in the splenic smears obtained during splenectomy. One culture obtained from these two cases grew promastigotes. Typing is ongoing. It was concluded that visceral leishmaniasis should be in mind and considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hepatosplenomegaly or hypersplenism in Egypt. PMID:8376875

el Mahdy, A; Morsy, T A; Youssef, M S; el Shazly, A M; Hammoda, N E

1993-08-01

379

The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

380

Burden of stroke in Egypt: current status and opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries have a diversity of populations with similar life style, dietary habits, and vascular risk factors that may influence stroke risk, prevalence, types, and disease burden. Egypt is the most populated nation in the Middle East with an estimated 85.5 million people. In Egypt, according to recent estimates, the overall prevalence rate of stroke is high with a crude prevalence rate of 963/100,000 inhabitants. In spite of disease burden, yet there is a huge evidence practice gap. The recommended treatments for ischemic stroke that are guideline include systematic supportive care in a stroke unit or stroke center is still deficient. In addition, the frequency of thrombolysis in Egypt is very low for many reasons; the major one is that the health insurance system is not covering thrombolysis therapy in nonprivate sectors so patients must cover the costs using their own personal savings; otherwise, they will not receive treatment. Another important factor is the pronounced delay in prehospital and in hospital management of acute stroke. Improvement of stroke care in Egypt should be achieved through multi and interdisciplinary approach including public awareness, physicians' education, and synergistic approach to stroke care with Emergency Medical System. PMID:25041503

Abd-Allah, Foad; Moustafa, Ramez Reda

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

Poppe, Donna

2011-01-01

382

African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

Henry, Hani M.

2012-01-01

383

Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies.

Vergne, Timothe?e; Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenae?lle; Roger, Franc?ois; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

2012-01-01

384

Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies. PMID:23171740

Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

2012-01-01

385

Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from Lake Manzala (Nile Delta) suggests this period was one of declining discharge (Stanley et al. 2003). Amenhotep III's temple floor lies 2m above the calcareous palaeosol and its construction lies within the broad dating of the ancient surface. It is possible that low discharge levels enabled him to build his temple high and dry of the Nile floods. Future seasons should allow us to clarify this using 14C and OSL dating, and in time we hope to shed more light on the fluvial history of the Nile and how this affected the decision making of the ancient Egyptians. References Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Emery, V.L., Jones, S., Barker. D.B. 2013. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2013, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 99, 35-52. Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Hunter, M.A., Jones, S., Masson, A., Millet, M., Pennington, B.T. 2012. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2012, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 98, 27-42. Stanley, D.J., Krom, M.D., Cliff, R.A. and Woodward, J.C. 2003. Nile flow failure at the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic and petrologic evidence, Geoarchaeology 18(3), 395-402.

Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

2014-05-01

386

Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

Bahig, A. E.

2008-01-01

387

Periodismo ambiental en Canal Sur Televisión  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El autor estudia el origen histórico del periodismo ambiental, la evolución en España y Andalucía y su aparición en Canal Sur TV Realiza un análisis sobre la información medioambiental, especialidad del periodismo que en la década de los noventa despierta nuevamente gran interés entre el público. La televisión autonómica ha dedicado, desde su creación numerosos programas sobre el medio ambiente. Actualmente sus Servicios Informativos tienen la sección Medio Ambiente. De la importancia que se concede a este tipo de información es un buen ejemplo el programa «Tierra y Mar», que incorpora progresivamente noticias medioambientales, referidas a la educación ambiental, el mantenimiento y recuperación de la biodiversidad y la presentación de modelos de conducta respetuosos.

Lic. Miguel Montaño Montaño

1999-01-01

388

Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact.

McNamara, D. E.; Ringler, A. T.; Hutt, C. R.; Gee, L. S.

2011-04-01

389

Manual for the program Canal- 3D  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AGOR group is building a superconducting cyclotron. In general, only the vertical field in the median plane of an electromagnetic channel is calculated. The extremities can be approximated with horizontal bars perpendicular to the beam. This is followed by a Taylor series development to calculate the components outside the median plane. This method cannot be used in our case since the sources of the magnetic field are too close to the beam. In a case where the extremities of the channel play an important role (for example with superconducting coils), these have to be represented in a more precise way. These are the main reasons for the development of a new program called CANAL3D. Two other programs CANALIN and CANALYS assure the necessary support. All 3 programs have an interactive dialog with the user. Those dialogues can be written in a command file, which can be submitted in BATCH. The graphic routines works only on the VAX system

390

Characterization of Successful Root Canal Treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O sucesso do tratamento endodôntico deve sempre ser o principal objetivo em todas as situações clínicas, evitando-se dentro do possível a perda do dente. O entendimento dos fatores de riscos associados aos fracassos alerta para a importância terapêutica. A lógica é reverter o quadro de doença presen [...] te, o que demanda intervenção para neutralizar a agressão e romper biofilme bacteriano presente no complexo anatômico. Quando as defesas imunológicas do hospedeiro são favoráveis, o sucesso é mais previsível. A óptica do sucesso para o profissional, para o paciente e para o dente é distinta. A vida útil do dente tratado endodonticamente (DTE) depende da qualidade do processo de sanificação (estratégias antimicrobianas, alargamento e selamento), cujo referencial apresenta como base o diagnóstico, o planejamento e a excelência da técnica operatória (endodôntica e reabilitadora). A presença de dor contínua, esporádica, e/ou desconforto, associada ao aspecto de uma imagem radiolúcida em DTE pode ser sugestivo de fracasso. As características de sucesso do tratamento (ausência de dor, regressão de periodontite apical (PA), espaço do canal radicular e coronário completamente obturado, e dente em função) devem ser avaliadas ao longo do tempo. Nos casos de dúvida, entre sucesso ou fracasso, a correta localização ou detecção da PA pode ser feita por tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC). A possibilidade de uma navegação pela imagem da TCFC pode caracterizar a realidade de uma estrutura multidimensional, auxiliando com informação precisa sobre a presença, ausência ou regressão da PA. A vida útil do DTE implica no entendimento de resultados biológicos e mecânicos como um evento multifatorial ao longo da vida do indivíduo. Abstract in english Knowing the outcome of root canal treatment (RCT) is determinant to substantiate the clinical decision making process, especially when RCT is weighed against the extraction of natural teeth or replacement by prosthetic elements. The ideal scenario in all clinical situations should combine healing/pr [...] evention of disease (apical periodontitis) and the functional retention of the tooth. Understanding the risk factors associated with endodontic failure is a key factor to increase the chances of success. The logical action is to reverse the existing disease, which requires intervention to neutralize the bacterial invasion and disrupt the bacterial biofilm within the complex anatomy. Success is more predictable when the immune host defenses are favorable. However, success has different meanings to the dentist, to the patient and to the tooth itself. The life of an endodontically treated tooth depends on the accuracy of the diagnosis and planning, excellence of disinfection, instrumentation and filling procedures (antimicrobial strategies, root canal shaping and coronal and apical seal) and finally the rehabilitation management. The interpretation of constant or intermittent pain and/or discomfort associated with apical periodontitis (AP) in endodontically treated tooth may be suggestive of endodontic failure. The success features of RCT, namely absence of pain, regression of AP, tight seal of canal and coronal spaces, and recovery of tooth function, must be reevaluated over time. In case of doubt between success and failure, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) could be indicated for detection and precise localization of AP. The possibility of map reading on CBCT images characterizes the real multidimensional structure, providing accurate information on the presence, absence or regression of AP. The survival of an endodontically treated tooth implies understanding the biological and mechanical outcomes as multifactorial events over the individual's life span. The objective of this review of literature is to discuss relevant factors associated with patient's health, tooth and dentist that could account for a successful RCT.

Carlos, Estrela; Roberto, Holland; Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo, Estrela; Ana Helena Gonçalves, Alencar; Manoel Damião, Sousa-Neto; Jesus Djalma, Pécora.

2014-01-01

391

Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional and digital radiography in the estimation of working length in mandibular molars. Sixty molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups in the basis of canal curves (0-15 degree, 15-30 degree, >30 degree). After the placement of a 15 K-file, radiographs were taken with a conventional film (F-speed) and a digital sensor. Canal lengths were measured in these images by two observers. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of ANOVA and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence. There was a high inter-observer agreement on the measurements of working length in conventional and digital radiographs. There was no significant difference between the mean values of measurements in conventional and digital radiography. Moreover, there was no significant difference between conventional and digital radiography with the actual values in the basis of canal curves. The accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in the determination of the working length was in an acceptable range.

Mohtavipour, Seiedeh Tahereh; Dalili, Zahra; Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi [Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-03-15

392

Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional and digital radiography in the estimation of working length in mandibular molars. Sixty molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups in the basis of canal curves (0-15 degree, 15-30 degree, >30 degree). After the placement of a 15 K-file, radiographs were taken with a conventional film (F-speed) and a digital sensor. Canal lengths were measured in these images by two observers. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of ANOVA and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence. There was a high inter-observer agreement on the measurements of working length in conventional and digital radiographs. There was no significant difference between the mean values of measurements in conventional and digital radiography. Moreover, there was no significant difference between conventional and digital radiography with the actual values in the basis of canal curves. The accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in the determination of the working length was in an acceptable range.

393

Modeling and measurement of root canal using stereo digital radiography  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining root canal length is a crucial step in success of root canal treatment. Root canal length is commonly estimated based on pre-operation intraoral radiography. 2D depiction of a 3D object is the primary source of error in this approach. Techniques based on impedance measurement are more accurate than radiographic approaches, but do not offer a method for depicting the shape of canal. In this study, we investigated a stererotactic approach for modeling and measurement of root canal of human dentition. A weakly perspective model approximated the projectional geometry. A series of computer-simulated objects was used to test accuracy of this model as the first step. The, to assess the clinical viability of such an approach, endodontic files inserted in the root canal phantoms were fixed on an adjustable platform between a radiographic cone and an image receptor. Parameters of projection matrix were computed based on the relative positions of image receptors, focal spot, and test objects. Rotating the specimen platform from 0 to 980 degrees at 5-degree intervals set relative angulations for stereo images. Root canal is defined as the intersection of two surfaces defined by each projection. Computation of error for length measurement indicates that for angulations greater than 40 degrees the error is within clinically acceptable ranges.

Analoui, Mostafa; Krisnamurthy, Satthya; Brown, Cecil

2000-04-01

394

[Latest treatment of lumbar canal stenosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) is a degenerative disease involving the lumbar vertebrae, discs, and ligamentum flavum that result in neurological deficit to some extent. The natural history of symptoms of LCS is highly important because they do not necessarily worsen with progressive degeneration. Therefore, a observation therapy is adopted for the treatment of this condition. Although invasive treatment is required for some patients, surgery cannot be performed solely on the basis of radiological findings and careful evaluation of neurological symptoms is necessary. In the event that spinal surgery is required, it is important to minimize degree of invasiveness; various devices and operative approaches and methods have been developed to this end. Our strategy for the surgical treatment of LCS involves microscopic decompression via a posterior approach. In our method, modified bilateral decompression via the splitting of the spinous process using an ultrasonic bone curette (SONOPET), and the results of this approach have been excellent. Our method is less invasive, facilitates the preservation of the paraspinal muscle, and represents a useful approach to posterior spinal elements. Our findings indicate that this method involves less muscle damage as compared to other methods. LCS should be differentiated from conditions other than those involving the spinal canal such as foraminal stenosis and far-out syndrome, piriformis syndrome, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. The incidence of these conditions is higher than appreciated and they present with neurological deficits similar to observed in LCS. Here, we report our criteria of operative indications for surger and the procedures that we developed for the treatment of LCS, based on a review of the available literature. PMID:19526832

Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko

2009-06-01

395

Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, while this one leaves no doubt to have its origin in Nisyros. (authors)

396

Attenuation of seismic waves in Central Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Attenuation of seismic waves in central Egypt had never been studied before. The results of the research on the seismic attenuation are based upon the information collected by the seismological network from 1998 to 2011. 855 earthquakes were selected from the Egyptian seismological catalog, with their epicenter distances between 15 and 150 km, their magnitudes ranging from 2 and 4.1 and focal depths reaching up to 30 km. The first systematic study of attenuation derived from the P-, S- and coda wave in the frequency range 1-24 Hz is presented. In the interpretation of the results both single and multiple scattering in a half space are considered. The single scattering model proposed by Sato (1977) was used. Two methods, the coda (Qc) and the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW) method are used. The aim of this study is to validate these interpretations in the region and to try to identify the effects of attenuation due to intrinsic (Qi) and scattering attenuation (Qsc). The mean Qc value calculated was Qc = (39 ± 1)f1.0±0.009. The average Qc at 1.5 Hz is (53 ± 6) and Qc = (900 ± 195) at 24 Hz with Qo ranging between 23 and 107, where ? ranging between 0.9 and 1.3. The quality factor (Q) was estimated from spectra of P- and S-waves by applying a spectral ratio technique. The results show variations in Qp and QS as a function of frequency, according to the power law Q = 56?1.1. The seismic albedo is 0.7 at all stations and it mean that the earthquake activity is due to tectonic origin. The attenuation and frequency dependency for different paths and the correlation of the results with the geotectonic of the region are presented. The Qc values were calculated and correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area. The relatively low Qo and the high frequency dependency agree with the values of a region characterized by a low tectonic activity and vise versa.

Morsy, Mamdouh Abbas; Abed, Azza M.

2013-06-01

397

Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Qena University, Qena, Egypt Abstract: Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1 data collection; (2 preparation; (3 screening; (4 case ascertainment; (5 investigations; (6 classifications; (7 data entry; and (8 statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2% than males (3.9%. The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%] and among the age group 18–39 years (5.4%. Keywords: methodological aspects, demographic data, prevalence

El-Tallawy H

2013-09-01

398

Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt IMPRSS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sealed sources are usually in capsules made of stainless steel. They are the size of a pen or a finger and contain one of hundreds of radioactive elements (e.g., Iridium, Radium) or their isotopes. They are air-tight and very durable, contain the radioactive material but not radiation. They are used in the health sector, industry, military, and universities. Incidents occurred in Met Halfa, Egypt, 2000 (Iridium-192); Goiania, Brazil, 1987 (Cesium-137); Mexico and Southwest U.S., 1977 -1984 (Cobalt-60); Peru, 1999 (Iridium-1992); Poland 2001 (Cobalt-60). The IMPRSS Mission is based on a joined partnership between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency and others. The IMPRSS Mission protects human health and the environment in Egypt from mismanaged sealed sources, is developed jointly with MOH and EAEA, provides capabilities for managing radioactive sealed sources in Egypt, increases public awareness, provides education and training, improves emergency response capabilities, develops a permanent disposal facility, ensures the program is self-sustaining and ensures close coordination with the IAEA. Infrastructure how to manage sealed sources is discussed. It includes awareness, tracking and inventory control, security, recovery, conditioning and storage, recycling and disposal. Emergency response, regulatory reform, education and training and its targets are provided. The government of Egypt can protect the people of Egypt and is ready for emergencies. Prevention is the first line of defence and detection is the second line of defence. Adequate Emergency Response saves lives and adequate control reduces risk of mismanaged uses or deliberate misuses of sources. A Cradle-to-Grave approach is built on existing capabilities at EAEA and MOH

399

Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies. This is because the return on investment in the mining industry is generally low and the pay back period is relatively long compared with easy-to-get money projects. Another reason is the disarray of the mining laws and regulations and lack of administrative capability to deal with domestic and international investors and solve the related problems. Also, lack of skilled personnel in the field of mining and mineral processing is an additional factor for the set back of the mining industry in Egypt. This is why the mining technology in Egypt is not very far from being primitive and extremely simple, with the exception of the underground mining of coal, North of Sinai, and Abu-Tartur phosphate mining, where fully automated long wall operations are designed. Also, the recent gold and tin-tantalum-niobium projects are being designed on modern surface mining and mineral processing technologies. The present review presents an overview of the most important metallic mineral commodities in Egypt, their geological background, reserves and production rates. A brief mention of the existing technologies for their exploitation is also highlighted.

Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid

2011-03-01

400

Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Egypt: Travel through Time: Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (Trematodes of the genus Schistosoma (S.. It is well documented that schistosomiasis haematobium was endemic in Ancient Egypt. Infection was diagnosed in mummies 3000, 4000 and 5000 years old. Scott was the first to describe the pattern of schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. Schistosomiasis haematobium was highly prevalent (60% both in the Nile Delta and Nile Valley South of Cairo in districts of perennial irrigation while it was low (6% in districts of basin irrigation. Schistosoma mansoni infected 60% of the population in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Nile Delta and only 6% in the Southern part. Neither S. mansoni cases nor its snail intermediate host were found in the Nile Valley South of Cairo. The building of the Aswan High Dam -which was completed in 1967 – did not cause any increase in schistosomiasis prevalence. In 1990, a study conducted in nine governorates of Egypt confirmed the change in the pattern of schistosomiasis transmission in the Delta. There was an overall reduction in S. mansoni prevalence while Schistosoma haematobium had continued to disappear. In Middle and Upper Egypt there was consistent reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium except in Sohag, Qena, and Aswan governorates. However, foci of S. mansoni were detected in Giza, Fayoum, Menya and Assiut. All schistosomiasis control projects implemented in Egypt from 1953 to 1985 adopted the strategy of transmission control and were based mainly on snail control supplemented by anti-bilharzial chemotherapy. In 1997, the National Schistosomiasis Control Program (NSCP was launched in the Nile Delta. It adopted morbidity control strategy with Praziquantel mass treatment as the main component. In 1996, before the NSCP, 168 villages had S. mansoni prevalence >30%, 324 villages 20–30% and 654 villages 10–20%. By the end of 2010, in the whole country only 29 villages had prevalence >3% and none had more than 10%.

Rashida M.R. Barakat

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
401

Space science education in Egypt and the 2006 solar eclipse  

Science.gov (United States)

The space science research has been started in Egypt since 1910 by measuring the solar constant as indication of solar radiation at Helwan Observatory. The solar sunspot studies and its influence on the Nile flooding was erected and operated at Helwan as a first solar station in Egypt during 1957. Zeiss-Coude' refractor was installed in 1964. Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1936 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology of Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. The total solar eclipse observations on 25th February, 1952 in Khartoum have been done by on Egyptian-French group by using the Worthington Camera. Several international groups observed the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). A coordinated effort partly undertaken in the frame of the French-Egyptian scientific cooperation permitted joined simultaneous eclipse observations of the solar corona. Several Ground base instrumental set-up has been prepared. Spaceborne quasi-simultaneous EIT and Lasco observations of SoHO have been used as well as TRACE observations in Lyman-alpha of HI. W-L images taken with and without a radial filter are processed to show the magnetic structure of the corona. Polarization analysis is performed to study the F-corona in the outer corona. Several filters have been obtained to show the distribution of the emission measures of the inner and middle corona. Spectra were obtained over several emission lines.

Hady, A. A.

2008-12-01

402

Periapical repair after root canal filling with different root canal sealers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o reparo periapical após obturação de canal radicular usando os cimentos Roeko Seal e Epiphany. Sessenta e quatro canais radiculares de dentes de cães foram obturados, divididos em 4 grupos (n=16). Os canais radiculares foram instrumentados com limas tipo K e irri [...] gados com solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%. Os canais radiculares foram obturados na mesma sessão usando condensação lateral ativa dos cones e os cimentos: Grupo I - Intra Fill; Grupo II - AH Plus; Grupo III - Roeko Seal e Grupo IV - Sistema Resilon/Epiphany. Após 90 dias, os animais foram mortos e os tecidos a serem avaliados foram processados e corados por hematoxilina e eosina. Para análise histopatológica, os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: processo inflamatório, reabsorção dos tecidos mineralizados e deposição de tecido mineralizado apical. A análise histopatológica demonstrou que o Intrafill teve resultados menos favoráveis em relação ao reparo apical e periapical comparado aos outros cimentos (p0,05). Conclui-se que o AH Plus e os materiais Roeko Seal e Epiphany são boas opções para uso clínico em endodontia. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate periapical repair after root canal filling with different endodontic sealers. Sixty-four root canals from dog´s teeth were filled, divided into 4 groups (n=16). Root canals were instrumented with K-type files and irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. R [...] oot canals were filled in the same session by active lateral condensation of the cones and sealers: Intrafill, AH Plus, Roeko Seal and Resilon/Epiphany System. After 90 days, the animals were euthanized and the tissues to be evaluated were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For histopathological analysis, the following parameters were evaluated: inflammatory process, mineralized tissue resorption, and apical mineralized tissue deposition. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that Intrafill had less favorable results in terms of apical and periapical repair, compared to the other sealers (p0.05). In conclusion, AH Plus and the materials Roeko Seal and Epiphany are good options for clinical use in Endodontics.

Mário, Tanomaru-Filho; Juliane Maria Guerreiro, Tanomaru; Mario Roberto, Leonardo; Lea Assed Bezerra da, Silva.

403

Endodontic Management of a Maxillary Molar with Three Mesiobuccal Canals  

Science.gov (United States)

It is imperative that the clinician should have comprehensive knowledge about the normal anatomy and its variations of the teeth as the deviations from the usual are very common. An increased awareness of unusual anatomy and a better understanding of the root canal system guide the clinician in accurate diagnosis and treatment of such variations in order to achieve a successful endodontic outcome. The maxillary first molar has been shown to have a wide variation in respect to the number of canals specifically noted in the mesiobuccal root. The current case report shows the successful management of a maxillary molar in which the mesiobuccal root had three canals. PMID:25505997

Gundam, Sirisha; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

2014-01-01

404

Type II canal configuration and Type I Dens invaginatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalent notion about maxillary central incisor with normal external morphology is a tooth with single root and root canal. A case in which all four maxillary incisors were having Type II canal configurations (Vertucci's classification) is reported, in addition, the lateral incisors revealed dens invaginatus with a Type I pattern as suggested by Ohler's classification and a large periapical lesion was seen in relation to the right lateral incisor. The diagnosis was confirmed with the aid of spiral computed tomography (CT) and canals obturated. Nonsurgical healing of the lesion was assessed by reviewing the case at prefixed intervals of time. PMID:25125855

Liji, Mele Puthukudy; Chandrababu, Krishnankutty; Kumar, Maroli Ramesh; Jayashree, Santhadevi

2014-07-01

405

Model predictive control of resonance sensitive irrigation canals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saving water is an economic and ecological need. One way to save water is to reduce losses in irrigation networks by canal automation. The goal of canal automation is to make the right amount of water to at arrive in the right time. In order to achieve this goal, one of the ways is controlling the gates in the irrigation network by some control algorithm. In this work the control of a specific type of canal pools is studied: short and flat pools that are prone to resonance. The downstream ...

Horva?th, Klaudia

2013-01-01

406

Lines of principal curvature on canal surfaces in R³  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper are determined the principal curvatures and principal curvature lines on canal surfaces which are the envelopes of families of spheres with variable radius and centers moving along a closed regular curve in R³. By means of a connection of the differential equations for these curvature lines and real Riccati equations, it is established that canal surfaces have at most two isolated periodic principal lines. Examples of canal surfaces with two simple and one double periodic principal lines are given.

Garcia Ronaldo

2006-01-01

407

Minimal invasive transcaruncular optic canal decompression for traumatic optic neuropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic optic neuropathy is a cause of loss of vision associated with head injuries. Treatment options include observation, steroids and decompression of the optic canal. We report a case where the optic canal decompression was performed using a transcaruncular approach under a regional block. The incision was made through the caruncle and the dissection was carried down to the periosteum down to the orbital apex where the optic nerve was seen exiting through the optic canal posterior to the posterior ethmoidal artery. The optic nerve was decompressed with good visualization. Hemostasis and wound closure was achieved using fibrin glue. Postoperatively visual acuity improved with minimal inflammation enabling early rehabilitation. PMID:25208226

Vaitheeswaran, Krishna; Kaur, Preetinder; Garg, Shalini

2014-12-01

408

ProTaper files in root canal preparation: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to, on the basis of everyday clinical practice, show and analyse, the crown-down technique of root canal preparation with nickel-titanium rotary instruments. After the diagnosis of irreversible pulp disease on the second lower right molar, endodontic treatment was carried out. Root canal shaping was performed with modified crown-down technique with nickeltitanium rotary files (ProTaper, Meilffer, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. After root canal preparation, obturation was finished with AH26 and guttapercha points (.06 taper, using the lateral compaction technique.

Brkani? Tatjana

2005-01-01

409

Clinical findings in the Superior Canal Dehiscence: two cases report.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The superior canal dehiscence syndrome is an uncommon anatomical lesion characterized by loss of the bone covering the superior canal, so that there is a potential communication between the canal and the craneal cavity. This defect can be diagnosed by an image test, usually the Computed Tomography. Due to this pathology patients go to the otoneurologist referring a conductive hearing loss with normal middle ear function and normal stapedius reflex threshold or vertigo induced either by loud noises or middle ear pressure changes such as Valsalva manoeuvres.In this paper we present two cases which explain each clinical form.

Yánez-González R, Sánchez-Blanco C, Rey-Marcos M, Macías-Rodríguez DH, Martín-Hernández R, Villanueva-Rincón JM, Batuecas-Caletrío A.

2013-04-01

410

75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...  

Science.gov (United States)

...inclusion of the Algiers Canal but feels that it needs...reduced with the lower level of construction activity...Canal and the Harvey Canal. Vessels will not be...conditions. The surge levels of concern were determined...the Algiers and Harvey Canals respectively...

2010-06-08

411

Communication dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt, concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt, attaching the text of a Press Statement dated 25 January 2005. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the Press Statement, are reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

412

Productivity of some sunflower hybrids grown on newly reclaimed sandy soils, as affected by irrigation regime and fertilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Productivity of sunflower hybrids under surface (flooding), dripping and sprinkler irrigation systems was studied in 1999 and 2000 summer seasons at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University Ismailia, Egypt, on sandy soil. Under surface as well as under drip systems three irrigation regimes (high, medium, and low according to the amount of water supplied to the crop throughout the seasons) and 4 fertilization treatments, namely 45 N+15.5 P2O5 + 25 K2O or 90N + 31P2O...

Abdel-Wahab A.M.; Rhoden E.E.; Bonsi C.K.; Elashry M.A.; Megahed Sh.E.; Baumy T.Y.; El-Said M.A.

2005-01-01

413

View of the Columbia's aft section while over Mediterranean Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

This southerly looking view photographed from the orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia shows a small portion of the vehichle's aft section. The 50-ft Canadian built remote manipulator system (RMS) is in a resting posture (lower right corner) stretched out along the 60-ft. long cargo bay. Many of the components of the OSS-1 payload package are in the bottom center. The Mediterranean Sea is at right foreground. Parts of the Sinai peninsula, Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon can be located in the photo. The Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, Suez Canal are near the photo's horizon.

1982-01-01

414

In vitro analysis of thermocompaction time and gutta-percha type on quality of main canal and lateral canals filling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of filling in main and lateral root canals performed with the McSpadden technique, regarding the time spent on the procedure and the type of gutta-percha employed. Fifty simulated root canals, made with six lateral canals placed two apiece in the cervical, middle and apical thirds of the root, were divided into 5 groups. Group A: McSpadden technique with conventional gutta-percha, performed with sufficient time for canal filling; Group B: McSpadden technique with conventional gutta-percha, performed in twice the mean time used in Group A; Group C: McSpadden technique with TP gutta-percha, performed with sufficient time for canal filling; Group D: McSpadden technique with TP gutta-percha, performed in twice the mean time used in Group C; Group E: lateral condensation technique. Images of the filled root canals were taken using a stereomicroscope and analyzed using the Leica QWIN Pro software for filling material flow, gutta-percha filling extension and sealer flow. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. The best values of penetration in lateral canals in the middle third occurred in the groups where TP gutta-percha was used. However, in the apical third, group B showed the best values. Although a longer time of compactor use allows greater penetration of the filling material into the lateral canals, the presence of voids resulted in bad quality radiographic images, suggesting porosity. The best quality of filling material was observed in Group A (McSpadden technique with conventional Gutta-Percha, performed with sufficient time for root canal filling.

André Luiz da Costa Michelotto

2010-09-01

415

Necrotic pulp tissue dissolution by passive ultrasonic irrigation in simulated accessory canals: impact of canal location and angulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To evaluate whether passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of 2.5% NaOCl would dissolve necrotic pulp tissue from simulated accessory root canals (SACs) better than passive placement of the irrigant, when temperature was equilibrated between the two treatments. METHODOLOGY: Transparent root canal models (n = 6) were made from epoxy resin. SACs of 0.2 mm diameter were placed at defined angles and positions in the mid-canal and apical area. SACs were filled with necrotic bovine pulp tissue. P...

Al-jadaa, A.; Paque?, F.; Attin, T.; Zehnder, M.

2009-01-01

416