WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Environmental aeroradioactivity levels in the Suez-Canal Zone, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study deals essentially with the establishment of the environmental radioactivity levels in the Suez Canal Zone. It will provide basic information that can be used as a reference to detect and determine the amount and extent of any possible future variations in the natural radioactivity level in that part of Egypt, that might result from nuclear testing or accidents involving release of nuclear radiations and fallout of nuclear fission products that might affect both the terrestrial and atmospheric environments. According to the statistical analysis of the radio active measurements recorded over the Suez Canal Zone, it was found that its mean radiometric background is 7.76 millirem/year. Seven lithological units were separated, each was found to be homogeneously distributed, as far as radioactivity is concerned and has its own characteristic statistics. They form the environmental terrestrial aeroradioactivity map of the area. The Suez Canal Zone is characterized by the presence of extensive water surfaces represented by the Gulf of Suez, Bitter Lakes, El Temsah and El Manzalah Lakes. These represent the lowest radiometric level (0.03-5.16 millirem/year) in the studied zone in spite of the presence of a slightly higher level around the rim of the great Bitter Lake. The highest radiometric level was (4.4-15.3 millirem/year) found associated with El Shat formation of Middle Miocene age and which is composed mainly of sandstone, clay, limestone and gypsum. In that regard the present study demonstrated that periodical aerial radiometric surveying for the entire Suez Canal area is highly recommended for monitoring changes in its environmental radioactivity levels. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

1995-10-01

2

An optimization planning technique for Suez Canal Network in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces a proposed optimization technique POT for predicting the peak load demand and planning of transmission line systems. Many of traditional methods have been presented for long-term load forecasting of electrical power systems. But, the results of these methods are approximated. Therefore, the artificial neural network (ANN) technique for long-term peak load forecasting is modified and discussed as a modern technique in long-term load forecasting. The modified technique is applied on the Egyptian electrical network dependent on its historical data to predict the electrical peak load demand forecasting up to year 2017. This technique is compared with extrapolation of trend curves as a traditional method. The POT is applied also to obtain the optimal planning of transmission lines for the 220 kV of Suez Canal Network (SCN) using the ANN technique. The minimization of the transmission network costs are considered as an objective function, while the transmission lines (TL) planning constraints are satisfied. Zafarana site on the Red Sea coast is considered as an optimal site for installing big wind farm (WF) units in Egypt. So, the POT is applied to plan both the peak load and the electrical transmission of SCN with and without considering WF to develop the impact of WF units on the electrical transmission system of Egypt, considering the reliability constraints which were taken as a separate model in the previous techniques. The application on SCN shows the capability and the efficiently of the proposed techniques to obtain the predicting peak load demand and the optimal planning of transmission lines of SCN up to year 2017. (author)

Abou El-Ela, A.A.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.; Allam, S.M.; Atta, Gasir M. [Electrical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Eng., Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

2010-02-15

3

Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eight surface sabkha soils samples were collected from Ismailia—Suez roadbed, southwestern of Suez Canal district. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses were conducted using grain size; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Grain size analysis indicates high contents of fine sand and mud as well as presence of salts. X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDAX tool clarified that the sabkha soils are enriched by quartz, sulfate minerals (gypsum, ...

El-omla, Mohamed M.; Aboulela, Hamdy A.

2012-01-01

4

ASTER Suez Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

5

Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight surface sabkha soils samples were collected from Ismailia—Suez roadbed, southwestern of Suez Canal district. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses were conducted using grain size; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Grain size analysis indicates high contents of fine sand and mud as well as presence of salts. X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and EDAX tool clarified that the sabkha soils are enriched by quartz, sulfate minerals (gypsum, anhydrite, carbonate minerals (calcite-dolomite-aragonite, chlorides (halite and bischofite, and clay minerals. The results elucidate that the appearance of sabkha deposits and their distribution in the study area are controlled mainly by the content of water soluble salts through parent materials; ground water table; subsurface structural; and physiographic features for instance surface relief or topography; and human activity.

Hamdy A. Aboulela

2012-07-01

6

Taxonomic Study on the Feather Stars (Crinoidea: Echinodermata) from Egyptian Red Sea Coasts and Suez Canal, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A taxonomic study on the crinoids (feather stars) collected from 34 sites from the Red Sea coasts and islands as well as the Suez Canal was done during the period from 1992 to 2003. A total of 15 species are now known from the Red Sea belonging to eleven genera under six families. Among them four species are endemic to the Red Sea and the two spe- cies, Decametra chadwicki and Lamprometra klunzingeri, are recorded from the Suez Canal for the first time. Also, the two species, Oligometra serri...

Hellal, Ahmed M.

2012-01-01

7

Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

2008-01-01

8

Taxonomic Study on the Feather Stars (Crinoidea: Echinodermata from Egyptian Red Sea Coasts and Suez Canal, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A taxonomic study on the crinoids (feather stars collected from 34 sites from the Red Sea coasts and islands as well as the Suez Canal was done during the period from 1992 to 2003. A total of 15 species are now known from the Red Sea belonging to eleven genera under six families. Among them four species are endemic to the Red Sea and the two spe- cies, Decametra chadwicki and Lamprometra klunzingeri, are recorded from the Suez Canal for the first time. Also, the two species, Oligometra serripinna and Dorometra aegyptica, are new record from Gulf of Suez, and Decametra mollis from Gulf of Aqaba and Northern Red Sea. This study represents the first proper documentation of crinoid species in the study area. Summaries are provided of the specific habitats and geographical distribution.

Ahmed M. Hellal

2012-04-01

9

Association of catalase gene polymorphisms with catalase activity and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in the Suez Canal area, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated the relationship of genetic variants in both promoter (-262?C/T) and in exonic (389?C/T) regions of the catalase (CAT) gene to CAT activity and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Suez Canal-area patients. CAT gene polymorphisms were assessed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). CAT activity was measured by using a spectrophotometer. We compared the frequencies of CAT 389 C/T and -262?C/T polymorphic variants between SLE patients (n?=?103) and healthy controls (n?=?103). CAT 389?C/T is associated with SLE susceptibility, with the T allele being significantly more frequent among SLE patients than healthy controls. There was no association, however, between CAT activity and genotypes of 389?C/T. We did not observe significant differences in the prevalence of CAT -262?C/T polymorphic variants in SLE patients and controls, however, we found that patients with the CAT -262 CT and TT genotypes had low CAT activity, and these genotypes showed a significant association with thrombocytopaenia, leukopaenia and the presence of anti-snRNP in SLE patients. In conclusion, the present study supports the notion of in vivo oxidative stress in SLE as indicated by the decrease in CAT activity. The allelic variations in the CAT gene -262 are more likely to affect the expression or the function of the enzyme. Since CAT may be pathogenetically linked to SLE, and owing to its free-radical origin, it appears reasonable to target lipid peroxidation by dietary and/or pharmacological antioxidants. PMID:22736749

Ghaly, M S; Ghattas, M H; Labib, S M

2012-10-01

10

The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors; Le Canal de Suez et les ports petroliers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.).

Anon.

1997-12-31

11

Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the Suez Canal Bank is going to be highlighted. (author)

2008-10-19

12

Assessment of the impact from transporting radioactive materials in the Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study in Egypt, carried out as the subject of an IAEA research contract, has used the INTERTRAN Code to provide an assessment of doses to handlers and the collective dose to the population, due to transport of radioactive material through the Suez Canal. Calculations were carried out using the data appropriate to the Canal, based on actual statistics and observations and default data built into the Code. The average collective dose per year was calculated to be 4.5 man rem and doses to handlers under normal transport conditions represented 97% of the total. Use of built-in default data gave results 106 times higher. 11 refs, 16 tabs

1987-01-01

13

Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF6 packages traversing the Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF6 shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF6 on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

2004-01-01

14

Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF{sub 6} packages traversing the Suez Canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF{sub 6} shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF{sub 6} on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

Salama, M

2004-07-01

15

Egypt's first subsea completion: A Gulf of Suez case history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.'s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt's first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations

1996-06-01

16

Stratigraphy and correlation of Belayim Cenomanian, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cenomanian rocks in the land and marine Belayim wells (Nos. 113-32, 113-M5, M1) in the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez are mainly clastics with few nonclastics. They have been referred to the Raha Formation and correlated with the Cenomanian in north Egypt. About 46 foraminiferal species could be identified. Species of Hedbergella, Thomasinella and Cribrostomoides are the most conspicous and form three definite and traceable biozones. The zonal as well as the recorded index species are useful in local, regional and intra-continental correlation.

Abd-Elshafy, E.; Abu-Ellile, M. M.

17

Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF6) packages tracking Suez Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF6) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF6) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF6) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested

2004-09-20

18

Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF{sub 6}) packages tracking Suez Canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF{sub 6}) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF{sub 6}) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF{sub 6}) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards araised in such type of accidents. Moreover up grading capabilities of civil deference and fire-fighting personnel is also requested.

Salama, M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

2004-07-01

19

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7 Section 69...General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of...

2009-10-01

20

Hydrogeochemistry and Geothermometry of Thermal Groundwater from the Gulf of Suez Region, Egypt ?????????????? ? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The combined chemical composition, O and H isotopes, and the basic geologic setting of the geothermal system of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt have been investigated to evaluate the origin of the dissolved constituents and subsurface reservoir temperatures. Hydrochemical characterization of thermal waters discharged from springs and flowing artesian wells in the Gulf of Suez region show that there are two groups. One is Hammam Faroun thermal waters with salinity values exceeding 10,000 mg/l, dischar...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Slim-hole drilling in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the economical, operational and environmental aspects of the reduced hole size drilling now used in offshore operations in Gupco and other major petroleum companies operating in the Gulf of Suez Area Egypt. The results demonstrate that reduced hole size drilling saves cost: use of slim hole reduces time related intangible savings, fixed tangible savings, and tangible equipment savings. The advantages of small hole size and the reduction in the volume and size of oil wet drilling cuttings help minimize the environmental impact associated with the use of oil base mud. The reduction in drilling fluid volume and treatment cost, higher rates of penetration, better hole cleaning capabilities, savings in consumables (such as bits, mud, cement and diesel oil), less tangible cost, and easier equipment mobilization are interacted to produce significant operational gains. This results in savings to 40 to 50 percent of well costs versus the cost of conventional wells drilled in the same area. Although substantial savings were realized, there are elevated risks with the major one being the lack of a good contingency in the event unexpected hole condition or geological condition require an extra casing to be run prior to reaching the total depth. Effective preplanning between the drilling, exploration, and engineering to accurately define possible geologic targets and their potential drilling problems can minimize these risks associated with drilling slim holes and provide higher levels of success in meeting objectives

1993-02-08

22

Revolution in Egypt and the Potential for a New Suez Crisis.  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the probability for renewed conflict in the Sinai region in light of Egypt's recent revolution. This monograph examines that question by analyzing Nasser's Free Officer revolution of the 1950s that led to the 1956 Suez Crisis (Nasser era) and the ...

R. A. Hafen

2012-01-01

23

Ascidian introductions through the Suez Canal: The casestudy of an Indo-Pacificspecies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although marine biological invasions via the Suez Canal have been extensively documented, little is known about the introduction of non-indigenous ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea), a group containing particularly aggressive invasive species. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to study the introduction of the ascidianHerdmania momus into the Mediterranean Sea. We reviewed its taxonomy and global distribution, and analyzed how genetic variation is partitioned between sides of the Suez C...

Rius, Marc; Shenkar, Noa

2012-01-01

24

The Suez Canal as a habitat and pathway for marine algae and seagrasses  

Science.gov (United States)

The Suez Canal supports a diversified benthic algal flora; 133 species of benthic algae are now known from the Canal, as compared with only 24 in 1924. The vertical and horizontal distribution of algae is considered in relation to hydrographic factors. The algae display zonation and 3-4 algal belts are distinguished on the Canal banks on buoys and pier supports. Associated fauna include Balanus amphitrite and Brachidontes variabilis, together with various hydroids, sponges, ascidians, asteroids, ophiuroids and crustaceans. Merceriella enigmatica thrives well in brackish water habitats. The algal flora in the Bitter Lakes resembles that in the Red Sea. The number of Red Sea species decreases from Suez to Port Said in the littoral zone. On the other hand, bottom algae predominantly belong to Red Sea flora. Thirty of the species of algae found belong to the Indo-Pacific flora; half of these are new records to the Canal. Several of these Indo-Pacific algae have recently become established in the Eastern Mediterranean, whereas only two of the Mediterranean macro-algal flora (viz. Caulerpa prolifera and Halopteris scoparia) have been found in the Gulf of Suez. Two seagrasses, Halopia ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii, are recorded for the first time in the Canal. Only Halophila stipulacea has found its way into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, but none of the Mediterranean seagrasses is found either in the Canal or in the Red Sea.

Aleem, A. A.

25

Spectrometry and Reservoir Characteristics of Rudeis Formation in Belayim Marine Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt ??????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gamma ray spectrometry is used to determine the stability of radioactive elements, shale volume and clay type. Three spectrometric variables eU, eTh and K% are recorded in seven wells of Rudeis Formation in Belayium marine oil field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Statistical analysis of the radioactive elements (uranium and thorium) reflects their concentrations in Rudeis Formation. Spectral gamma ray and Scanning Electron Microscope photographs elaborate that, the clay minerals of Rudeis sandstone ar...

Mohamed Gadallah; Refaat El-Terb; El-Sayed El-Kattan; Ibrahim El-Alfy

2010-01-01

26

Miocene platform-margin reefs, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jebel Abu Shaar is a completely dolomitized carbonate platform atop a crystalline basement horst on the western side of the Gulf of Suez. Margins of the platform, where not removed by synsedimentary faulting, are formed by well-developed coral reefs. The massive reef carbonates consistently illustrate two stages of growth: a basal paucispecific unit of branching coral bafflestone, mostly Stylophora and a thicker upper unit of diverse coral framestone, dominated by faviids. In the upper unit, the reef crest is massive columnar Porites and less common Caulastrea framestone. The back-reef is a framestone of diverse faviids, mainly Montastrea Favites, and Tarbellastrea, and interbedded reef-flat rhodolite rudstones. The back-reef and reef-flat facies grade onshelf into Stylophora bafflestone biostromers and faviid bioherms. The reef front is a shallow to intermediate depth zone of numerous and diverse faviids, dominated by Montastrea and Acanthastrea framestones, bioclastic sands, and hardgrounds. Deeper zones are mostly small Acanthastrea mounds or rhodolite/bivalve rudstones with scattered faviids and Acanthastrea. Synsedimentary lithification, internal sedimentationm, and bioerosion prevail throughout. A deep-water, slope-parallel biostrome of ahermatypic corals, dominated by Dendrophyllia and containing numerous Balanophyllia and Madracis, is present 10 km north of Abu Shaar. Corals are well cemented by numerous rinds of marine cement which is overlain by geopetal internal sediment containing planktonic foraminifers and pteropods.

Noel, J.P.; Rosen, B.; Coniglio, M.

1988-01-01

27

Ascidian introductions through the Suez Canal: The case study of an Indo-Pacific species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although marine biological invasions via the Suez Canal have been extensively documented, little is known about the introduction of non-indigenous ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea), a group containing particularly aggressive invasive species. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to study the introduction of the ascidian Herdmania momus into the Mediterranean Sea. We reviewed its taxonomy and global distribution, and analyzed how genetic variation is partitioned between sides of the Suez Canal. The taxonomic revision showed that H. momus currently has a wide Indo-Pacific distribution. Genetic data indicated two well-differentiated colonization histories across the eastern Mediterranean. Our findings suggest that the range expansion of H. momus has been greatly facilitated by the combined effect of human-mediated transport and the species' ability to adapt to different environments. The integrative approach presented here is critical to attain a holistic understanding of marine biological invasions, especially when studying groups with a poorly resolved taxonomy. PMID:22857711

Rius, Marc; Shenkar, Noa

2012-10-01

28

Marine radioactivity studies in the Suez Canal. A modelling study on radionuclide dispersion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes work carried out under the IAEA Project EGY/07/002 to study the dispersion of radioactive material in the Suez Canal and the Bitter Lakes. This effort is linked with increased public concern about radiation safety through this important trade route. We apply a sequence of related modelling approaches, covering: (1) hydrodynamics, (2) transport of dissolved pollutants, (3) suspended loads and sediment dynamics, and (4) electrolytic reactions in aqueous suspension and in-sediment water pores. The final stage is a kinetic-reactive transport model for these tidal waters. The hydrodynamics have been studied using both 1D and 2D modelling approaches, and a reasonable calibration has been possible from the data set prepared with the collaboration of the Suez Canal Authority. Diffusion coefficients are calibrated from field tracing experiments included in the IAEA Project. They have been implemented in 1D and 2D models. Suspended matter dynamics and electrolytic reactions are documented from the available literature. Finally, different scenarios of discharges for both conservative and non-conservative radionuclides have been investigated

2000-05-01

29

Boundary layer structure observed by Shipborne Doppler Sodar in the Suez Canal zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations of the boundary layer with a monostatic Sodar and other instrumentation were carried out in the Suez canal zone in January and March 1979, from the Italian m.v. Salernum on its way to and from a GARP assignment. The Sodar was operated almost continuously throughout the passages. In addition to the intensity records, an off-line Doppler analysis involving the use of the fast Fourier transform of the digitized Sodar echoes has provided the vertical component w of the velocity. In general, because of efficient filtering and of the good quality of the data, a vertical profile of w has been determined for each transmitted pulse. During a prolonged stay in the Bitter lakes vertical profiles of temperature and humidity were also obtained by deploying a tethered balloon. Large temporal and spatial temperature contrasts exist in the canal zone due to the presence of the desert and of large and small bodies of water. The ensuring phenomenology during the time of observation was quite varied. (author)

1980-01-01

30

The interaction between adults and recruitments in the brachidontes variabilis l. (lamellibranchiata) bed in the bitter great lake, suez canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present study was to test two hypotheses concerning the interactions between adults and recruitments in the densly-packed assemblages of a population of suspension feeder (Brachidontes variabilis L.) in the Great Bitter Lake, Suez Canal. The hypothesis that the adults of B. variabilis inhibit the settlement of their own recruits was not supported. The size-class structure of B. variabilis population revealed no dominance of large individuals, indicating that older cohort...

Mohamed, S. Z.

1992-01-01

31

Distribution of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia thurstoni Herdman, 1890 (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae along Suez Canal and Egyptian Red Sea coasts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecteinascidia thurstoni is a colonial sea squirt. It has a seasonal rhythm and a tropicaland subtropical distribution; it is usually present during the summer months.It synthesizes a group of molecules called ecteinascidins. One of these is ET-743, a compound that has a most original anti-tumoral activity and is today considered to be one of the most promising substances effective against various solid-type tumors (currently sold under the trade name of Yondelis for the treatment of sarcomas and related tumors; it is undergoing phase II/III clinical trails for other kinds of tumors.Worldwide, Ecteinascidia species represent the only available source of this bioactivecompound, which was first discovered in E. turbinata.During the present study, the ecology of E. thurstoni along the Suez Canal and Red Seawas investigated. Its populations were observed to be highly gregarious due in partto their low larval dispersal, which is very localized; larvae therefore tendto settle close to their parent colonies. It is only recorded in shallow waters (0.5-1.5 mas an epiphyte on the pneumatophores of mangroves by the Red Sea, on the pilings of jetties,and the metal or cement banks of the Suez Canal. The morphometric characteristics(zooid length, zooid weight, colony weight of the Suez Canal population differsignificantly from those of the Red Sea. Studying the distribution of this speciesand locating its different populations along the Suez Canal and Red Sea could helpto characterize their genetics, chemistry and bacterial communities at differentisolated locations.Ultimately, this will help to define the sources of ET-743 and hence promote itsbiosynthesis on a commercial scale.

Ali A-F. A. Gab-Alla

2008-06-01

32

Dinoflagellates from the Miocene Rudeis and Kareem formations borehole GS-78-1, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Miocene Rudeis and the Kareem formations encountered in the Neogene part of the GS-78-1 borehole, Gulf of Suez produced diverse assemblages of dinoflagellate cysts, spores and pollen. The Early Miocene (Burdigalian) age assigned to the Rudeis Formation and the Early-?Middle Miocene (Langhian-Serravallian) age postulated for the Kareem formation is based on the presence of dinoflagellate cysts. These offer a good basis for biostratigraphic correlation of the Miocene deposits in the Gulf of Suez with those in the Nile Delta and Sinai in Egypt, and also with those present in key sections from the Mediterranean, the Canadian offshore sequences, Northwest Europe and from the North Atlantic. The terrestrial palynoflora (spores and pollen) affords no really precise, independent testimony as to the age of the samples, apart from being generally indicative of a Neogene age, in accord with the established gross age of the sediments, derived mainly from planktonic forams, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts. The Rudeis Formation was deposited in a relatively deep water environment, based on the abundance fluctuations in miospores and dinoflagellates. However, the miospores recovered from the Rudeis Formation give an equivocal signal with respect to depositional environment. Such observed incursions of terrestrial elements in the Rudeis Formation could indicate that they might have been carried about within the basin of deposition by the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, or that they were displaced into a deep water setting. The overlying Kareem Formation was identified as an outer continental shelf deposit to upper bathyal (distal) environment because it contains a higher percentage of marine dinoflagellate cysts in most investigated samples, except in its uppermost part which shows the lowest percentage of marine forms. These include Spiniferites ramosus, S. pseudofurcatus, Operculodinium centrocarpum, Polysphaeridium zoharyi, Systematophora placacantha and Lingulodinium machaerophorum. The consistent presence of P. zoharyi in the Kareem Formation indicates that the Gulf of Suez was at times in the tropical to subtropical belt during the Early-?Middle Miocene age.

El Beialy, Salah Y.; Ali, Ali S.

2002-08-01

33

Wind resources of the Gulf of Suez and northern Red Sea, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of a comprehensive, 5-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez is presented. The primary purpose has been to establish reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for this area. With mean wind speeds and energy densities of 8-12 ms{sup -1} and 500-1400 Wm{sup -2}, respectively, at a height of 25 m over roughness class 0 (water), the wind resources of the Gulf of Suez are comparable to those of the most favourable regions in NW-Europe. The wind atlas methodology has proven very useful in the extreme climatic conditions of the desert. Applied with care, it can provide accurate predictions of the wind climate at candidate sites for wind turbines along the Gulf of Suez. (author)

Mortensen, N.G. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Meteorology and Wind Energy; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Wind Energy Dept.

1997-06-01

34

Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations; a secondary purpose has been to evaluate the applicability of current wind resource estimation and siting tools â?? in particular the European Wind Atlas methodology â?? to this region where the meso-scale effects are pronounced and the climatic conditions (e.g. atmospheric stability) somewhat extreme. The wind data are analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Meso-scale Model (KAMM) has been used to model the wind flow as well as to establish the magnitude and spatial variation of the wind resource in the Gulf of Suez â?? based on the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data set. Results are compared to long-term measurements of wind speed and direction at 13 meteorological stations along a 250-km stretch of the Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea. The simulations of the wind climate in the Gulf of Suez with the KAMM meso-scale model capture the main features of the complicated flow patterns and of the observed wind climates; however, the mean wind speeds and power densities are somewhat underestimated. The wind resource is found to be very high in the Gulf of Suez â?? with capacity factors of up to about 70% â?? at the same time the horizontal gradients of wind speed and power density are quite steep. The combination of meso- and micro-scale flow models â?? here the KAMM/WAsP methodology or the Numerical Wind Atlas â?? seem necessary in order to make reliable wind resource assessments in all parts of the Gulf of Suez.

Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama

2003-01-01

35

Application of well log analysis for source rock evaluation in the Duwi Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Several models were developed to use the conventional wireline logs for evaluating the thermal maturity of the source rock and calculating the total organic carbon (TOC) content. Application of these models for the Duwi Formation, southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt, is the main purpose of this paper. Gamma ray, density, sonic, resistivity and neutron are the commonly used wireline logs to identify and quantify source rock. The results, which compared with the results obtained from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis show that cautions must be taken into consideration when applied these models because most of the models are empirical and their validation takes place under certain conditions. It can be concluded that the Duwi Formation represents very good source rock capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbon of oil-prone type II. The kerogen is waxy sapropel related to marine plankton deposited under reduced condition.

El Sharawy, Mohamed S.; Gaafar, Gamal R.

2012-05-01

36

Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biometric parameters, the frequency of occurrence, abundance and density analyses, the seaweed C. prolifera is more frequent, abundant and dense in Suez Canal than the seagrass H. stipulacea, which is very rare. Instead C. prolifera forming extended dense meadows with percentage cover nearly 100% m-2 at many sites. This mainly happened; due to the competitive success of C. prolifera which seems to be related to its big size, high density, rapid growth, high efficiency in dim light conditions, high tolerance to severe nutrient limitation and salinity and temperature fluctuations and to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. The presence of these toxic secondary metabolites explains why C. prolifera is avoided by many of macro invertebrates as a habitat or feeding grounds.

Gab-Alla, Ali A.-F. A.

37

Risk factors of falls among elderly living in Urban Suez - Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Falling is one of the most common geriatric syndromes threatening the independence of older persons. Falls result from a complex and interactive mix of biological or medical, behavioral and environmental factors, many of which are preventable. Studying these diverse risk factors would aid early detection and management of them at the primary care level. Methods This is a cross sectional study about risk factors of falls was conducted to 340 elders in Urban Suez. Those are all patients over 60 who attended two family practice centers in Urban Suez. Results When asked about falling during the past 12 months, 205 elders recalled at least one incident of falling. Of them, 36% had their falls outdoors and 24% mentioned that stairs was the most prevalent site for indoor falls. Falls were also reported more among dependant than independent elderly. Using univariate regression analysis, almost all tested risk factors were significantly associated with falls in the studied population. These risk factors include: living alone, having chronic diseases, using medications, having a physical deficit, being in active, and having a high nutritional risk. However, the multivariate regression analysis proved that the strongest risk factors are low level of physical activity with OR 0.6 and P value 0.03, using a cane or walker (OR 1.69 and P value 0.001) and Impairment of daily living activities (OR 1.7 and P value 0.001). Conclusion Although falls is a serious problem among elderly with many consequences, it has many preventable risk factors. Health care providers should advice people to remain active and more research is needed in such an important area of Family Practice.

Kamel, Mohammed Hany; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed; Ismail, Sally El-Sayed

2013-01-01

38

Ecological Study on Community of Exotic Invasive Seaweed Caulerpa prolifera in Suez Canal and its Associated Macro Invertebrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux, a green alga, widespread in tropical and subtropical seas is now invading species to the Suez Canal during last recent years after 2000; it is widely spread, colonizing its western sandy shore at shallow waters of 1-2 m depth. It has the potential to supplant native vegetation, thereby altering the structure and function of the subtidal marine landscape, supplant seagrass H. stipulacea. According to the present study, based on biome...

Gab-alla, Ali A-f A.

2007-01-01

39

Oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations in Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to published geological studies, there are two theories regarding the origin of petroleum in the Gulf of Suez area. One theory advocates that the majority of the oil accumulations in this region originate from two different source rocks: Eocene limestones and Miocene marls. The other theory states that only Miocene marls and shales of the Gharandal and Ras Mallah groups are the source rocks. The present study is a geochemical evaluation of Eocene limstones as potential source rocks. Samples were analyzed for their petroporphyrin types and distributions using established analytical techniques that included uv/vis, mass spectrometry, and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). These techniques permitted the determination of several petroporphyrin parameters such as yield, distribution, and the ratios of nickel to vanadyl complexes and of DPEP to etio types. These geochemical parameters were then employed for oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations of the samples analyzed. In general, the oils had higher porphyrin contents, higher vanadyl to nickel porphyrins ratios, and lower DPEP to etio ratios compared to the shales. Most importantly, however, the porphyrin distribution (HPLC fingerprints) for the oils were significantly different from those of the shales. The shale samples showed three different fingerprints, one of which is uncommon of petroporphyrins found in petroleum and related bitumens. Among the oils, two different fingerprints were observed, regardless of their geological age. Although these observations suggest more than one source for the oils, they could not corroborate the the assumption that the Eocene formation is a potential source rock.

Hajibrahim, S.K.; Okla, S.

1983-03-01

40

Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Rudies sandstone (Lower Miocene), Warda Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lower Miocene Rudies sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southeastern part, Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their provenance and diagenesis and their impact in reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Warda field, representing the Lower and Middle Rudies, were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rudies sandstones have an average framework composition of Q85F7.2R7.8, and 83% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Middle Rudies sandstones are only slightly more quartzose with an average framework composition of Q90F7R3 and 86% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. Rudies sandstones are mostly quartz arenite with subordinate subarkose and sublithic arenites and their bulk-rock geochemistry support the petrographic results. The modal analysis data of studied samples suggest influence of granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks. The geochemical data interpretation on the basis of discriminate function diagrams reveal the source material was deposited on a passive margin. Textural attributes possibly suggest long-distance transport of grains from the source region and indicates a cratonic or a recycled source. Tectonic setting of Rudies Formation reveals that the lower Rudies sandstones are typically rift sandstone and their deposition constrained the beginning of the faulting, while the middle Rudies sandstones were transported from the far along the rift. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

Zaid, Samir M.

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Modulation of stress related protein genes in the bass (Epinephelus guaza) caught from the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impact of chemical pollution on expression of stress protein genes in the bass Epinephelus guaga collected from several locations including Suez Oil Production Port (Floating port), Atakah Fishing Port, Adabiya Port and Tawfik Port in Suez Governorate, Egypt, was investigated. In the current study, levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and fish samples collected from Suez Gulf were assessed. In addition, gills and liver tissues of caught bass fish were used to address the interaction between pollution status and the expression of stress-related genes (Hsp70a, Hsp70b, Hsp47, MT and CYP1A). Our analysis demonstrated that levels of PAHs in Floating and Tawfik ports were higher than those found in the Atakah Fishing Port and the Adabiya Port. In addition, MDA and PC contents were significantly higher in gills and liver tissues collected from Floating and Tawfik ports than those collected from Adabiya and Atakah ports. In correlation to the above results, all fish collected from the Floating and Tawfik ports presented a significant increase in Hsp-, MT- and CYP1A-mRNAs. On the other hand, fish samples collected from the Atakah Fishing and Adabiya ports showed no induction of the stress-related genes transcription in such tissues. In conclusion, the current research demonstrates that remarkable increase in PAH contaminants levels in Floating and Tawfik ports are correlated with the levels stress protein-related genes transcription in E. guaga gills and liver tissues. PMID:23849466

Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Khalil, Wagdy K B

2013-10-01

42

Sea transport of radioactive materials in Egypt (invited paper)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the experience gained. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the Canal from 1963 to 1996 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. (author)

1998-01-01

43

Sea transport of radioactive materials in Egypt (invited paper)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the experience gained. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the Canal from 1963 to 1996 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. (author)

El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Gomaa, M.A

1998-07-01

44

Seasonal composition and population density of zooplankton in Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated seasonally at ten sites in Lake Timsah and the adjacent, connected western lagoon in relation to the physico-chemical conditions. A total of 42 taxa (including larval stages were identified, among them 21 species of copepods, 6 rotifers, 5 cladocerans, 1 chaetognath and 1 urochordate. Copepods represented the predominant component (77.7% of the total community, followed by rotifers, molluscs, cladocerans and (9.2, 4.7 and 3.9% respectively, while other groups collectively formed about 4.5% of the total zooplankton population. Summer was the most productive season with an average count of 40 864 individuals m-3. The dominant copepod species were Paracalanus crassirostris and Oithona nana representing 28.3 and 24.3% of the total zooplankton respectively. The total zooplankton count, including copepods, and its dominant species showed significant positive correlations with temperature, pH and total phytoplankton density. However, negative correlations were detected between densities of rotifers, and salinity and dissolved oxygen.

Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny

2011-09-01

45

Family physicians' attitude and practice of infertility management at primary care - Suez Canal University, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The very particular natures of infertility problem and infertility care make them different from other medical problems and services in developing countries. Even after the referral to specialists, the family physicians are expected to provide continuous support for these couples. This place the primary care service at the heart of all issues related to infertility. The aim of the work: to improve family physicians' attitude and practice about the approach to infertility management within primary care setting. Methods This study was conducted in the between June and December 2010. The study sample comprised 100 family physician trainees in the family medicine department and working in family practice centers or primary care units. They were asked to fill a questionnaire about their personal characteristics, attitude, and practice towards support, investigations, and treatment of infertile couples. Results Hundred family physicians were included in the study. They were previously received training in infertility management. Favorable attitude scores were detected among (68%) of physicians and primary care was considered a suitable place for infertility management among (77%) of participants. There was statistically significant difference regarding each of age groups, gender and years of experience with the physicians? attitude. There was statistically significant difference regarding gender, perceiving PHC as an appropriate place to manage infertility and attitude towards processes of infertility management with the physicians? practice. Conclusion Favorable attitude and practice were determined among the study sample. Supporting the structure of primary care and evidence-based training regarding infertility management are required to improve family physicians' attitude and practice towards infertility management.

Eldein, Hebatallah Nour

2013-01-01

46

Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. ? 13C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of time during the burial history, where the oil kitchens are deep and thermally high that are capable for generating highly mature oil. This could enhance segregation of light hydrocarbon from the heavier oil molecules prior oil expulsion and hydrocarbon generation. These constant differences in burial history and organic matter influx specifying each area are the reason of the restricted isotopic results for each one. The deviation of oil characteristics from one environmental condition to the other reflects a mixing of those cases. This clear evidence of 13C isotopic signature implies easier specification of oil origin that could be used in other locations

2006-01-01

47

Palynology, palynofacies and petroleum potential of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynological, palynofacies and organic geochemical results of 46 samples retrieved from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt are presented. The two latter formations are not dated palynologically as their lithology is not promising for palynological yield. However the Matulla Formation is dated as Turonian-Santonian age, based on the combined evidence of pollen and dinocysts. Palynofacies analysis carried out under both transmitted and fluorescent microscopy indicated that both the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations are deposited under a distal suboxic-anoxic environment. On the other hand, the Turonian-Santonian Matulla Formation supported the existence of a marginal marine deposition under dysoxic-anoxic basin to proximal suboxic-anoxic shelf environments. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and TOC results indicated that most of the studied formations are thermally immature to marginally mature and have a good petroleum potential. They are organically-rich in both oil- and gas-prone kerogen Type-II and II/III, deposited under marine reducing conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Abo Ghonaim, A. A.; Mostafa, A. R.; El Atfy, H.

2014-07-01

48

A contrução do canal de Suez e a formação do conflito: a força de paz brasileira na Faixa de Gaza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apesar de ocorrerem ainda inúmeros conflitos, após 1945 as nações uniram-se em busca de paz. A ONU passou a intervir em conflitos armados sempre que achasse necessário para a manutenção da paz. Entretanto, o imperialismo havia deixado suas marcas em diversos países da África, que após a Segunda Guerra Mundial se lançaram na luta por independência. Este foi o caso de Suez. No presente artigo apresentamos nossa análise sobre a formação do conflito árabe-israelense na Faixa de Gaza e da efetiva participação brasileira, como força de paz enviada pela ONU, na Guerra dos Seis Dias.

Francisca Carla Santos Ferrer

2006-04-01

49

Maastrichtian-Early Eocene litho-biostratigraphy and palægeography of the northern Gulf of Suez region, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene sediments on both sides of the northern Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into eight formal formations (including one group) and one informal formation that are described in detail. These lithostratigraphic units reflect three different environmental regimes of deposition or non-deposition. The first regime is characterised by uplift and erosion or non-deposition resulting mostly from the uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba structure, a branch of the Syrian Arc Foldbelt. The shallow water carbonate platform and slope deposits of the Late Campanian-Maastrichtian St Anthony Formation and the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Southern Galala and Garra Formations represent the second regime and are found north and south of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba High. The third regime is represented by basinal chalks, marls and shales of the Maastrichtian Sudr Formation and of the Paleocene-Eocene Dakhla, Tarawan and Esna Formations, the Dakhla/Tarawan/Esna informal formation and the Thebes Group. The distribution and lateral interfingering of the above mentioned environmental regimes reflect different vertical movements, changing basin morphology, sea level changes and progradation of shallow water sediments and is illustrated on 11 palæogeographic maps.

Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.

2001-02-01

50

Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f0) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A0) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest

2008-12-01

51

Excavation of a Qattara Canal in Egypt: two-dimensional nuclear cratering calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of single-charge nuclear cratering calculations were performed. Results from these calculations are being used in a study of the technical feasibility of the Qattara Project. The project would use nuclear explosives with yields ranging between about 200 and 1750 kilotons to excavate a canal about 73 km long connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the below sea-level Qattara Depression in northwestern Egypt. Computer simulations of explosive excavations were carried out at four locations near the proposed Qattara alignment. Holes were drilled in Egypt at these locations to depths of 372, 514, 632, and 701 m, respectively, to provide geophysical information needed to properly characterize each site for computer calculations. The calculated results for ground motion, particle velocity, and crater dimensions for these nuclear excavations are presented

1980-01-01

52

Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were ...

El-gazzaz, Galal H.; El-elemi, Azza H.

2010-01-01

53

Environmental studies on water quality of the Ismailia Canal/Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inorganic chemical water quality of the Ismailia Canal / Egypt was studies in 2003 and 2004 at seventeen different sites from the main canal between Cairo and Ismailia. Additional samples were taken from selected discharges and groundwater sources. As the Ismailia Canal is fed by water from the Nile some samples were taken from the Nile near Aswan for comparative reasons too. Water samples were analysed for sum parameters, salts, heavy metals and natural radioactivity. Especially in the Greater Cairo Area due to different uncontrolled discharges pH and conductivity changed significantly when proceeding from up to downstream sites. The water temperature increased significantly during the first 20 km. The main reason was the discharge of warm water used to cool machinery in the industrial suburb of Cairo. Iron, Zinc and Manganese were found in low concentrations. Because of dilution effects the amounts of dissolved salts were still below the German ''Trinkwasserverordnung''. A higher total organic carbon level indicated the presence of organic contaminants however. The natural radioactivity level was in the normal range. (orig.)

Stahl, Ralph [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Ramadan, Abou Bakr [Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Cairo (Egypt)

2008-08-15

54

Microcystin production in benthic mats of cyanobacteria in the Nile River and irrigation canals, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study describes for the first time the species composition and toxicity of benthic cyanobacteria forming mats on the Nile River and irrigation canal sediments in Egypt. A total of 19 species of cyanobacteria were isolated from these mats during this study. The toxicity of the extracts of these species was investigated using Artemia salina assay, mouse bioassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that all the 19 benthic species isolated from cyanobacterial mats, were toxic to A. salina. Two of these species, namely Calothrix parietina and Phormidium tenue, caused toxicity to mice with neurotoxic signs appeared within 12 h after injection. Whereas, five species showed hepatotoxic effects to mice within 6 h after injection. The results of ELISA showed that all the extracts which had hepatotoxic effects to mice, contained high levels of microcystins with concentrations ranging from 1.6 to 4.1 mg g(-1) dry weight. HPLC analysis for heptotoxic extracts revealed that these extracts contained two peaks corresponding to microcystin-YR and -LR with different proportions. This study suggests that benthic species should be considered along with planktonic species during monitoring of toxic cyanobacteria in water sources, particularly the Nile river which is the main source of drinking water in Egypt. PMID:16564062

Mohamed, Zakaria A; el-Sharouny, Hassan M; Ali, Wafaa S M

2006-04-01

55

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Family Physicians Regarding Smoking Cessation Counseling in Family Practice Centers, Suez Canal University, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Family physicians are the first point of medical contact for most patients, and they come into contact with a large number of smokers. Also, they are well suited to offer effective counseling to people, because family physicians already have some knowledge of patients and their social environments. Aims: The present study was conducted to assess family physicians’ knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking cessation counseling aiming to improve quality of smoking cessation counseling among family physicians. Materials and Methods: The study was descriptive analytic cross sectional study. It was conducted within family medicine centers. Sample was comprehensive. it included 75 family physicians. They were asked to fill previously validated anonymous questionnaire to collect data about their personal characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking cessation counseling, barriers and recommendations of physicians. Equal or above the mean scores were used as cut off point of the best scores for knowledge, attitude and practice. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 18 was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Results: The best knowledge, attitude and practice scores among family physicians in the study sample were (45.3 %, 93.3% and 44% respectively). Age (P = 0.039) and qualification of family physicians (P = 0.04) were significant variables regarding knowledge scores while no statistically significance between personal characteristics of family physicians and their attitude or practice scores regarding smoking cessation counseling. More than half of the family physicians recommended training to improve their smoking cessation counseling. Conclusions: Favorable attitude scores of family physicians exceed passing knowledge scores or practice scores. Need for knowledge and training are stimulus to design an educational intervention to improve quality of smoking cessation counseling.

Eldein, Hebatallah Nour; Mansour, Nadia M.; Mohamed, Samar F.

2013-01-01

56

The Effect of Redox Potential on the Stability of Some Heavy Metals in the Bottom Sediments of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt ????? ????? ??????? - ????????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between pH and Eh values and the content of some heavy metals in 27 bottom sediments from the Gulf of Suez has been studied. The sediment samples are mainly composed of carbonate- sand and silt. Three main factors control the behaviour of the examined metals in sediments. Factor 1 represents a pH-Eh factor that reveals the influence of redox potential on these metals in sediment. Carbonates are insoluble at high pH and Eh values and hence the metals in the carbonate debris ar...

Rifaat, A.

2005-01-01

57

Structural geology and 4D evolution of a half-graben: New digital outcrop modelling techniques applied to the Nukhul half-graben, Suez rift, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

LIDAR-based digital outcrop mapping, in conjunction with a new surface modelling approach specifically designed to deal with outcrop datasets, is used to examine the evolution of a half-graben scale normal fault array in the Suez rift. Syn-rift deposition in the Nukhul half-graben was controlled by the graben-bounding Nukhul fault. The fault can be divided into four segments based on the strike of the fault, the morphology of hangingwall strata, and the variation in throw along strike. The segments of the fault became geometrically linked within the first 2.5 m.y. of rifting, as evidenced by the presence of early syn-rift Abu Zenima Formation strata at the segment linkage points. Fault-perpendicular folds in the hangingwall related to along-strike variations in throw associated with precursor fault segments persist for a further 1.8 m.y. after linkage of the segments, suggesting that the fault remains kinematically segmented. We suggest this occurs because of sudden changes in fault strike at the segment linkage points that inhibit earthquake rupture propagation, or because displacement is geometrically inhibited at fault linkage points where the orientation of the intersection line of the segments is significantly different from the orientation of the slip vector on the fault system. Length/throw plots and throw contour patterns for minor faults show that some faults initiated in pre-rift strata, whereas late east-striking faults initiated in the syn-rift basin fill. The late initiating faults are spatially associated with the east-striking Baba-Markha fault, which was active throughout the rift history, but developed as a transfer fault between major block-bounding fault systems around 6-7 Ma after rift initiation.

Wilson, Paul; Hodgetts, David; Rarity, Franklin; Gawthorpe, Rob L.; Sharp, Ian R.

2009-03-01

58

Egypt - worthwhile desert finds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although Egypt has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production, it remains a vast under-explored region with excellent opportunities and large upside reserve potential. Attention has centred on the Gulf of Suez and the Western Desert which has recently experienced an upsurge of activity with a number of discoveries made in the past 18 months. (Author)

Jackson, K.

1997-05-01

59

Vegetation Analysis along Irrigation and Drain Canals in Damietta Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study provides an investigation of the vegetation analysis, a quantitative assessment of the main soil characteristics and an evaluation of the relationships between the major identified vegetation groups and environmental attributes along the canals and drains in Damietta Province. Vegetation and soil were sampled in 65 stands representing the net of canals, drains and the shoreline of Lake Manzala at the borderland of Damietta area. Relative values of cover and density were determined for each species and were summed up to provide an estimate of its importance value. The physical and chemical characteristics of soil samples were determined for each stand. The classification (TWINSPAN and ordination (DCA techniques of the stands led to recognition of four vegetation groups, namely: group A dominated by Cynodon dactylon, group B dominated by Phragmites australis, group C codominated by Arthrocnemum macrostachyum- Phragmites australis and group D dominated by Phragmites australis. The light was thrown on the main factors influencing the vegetational group using Canonical Correspondence Analysis [CCA]. The percentages of clay,moisture content, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, chlorides, sodium,calcium and potassium are the most effective environmental variables which showed significant correlations with the first and second ordination axes. Accordingly, these soil variables seem to be the most important ecological factors influencing the distribution of vegetation in the study area.

I.A. Mashaly

2001-01-01

60

Impact of human activities on Aluminum contamination in the drainage canals in the Nile Delta, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aluminum is released into Sabal drainage canal through the emissions of recycled aluminum industries, the discharge of stations of water purification that contain huge amount of aluminum sulfate (alum and the extensive use of clay in the industry of packed bricks. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of human activities on Al accumulation on water and fish consumption. The field and laboratory studies of water samples and different fish tissues (muscles, liver and ovary revealed that water samples had higher levels of Aluminum if compared to those collected from other localities. Tissue samples of the fish, Tilapia zillii had higher levels of Al which exceeded the international permissible limits. From a public health standpoint, the increased concentrations of Al in water samples and the fish tissues in the are is a matter of concern. Therefore, the research suggests the elimination of illegal aluminum industries and replace the smaller and old stations of sewage treatment by another modern type capable of collecting and treating huge amount of sewage, with high efficiency of treatment and purification.

Alne-na-ei A. A.

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host-parasite relationship at a molecular level. PMID:23938396

Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

2013-09-01

62

The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection agency on water quality criteria (W.Q.C.)

2011-01-01

63

3D prestack depth migration in the Gulf of Suez; A case history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seismic reflection data in the southern Gulf of Suez, offshore Egypt, are commonly severely affected by shallow velocity inhomogeneities in the form of diapiric salt bodies, and depth migration techniques must be used in order to image the presalt structure correctly. Frequently the diapir and the underlying prospective structure are three dimensional rather tan two dimensional and thus require 3D techniques to resolve them. In addition, the severity of the problem is sometimes such that the common midpoint (CMP) stack assumptions are invalid and prestack depth migration is therefore required. In 1990, Unocal developed a practical 3D prestack depth-migration scheme, which was applied to a data set in the Gulf of Suez. The prospect was subsequently drilled and results proved the effectiveness of the technique. This paper describes the use of the technique in the form of a case history. It is expected that the technique will be routinely used to solve similar problems.

Western, P.G. (Unocal Thailand Ltd, Central Plaza Office Building, 1693 Phaholyothin Road, Bangkok (Thailand)); Ball, G.J. (Unocal Science and Technology Div., Brea, CA (United States))

1992-05-01

64

The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recru...

Claire Dupont; Perrine Ferauge; Romina Giuliano

2013-01-01

65

Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62 and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48; 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12; Hepatitis B (HBV-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54% developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

Galal H El-Gazzaz

2010-04-01

66

Egypt: World Oil Report 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on a selective ban on exploration for oil and gas that resulted for offshore and onshore areas of the Red Sea and South Sinai. Egypt is a new hot spot for environmental concerns. After six months of debate, three concessions in the southern Gulf of Suez were reopened for exploration in late 1990. Companies can resume seismic work and eventually drill, but only in a zone from the shoreline inland and under certain restrictions. If oil is found in the restricted area, discovery wells must be plugged and the location restored. If commercial, companies must go outside the restricted zone and drill deviated wells. Three companies directly involved are Asamera Egypt (Gulf Canada), Germany's Deminex and Exxon. All foreign exploration companies are now required to submit environmental impact statements.

1991-08-01

67

Suez prepares its rear forces in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waiting for an hypothetical merger with Gaz de France company, Suez, the French-Belgian energy group now put its forces on the dynamical Spanish market dominated by Endesa (a third of the power market), Iberdrola (a quarter of the power market) and Gas Natural (5% only of the power market, but the first gas operator in Spain). Since more than a year, these companies are the target of other European operators like Suez, Enel, E.On but also from Spanish giants of the building industry like ACS and Acciona, who are looking for mergers, partnerships or takeover bids. (J.S.)

2007-06-01

68

Evaluation Of The Hydraulic Connection Between The Surface Water And The Groundwater Along El-Salam Canal, North Eastern Coast, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, the interconnection between the surface water of El-Salam Canal and the shallow groundwater in the adjacent aquifer has been discussed using both the environmental isotopes and the chemical analyses of the different water bodies along the canal trajectory from Faraskour in the west to Balousa in the east. The isotopic techniques were applied to investigate this relationship and to estimate the possible contribution from various sources such as groundwater, sea water and/or irrigation water, and finally to determine the extent of mixing between El-Salam Canal and the adjacent aquifers. Since the groundwater in the area is saline (more than 10000 ppm) while the mixed canal water is mainly fresh (less than 1000 ppm), the interconnection between the canal water and surrounding shallow groundwater leads to one of the following two hydrologic processes; seepage from the canal water to the shallow groundwater which means fresh water losses or leakage from the groundwater into the surface water which means water quality deterioration The present study aims to detect the hydraulic interconnection between the two water bodies by using environmental isotope techniques as well as detailed chemical analysis. For this purpose, 31 water samples from both surface water and groundwater were collected and analyzed for 18O and 2H contents as well as 44 representative water samples were collected and analyzed for the chemical components (anions and cations) as a major ions and minor constituents. The distribution of the analyzed samples on the 18O vs. D diagram indicated that the samples could be classified into three genetic groups representing different sources of water. The first group reflects a contribution from evaporated rain water prior to infiltration to the groundwater, the second group represents a mixing trend between both of El-Farma drain water and El-Manzala lake water with the groundwater which have enriched isotopic values as well as high salinity due to seawater intrusion. The third group reveals also mixing between surface water and groundwater where in this case, the isotopic concentration of surface water is subjected to evaporation processes and mixing with groundwater body

2012-01-01

69

Seroprevalence of HDV infection in HBsAg positive population in Ismailia, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that needs hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from HBV for transmission. HDV can lead to fulminant hepatitis and the progression of chronic liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HDV among HBsAg positive individuals in Ismailia, Egypt. Serum samples were collected from 170 HBsAg positive healthy individuals from Suez Canal University blood bank over a one year period. All of them were seeking blood donation and found to be HBsAg positive during viral hepatitis screening workups which is routinely done prior to donation. Serum samples were screened for IgG antibodies to hepatitis delta virus (HDV) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Anti-HDV antibodies were detected in 8 (4.7%) individuals aged from 29-43 years. Liver function tests showed that serum ALT and AST levels were elevated in the HBsAglanti-HDV positive cases. It is concluded that the rate of HDV infection in Ismailia is high and further investigation is needed to validate the findings and raise awareness about the risk of dual HBV and HDV infection. PMID:23888554

Gomaa, Nahed I M; Metwally, Lobna A; Nemr, Nader; Younis, Soha

2013-01-01

70

Structural evolution of the rift of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During late Oligocene-early Miocene time, the Suez rift was initiated by northeast-southwest compressional stress. This stress correlated with the compressional events recorded in the southern Syrian arc. It resulted in the initial cracking of the rift zone due to the reactivation of inherited faults with sinistral (Aqaba trend = north-south) and dextral (Duwi = Azimuth 110/degree/) strike-slip movements. These faults bound large parallel-sided panels. Within these panels, blocks tilting along clysmic directions are the result of a unimodal pull-apart effect. During this early stage, between 20 and 25 Ma, basaltic effusions occurred. Around 19 to 20 Ma, the end of block rotation indicates the major phase of crustal extension also ceased. Movements were replaced by large vertical displacements (horsts and grabens, shoulder uplift, deepening of the central trough). The width of this zone suggests the progressive advent of phenomena due to the convection of mantellic material. From 6 to 16 Ma, fault movements had minor amplitudes, subordinate to the general basinward flexure of the margins. The same evolution is recorded in the Gulf of Suez and in the northern Red Sea. Later on, the Aqaba fault acted as a transfer fault between the Gulf of Suez, which remains an intracontinental rift, and the Red Sea basin, which evolves toward oceanic accretion.

Burollet, P.F.; D' Estevou, P.O.; Montenat, C.; Jarrige, J.J.

1988-08-01

71

Suez prepares its rear forces in Spain; Suez prepare ses arrieres en Espagne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waiting for an hypothetical merger with Gaz de France company, Suez, the French-Belgian energy group now put its forces on the dynamical Spanish market dominated by Endesa (a third of the power market), Iberdrola (a quarter of the power market) and Gas Natural (5% only of the power market, but the first gas operator in Spain). Since more than a year, these companies are the target of other European operators like Suez, Enel, E.On but also from Spanish giants of the building industry like ACS and Acciona, who are looking for mergers, partnerships or takeover bids. (J.S.)

Lepetit, V

2007-06-15

72

The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Human Resource Management: GDF SUEZ’s Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse GDF SUEZ’s sustainable development report, focusing on its involvement in socially responsible Human Resource Management practices. We seek to know how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR affects HR functions, roles, and activities. According to Fortune magazine, GDF SUEZ ranks first among companies in the world in terms of social responsibility and is among the top 10 global companies across all sectors. Our research focuses on the following practices: recruitment and employment access, training and career development, and well-being in the workplace. These HRM practices seem important to analyse given the context in which companies will have to evolve: ageing of the population, risks of labour shortage, or the war for talent. Our results imply that CSR has a positive influence on employees’ advocacy role (Ulrich & Brockbank, 2005 because the Group integrates concerns regarding equal treatment, health and safety, and diversity. We also believe that GDF SUEZ Group desires to develop its brand further by presenting itself as a responsible employer to harvest the benefits that flow from that label.

Claire Dupont

2013-11-01

73

Development of El-Salam Canal Automation System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Egypt irrigation water is becoming more scarce with the continuously increasing demand for agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes. To face this increasing irrigation demand, the available water supply in Egypt is supplemented by the reuse of agricultural drainage water as in El-Salam Canal that do not satisfy water quality standards defined for the canal. This paper introduces an automation system for El-Salam Canal to control the flow of the fresh water and drainage water supplied to the canal. This automatic control system (ACS is able to process data of various flows and water quality data along the canal. This control system is represented by a canal computer model. This system computes the required control actions at the Damietta branch and the feeding drains. It is also able to generate optimum solutions for the canal to satisfy the pre-defined canal conditions and standards.

Noha Samir Donia

2012-08-01

74

Present-day tectonic stress regime in Egypt and surrounding area based on inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress field inversion is performed in Egypt on the basis of 219 focal mechanism solutions in the period from 1955 to 2007. For this purpose Egypt is divided into six seismotectonic zones: the northern part of the Gulf of Suez, southern Gulf of Suez, and Gulf of Aqaba, Cairo-Suez district, Dahshour zone and the Aswan Zone. The entire Gulf of Suez is currently under extensional stress field, with NE-SW trending horizontal extension. In the Gulf of Aqaba, the strike-slip regime predominates with sub-horizontal ?1 and ?3 axes trending NNW and ENE, respectively. A normal dip slip with small strike-slip component due to a nearly sub-vertical ?1 and sub-horizontal NNE striking ?3 characterizes Cairo-Suez district and Dahshour zone. Aswan seismic zone shows mainly strike-slip stress regime with a slight extension component (horizontal NW ?1 and NNE ?3). The stress field derived in this study indicates a prevailing tension stress (?3 horizontal) which agrees well with the general tectonic frame of northeastern African, which is subjected to tensional stresses. Generally, extensional and/or extensional-strike slips are dominating the Egyptian territory. These regimes are compatible with the kinematics of the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift and Gulf of Aqaba transform plate boundary. Furthermore, the inferred stress in the present study (SHmin directed NNE-SSW) for the Cairo-Suez, Dahshour, and Aswan areas is similar to the East African Rift stress fields "Congo and Sudan" especially (Bosworth et al., 1992; Delvaux and Barth, 2010), whose origin is attributed to the far field effects of ridge push in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (Zoback, 1992).

Hussein, H. M.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Marzouk, I. A.; Korrat, I. M.; Abu El-Nader, I. F.; Ghazala, H.; ElGabry, M. N.

2013-05-01

75

Gas industry development in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m3. According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m3, placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range of economic and political measures, are seeking to favour natural gas exports to restore the balance of payments in the hydrocarbons sector and to establish the position of Egypt as a gas supply hub for the Middle East. Hence, to guarantee a market for Egyptian gas, the main foreign operators present in Egypt have proposed the following export projects: Agip is promoting the idea of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Israel; BP Amoco has submitted a bid for the construction of a gas pipeline between Egypt and Jordan; British Gas has recently been authorized to set up the Egypt LNG company, in partnership with an Egyptian company, to sell the gas produced on offshore fields discovered in early 1999 off the Western Delta, probably in the form of LNG; Shell intends to submit a similar request. (authors)

2000-01-01

76

Ecological Studies on Salix Distribution in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research studied the ecological factors affecting Salix distribution in Egypt. Two species of Salix were recorded, S. tetrasperma (only male and S. mucronata (both sexes. They were recorded at River Nile canal system and in the Eastern Oasis. Female S. mucronata was recorded in the all studied habitats, where the male of same species was recorded only in Fayoum Region. Salix tetrasperma neither recorded in Upper Egypt nor Eastern Oasis. Elevation from water surface, soil texture, soil salinity and temperature were the most effective factors affecting the distribution of Salix sp.

Emad A. Al Sherif

2009-01-01

77

Studies on the Indo-Pacific Tridacnidae (Tridacna maxima) from the Northern Red Sea, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Egypt, Tridacna Maxima are found in Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea. Tridacna Maxima are very important ecological species as seafood source and as a substrate for reef-associated organisms; therefore we should protect it from extinction. Recently, these species are exposed for many factors of pollution (human activities, tourism and natural resources) that affect the distribution and abundance of it. The main objective of this research is to s...

Mekawy, Manal S.; Madkour, Hashem A.

2012-01-01

78

Ras Budran development in the Gulf of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leading a consortium during the last few years, Deminex discovered the 'Ras Budran' oil field in the Gulf of Suez. That field is now being developed and is expected to start producing toward the middle of this year. The annual output potential is estimated at 1.5 million tons.

Moldenhauer, W.

1982-01-01

79

Impact of pollination and fertilization on sesame production in the reclaimed lands, Ismailia governorate, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the sesame growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. For the purpose of studying the impact of insect pollination and nitrogen fertilization on sesame production, the experiment was divided into 13 treatments of open pollination and non open pollination with three different levels of ammonium nitrate (N) and one level of seryalin as bio-fertilizer. Non open pollination treatments...

Blal Abd Elfatah H.; Kamel Soliman M.; Mahfouz Hatem M.; El-Wahed Maysa Said Abd

2012-01-01

80

The merging of Suez and 'Gaz de France'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The merging of 'Gaz de France' and Suez has been approved by the shareholders on the 16 july 2008, and the decree for the privatization of 'Gaz de France' has been published to the 'Journal Officiel'. The French state will hold 35.6% of the capital of the new group GDF-Suez. The board of directors will be composed of 24 members: 7 officials from the state, 1 representative of the share-holding staff, 3 representatives of the elected employees and 13 members named by the general assembly of the shareholders. This group, which is officially born on the 22. of july 2008, is the fourth bigger group worldwide in the domain of energy. (A.C.)

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation Of Hydraulic Parameters For Dara .Area (Gulf Of Suez), Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work aims to furnish a basis for evaluating the water resources in Dara Area which is one of the vergin areas assigned for the purpose of land reclamation. Analysis of pumping and recovery tests performed in the study area is done by six methods manually and three methods using computer program. The data obtained by both methods show close similarity, and accordingly, the computer programs used are recommended for future analysis. The results show that the aquifer in the area is of th...

Sewidan, A. S.

1991-01-01

82

The present-day stress field in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present-day stress field has been investigated by the analysis of the directions of maximum horizontal stress ({sigma}{sub 1}) inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts in Egypt. The results indicate the strike-lip and normal faulting movements characterize the majority of the earthquake focal mechanisms; only a few events are of reverse faulting type. The analysis of 35 mechanisms suggests that the present-day stress field in Southern Egypt is dominated by a strike-slip stress regime (SS) and it is mainly transtensional (NS: normal faulting with strike-slip component) in Northern Egypt. The orientation of P-axes reflects that the maximum horizontal stress ({sigma}{sub 1}) in Southern Egypt is uniform and aligned to nearly E-W direction while in Northern Egypt it is aligned with an even mix of NW-SE and nearly E-W compression. Along the Gulf of Aquaba, the southern part of the Dead Sea Fault (DSF), the focal mechanism solutions indicate that the maximum horizontal stress is presently oriented NW-SE corresponding to a strike-slip mechanism in concert with geological evidence. more detailed investigations have been performed for the Gulf of Suez. It may compare the results to the near-surface stress measurements from borehole breakouts to see if there is a change in orientations with depth. Shallow stress directions derived from borehole breakouts are not consistent with the deep stress directions derived from earthquakes focal mechanisms. About 73% of 30 borehole breakouts measurements indicate NW-SE alignment of the maximum horizontal stress and 27% are ENE-WSW. The direction of {sigma}{sub 1} inferred from the focal mechanism solutions is changing from NE-SW to ENE-WSW. Therefore, at least in this area, the stress direction is not constant throughout the crust.

Badawy, A. [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)

2001-06-01

83

The present-day stress field in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present-day stress field has been investigated by the analysis of the directions of maximum horizontal stress (ó 1 inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts in Egypt. The results indicate that strike-slip and normal faulting movements characterize the majority of the earthquake focal mechanisms; only a few events are of reverse faulting type. The analysis of 35 mechanisms suggests that the present-day stress field in Southern Egypt is dominated by a strike-slip stress regime (SS and it is mainly transtensional (NS: normal faulting with strike-slip component in Northern Egypt. The orientation of P-axes reflects that the maximum horizontal stress (ó 1 in Southern Egypt is uniform and aligned to nearly E-W direction while in Northern Egypt it is aligned with an even mix of NW-SE and nearly E-W compression. Along the Gulf of Aqaba, the southern part of the Dead Sea Fault (DSF, the focal mechanism solutions indicate that the maximum horizontal stress is presently oriented NW-SE, corresponding to a strike-slip mechanism in concert with geological evidence. More detailed investigations have been performed for the Gulf of Suez. We compare our results to the near-surface stress measurements from borehole breakouts to see if there is a change in orientations with depth. Shallow stress directions derived from borehole breakouts are not consistent with the deep stress directions derived from earthquakes focal mechanisms. About 73% of 30 borehole breakouts measurements indicate NW-SE alignment of the maximum horizontal stress and 27% are ENE-WSW. The direction of ó 1 inferred from the focal mechanism solutions is changing from NE-SW to ENE-WSW. Therefore, at least in this area, the stress direction is not constant throughout the crust.

A. Badawy

2001-06-01

84

What is killing? People's knowledge about coronary heart disease, attitude towards prevention and main risk reduction barriers in Ismailia, Egypt (Descriptive cross-sectional study)  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a public health concern everywhere, especially ischemic or coronary heart diseases (CHD) which are on top of causes list of mortality and morbidity in both genders globally. From which nearly 80% can be because of modifiable risks. In Egypt, there is a lack of studies on the knowledge of people about coronary heart diseases and its modifiable risks. So, this research reported here we designed to measure the dimensions of peoples knowledge about CHD and their attitude towards prevention, and to identify the main risk reduction barriers. Methods By using comprehensive cross-sectional, descriptive research design, all adult individuals attending the family health clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital were eligible for inclusion with total number 125 participants. An interview questionnaire designed and used to collect data. Results The study revealed that (10.4%) of participants had a history of CHD, and (7.2%) had a family history of CHD. 79.2% Had a satisfactory total knowledge about CHD, and (94.4%) had a positive total attitude towards prevention. Risk reduction barriers as a medical setting barriers were (24%), patient related barriers were (22.4%). Community-societal barriers were almost the same as knowledge barriers which were around (16%). At last the systemic-organizational barriers were (9.6%). Conclusion The findings settled that, total knowledge about CHD was satisfactory but lower than the level total of attitude. More effort the health system needs to improve the settings and engage patients in their plans and breaking related barriers, with development of health education programs based on needs assessment. Further studies we recommend to explore the reasons and follow up the changes.

Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders; Stafstrom, Martin

2013-01-01

85

Graben infilling in Gulf of Suez and Red Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last 4 years, the French research group Genegass has completed geological and geophysical studies in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez. Neogene infilling of the basin is related with basement quality and volume of clastic supply, and inherited structural features are important to the development of Miocene rifting. The Neogene series may be divided into four major groups (Listed A-D), each limited by unconformities that seem to reflect the major stages of rifting. (A) The lowermost formations begin with a conglomerate and are followed by a variegated unit of sand and clay. In the Gulf of Suez, especially on the eastern bank, these formations are marine. Along the Red Sea, tilted blocks may be capped by stromatolites, and the valleys between them are the site of shale and evaporite sedimentation (lower Miocene). (B) The main extension phase results in an invasion of marine shales. The lower zones contain coarse clastics, and the high zones contain reefs and bioclastic limestone (late Burdigalian to early Serravallian). (C) The middle to late Miocene corresponds to a regional basinward tilting. Stromatolites coat the slopes, and conglomerate fans are found in the lower zones. Evaporite sedimentation dominates; anhydrite is found on the borders, and in the basin, thick halite is overlain by a clastic series. Basement shoulders are uplifted. (D) During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, the central part of the graben showed an important subsidence, and salt tectonism was active with diapirs and collapses.

Burollet, P.F.

1986-05-01

86

CANAL code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils

1983-01-01

87

Solar cooling plant in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of a prototype solar cooling power plant is investigated to demonstrate the feasibility of using solar energy for cooling in Egypt. The results gained from the first run under actual solar and environmental conditions shows that it is highly advantageous and has great possibilities for use as a model of a solar cooling plant in different locations in Egypt. The selected places besides Cairo are Lower Egypt in the delta, Central Egypt at Assuit and Upper Egypt at Aswan.

Sakr, I.A.; Hafez, W.; Taha, M.

1981-01-01

88

Soil-parasites particularly Toxocara eggs in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) remain a major threat to the human health throughout the world, mostly in developing nations. Soil is usually contaminated by different parasitic stages through promiscuous defecation of man particularly children. This is more liable to occur in fields, public gardens and sides of streets or canals. Also, feces of domestic and wild animals & birds play a role in soil contamination. This study was conducted at Mansoura city and Batra village & El-Minia city and Zohra village representing the urban and rural areas of Dakahlia Governorate, Lower Egypt and Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt respectively. The most common helminthic stage presents in the soil of the two Governorates was Toxocara eggs. No ova was detected in-door yards in the urban areas, but only in the sides of streets, crop fields and fruit gardens, around houses and canal banks of both Governorates, and the highest intensity was 13-19 eggs/10 gm soil at canal banks at Zohra village, El-Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt. PMID:19530617

El-Shazly, Atef M; Mohammed, Rabae M; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Azab, Manar S; El-Ghareeb, Aza S; Abdeltawab, Ahmed Hussien; Zalook, Tarek K H

2009-04-01

89

Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... on the spine's bones and joints can also cause lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Is lumbar spinal canal stenosis the same as ... can I do to prevent or relieve pain cause by lumbar spinal canal stenosis? Will lumbar spinal canal stenosis get worse? What ...

90

Geodynamics Studies in the active seismic regions in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent crustal movement studies have a great role for evaluating the geodynamics of the seismo-active areas in the country. The crustal deformations must be in mind where it connecting significantly with the human life and its resources. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active areas in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes gad been occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt, Cairo, Aswan, Red Sea, Sinia and Nile Delta regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated areas and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS will be used where geodetic networks are covering such seismic-active areas, around Nasser Lake, gulf of Suez, Cairo, Sinai and the Nile Delta. The main goal of these studies are monitoring of the crustal deformations associated with the earthquake occurrence in these seismo-active areas in order to study its geodynamical behavior and reducing the earthquake losses. The results of these movements at all networks in Egypt represent the form of the dynamic models for the deformations occurred during the different epochs of measurements. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis will threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active areas.

Mohamed, A. S.

2003-04-01

91

Oil and Gas Prospects in Egypt Recherches d'huile et de gaz en Égypte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accumulations of oil were first known in Egypt since 1968, some ten years after the famous Drake well in Pennsylvania in August 1859. These oil accumulation were found as seepages in tunnels dug for extracting sulphur in the area of Gemsa on the West coast of the Gulf of Suez. Since that time exploration activites were conducted on and off throughout a long history of operations which witnessed the use of the latest developments in exploration tools and techniques. So far, the main oil province in Egypt is the Gulf of Suez Basin, where the bulk of oil reserve have been found. Other hydrocarbon provinces are the Nile Delta Basin, the Abu Gharadig Basin and the Alamein ridge, both in the Western Desert. Three important gas discoveries were made in the Nile Delta Basin two of which are offshore, in addition to other so for non commercial gas finds. In addition to the known oil and gas discoveries the exploration activities throughout that long period contributed volumenous geological and geophysical material and data which added appreciably to the geology of Egypt at large, and in particular to the petroleum geology of the country. The Gulf of Suez oil province displayed very favourable conditions for the generation and trapping of hydrocarbons in Miocene and Pre-Miocene pools though at the same time it displayed very complicated geological setting which renders the exploration work a difficult task. The Nile Delta Basin, on the otherhand, is a relatively very recently explored area. Accordingly, extensive exploration work is still needed in order to evaluate the hydrocarbon possibilities of that basin. So for, gas has been discovered at a number of locations in lower Pliocene-Miocene pools. Whether future work would prove that oil generation took place remains to be seen. The Western Desert did not yet display the required response with regards to the exploration work conducted till now. To date, only few small discoveries have been made with oil and gas pools mainly vvithin the Upper and Lower Cretaceous. Recent advances in seismic techniques are helping in locating deeper structures, which might prove instrumental in the upgrading of the oil possibilites of the region. At present, the exploration activities are going on in the different oil and gas provinces in Egypt. These activilles are expected to increase and are also expected to expand to new areas in the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez Basin, offshore and onland, in Northern Sinai and in the Offshore Mediterranean. These new areas are believed to house very good prospects which will be tested not before long. It is also hoped that progress in seismic tools and techniques will add to the possibilities of finding more oil and gas. On connaît des accumulations d'huiles depuis 1868, quelque 10 ans après le célèbre puits de Drake en Pennsylvanie (août 1859. Ces accumulations ont été trouvées comme des suintements dans des tunnels forés pour l'extraction du soufre dans la région de Gemsa sur la côte ouest du golfe de Suez. Depuis cette époque, les activités d'exploration se sont poursuivies à travers une longue histoire d'opérations qui témoignaient des derniers développement dans les outils et les techniques. Jusqu'à maintenant, la principale province à huile d'Egypte est le bassin du golfe de Suez où la majorité des réserves ont été trouvées. D'autres provinces à hydrocarbures sont le bassin du delta du Nil, celui d'Abu Garadig et la ride d'El Alamein, les deux derniers situés dans le désert occidental. Il y a eu trois importantes découvertes de gaz dans le delta du Nil, dont deux en mer, en plus de quelques indices de gaz encore non commerciaux. Outre les découvertes mentionnées, les activités d'exploration au cours de cette longue période ont apporté une masse d'informations géologiques et géophysiques qui ont contribué largement à la connaissance géologique de l'Egypte, et en particulier à la géologie pétrolière. La province du golfe de Suez réunissait des conditions très favorables à la formation et

El Ayouti M. K.

2006-10-01

92

Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

Kozma, Chahira

2006-02-15

93

Relative location and source mechanism of inland earthquakes in Northern Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

We have relocated 259 inland earthquakes in northern Egypt using the double-difference hypocenter technique. Among this dataset we are able to determine source mechanisms of 200 events using P-wave polarities and amplitude ratios as well. The studied earthquakes have been recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network from October 1997 to December 2006 with local magnitude (ML) varies between 1.5 and 5.0. Three earthquake dislocations have been defined namely: Dahshour, southeast Beni-Suef, and Cairo-Suez district. Earthquake activities tend to occur in clusters along the first dislocation (Dahshour) however, relatively scattered along the second (southeast Beni-Suef) and the third (Cairo-Suez district) dislocations. At Dahshour dislocation three distinct clusters have been distinguished. Source mechanism solutions of Dahshour earthquakes displayed normal faulting with a strike-slip component to strike-slip faulting with a minor normal dip-slip component. Most of earthquake focal mechanism orientations are varying from NE-SW to NW-SE. The fault plane solutions of Beni-Suef earthquakes represented normal faulting with a strike-slip component. If the NNW-SSE striking plane has been chosen to be the actual fault plane, some solutions would indicated normal faulting with a sinistral strike-slip motion and other reflect normal faulting with a dextral strike-slip component. The fault plane solutions of Cairo-Suez district earthquakes are compatible with E-W to ENE-WSW striking normal fault with a dextral strike-slip motion.

Badawy, Ahmed A.; AL-Werr, A.; Ali, Sh. M.

2014-04-01

94

GdF Suez sees himself as a prophet in his own country; GdF Suez se voit prophete en son pays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The GdF Suez group is on the way to become a main actor of the French nuclear industry thanks to the imminent signature of an agreement with Areva. The group already exploits 7 reactors in Belgium representing 6000 MW, and nuclear energy represents 20.5% of its production. The group owns 33% of the building company of the second French EPR reactor, and owns 5% of the shares of the future George Besse II uranium enrichment plant of the Areva NC Tricastin site. GdF Suez is also active abroad, in particular in UK and Romania for the construction of new reactors and in Brazil where the group is the first private hydropower producer of the country. (J.S.)

Dupin, L

2010-02-15

95

Panama Canal capacity analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and usin...

M. S. Bronzini

1995-01-01

96

Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

Wolinski, Arelene

97

STS-56 view of freeflying SPARTAN-201 and Earth observation of Nile River,Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

During STS-56, the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy 201 (SPARTAN-201), a freeflying payload, is captured as it orbits the Earth above the Nile River Valley in Egypt. This synoptic view taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, reveals the landscapes of the Sinai and the Gulf of Suez on the left and the Qatara Depression on the right. The Nile River Valley and the base of the delta feature are in the center. The leaf-like appearance of El Fayum is clearly seen. The city of Cairo is also easily recognized at the base of the delta. SPARTAN-201 was later captured by OV-103's remote manipulator system (RMS) and returned to Earth with the astronaut crew.

1993-01-01

98

Heat flow in eastern Egypt - The thermal signature of a continental breakup  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on the heat flow in eastern Egypt were collected to provide information related to the mode and the mechanism of the Red Sea opening. The data indicate a general increase in heat flow towards the Red Sea (75-100 mW/sq m in a zone within 40 km of the coast compared with 35-55 mW/sq m inland). Moderately high heat flow (about 70 mW/sq m) was found for the Gulf of Suez. Heat production data indicate that the coastal thermal anomaly is not primarily related to crustal radiogenic heat production. Possible causes of the anomaly (one of which could be a high mantle heat flow causing a lithospheric thinning centered beneath the Red Sea) are discussed.

Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Hennin, S. F.; El-Sherif, A. A.; El-Sayed, A. A.

1985-01-01

99

Tectonic Implications of the Northern Part of Gulf of Suez Region as Revealed from the Lineament Analysis of Landsat Imageries ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Processing on lineaments revealed from photo-satellites imageries of the northern part of the Gulf of Suez region has been carried out. Imageries of Landsat exhibit lineaments that reflect topographic surface features surrounding the water covered area of the Gulf of Suez. The lineaments were differentiated according to their frequencies, thicknesses and lengths. Azimuth frequency distribution of groups of the different differential parameters was investigated for each azimuth interval of N 1...

1999-01-01

100

Trace Metals Content in Three Fish Species from Northern Part of the Suez Gulf, Red Sea, Egypt ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ( ????? ?????? ) ? ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sumpl cs of Sardinclla gibbosa. Saurula sr . a nd Epincphclus s r . were collecte d from the Sue z G ulf (Red Sea ) a nd th e ir orga ns were ana lyze d by name a to mic a hso rptio n spect rophotornctc r for so me trace met als (cadmium , lead . co ppe r a nd zinc) . The results showe d th a t th e metals uccum ula te in th e othe r or gans tu grea ter ex te nt than in the mu scle . The lowest accumula ted metal is cadmium. whi le th e highest is zinc . Th e elevated lev els of zinc in Sar·...

MAHMOUD ABDELMONEIM; KHALID EL-MOSELHY; SAMEH HASSAN

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Characterisation of extensional faults in carbonate rocks (Suez Rift, Egypt); with particular focus on the role of shale smear  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution, composition and flow-properties of fault core and shale smear along faults in carbonate reservoirs is less well understood compared to faults in siliciclastic rocks. This study uses field data to characterize and quantify fault zone properties that are critical for understanding structural heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. The study focus on; (1) variability and co-dependence of displacement, shale smear, fault- thickness, -composition and -geometry; (2) the effect of s...

Elvik, Lillian

2012-01-01

102

Characterisation of extensional faults in carbonate rocks (Suez Rift, Egypt); with particular focus on the role of shale smear  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution, composition and flow-properties of fault core and shale smear along faults in carbonate reservoirs is less well understood compared to faults in siliciclastic rocks. This study uses field data to characterize and quantify fault zone properties that are critical for understanding structural heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. The study focus on; (1) variability and co-dependence of displacement, shale smear, fault- thickness, -composition and -geometry; (2) the effect o...

Elvik, Lillian

2012-01-01

103

Root canal irrigants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ?root canal irrigants? and ?endodontic irrigants.? The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

2010-01-01

104

Modern Egypt: A Development Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt is a culture which combines the traditional with the modern. This text aims to foster an appreciation of Egypt as a changing culture facing the challenges of development. Topics included are: (1) Village Life; (2) Urban Life; (3) Nile; (4) Government; (5) Agriculture; (6) Economy; (7) Health/Games; (8) Education; (9) Religion; (10)…

Scott, Rosalind; And Others

105

Environmental radioactivity programmes in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Egypt, several radiation monitoring programmes are currently in progress. These programmes belong to Nuclear Material Corporation, Nuclear Power Plant Authority and the Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt. Active and passive radon detectors as well as other detectors are used for environmental radioactivity and radioprotection studies. The aim of the present work is to outline these programmes. (author). 3 refs

1990-01-01

106

Metals in water from the River Nile tributaries in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe and Cd metals in water samples collected from different tributaries of the Nile River in Egypt. Samples were taken from El-Sarsawia, El-Bagoria, Bahr Shebin canals, in addition to three drainage canal sites El-Embaby, El-Menofi and Miet-Rabiha drain. According to the data, Fe has the highest concentration, followed by Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu. The mean Pb concentration ranged from 8.678 to 21.948 ?g/L, in water samples collected from El-Sarsawia canal and El-Embaby drain, respectively. The Cu and Cd mean concentrations ranged from 0.67 and 0.500 to 4.908 and 5.650 ?g/L, respectively, in water samples collected from Bahr-Shebin canal and El-Embaby drain, respectively. The water samples from all location sites are polluted by Pb according to EPA. Fe and Cu values are within the allowable limits. PMID:22349286

Malhat, Farag Mahmoud; Nasr, Islam

2012-04-01

107

Moving towards implementation of a clinical ethics consultation program in Egyptian liver transplant units  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A H El-Elemi1, G H El-Gazzaz21Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, 2Hepatobiliary and General Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAbstract: The high prevalence of chronic liver disease in Egypt has led to increasing numbers of patients with end-stage liver disease in need of liver transplantation. To date, cadaveric liver transplantation is not legal in Egypt. However, introducing living-donor liver transplantation seems appropriate for patients who need...

El-elemi, A. H.; El-gazzaz, G. H.

2010-01-01

108

Distribution of Different Organotin and Organolead Compounds in Sediment of Suez Gulf  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organotin and organolead compounds were determined in sediments of the Suez Gulf The concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT ranged from 0.27 to 2.77 with an average value of 1.37 µgg-1; dry wt. However, the concentrations of dibutyltin (DBT ranged from 0.07 to 2.27 with an average value of 0.58 µgg-1; dry wt. A significant correlation was found between TBT and DBT with r = 0.82, (p = 0.05 indicating that the occurrence of DBT is mainly related to the degradation of TBT. Generally, the high concentration of TBT was attributed to shipping activity in harbours. In addition, Diphenyltin (DPhT concentrations ranged from not detected to 2.09 with an average of 1.10 µgg-1 dry wt. Antifouling agents, industrial discharge and the influence of sewage discharge are the main sources of pollution by DPhT compounds in Suez Gulf. On the other side, organolead (OLC concentrations ranged from 10.88 - 440.2 with an average of 168.7 ngg-1; dry wt. A significant setting of OLC recorded in sediments of Suez Gulf was mainly attributed to cars exhaust and/or spelling and direct evaporation of fuels.

Mohamed A. Shreadah

2011-07-01

109

Evaluation of the Nutrient Status of Some Hydrophytes in the Water Courses of Nile Delta, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nutritive values of three dominant hydrophytes along the water courses in Nile Delta, Egypt (Echinochloa stagnina, Eichhornia crassipes, and Ceratophyllum demersum) were evaluated in terms of estimating their phytomass, organic, and inorganic chemical compositions. Shoots were collected seasonally from 25 permanent stands representing the distribution of the three species along 15 canals and 10 drains distributed in 5 localities within the Nile Delta. Living and dead parts and total phyto...

Shaltout, Kamal H.; Galal, Tarek M.; El-komi, Thanaa M.

2009-01-01

110

The Panama Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

Among all the engineering feats of the 20th century, the Panama Canal was certainly one of the greatest. The Panama Canal Authority (PCA) provides this home page, which contains a vast amount of information regarding the canal's origins and current affairs. Most visitors to the Web site will be mainly interested in the complete history of the canal. This begins with early plans by the Spanish in the 1500s, and documents all progress until the final completion in 1914. An impressive photo gallery includes historical pictures and panoramic views of four main locations, and a live camera shows the boat traffic in the canal at ten second intervals. Other resources such as maritime operations and news articles are also available.

111

Responding t o the Challenges of Breast Cancer in Egypt and Other Arab Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt.

2008-12-01

112

Egypt's Western Desert stays accessible to foreign operators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt's Western Desert is still the most prospective region, easily accessible to foreign oil companies, along the southern rim of the Mediterranean Sea. International companies and a band of independents have put the vast Desert region high on their list of priorities following a series of small but profitable oil finds in the area. A network of crude pipelines linking the largest discoveries has made development of new finds easier. The next stage of the hydrocarbon infrastructure, a major gas pipeline into Alexandria, has started. In production terms, the Western Desert is still only a sideshow compared with the Gulf of Suez, which provides the bulk of Egypt's 880,000 b/d production. Output from the Western Desert is running at around 54,600 b/d, and production from present developed fields is set to rise to a peak of nearly 70,000 b/d over the next 18 months. But the small structures will start to decline quickly, and by 1991 production from the fields already under development will fall back to around 50,000 b/d.

1988-06-20

113

Organ transplantation in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed. PMID:20929113

Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

2010-09-01

114

Studies on the Indo-Pacific Tridacnidae (Tridacna maxima from the Northern Red Sea, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Egypt, Tridacna Maxima are found in Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea. Tridacna Maxima are very important ecological species as seafood source and as a substrate for reef-associated organisms; therefore we should protect it from extinction. Recently, these species are exposed for many factors of pollution (human activities, tourism and natural resources that affect the distribution and abundance of it. The main objective of this research is to shed some light on the origin, stratigraphic position, systematic palaeontology and geographic distribution of Tridacna Maxima. In addition to their ecologic and environmental conditions were discussed. Finally, a proposed rules for protection these species from extinction were listed. Individuals of Tridacna Maxima were collected from different sites along the red Sea coast.

Manal S. Mekawy

2012-11-01

115

Agricultural Price Management in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Control over prices of farm products and inputs has been an important part of Egypt's development strategy during the past 25 years. These controls belong to a broader system of intervention that regulates agricultural production and the distribution of b...

W. Cuddihy

1980-01-01

116

Unilateral thoracic canal stenosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two unusual cases of thoracic spinal canal stenosis are reported. The cord compression was a result of unilateral hypertrophy of the lamina and facet joint. Bony decompression resulted in rapid neurological recovery.

Deogaonkar M

1999-10-01

117

Complete atrioventricular canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC), also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association w...

Calabrò Raffaele; Limongelli Giuseppe

2006-01-01

118

Panama Canal capacity analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1995-04-27

119

Determinants of Corn Import Demand: Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corn imports are likely to rise in Egypt because of production constraints imposed by limited arable land. Competition for Egypt's corn import market has increased in recent years and the types of export promotion programs, particularly prices, will deter...

S. Shapouri J. Parker

1994-01-01

120

Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dalia M El-Sebaity1, Wael Soliman1, Asmaa MA Soliman2, Ahmed M Fathalla11Department of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, EgyptPurpose: To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt).Methods: All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalm...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Multistate nested canalizing functions  

CERN Document Server

The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

2013-01-01

122

Panama and the Canal  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Florida's George A. Smathers Libraries and the Panama Canal Museum have worked together to create this engaging digital collection that tells the story of Panama and the Canal Zone. The collection contains 158 items, including newspaper clippings, illustrations, stock shares, and more. The Leonard Carpenter Panama Canal Collection contains a mix of photos of dredging work, military personnel, and a U.S. Navy dirigible. Another smaller collection contains items from the Government Documents Department, such as annual reports, maps, and Congressional hearing transcripts. Visitors can search the entire collection by keyword, and they shouldn't miss the 1754 maps of Panama and the surrounding region by Jacques Nicolas Bellin.

123

Internal structure and deformation of an accommodation zone in the northern part of the Suez rift  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed structural study of the eastern (onshore) part of the Gharandal accommodation zone that separates the northern (SW-dipping) and central (NE-dipping) half grabens of the Suez rift helpeddecipher the internal structure and deformation of accommodation zones of continental rifts. This 60 km-wide zone is affected by pure normal faulting. The NE-dipping faults of the northern half graben extend southward into the accommodation zone where they interfinger with SW-dipping faults extending from the central half graben. These two sets of rift-parallel faults form several horsts and grabens in the accommodation zone. Areas dipping parallel to the northern or southern half grabens form several intermixing dip domains in the accommodation zone. Smaller-scale accommodation of dip between these dip domains proceeds by the development of rift-parallel folds (twist zones). In contrast to the southern accommodation zone of the Suez rift, the internal structure of the Gharandal accommodation zone is believed to be representative of accommodation zones in regions (a) unaffected by prerift structures lying at high angles to the rift; and (b) experiencing relatively small extension. Accommodation zones in areas having pre-rift structures lying at high angle to the rift have relatively narrow width and are characterized by transverse, strike-slip faults. Strike-slip movement on these faults is related to the torsional strain resulting from the opposite tilt directions and transport of fault blocks of adjacent half grabens.

Moustafa, Adel R.

1996-01-01

124

Egypt receives computers from CERN  

CERN Multimedia

On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

Anaïs Schaeffer

2013-01-01

125

Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

Nissrin Hoffmann

2013-07-01

126

On Canal Surfaces in E³  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we deal with the geometric properties of canal surfaces in E³. Further, the first and second fundamental form of canal surfaces are presented. By the use of the second fundamental form, the Gaussian and mean curvature of canal surfaces are obtained. Finally, the visualization of canal surfaces which their spine curves are unit circle and a straight line are presented.

G. Öztürk

2010-12-01

127

Effect of Instruction in Story Grammar on the Narrative Writing of EFL Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated the effects of explicit versus implicit instruction in story grammar on the narrative writing skills of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students at the university level. Subjects were 83 freshmen enrolled in English at the Faculty of Education at Suez Canal University (Egypt). The subjects were randomly assigned to…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

128

In-Service Education within Schools: A Comparative Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper prepared in the United States by a visiting faculty member of the Suez Canal University in Egypt, presents a comparative study that finds that school-based in-service training sessions, in which teachers learn within their own teaching environments, do much to encourage more teachers to adopt a more positive attitude to the…

Dahawy, Bayoumi M.

129

Effects of Three Questioning Strategies on EFL Reading Comprehension.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of three classroom questioning strategies on the reading comprehension of learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Subjects were 86 first-year EFL students in the school of education of Suez Canal University (Egypt), randomly assigned to three treatment groups. The same instructor taught the three groups…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

130

Cultural Considerations for Evaluation Consulting in the Egyptian Context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reflecting on his experiences as an evaluation consultant at the Suez Canal University Faculty of Medicine in Egypt the author discusses: (1) implications of the Egyptian political context; (2) adapting to the host culture; and (3) maintaining distance from one's own culture. Personal qualities to complement the recommended naturalistic methods…

Seefeldt, Michael F.

1985-01-01

131

Thermal history of the eastern margin of the Gulf of Suez, I. reconstruction from borehole temperature and organic maturity measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gulf of Suez is a Tertiary continental rift associated with prominent flank uplift. Despite numerous studies which focused mainly on the western and central parts of the graben, the thermo-mechanics controlling the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Suez is still enigmatic. We have integrated borehole temperatures and organic maturity measurements in the eastern margin of the Gulf of Suez, in order to study rift-related paleothermometry and the present-day thermal regime. The data obtained suggest that the present thermal regime represents the maximum heat flow and temperatures for the sedimentary section in the basin. Furthermore, lateral distributions of geothermal gradient and heat flow in the Gulf of Suez do not correlate, mainly because of extensive variability in lithology and thermal conductivity. Rift-related heat flow increases systematically and subparallel to the rift axis, from about 60 mW/m 2 in the Darag subbasin in the north to about 80 mW/m 2 in the Ras Garra area in the south. Both values are higher than 45 mW/m 2, the average heat flow assumed for the pre-rift stage and the characteristic level for the present-day heat flow away from the rift. The north to south increase in heat flow probably reflects the southward increase of extension as well as lateral transfer of heat flow from the Red Sea. This latter conclusion is supported by the fact that heat flow in the southern Gulf of Suez recorded by the paleothermometric reconstructions and borehole temperature data is somewhat higher than that estimated by model calculations for the extension derived from structural and subsidence reconstruction.

Feinstein, S.; Kohn, B. P.; Steckler, M. S.; Eyal, M.

1996-12-01

132

Bilateral bifid mandibular canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary. PMID:23814555

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Badrian, Hamid; Ghorbanizadeh, Sajad

2012-12-01

133

Bilateral bifid mandibular canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Badrian, Hamid; Ghorbanizadeh, Sajad

2012-01-01

134

External auditory canal osteoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Osteomas are a slow growing benign neoplasm of unknown etiology very rarely involving the temporal bone. They develop in the external auditory canal on squamous sections, in the mastoid, middle and inner ear. By bone composition they are divided into spongious (osteoma spongiosum and compact osteomas (osteoma eburnum; by growth direction, into outward-growing (exosteoma and in inwardgrowing (endosteoma; into unilateral and bilateral; by size, into small and gigantic; by surface structure, into smooth and multilobular; by number, into solitary and multiple; into symmetrical and asymmetrical. The symptoms of intracanalicular osteomas are the result of auditory canal obstruction. Diagnosis is made based on case history, clinical examination, audiological processing and radiography (temporal bone CT scan, and confirmed by histopathological examination of the bone. In terms of differential diagnosis, they must be distinguished from exostoses, bone tissue proliferation and osteoid osteomata. The progress of the disease is prolonged, as they are slow growing, asymptomatic and benign tumours. Therapy is surgical only. Case Outline. The report presents the case of a 70-year old patient with the osteoma of the right external auditory canal. In our patient, the osteoma arose in the auditory canal, the most frequent localization; it was unilateral, solitary, multilobular and compact. It was discovered accidentally, during otoscopic examination. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of the temporal bone. We applied surgical therapy by retroauricular approach. The removed bone change was about 12 mm high, 13-14 mm deep and about 8 mm wide. Histopathological findings confirmed osteoma. Conclusion. Due to their slow growth, the rate of auditory canal osteomas develop asymptomatically for a long time without the characteristic clinical features. In most cases, they are discovered accidentally during otoscopic or radiographic examination. The method of choice in diagnosis is temporal bone CT scan. Therapy is surgical.

Sente Marko

2009-01-01

135

Child Survival Programs in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beginning in the early 1980s, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)/Cairo, in collaboration with the Government of Egypt, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO), developed a donor strategy for child su...

N. Tumavick-Team A. Binnendijk D. Calder E. Houston S. A. Singham

1990-01-01

136

Determination of uranium in environmental samples from the Nile delta and the adjacent regions of Egypt using laser fluorimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total uranium content was determined in soil and plant samples taken from various areas in the Nile delta. Samples from east and west of the delta, the suez canal' cities and from alexandria region were analyzed using laser fluorimetry (LF). Uranium was extracted from digested ashed samples with methyl-isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and measured using laser fluorimeter. The radium content of the same soil samples was determined using gamma spectrometry (GS). The uranium content of plant samples was determined using (LF), since it has a detection limit lower than of (GS). The uranium content varied between 0.6-4.4?g/g and 0.032-0.17 ?g/g for soil and plant samples respectively. 1 fig., 3 tabs

1995-10-01

137

Bifid mandibular canal in Japanese.  

Science.gov (United States)

The location and configuration of mandibular canal variations are important in surgical procedures involving the mandible, such as extraction of an impacted third molar, dental implant treatment, and sagittal split ramus osteotomy. We report 3 Japanese patients with bifid mandibular canals using panoramic radiograph and multi-slice helical computed tomography (CT) images. In 2 of the 5 sides, the bifid mandibular canal was suggested on panoramic radiograph. The bifid mandibular canal had a short and narrow upper canal toward the distal area of the second molar in 4 sides, and a short and narrow lower canal toward the distal area of second molar in 1 side, as revealed on reconstructed CT images. Since the location and configuration of mandibular canal variations are important in surgical procedures involving the mandible, they should be carefully observed using reconstructed CT images. PMID:17356369

Naitoh, Munetaka; Hiraiwa, Yuichiro; Aimiya, Hidetoshi; Gotoh, Masakazu; Ariji, Yoshiko; Izumi, Masahiro; Kurita, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

2007-03-01

138

Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

Jain Nidhi

2008-01-01

139

The potential of electricity generation on the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind characteristics have been analyzed based on long-term measured data of monthly mean wind speed of seven meteorological stations along the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt. It was found that the windiest stations (Region A) namely (Zafarana, Abu Darag, Hurghada and Ras Benas) have annual mean wind speeds (7.3, 7.2, 6.4 and 5.5m/s) at 10m height, respectively. Numerical estimations using measured wind speeds and frequencies to calculate the two Weibull parameters were carried out and two methods were applied. The methodical analysis for the corrected monthly wind power density at a height of 10m above ground level, over roughness class 0 (water), for each station was done. The recommended correlation equation was also stated for Red Sea zone in Egypt. Also the corrected annual wind power density at the heights (50-70)m was obtained for all stations. Moreover, calculations show that the four stations in (Region A) have a huge energy potential available (430-1000W/m{sup 2}) at 70m height, while Quseir and Suez stations (Region B) have good wind power density (170-190W/m{sup 2}) at 50m height. A technical and economic assessment has been made of electricity generation from two turbines machines having capacity of (1000 and 600kW) considered in Regions A and B, respectively, using WASP program. The yearly energy output, capacity factor and the electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the two different turbines in each region were estimated. The production costs of four stations in Region A was found to be less than 2|cent/kWh and compared with retail tariff. (author)

Ahmed Shata, A.S.; Hanitsch, R. [Institute of Energy and Automation Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Technical University Berlin, Einsteinufer 11, EM4, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

2006-08-15

140

The Economics of Autism in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This was the first study ever done on the cost consequences of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Egypt or any other developing/industrializing country. The following questions were empirically investigated: What are the economic costs of ASD in Egypt and how do they compare with developed/industrialized countries? Why are cost consequences important in formulating ASD policy in Egypt and comparable countries? Approach: A statistical sample of 185 households, w...

Roger Lee Mendoza

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Egypt’s Mursi sweeps away the old guard | EurActiv  

...Egypt’s Mursi sweeps away the old guard | EurActiv global-europe,Arab world,Egypt,President Mohamed Mursi EU news & policy debates- across languages - ...Climate & Environment Competition Education Elections Enlargement Future EU Justice & Home Affairs Med & South Public Affairs Regional Policy Security Social Europe & Jobs Sports ...away the old guard [fr] -A + A Published 13 August 2012 Tags Arab world, Egypt, President Mohamed Mursi Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi yesterday (12 ...Forces (SCAF), actually consented to a move that reveals a reordering of Egypt's political forces as the country waits for a new constitution, ...

142

Suez-Gaz de France merger, E.ON's public takeover bid on Endesa... The new energy fight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy sector is in fever. In less than a week (February 21 to 26, 2006), the Europe of energy has fallen into a frenzy of mergers and acquisitions: the German E.ON offered 29.1 billion euros to get the Spanish Endesa, Electricite de France (EdF), who already got the Italian Edison in 2005, is ready for more major acquisitions, the Italian Enel is candidate for the repurchasing of Suez, while Gaz de France (GdF) and Suez have started a surprise merger. The stake of this match between giants is their growing up and the penetration of foreign markets before their complete liberalization in July 2007. The potential victims of these actions are the competition and the clients, the industrial ones first. (J.S.)

2006-03-01

143

The Tem Plagues of Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ten Plagues of Egypt described in the Bible were central to the liberation of the Jewish people from the oppression of the Egyptians. The succession of disasters demoralised the Egyptians and were seen as a victory for Jewish monotheistic beliefs. In this essay, natural explanations for most of the Plagues are proposed and a chronology of events is provided. Could the mythological explanation of these arguably natural phenomena still have a profound influence on the modern world?

Roger S. Wotton

2007-09-01

144

Remote sensing, planform, and facies analysis of the Plain of Tineh, Egypt for the remains of the defunct Pelusiac River  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pelusiac Branch was a distributary river in the Nile Delta that splits off from the main trunk of the Nile River as it flowed toward the Mediterranean. At approximately 25 A.D., it was chocked by sand and silt deposits from prograding beach accretion processes. The lower course of the river and its bifurcation point from the trunk of the Nile have been hypothesized based on ancient texts and maps, as well as previous research, but results have been inconsistent. Previous studies partly mapped the lower course of the Pelusiac River in the Plain of Tineh, east of the Suez Canal, but rapid urbanization related to the inauguration of the Peace Canal mega-irrigation project has covered any trace of the linear feature reported by these previous studies. The present study used multispectral remote sensing data of GeoEYE-1 and Landsat-TM to locate and accurately map the course of the defunct Pelusiac River within the Plain of Tineh. Remote sensing analysis identified a linear feature that is 135 m wide at its maximum and approximately 13 km long. It extends from the Pelusium ruins to the Suez Canal, just north of the Peace Canal. This remotely located linear feature corresponds to the path of the Pelusiac River during Roman times. Planform geomorphology was applied to determine the hydrological regime and paleodischarge of the river prior to becoming defunct. Planform analysis derived a bankfull paleodischarge value of ~ 5700 m3 s- 1 and an average discharge of 650 m3 s- 1, using the reach average for the interpreted Pelusiac River. The derived values show a river distributary similar in discharge to the modern dammed Damietta river. Field work completed in April of 2012 derived four sedimentary lithofacies of the upper formation on the plain that included pro-delta, delta-front and delta-plain depositional environments. Diatom and fossil mollusk samples were also identified that support coastal beach and lagoonal environments of deposition. Measured section columns and a shoreline parallel transect were also constructed to portray the paleogeography of the Mediterranean coastline in the Plain of Tineh at ~ 25 A.D. and indicate that the sampled study area is the downdrift margin of an asymmetric delta with barrier lagoon systems.

Quintanar, Jessica; Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Zalat, Abdel-Fattah A.

2013-11-01

145

Hazards influencing coastal plains management along the Eastern stretch of the Gulf of Suez, using remote sensing and GIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aims at to assess the impact of natural hazards on the human activities and development planning held along the eastern coastal stretch of the Gulf of Suez. Change detection technique was used in combined with geologic and topographic maps, GIS and field investigations to specify and categorize environmental hazards along the concerned area. This site is characterized by enormous natural resources, including hot vents in Hammam Faroun and Ayun Mousa, oil exploration and mineral ...

2007-01-01

146

Hazards influencing coastal plains management along the Eastern stretch of the Gulf of Suez, Using remote sensing and GIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research aims at to assess the impact of natural hazards on the human activities and development planning held along the eastern coastal stretch of the Gulf of Suez. Change detection technique was used in combined with geologic and topographic maps, GIS and field investigations to specify and categorize environmental hazards along the concerned area. This site is characterized by enormous natural resources, including hot vents in Hammam Faroun and Ayun Mousa, oil exploration and mineral ...

2008-01-01

147

Partenariats ONG-entreprise et évolution du business model de la grande entreprise. Le cas de Suez-Environnement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Avec l'émergence des ONG dans nos économies globalisées, les grandes entreprises développent divers types de partenariats ONG-entreprise (POE). Les chercheurs s'interrogent sur leurs enjeux stratégiques. Dans notre thèse, nous étudions la contribution spécifique des POE à l'évolution du business model (BM) de la grande entreprise.Une étude de cas longitudinale processuelle chez Suez-Environnement met en lumière trois grands apports des POE : les POE, selon leur type, influencent l...

2013-01-01

148

Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable ability. PMID:23889531

Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

2014-04-01

149

The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2011-01-01

150

The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt

2011-01-01

151

Determinants of Wheat Import Demand: Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt relies on wheat imports for more than half of its consumption. Future imports are likely to rise because of the limited arable land and already very high yields. The three largest suppliers of wheat in the Egypt market are the United States, Austral...

J. Parker S. Shapouri

1993-01-01

152

Complete atrioventricular canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

Limongelli Giuseppe

2006-04-01

153

Performance of Plastic Canal Linings.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the performance of buried plastic membrane linings, primarily 10-mil PVC, used for seepage control in Bureau irrigation canals. Samples from 10 canal installations ranging in service life from 1 to 19 years were evaluate...

W. R. Morrison J. G. Starbuck

1984-01-01

154

Gender and Migration: The case of Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Egypt is a hosting and sending state for migrant women. This paper will examine the laws governing the personal status of women in Egypt, and explore the problems that Egyptian migrant women face as a result of these laws. It will also examine Egyptian nationality law and how it creates difficulties in the integration of immigrant women into Egyptian society. / L’Egypte est un pays d’accueil et un pays d’envoi de femmes migrantes. Ce papier examine les lois régissant le statut personne...

2011-01-01

155

Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery. PMID:24665522

Blomstedt, Patric

2013-01-01

156

Depolarization canals and interstellar turbulence  

CERN Multimedia

Recent radio polarization observations have revealed a plethora of unexpected features in the polarized Galactic radio background that arise from propagation effects in the random (turbulent) interstellar medium. The canals are especially striking among them, a random network of very dark, narrow regions clearly visible in many directions against a bright polarized Galactic synchrotron background. There are no obvious physical structures in the ISM that may have caused the canals, and so they have been called Faraday ghosts. They evidently carry information about interstellar turbulence but only now is it becoming clear how this information can be extracted. Two theories for the origin of the canals have been proposed; both attribute the canals to Faraday rotation, but one invokes strong gradients in Faraday rotation in the sky plane (specifically, in a foreground Faraday screen) and the other only relies on line-of-sight effects (differential Faraday rotation). In this review we discuss the physical nature o...

Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

2006-01-01

157

Canal complexity of a mandibular first molar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and technically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canals, of which three were located in the mesial root. A third canal was found between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual root canals. The morphological pattern of separate apical terminations of three mesial root canals with separate orifices, as manifested in this case, is a rare one.

Poorni S

2009-01-01

158

Mandibular first molar with three distal canals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of middle distal canal in distal root of mandibular first molar is rare. This case report describes root canal treatment of two rooted mandibular first molar with five root canals (three in distal and two in mesial root), and Sert and Bayirli ...

Jain, Shweta

2011-01-01

159

Canal complexity of a mandibular first molar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and technically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canals, of which three were located in the mesial root. A third canal was found between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual root canals. The morphological pattern of separate apical terminations of three mesial root canals with separate orifices, as manifested in this case, is a rare ...

Poorni S; Kumar R.; Indira R

2009-01-01

160

The most common insect pollinator species on sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L. in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey of insect pollinators associated with sesame, Sesamun indicum L. (Pedaliaceae was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. All different insect pollinators which found on the experimental site were collected for identification. Sampling was done once a week and three times a day. Three methods were used to collect and identify insects from the sesame plants (a sweep net, pitfall traps, digital camera and eye observation. A total of 29 insect species were collected and properly identified during the survey. Insect pollinators which recorded on the plants were divided into four groups, 18 belonged to Hymenoptera, 7 to Diptera, 3 to Lepidoptera and one to Coleoptera. Results revealed that Honybee, Apis mellifera was the most dominant species in the 2011 season and the second one in the 2012 season. Whereas small carpenter bee, Ceratina tarsata was the most dominant species in the 2012 season and the second one in the 2011 season. The percentage of Hymenoptera was higher in the two studied seasons by 90.94% and 89.59%, followed by Diptera by 3.93% and 5.38%, then Lepidoptera by 3.58% and 3.62, and in the last Coleoptera by 1.53% and 1.39%, respectively.

S.M. Kamel

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

Mohtaram Najafi

1998-03-01

162

Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Source Rock Evaluation of the Lower Miocene Rocks Based on Well Logs: October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available October oil field is one of the largest hydrocarbon-bearing fields which produces oil from the sand section of the Lower Miocene Asl Formation. Two marl (Asl Marl and shale (Hawara Formation sections of possible source enrichment are detected above and below this oil sand section, respectively. This study aims to identify the content of the total organic carbon based on the density log and a combination technique of the resistivity and porosity logs (?log R Technique. The available geochemical analyses are used to calibrate the constants of the TOC and the level of maturity (LOM used in the (?log R Technique. The geochemical-based LOM is found as 9.0 and the calibrated constants of the Asl Marl and Hawara Formation are found as 11.68, 3.88 and 8.77, 2.80, respectively. Fair to good TOC% content values (0.88 to 1.85 were recorded for Asl Marl section in the majority of the studied wells, while less than 0.5% is recorded for the Hawara Formation. The lateral distribution maps show that most of the TOC% enrichments are concentrated at central and eastern parts of the study area, providing a good source for the hydrocarbons encountered in the underlying Asl Sand section.

Aref Lashin

2012-09-01

163

Total Organic Carbon Enrichment and Source Rock Evaluation of the Lower Miocene Rocks Based on Well Logs: October Oil Field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

October oil field is one of the largest hydrocarbon-bearing fields which produces oil from the sand section of the Lower Miocene Asl Formation. Two marl (Asl Marl) and shale (Hawara Formation) sections of possible source enrichment are detected above and below this oil sand section, respectively. This study aims to identify the content of the total organic carbon based on the density log and a combination technique of the resistivity and porosity logs (?log R Technique). The available geoche...

Aref Lashin; Saad Mogren

2012-01-01

164

Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE-SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa-Hurghada coastal zone. PMID:23688834

Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

2013-07-15

165

Report on Highly Skilled Migration in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides an analysis of the relevant laws that cover the migration of highly skilled persons who originate from, or settle in, Egypt. Highly skilled foreign nationals with unique professional skills are given advantages (in investment, property ownership for investors and taxation) that make their settlement in Egypt relatively easy when compared to the treatment given to non-skilled foreign workers. Non-skilled workers usually do not obtain work permits, they are employed in the i...

2010-01-01

166

Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment. Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the d...

Adriansen, Hanne Kristine

2007-01-01

167

Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Levels of the heavy metals Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) were determined in coastal water, sediments and soft tissues of the gastropod limpet, Patella caerulea, and the bivalve, Barbatus barbatus, from seven different stations in the western coast of the Gulf of Suez. The concentrations of heavy metals in water ranged between 3.37-4.78, 18.83-21.46, 2.75-3.17, 0.22-0.27, 0.99-1.21, 2.69-3.65, 3.75-4.56 ?g L - 1 and 23.82-32.78 mg g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The corresponding concentration values in the sediments were 8.65-12.16, 51.78-58.06, 36.52-42.15, 3.23-3.98, 9.03-12.75, 34.31-49.63, 3.28-4.56 and 64.20-70.22 ?g g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The highest accumulated metals were Fe, Zn and Mn in both P. caerulea and B. barbatus, while the lowest one was Cd. The accumulation of metals was more pronounced in P. caerulea than B. barbatus. The highest concentrations of all metals in water, sediments and mollusca were recorded at Adabiya harbour north of the Gulf, while the lowest concentrations were recorded at Gabal El-Zeit and Hurghada. Land based activities and ships awaiting berth are the main source of metal pollution in the northern part of the Gulf.

Hamed, Mohamed A.; Emara, Ahmed M.

2006-05-01

168

Nuclear desalination in Egypt: activities and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main source of freshwater resources in Egypt is the River Nile. The Egyptian share of the Nile water was limited to 55.5x10"9 m"3/year in the Nile Water Treaty concluded with Sudan in 1959. Due to the rapid population growth, the annual per capita freshwater resources declined from 2560 m"3 in 1955 to 970 m"3 in 1995. Consequently, desalination plants of various sizes and technologies have been introduced to Egypt in the past three decades. The Egyptian desalination inventory increased from less than 2000 m"3/day in 1970 to almost 175000 m"3/day in 1997, of which 54% was seawater desalination. The energy-intensive seawater desalination technologies are expected to play an increasing role in mitigating future potable water deficit in Egypt. Egypt has been considering for a number of years the introduction of nuclear energy to meet the combined challenge of increasing electricity and water demand on one hand and the limited primary energy and water resources on the other hand. In this regard, Egypt has been carrying a number of national, regional and international activities. This paper presents an overview of the Egyptian activities in the field of nuclear desalination including, feasibility studies and Research and Development activities. The results of recent studies are presented regarding: quantification of seawater desalination market in Egypt and preliminary economic assessment of potable water production by various combinations of energy sources and desalination processes proposed for El-Dabaa site. (author)

2000-11-01

169

Retreatment of a 6-Canalled Mandibular First Molar with Four Mesial Canals: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful root canal treatment requires adequate knowledge regarding morphologic variations in root canal system of teeth. This report describes a six-canalled mandibular first molar with four mesial root canals requiring endodontic retreatment. The two additional canals in the mesial root were found during retreatment with the aid of illumination and magnification. In conclusion, the possibility of atypical morphology and additional canals should never be over looked.

Mohsen Aminsobhani

2010-11-01

170

Egypt : Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often viewed as insular disciplines, with their own special history and set of material remains. The kinds of theoretically informed approaches and analyses with which the wider archaeological discipline has engaged over the past decades has often been viewed with scepticism, in terms of what it has to offer to a discipline whose historical materials seem to be so rich and varied. The reason for this study is to challenge such insularity and to demonstrate the utility of integrating theoretical ideas with specific studies of ancient Egyptian material. The chapters in this volume explore a variety of ancient and modern Egyptian material and practices, from a wide range of prehistoric and historical periods, entwining interpretation of source material with explicitly theoretical approaches to provide new perspectives and interpretations of aspects of the Ancient Egyptian past. This volume is one of the first to demonstrate the emerging interdisciplinary nature in Ancient Egyptian studies and the first to suggest new avenues of approach whilst seeking to open a discussion about how the Egyptian past can be known and understood. The book engages with wider trends from the humanities, which have found currency in archaeological studies, such as materiality, performativity, corporeality, embodiment, identity, and popular culture studies. Egyptian material is explored via these themes, to create nuanced and contextual interpretations of particular sites, events, artefacts and practices. Egypt: Ancient Histories, Modern Archaeologies makes an important contribution to furthering the fields of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology, as well as in the wider context of archaeological theory.

2013-01-01

171

Monitoring of some heavy metal in egypt using different spectroscopic technique ICP-AES and AAS-GF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy metals include both toxic and/or non toxic elements egyptian aquatic environment were monitored using inductivly coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy; ICP-AES and graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy; GF-AAS. Water and aquatic weeds (waterhyathins) are of different categories specified for such monitoring form the canals. The locations of sampling sites the river nile in egypt. These sites were chosen based on the industrial activity comparing to the cleansite and the other cultivated one. Bioavailability and related effects were defined so as to specify actually the higher concentration more contaminated areas

2005-05-01

172

Economic Efficiency of Cotton Production and Ginning in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotton is Egypt's most important crop representing one-fourth of the value of all field crops. The paper addresses major policy questions about cotton production and ginning in Egypt using comparative advantage analysis. Domestic resource cost (DRC), whic...

H. Khedr H. Kheir-El-Din E. Monke

1982-01-01

173

Organophosphorus pesticides residues in fish samples from the River Nile tributaries in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of organophosphorus pesticides in fish samples from different tributaries of the Nile River in Egypt was monitored. Fish samples were collected from El Menofiya, canal water supplies (El-Sarsawia, El-Bagoria and Bahr Shebin), in addition to El-Embaby, El-Menofi and Miet Rabiha drainage canals each 2 month during periods of 16 month, June 2007-Septemper 2008. Chloropyrifos, cadusafos, diazinon, prothiphos and malathion were detected in fish tissues samples at level below the maximum residue limit. The highest average amount of chlorpyrifos (9.38 ng g(-1)) and malathion (8.31 ng g(-1)) were detected in El-Embaby drain. Prothiphos were found in tissues collected from El-Sarsawia canal and Miet-Rabiha drain at mean concentration of 4.91 and 6.55 ng g(-1), respectively. Diazinon was only found in one fish sample that collected from El-Menofi drain at the level of 9.23 ng g(-1). PMID:21953307

Malhat, Farag; Nasr, Islam

2011-12-01

174

Anal canal melanoma: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anal canal melanoma is a rare disease comprising 1% of all colorectal ie. anal malignant tumours with very poor long term prognosis. Its significant biologic aggressivity is the consequence of the tendency towards lymphatic, local and hematogenous spread. At the moment of diagnosis even 30% of the patients have distant metastases. Surgical intervention represents the only possibility for cure. Modern approach to the anal canal melanoma treatment implies two types of intervention: wide local excision preserving the sphincter mechanism and abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. There are numerous dilemmas about the choice of surgery in particular disease stages. The authors report on a 61 years old women in which anal canal melanoma with left inguinal lymphatic metastases was detected during the inspection of "haemorrhoids". After the diagnosis was established, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum was performed with dissection of both inguinal regions. .

Brankovi? B.

2006-01-01

175

Root Canal Treatment from Start to Finish  

Science.gov (United States)

Illustrations: Root Canal Treatment From Start to Finish 1. A Deep Infection Root canal treatment is needed when an ... infected or inflamed. 2. A Route to the Root The dentist numbs the tooth. An opening is ...

176

Type III apical transportation of root canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph reveale...

Mantri, Shiv P.; Kapur, Ravi; Gupta, Niharika A.; Kapur, Charu A.

2012-01-01

177

Bilateral mandibular canines with type two canals.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Presence of two canals with type II pattern in mandibular canine is around 15%. Even though the incidence rate is high, multiple angled diagnostic radiographs are not regularly taken. This article highlights the importance of multiple angled radiographs and indicates that the dentist should have a mind set to look out for extra canals in all root canal cases.

Nandini S; Velmurugan N; Kandaswamy D

2005-01-01

178

Computed tomography of the thoracic canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 10"0. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th_1, Th_2 levels and round at Th_3-Th_1_0 and large oval at Th_1_1, Th_1_2. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (author)

1981-01-01

179

Earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams and nuclear power plants. Setting of nuclear power plants becomes of increasing important in northern Egypt with the commitment towards promoting nuclear electric generation. Therefore, the annual seismic hazard maps with non-exceedence probability of 80%, 85% and 90% are given. These maps show that northern Egypt is severely affects by earthquakes from potential sources around Sinai peninsula. Three sites (Nile Delta, Cairo, and Ismailia region) have been chosen to estimated the earthquake hazard in more detailes to serve as a basic parameter to the safety factor of different projects in these regions. A seismic safety factor of intensity 8.5 should be considered in designing the vital projects in northern Egypt. (author)

1998-01-01

180

Paraganglioma of external auditory canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the ear, paragangliomas are commonly found in the tympanic cavity or in juglar bulb. We, here, present a case of paraganglioma originating from the external auditory canal as it has not been reported in the world literature. The clinico-pathologic features of such a case has been described.

Kundu, Indranath; Goswami, Saileswar; Barman, Debasis; Biswas, Saumitra

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Reaching women in Egypt: a success story  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

Ahmed Mousa

2009-06-01

182

Mandibular canal variant: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mandibular canal transmits the inferior alveolar artery, vein and the inferior alveolar nerve. From an embryological perspective, there might be three inferior dental nerves innervating three groups of mandibular teeth. During rapid prenatal growth and remodeling in the ramus region there is spread of intramembranous ossification that eventually forms the mandibular canal. Occurrence of bifid/trifid mandibular canals in some patients is secondary to incomplete fusion of these three nerves. Various types of bifid mandibular canals have been classified according to anatomical location and configuration. This case report highlights an unusual variant of the mandibular canal. PMID:18197857

Wadhwani, P; Mathur, R M; Kohli, M; Sahu, R

2008-02-01

183

Oligocene Miocene formation of the Haifa basin: Qishon Sirhan rifting coeval with the Red Sea Suez rift system  

Science.gov (United States)

During mid-Oligocene to early-Miocene times the northeastern Afro-Arabian plate underwent changes, from continental breakup along the Red Sea in the south, to continental collision with Eurasia in the north and formation of the N-S trending Dead Sea fault plate boundary. Concurrent uplift and erosion of the entire Levant area led to an incomplete sedimentary record, obscuring reconstructions of the transition between the two tectonic regimes. New well data, obtained on the continental shelf of the central Levant margin (Qishon Yam 1), revealed a uniquely undisturbed sedimentary sequence which covers this time period. Evaporitic facies found in this well have only one comparable location in the entire eastern Mediterranean area (onland and offshore) over the same time frame — the Red Sea-Suez rift system. Analysis of 4150 km of multi and single-channel seismic profiles, offshore central Levant, shows that the sequence was deposited in a narrow basin, restricted to the continental shelf. This basin (the Haifa Basin) evolved as a half graben along the NW trending Carmel fault, which at present is one of the main branches of the Dead Sea fault. Re-evaluation of geological data onland, in view of the new findings offshore, indicates that the Haifa basin is the northwestern-most of a larger series of basins, comprising a failed rift along the Qishon-Sirhan NW-SE trend. This failed rift evolved spatially parallel to the Red Sea-Suez rift system, and at the same time frame. The Carmel fault would therefore seem to be related to processes occurring several million years earlier than previously thought, before the formation of the Dead Sea fault. The development of a series of basins in conjunction with a young spreading center is a known phenomenon in other regions worldwide; however this is the only known example from across the Arabian plate.

Schattner, U.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Reshef, M.; Bar-Am, G.; Lazar, M.

2006-06-01

184

Review of parasitic zoonoses in egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

Youssef, Ahmed I; Uga, Shoji

2014-03-01

185

Reading Habits of Adults in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigating the reading habits of adults in Egypt, East Africa, a study examined 294 Egyptians (233 males and 61 females) in post-secondary education in Cairo, and in the industrial cities of Shopra El-Khema, and Impapa, El-Giza. Marital status, sex, and occupation were used to group the subjects. Subjects completed a 29-item questionnaire…

Scales, Alice M.; Zikri, Lawrence B.

186

Experience with the INES scale in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty years experience with Egypt first Research Reactor (ET-RR-1) operation, was introduced focusing on the famous events that were initiated and the procedures that were taken for their recovery or mitigation is given. Four out of seven events can be attributed to human errors, the events if classified using the INES

1997-10-22

187

Agricultural Trade Policy in Contemporary Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discussed both traditional (i.e., cotton and rice) and new (i.e., horticultural) crop exports of Egypt. Three main themes were addressed for each group--comparative advantage, international market composition, and the structure and policy of Egy...

H. A. Khedr T. E. Petzel

1982-01-01

188

Proposed National Information Policy of Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A proposed statement of Egypt's national information policies is presented and some of the policies' implications for planning are discussed. The long-range purpose of these policies is to provide a motivation for generic courses of action conducive to th...

S. Adams M. A. K. Madkour V. Slamecka

1981-01-01

189

Alexandrie: réhabilitation urbaine du quartier historique (Egypte)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Le quartier traité se situe sur la presqu'île, au Nord-Ouest de la ville d'Alexandrie, en Egypte. Il est délimité au sud par deux rues de souk et au nord par la plus grande mosquée de la ville. Malgré un patrimoine riche en histoire, mêlant des styles arc

Cabessa, Gae?lle; Skro?der, Nermine

2008-01-01

190

Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions and independent experts. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture and a full understanding of the energy industry and market in Egypt, the way they operate and their long-term perspectives

2011-01-01

191

Genetic Control of Flowering Traits, Yield and its Components in Maize (Zea mays L.) at Different Sowing Dates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research was designed to study the combining ability effects of 15 parents of maize (13 inbred lines and 2 testers) crossed in line x tester scheme and assessed for yield and its components. The genetic materials were evaluated using randomized complete block design with three replications in two sowing dates, June, 1 and July, 1 at the experimental farm of Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt in 2009 cropping season. Parents and crosses showed significant differences for all me...

Manal Hefny

2010-01-01

192

Comparison of minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy and conventional thyroidectomy: a single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gouda Mohamed El-labbanDepartment of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAim: We aimed to test the hypothesis that minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) affords comparable safety and efficacy as open conventional surgery in patients with unilateral thyroid nodules or follicular lesions in terms of cosmetic results, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative pain, and hospital stay.Methods: A single-blinded randomized...

Gouda Mohamed El-labban

2010-01-01

193

Retinopathy and risk factors in diabetic patients from Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mohamed F El-Bab1, Nashaat Shawky2, Ali Al-Sisi3, Mohamed Akhtar31Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Faculty of Medicine, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, Egypt; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ohud Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by chronic and dangerous microvascular changes affecting most body systems, es...

Mf, El-bab; Shawky N; Al-Sisi A; Akhtar M

2012-01-01

194

Enhancement of Seed Yield and Its Components in Some Promising Sesame Lines Using Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. Against Soil-borne Fungal Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological control by Trichoderma spp. has been considered as a biocontrol agents to protect plants against diseases in several crops. Its environmentally friendly antagonists against plant pathogenic fungi, especially soil born fungi, compared with chemical control. Therefore, a pot experiment at the Experimental Plant Breeding Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt was conducted over two years (2009 and 2010) to study the possibility of enhancement the yield an...

El-bramawy, M. A. S.; El-sarag, E. E.

2012-01-01

195

Paragangliomas of the spinal canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an aggressive growth pattern with early, local paraspinal recurrence and, eventually, intradural metastatic spread. This type of growth pattern has not been described previously. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal are more common than previously thought and can be located anywhere along the spine, although the lumbosacral level is the most common. Their appearance on MRI can not disinguish them from other tumours in the spinal canal. Even though paragangliomas in general are benign and slowly growing their growth pattern can vary and be more aggressive, to the point of metastatic spread. (orig.)

Sundgren, P.; Annertz, M.; Holtaas, S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Lund (Sweden); Englund, E. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital of Lund (Sweden); Stroemblad, L.G. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital of Lund (Sweden)

1999-10-01

196

Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)

1987-01-01

197

Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

Reinhardt, R.

1987-07-01

198

Seepage study of canals in Beaver Valley, Beaver County, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the gains or losses of nine canals near Beaver, Utah, was made to aid in the water allocation of the canal systems. The canals included in this study are Manderfield Ditch, Last Chance Canal, Christiansen Ditch, Mammoth Canal, City Ditch, Owens Ditch, South Field Ditch, Patterson Ditch and Aberdare Canal. Four sets of seepage measurements were made during 1974, but flow was observed in all nine canals only during the set of measurements made in June. Adjustments for fluctuations in flow in the canals were made from information obtained from water-stage recorders operated at selected locations along the canals during the time of each seepage run.

Cruff, R. W.; Mower, R. W.

1976-01-01

199

Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

1995-03-01

200

Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to the expected detrimental impacts on coastal zones, agriculture, water security as well as indirect social and health impacts. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although Egypt is a non-annex I country not requiring any specific emission reduction or limitation targets under the Kyoto protocol, its National plans have included mitigation measures to r...

Dalia Adel Nakhla; Mohamed Galal Hassan; Salah El Haggar

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The petromastoid canal on computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51{+-}0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57{+-}0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63{+-}0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Weidner, J.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

2002-11-01

202

The petromastoid canal on computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51±0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57±0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63±0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

2002-11-01

203

Antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All root canal sealers should have antimicrobial activity so that they could act against any remaining bacteria after root canal obturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of five root canal sealers: AH26, a resin based paste; Apexit, calcium hydroxide based paste; Endomethasone and Tubliseal, zinc oxide eugenol based materials and Ketac Endo Aplicap, glass ionomer based sealer. Matherials And Methods: Antimicrobial activity was tested against S. mutans 70C a...

Vujaškovi? Mirjana; Radosavljevi? Branka

2006-01-01

204

Bilateral bifid mandibular canal: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this case report is to help clinicians identify bifid mandibular canals on panoramic radiographs and subsequently use the information in the modification of dental treatment planning. A 45-year old man was referred to the service of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology. Routine panoramic radiography, suggested the presence of bilateral bifid mandibular canals (BMC). Mandibular computed tomography revealed a clear view of bilateral mandibular canals. BMC can be detected on a panoramic radiograph. PMID:19218898

Miloglu, Ozkan; Yilmaz, Ahmet Berhan; Caglayan, Fatma

2009-05-01

205

Anatomic variations of the human semicircular canals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anatomic variations of the semicircular canals were investigated in a series of 95 plastic temporal bone preparations. The results showed a wider range of variability than has been assumed previously. An intraindividual correlation was found between the sizes of the superior and lateral semicircular canals. Observations indicate why a semicircular canal is not invariably delineated on one tomographic plane despite correct positioning for its optimum reproduction. (orig.)

1986-01-01

206

Canals in Milky Way radio polarization maps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Narrow depolarized canals are common in maps of the polarized synchrotron emission of the Milky Way. Two physical effects that can produce these canals have been identified: the presence of Faraday rotation measure ($\\RM$) gradients in a foreground screen and the cumulative cancellation of polarization known as differential Faraday rotation. We show that the behaviour of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ in the vicinity of a canal can be used to identify its origin. In the c...

Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

2006-01-01

207

The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are ag...

2007-01-01

208

Tumors in the facial nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray tomograms of 13 patients with tumors in the facial nerve canal are discusssed. The leading clinical symptom is the peripheral facial nerve palsy without recovery, often combined with deafness and dizziness. The X-ray film shows opacity, widening of the internal auditory canal and/or of the third part of the facial nerve canal, further erosion of the bony structures and destruction of thepyramid. (orig./WL)

1986-01-01

209

Maxillary First Molar with Two Root Canals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge regarding the anatomic morphology of maxillary molars is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals, who was referred to the Depar...

Saeed Rahimi; Negin Ghasemi

2013-01-01

210

Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dalia M El-Sebaity1, Wael Soliman1, Asmaa MA Soliman2, Ahmed M Fathalla11Department of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, EgyptPurpose: To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt.Methods: All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalmology Department of Assiut University between July 2009 and July 2010 were included in the study. The demographic data of all patients and characteristics of the injury events were determined. The initial visual acuity and final visual acuity after 3 months follow-up were recorded.Results: One hundred and fifty patients were included. The majority of injuries occurred in children aged 2–7 years (50.7%. There were 106 (70.7% boys and 44 (29.3% girls. The highest proportion of injuries occurred in the street (54.7% followed by the home (32.7%. Open globe injuries accounted for 67.3% of injuries, closed globe for 30.7%, and chemical injuries for 2%. The most common causes were wood, stones, missiles, and glass. LogMar best corrected visual acuity at 3 months follow-up was: 0–1 in 13.3%; <1–1.3 in 27.3%; <1.3–perception of light (PL in 56%; and no perception of light (NPL in 3.3%.Conclusions: Pediatric ocular trauma among patients referred to our tertiary ophthalmology referral center in Upper Egypt over a period of 1 year was 3.7%. Of these, 67.3% of cases had open globe injury, 30.7% had closed injury, and only 2% had chemical injury. In Upper Egypt, socioeconomic and sociocultural status, family negligence, and lack of supervision are important factors in pediatric eye injuries, as 92% of children were without adult supervision when the ocular trauma occurred. Nearly 86.6% of children with ocular trauma end up legally blind. Modification of these environmental risk factors is needed to decrease pediatric ocular morbidity.Keywords: ocular trauma, pediatric, epidemiology

El-Sebaity DM

2011-09-01

211

Evaluation of surface water quality in the Nile Delta of Egypt, Part II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is the second part of an environmental research project designed to evaluate the level of trace and other major elements in surface waters in the Nile Delta area of Egypt. Surface water samples were collected from selected sites along major canals and drains which comprise the water distribution system of the agricultural areas in the Nile Delta. Water samples were analyzed for major elements and trace elements using Inductive Coupled Argon Plasma. The influence of agricultural runoff, industrial discharge or infiltration of sea water was evidenced in the elevated concentrations of major elements such as Na, Ca, K and Mg with the gradient increasing in proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Concentrations of trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, As, and Se were consistently below US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits for potable water in all samples analyzed. These acceptable concentrations of heavy metals in the Nile River, canals and drains may be the combination of dilution, precipitation or absorption reactions which tend to reduce the heavy metal level. The pH of the water sampled during this study ranged from 7.2 to 8.0 which has been bound to enhance the precipitation of heavy metals. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

Ghoneim, M.M.; Issa, R.M.; El-Sheikh, M.Y.; Elmorsi, M.A.; Gale, N.L.; Wixson, B.G.

1986-01-01

212

Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

2013-07-01

213

Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

2013-02-24

214

The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously. PMID:17576932

Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M; Silcox, Mary T; Walker, Alan

2007-06-26

215

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Science.gov (United States)

...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment System, which...

2009-01-01

216

Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos Bifid mandibular canal: Case series report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro pacientes con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bífidos bilaterales. La Tomografía Computarizada de Haz de Cono, permite la identificación oportuna de condiciones preexistentes como variaciones en la morfología natural de los canales mandibulares, previniendo efectiva y precozmente las consecuencias neurológicas que se derivan de una lesión del nervio dentario inferior.The location and configuration of the mandibular canal variations are relevant in different clinical procedures of the jaw. In this case series, a radiologist assessed the mandibular canal route identifying the presence and types of bifid canals. Four patients with type bifid mandibular retromolar canal and three subjects with type bifida anterior canal without convergence were observed. In one patient, bilateral bifid tooth foramina was found. Computed Tomography Cone Beam allows identification of preexisting conditions such as variations in the natural morphology of the mandibular canals, preventing effective and early neurological consequences arising from alveolar nerve injury.

C.L. Guzmán Zuluaga

2012-04-01

217

Contributions of single semicircular canals to caloric nystagmus as revealed by canal plugging in rhesus monkeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrated specific responses from the anterior and the posterior semicircular canal to irrigation of the outer ear canal with cold water in the Rhesus monkey. This required i) three-dimensional analysis of the evoked eye movements in the planes of the semicircular canals (canal plane vectors, CPV); ii) assessing these CPV responses in eight different head positions relative to gravity; iii) comparing the responses in 6 normal animals (12 ears) with responses after selective plugging of pairs of semicircular canals (all, both lateral, and right anterior + left posterior). The results showed: i) Irrigation of the outer ear canal with cold water induces thermoconvection also in the posterior and anterior semicircular canals. This can be inferred from the sinusoidal modulation of eye movement components with changes in position of the corresponding semicircular canal plane relative to gravity; ii) Specific vertical canal responses occur exclusively in the direction of the corresponding semicircular canal, though they are superimposed with response components of other origin, one probably related to endolymph shift in the lateral semicircular canal; iii) before possible clinical application, these different response components of vertical canals will need to be determined in humans. PMID:8831835

Böhmer, A; Straumann, D; Suzuki, J; Hess, B J; Henn, V

1996-07-01

218

Connecting the national and the virtual: can Facebook activism remain relevant after Egypt’s January 25 uprising?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this article is to ground the debate about the connection between social media and popular uprisings in the specific context of recent social and political trends in Egypt. This is crucial when attempting to draw conclusions about the factors and mechanisms that produced Egypt’s January 25, 2011, revolution and, more importantly, whether social media can contribute to building a new political culture to support the revolution. Although it took just 18 days of protests to fo...

Iskander, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

219

Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

2011-04-01

220

Anthropogenic enhancement of Egypt's Mediterranean fishery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The highly productive coastal Mediterranean fishery off the Nile River delta collapsed after the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1965. But the fishery has been recovering dramatically since the mid-1980s, coincident with large increases in fertilizer application and sewage discharge in Egypt. We use stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) to demonstrate that 60%-100% of the current fishery production may be from primary production stimulated by nutrients from fertilizer and sewage runoff. Although the establishment of the dam put Egypt in an ideal position to observe the impact of rapid increases in nutrient loading on coastal productivity in an extremely oligotrophic sea, the Egyptian situation is not unique. Such anthropogenically enhanced fisheries also may occur along the northern rim of the Mediterranean and offshore of some rapidly developing tropical countries, where nutrient concentrations in the coastal waters were previously very low. PMID:19164510

Oczkowski, Autumn J; Nixon, Scott W; Granger, Stephen L; El-Sayed, Abdel-Fattah M; McKinney, Richard A

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Geology of Egypt: an annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book lists 3636 books, articles, and abstracts dealing with the geology (sensu lato) of Egypt and published prior to 1981. Subjects covered include hydrology, marine geology, meteoritical studies, desert ecology, and petroleum exploration strategies, in addition to stratigraphy, paleontology, petrology, and tectonics. Publications included cover all languages; especially useful are the English-language condensations of papers not written in English. The principal weaknesses are too many typographic errors and the lack of an index. However, the study of this volume will very significantly reduce the effort required to research any aspect of the geology of Egypt. This volume is a must for the research library of any organization that is concerned with this topic.

El-Baz, F.; Brill, E.J.

1984-01-01

222

Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

2004-02-24

223

Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2003-05-01

224

77 FR 28767 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA  

Science.gov (United States)

...1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...drawbridge operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble...entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA in the Federal Register...

2012-05-16

225

Egypt after Mubarak : the challenges ahead.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The events in Egypt in November 2011, and in preceding months, are stark reminders that the Middle East is changing in ways which a decade ago were rarely contemplated, either in the countries concerned or beyond them. A new solar system is emerging in the Arab world in which the gases are still swirling. In time, they will cool and solidify into more predictable and hopefully more productive forms—but how long that may take is far from certain.

2012-01-01

226

Egypt: Socio-political dimensions of migration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study argues that the Egyptian government both prior to and after the January 25th revolution encourages the migration of Egyptians abroad, in order to lower unemployment, and to increase remittances. Bilateral agreements on temporary and irregular migration have been signed with different governments, of which the Egyptian-Italian agreement on migration remains the most important. Moreover, the Egyptian government applies stricter rules concerning foreign workers in Egypt. Finally, the ...

Sika, Nadine

2011-01-01

227

MERS Coronaviruses in Dromedary Camels, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified the near-full-genome sequence (29,908 nt, >99%) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a nasal swab specimen from a dromedary camel in Egypt. We found that viruses genetically very similar to human MERS-CoV are infecting dromedaries beyond the Arabian Peninsula, where human MERS-CoV infections have not yet been detected. PMID:24856660

Chu, Daniel K W; Poon, Leo L M; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Perera, Ranawaka A P M; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S; Siu, Lewis Y; Guan, Yi; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Peiris, Malik; Kayali, Ghazi

2014-06-01

228

Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the ide...

2012-01-01

229

School effects on educational attainment in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data for Egypt in 2007, this paper examines the determinants and gender inequality of educational attainment (test scores in Mathematics and Science). The complicated structure of the data is carefully addressed during all stages of the analysis by employing plausible values and jackknife standard error technique to accommodate the measurement error of the dependant variable and the clustering of students in classes and schoo...

2012-01-01

230

Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which European and other Western powers have played a role. Occidentalisms are additionally found to be influenced by the ideological background from which the images are crafted. This is shown by a ...

Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

2009-01-01

231

Rinderpest surveillance in Egypt 1992/1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rinderpest control in Egypt has focussed for many years on the annual vaccination of all animals. In 1992 it was decided to vaccinate adult animals only twice and to cease vaccination of animals under the age of one year in an attempt to detect any circulating rinderpest virus. A national serological survey was undertaken to determine the level of immunity of cattle to rinderpest, linked with a serological and clinical survey of cattle and buffaloes under one year of age to determine if rinderpest virus was circulating in this population. At the same time a survey was undertaken of sheep and goats to determine if any serological evidence could be found of rinderpest virus in this group. The results show that levels of immunity in cattle are around 70% and in buffaloes around 50%. No substantive evidence could be found indicating the presence of rinderpest virus in cattle, buffalo, sheep or goats in Egypt. Based on the above it is appropriate that Egypt cease rinderpest vaccination and make the OIE declaration of provisional freedom from rinderpest. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

1994-11-01

232

Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos / Bifid mandibular canal: Case series report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro paciente [...] s con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bífidos bilaterales. La Tomografía Computarizada de Haz de Cono, permite la identificación oportuna de condiciones preexistentes como variaciones en la morfología natural de los canales mandibulares, previniendo efectiva y precozmente las consecuencias neurológicas que se derivan de una lesión del nervio dentario inferior. Abstract in english The location and configuration of the mandibular canal variations are relevant in different clinical procedures of the jaw. In this case series, a radiologist assessed the mandibular canal route identifying the presence and types of bifid canals. Four patients with type bifid mandibular retromolar c [...] anal and three subjects with type bifida anterior canal without convergence were observed. In one patient, bilateral bifid tooth foramina was found. Computed Tomography Cone Beam allows identification of preexisting conditions such as variations in the natural morphology of the mandibular canals, preventing effective and early neurological consequences arising from alveolar nerve injury.

C.L., Guzmán Zuluaga; I.C., Guzmán Zuluaga; C.M., Ardila Medina.

233

VARIACIONES ANATOMICAS DEL CANAL CONDILEO ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE CONDYLAR CANAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The variations in vascular anatomy and cranial foramina have important implications for their accurately recognition as normal or pathological. The condylar vein exits the skull base through the condylar canal, communicating the jugular foramen and the condylar fossa. The main purpose of this report was to asses the prevalence and normal anatomical patterns of the condylar canal . Eighty-one cadaveric skull base specimens were retrospectively examined for the unilateral or bilateral presence or absence of the canal. In addition, the condylar canal was classified for its relationship with the sigmoid-lateral sinus, in two types: Intrasinus canal type and Retrosinus canal type. The condylar canal was found bilaterally in 25 skulls (30.8% ; unilaterally in 25 skulls (30.8% and was absent in 31 specimens (38.2%. A higher prevalence of Intrasinus canal type was found (54.3% . Although it was only identified 2 cases (2.4% of retrosinus canaltype, associated forms (4.9% were discovered during examination. Of the unilateral cases, 14 cases were right sided and 11 cases were left sided (17.8% and 13.5% among all cases, respectively. The condylar canal has two anatomical patterns: intrasinus canal type and retrosinus canal type. This structure may have some clinical relevance, and it should not be misinterpreted as abnormal during image studies

Marcelo Galarza

1998-07-01

234

VARIACIONES ANATOMICAS DEL CANAL CONDILEO / ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE CONDYLAR CANAL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english The variations in vascular anatomy and cranial foramina have important implications for their accurately recognition as normal or pathological. The condylar vein exits the skull base through the condylar canal, communicating the jugular foramen and the condylar fossa. The main purpose of this report [...] was to asses the prevalence and normal anatomical patterns of the condylar canal . Eighty-one cadaveric skull base specimens were retrospectively examined for the unilateral or bilateral presence or absence of the canal. In addition, the condylar canal was classified for its relationship with the sigmoid-lateral sinus, in two types: Intrasinus canal type and Retrosinus canal type. The condylar canal was found bilaterally in 25 skulls (30.8% ); unilaterally in 25 skulls (30.8%) and was absent in 31 specimens (38.2%). A higher prevalence of Intrasinus canal type was found (54.3% ). Although it was only identified 2 cases (2.4% ) of retrosinus canaltype, associated forms (4.9%) were discovered during examination. Of the unilateral cases, 14 cases were right sided and 11 cases were left sided (17.8% and 13.5% among all cases, respectively). The condylar canal has two anatomical patterns: intrasinus canal type and retrosinus canal type. This structure may have some clinical relevance, and it should not be misinterpreted as abnormal during image studies

Galarza, Marcelo; Yun Jong, Hyoun; Merlo, Alicia; Albanese, Alfonso H.; Albanese, Alfonso R..

235

Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

2007-10-01

236

[Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

Fabra Campos, H

1991-01-01

237

Coupled effects of canal lining and multi-layered soil structure on canal seepage and soil water dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ponding tests were conducted in the Shiyang River Basin in Northwest China to assess canal leakage characteristics. Four anti-seepage constructions (concrete lining, pebble lining, clay lining plus compacted canal bed, compacted canal bed only) were performed on four canal sections, which were situated in multi-layered soils. The canal sections were tested using a two-stage approach; first a stable water level was maintained followed by a stage where the water level in the canal section was p...

2012-01-01

238

Investigation on integrity of canal expanded joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An integrity investigation of a Canal Expanded Joint was carried out as one of the integrity investigation of the JMTR reactor building related facilities and components, before the repair or replacement work of the JMTR related facilities that had begun in FY2007. The Canal Expanded Joint will be used for long-term after the JMTR restart. In the integrity investigation, the visual inspection, the performance test (Surface observations, Durometer hardness test) were investigated respectively and the integrity of the Canal Expanded Joint was confirmed. In order to use the Canal Expanded Joint continuously for long-term, it is important for maintaining the integrity of the Canal Expanded Joint by the periodical maintenance and the repairing work including that has been conducted up to now. (author)

2010-01-01

239

Canal-centering ability: An endodontic challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During instrumentation of the root canal, it is important to develop a continuously tapered form and to maintain the original shape and position of the apical foramen. However, the presence of curvatures may cause difficulty in root canal instrumentation. The ability to keep the instruments centered is essential to provide a correct enlargement, without excessive weakening of the root structure. Several studies have shown that Ni-Ti instruments remain significantly more centered and demonstrated less canal transportation than stainless steel files. Considerable research has been undertaken to understand the several factors related to an instrument?s canal-centering ability. In this article, we have discussed the influence of various parameters such as alloys used in the manufacture of instruments, instrument cross-section, taper, and have given tips on canal-centering ability.

Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

2009-01-01

240

Surveillance for Rift Valley Fever in Egypt During 1983.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1977, Egypt experienced its first recorded outbreak of Rift Valley Fever (RVF). Since the last isolation of RVF virus in 1981, continued transmission of RVF in Egypt has been disputed. A surveillance system was established by NAMRU-3 in 1982 using acce...

B. A. Botros P. W. Mellick A. W. Salib A. K. Soliman M. T. Dalam

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

Pahl, Ronald H.

1998-01-01

242

M1A1 Abrams Tank in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Egypt -- a land famous for its great Pyramids, the Sphinx, vast deserts, oases, the Nile River, and the best trained tank crews in the Arab world. The United States supports the Arab Republic of Egypt with financial aid and security assistance. One of the...

D. E. Sparrow T. O. Begasse

1994-01-01

243

Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

Blanks, David R.

1998-01-01

244

MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

Maryam Barzin

2010-05-01

245

Feasibility Study on the Tinplate Manufacturing Facility, General Lithograph Egypt Company, Cario Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report, conducted by UEC, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. It examines the feasibility of constructing a tinplate manufacturing facility in Egypt. The report contains information on a market survey, a facility plan, a capital esti...

2000-01-01

246

Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to the expected detrimental impacts on coastal zones, agriculture, water security as well as indirect social and health impacts. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Although Egypt is a non-annex I country not requiring any specific emission reduction or limitation targets under the Kyoto protocol, its National plans have included mitigation measures to reduce its greenhouse gases. The main sectors contributing to climate change in Egypt are energy, industry, agriculture and waste. Waste, on the other hand, has been accumulating in the streets of Egypt and along its water banks causing considerable air, soil and water pollution and indirect detrimental health impacts. However, this waste which is composed of organic municipal waste, agricultural residues, agro-industrial waste, animal manure and sewage sludge are valuable biomass resources. Utilizing the waste resources of Egypt especially the biomass or the organic component of this waste will not only solve some of the pressing economic needs of Egypt such as animal fodder, fertilizer and fuel but will also alleviate environmental burdens through decreasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in the sector of waste as well as those of energy, industry and agriculture. This paper quantifies the biomass resources in Egypt generated from different waste resources. Then it demonstrates the efforts that Egypt made to contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions reductions through the Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism (CDM. The projects in the waste sector already established in Egypt and approved as CDM projects are listed, which are related to waste management facilities and those which are waste to energy projects. Finally, a list of mitigation projects as proposed by the Egyptian government to decrease GHGs as related to the waste sector are enumerated.

Dalia Adel Nakhla

2013-06-01

247

Carcinoma of the anal canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are around 5,000 new cases of anal canal cancer each year in the United States. It is of particular risk in HIV-positive populations. Many cases are related to persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV. The treatment of anal cancer has progressed from abdominoperineal resection mandating permanent colostomy in the 1940s through the 1970s to modern chemoradiation with sphincter preservation in around 80% of patients, even with locally advanced disease. The evolution of the treatment paradigm of this disease is a model for the treatment of malignant disease with organ preservation. Multiple randomized trials have been conducted to guide this evolution. Technological developments in the delivery of radiotherapy and anti-cancer pharmaceuticals harbor hope for further improvements in outcomes with possible reductions in toxicity and increases in tumor control. Perhaps most inspiring is the recent development of HPV vaccines that

Charles R. Thomas Jr

2011-12-01

248

Canals in Milky Way radio polarization maps  

CERN Multimedia

Narrow depolarized canals are common in maps of the polarized synchrotron emission of the Milky Way. Two physical effects that can produce these canals have been identified: the presence of Faraday rotation measure ($\\RM$) gradients in a foreground screen and the cumulative cancellation of polarization known as differential Faraday rotation. We show that the behaviour of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ in the vicinity of a canal can be used to identify its origin. In the case of canals produced by a Faraday screen we demonstrate that, if the polarization angle changes by $90\\degr$ across the canal, as is observed in all fields to-date, the gradients in $\\RM$ must be discontinuous. Shocks are an obvious source of such discontinuities and we derive a relation of the expected mean separation of canals to the abundance and Mach number of supernova driven shocks, and compare this with recent observations by \\citet{Haverkorn03}. We also predict the existence of less common canals with polarization angle changes o...

Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

2006-01-01

249

How to bond to root canal dentin  

Science.gov (United States)

Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

2014-01-01

250

The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been muc...

Rini Suryati Sulong; Universiti Malaysia Sabah

2013-01-01

251

Maxillary right second molar with two palatal root canals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report a clinical case of maxillary right second molar with two palatal root canals. The morphology is atypical because it is characterized by two palatal roots with two canals with widely separated orifices and canals. Modifications to the normal access opening and examination of the pulpal floor for additional canals are stressed.

Prashanth M; Jain Pradeep; Patni Pallav

2010-01-01

252

Maxillary right second molar with two palatal root canals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a clinical case of maxillary right second molar with two palatal root canals. The morphology is atypical because it is characterized by two palatal roots with two canals with widely separated orifices and canals. Modifications to the normal access opening and examination of the pulpal floor for additional canals are stressed.

Prashanth M

2010-01-01

253

Egypt:- Delivering jobs, growth and trust - OECD  

...Following the Arab Spring, MENA countries have embarked on far-reaching political reforms, opening a window of opportunity to unleash the region&rsquos tremendous ... employment,investment,governance,jobs,mena,trust,arab spring Egypt:- Delivering jobs, growth and trust - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts ... For all these reasons the topic of this MENA Session “Delivering Jobs, Growth and Trust” is quite timely. Demands ...from the streets in the MENA countries went beyond political matters; they included calls for economic and social development. These demands translate ...

254

Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the identification of the investigated taxa based on fruit characters is provided.

Nagwa R.A. Hussein

2012-01-01

255

Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The pharmacy study results indicated that FOF medical representatives are very effective, and there are no major complaints about overloaded inventories or neglect on the part of FOF representatives. Andreasen recommends that "commercial orientation be allowed to dominate in the future..." An audit planned in Egypt for late summer 1983 will focus on results and activities of geographic expansion, preparations to introduce an oral contraceptive, and implementation of new management techniques. PMID:12279587

1982-01-01

256

Photovoltaics: alternative energy opportunities in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Government subsidies for electricity have discouraged the growth of an alternative energy market, but economic problems and high utility bills are changing the market as the demand for electricity expands. Although the past five-year plan only called for five percent of Egypt's energy to come from renewable sources, the development of solar power plants, wind power, and resource recovery could raise that to seven percent. Planners are looking to joint ventures and technology transfers to get the stagnant alternative energy industry moving. 2 figures.

Gadomski, C.R.

1987-10-01

257

Thermal history of the eastern Gulf of Suez, II. Reconstruction from apatite fission track and {40Ar }/{39Ar } K-feldspar measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Apatite fission track (AFT) measurements from Miocene graben-fill sediments of the eastern Gulf of Suez in three deep boreholes (Belayim 113 M-2/6, Ras Garra M-1 and Alma-2) yield a wide range of ages (from 125 to 320 Ma) and mean track-lengths (˜10.1-12.7 ?m). This range is similar to that recorded from Precambrian crystalline basement flanking the graben which is the major source for the rift fill. Since the AFT ages exceed the age of the host strata, which are presently at their highest post-depositional temperatures, the rift-related thermal regime is one of only moderate heating. Downhole AFT data in the Belayim 113 M-2/6 borehole attest to a higher rift temperature than in the Ras Garra M-1 borehole, some 85 km to the south, where little or no thermal overprinting is evident. These findings are consistent with previously reported bottom hole temperatures and vitrinite reflectance data in the study area. Despite the higher syn-rift thermal regime indicated for Belayim 113 M-2/6, apatite provenance ages in Ras Garra M-1 are considerably younger. Thus, the AFT data in the Ras Garra M-1 area do not record significant rift-related thermal effects, but rather, they mainly retain a pre-rift provenance signature which reflects the order and depth of erosion at the uplifted flanks. The younger AFT ages in Ras Garra M-1, despite the weaker rift-related thermal effect, suggest a deeper level proportional to an additional ˜5-10°C of exhumation of the uplifted crystalline basement southwards along the eastern rift flank by Mid-Miocene time. This result is consistent with earlier findings which indicate both increased extension and heat flow southwards in the Gulf of Suez, and earlier exhumation of the rift flank. Immediately preceding extension and opening of the Gulf of Suez, the most deeply exhumed basement rocks presently exposed on the rift flanks were heated to temperatures ?110°C (total annealing of apatite), but <˜170°-200°C as constrained by {40Ar }/{39Ar } data and non-resetting of zircon FT clocks in sinai, {40Ar }/{39Ar } data from granite penetrated in graben drilling at ˜3.89 km further corroborates pre-rift palaeotemperatures <˜170°C for crystalline basement underlying the Gulf of Suez.

Kohn, B. P.; Feinstein, S.; Foster, D. A.; Steckler, M. S.; Eyal, M.

1997-12-01

258

The crazy project – Canal Istanbul Il “Crazy Project” - Canale di Istanbul  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment a...

Seda Kundak; Mete Ba?ar Bayp?nar

2011-01-01

259

Oil pollution in the Red Sea — Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a coral area, Gulf of Suez  

Science.gov (United States)

The Red Sea is rapidly developing as one of the world's largest offshore oil production areas. It also comprises a wide range of tropical marine habitats, many of which are internationally recognised for their conservation, scientific, economic or recreational value. Past oil production, refining and transport have resulted in chronic pollution of some areas, and environmental programmes to protect new areas of development from pollution damage are assuming increasing importance. At the initiative of an Egyptian oil company operating in the Gulf of Suez, an environmental protection and management scheme has been prepared for a new offshore oilfield and marine terminal at Ras Budran. This paper describes the form of the scheme and the results of its component environmental surveys. The development area comprises rich and diverse marine communities of fringing coral reefs, nearshore lagoons, seagrass beds, sandy beaches and fine sediments offshore. A baseline survey was designed following detailed discussion of the scope of the development with the company and a preliminary site visit, and the fieldwork was completed in October 1980. On the basis of the findings of the survey, a series of recommendations was made to the company, aimed at reducing environmental impacts during construction and operation to a minimum and acceptable level. These were subsequently implemented and the results of a post-construction survey in February 1983 are reported which show that environmental damage to the nearshore habitats during the construction phase had been relatively small and localised. Recently, the biological information obtained from the two surveys has also been incorporated into oil spill contingency plans.

Dicks, Brian

260

Oil pollution in the Red Sea - Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a Coral area, Gulf of Suez  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Red Sea is rapidly developing as one of the world's largest offshore oil production areas. It also comprises a wide range of tropical marine habitats, many of which are internationally recognised for their conservation, scientific, economic or recreational value. Past oil production, refining and transport have resulted in chronic pollution of some areas, and environmental programmes to protect new areas of development from pollution damage are assuming increasing importance. At the initiative of an Egyptian oil company operating in the Gulf of Suez, an environmental protection and management scheme has been prepared for a new offshore oilfield and marine terminal at Ras Budran. This paper describes the form of the scheme and the results of its component environmental surveys. The development area comprises rich and diverse marine communities of fringing coral reefs, nearshore lagoons, seagrass beds, sandy beaches and fine sediments offshore. A baseline survey was designed following detailed discussion of the scope of the development with the company and a preliminary site visit, and the fieldwork was completed in October 1980. On the basis of the findings of the survey, a series of recommendations was made to the company, aimed at reducing environmental impacts during construction and operation to a minimum and acceptable level. These were subsequently implemented and the results of a post-construction survey in February 1983 are reported which show that environmental damage to the nearshore habitats during the construction phase had been relatively small and localised. Recently, the biological information obtained from the two surveys has also been incorporated into oil spill contingency plans.

Dicks, B.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Effect of Profile and Race rotary systems on original canal anatomy in simulated severely curved canals.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recent advances in technology have permitted manufacturers to produce endodontic files from NiTi alloy and rotary systems. According to manufacturers, these files maintain original canal shape better than hand files and reduce treatment time. The aim of this study was to compare a new rotary system (Race with an older one (Profile in maintaining the original shape of curved canal and the working length as well as the procedural accidents rate. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 polyester blocks with curved canals (45 , were fabricated and divided into 2 groups. After primary working length determination and staining with methylene blue, photographs were taken. Canal preparation was done with Profile and Race rotary systems according to manufacturers and working length was measured again. Canal staining by eosin was performed and photographs were taken for the second time. The two images were superimposed and changes in canals anatomy in 5 sections were recorded. Data were analyzed by t test with p 0.05. Changes in working lengths and procedural accidents were similar in the studied groups (P> 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, changes in canal anatomy and working length of simulated severely curved canals as well as procedural accidents rate are similar in two rotary systems and both are suitable for canal preparation.

Khedmat S

2006-07-01

262

Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

1991-08-01

263

Avian influenza vaccination in Egypt: Limitations of the current strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vaccination of domestic poultry against avian influenza (AI) has been used on a large-scale in South East Asia since 2003 and in Egypt since 2006 to fight H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics. The decision to use mass vaccination against HPAI in Egypt was taken as an emergency measure based on positive impact of such control measures in Vietnam and the People's Republic of China. However, three years on, the impact on disease control of AI vaccination in Egypt has been very...

Peyre, Marisa; Samaha, Hamid; Makonnen, Yilma Jobre; Saad, Ahmed; Abd-elnabi, Amira; Galal, Saber; Ettel, Toni; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Lubroth, Juan; Roger, Franc?ois; Domenech, Joseph

2009-01-01

264

Squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is rather rare and amounts to 3.5% of all rectal neoplasms. Though it has a clear-cut clinical picture, 29.5% of patients admitted for specialized treatment suffer from stage 4 due to inadequate diagnosis. Surgery is the most effective method of management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Radiation therapy may be an adjuvant procedure to surgery.

Knysh, V.I.; Timofeev, Yu.M.; Rattenberg, V.I. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr)

1983-01-01

265

Irrigation canal system identification for control purposes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report gives some guidance on how to obtain black-box models of irrigation canal reaches, using system identification techniques. First of all, some general properties of the irrigation canal reaches are deducted, based on the use of the linearized Sain-Venant equations to model the water behavior. Then different aspects of the system identification procedure like the sampling time, the model structure, the experiment design, etc., are studied, in order to avoid possible modellin...

Sepu?lveda Toepfer, Carlos; Rodellar Benede?, Jose?

2005-01-01

266

Fallopian canal dehiscence: can it be pridicted  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to give an idea about true incidence and most common location of fallopian canal dehiscence and to identify predictive factors associated with fallopian canal dehiscence based on preoperative and peroperative clinical correlates so as to facilitate preemptive prediction of the condition. The study design pertains to a prospective study. The setting of the study was tertiary referral hospital and a total of 146 patients underwent radical and modified radical mastoidecto...

Jaswal, Abhishek; Jana, Avik Kumar; Sikder, Biswajit; Sadhukhan, Sanjoy Kumar; Jana, Utpal; Nandi, Tapan Kumar

2008-01-01

267

Mechanics of the Panama Canal slides  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Becker visited the Canal Zone in 1913 as a geologist of the United States Geological Survey and since that time has given the problem the benefit of his study. His appointment as a member of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences has made it appropriate for his conclusions, based upon his personal observations and already reported in part to the Canal Commission, to be stated for the benefit of his associates and other American scientists and engineers.

Becker, George F.

1917-01-01

268

Isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of neoplasms within the external auditory canal are benign. Management of these primary tumors and their local recurrences are discussed herein. We present a case of an isolated myxoma of the external auditory canal with a review of the common histopathological and radiographic features. Although rare, this highlights the possibility of encountering benign tumor types that carry associated morbidity or mortality due to manifestations outside of the head and neck. PMID:24114812

Shadfar, Scott; Scanga, Lori; Dodd, Leslie; Buchman, Craig A

2014-05-01

269

Cervical and lumbar spinal canal stenosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis is a degenerative disease of the spine specifi callyrelated to human ageing as its cause. This is a degenerative diseaseof intervertebral discs and arthrosis of the spinal posterior articularfacets with subsequent stenosis of the spinal canal. As peopleare getting old health-related problems are increasing, includingdegenerative diseases of the spinal column. Physicians have to beable to deal with those problems, including clinical features, diagnosisand treatment and this is the goal of this review.

Reynaldo André Brandt

2008-03-01

270

Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

2004-12-27

271

Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on fieldwork in Egyptâ??s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment. Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of â??rural idyllâ??. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the childrenâ??s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social relationships. Not only do the children grow up in a different physical context, they are also exposed to new norms, values and behaviour that influences their everyday life and shape their identity. Especially the change from living in large, extended families to living in nuclear families as well as womenâ??s new roles impact upon the childrenâ??s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in â??developedâ?? countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in â??developedâ?? countries

Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

2007-01-01

272

Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions. PMID:22224784

Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

2012-04-01

273

Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the aforementioned articles indicate that this laser is effective in combination with a rinsing solution such as sodium hypochlorite.Results from studies including several types of the different Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in disinfecting canals showed that all wavelengths used in disinfection for different thicknesses of dentin were efficacious without damaging thermal effect. Considering that use of different lasers in canals can be accompanied with temperature increase which can sometimes lead to damages to teeth and surrounding tissues, thus the use of photochemical phenomenon for elimination of microorganisms have attracted attention of many researchers. Studies in this field imply the efficacy of this method in reducing canal bacterial count and recommend its use as an adjunctive after biomechanical preparation of canals. Results from performed studies show removal of intra canal debris and smear layer by different lasers and particularly the Erbium laser family. Furthermore various laser wavelengths, particularly of Diode and Nd:YAG lasers can be effective in reducing intra canal microbial count. Maximum effect is obtained when laser light is used in canals in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating substance in appropriate concentration. Therefore use of laser energy can improve success rate of root canal treatments.

Mohammad Asnaashari

2012-12-01

274

Isotope techniques in the study of groundwater in the eastern Nile Delta and the transport of pollution from drainage water into Lake Manzala, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-two water samples were collected from eastern Nile Delta groundwater, Lake Manzala, surface water and main drainage stations during 1993-1995. The water samples were analysed for major, minor and tracer elements and for oxygen-18 and deuterium. The hydrochemical studies indicate that the groundwater of the eastern Delta can be classified into three groups of low, medium and high salinity. The fresh water is mostly encountered near the Nile and near irrigation canals in the south. The brackish and saline water occurs near the Bitter Lakes, the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea. The salinity is attributed to the leaching of terrestrial salts and to seawater intrusion. Nitrate concentration was found to be relatively high because of extensive fertilizer use. In general, the stable isotope contents of groundwater differ widely depending upon the contribution of each recharging source (present Nile, old Nile, precipitation, seawater intrusion and possibly palaeowater contribution in some localized areas). Investigation of Lake Manzala revealed that the water salinity is rather inhomogeneous, and high concentrations of trace elements were detected, which could be attributed to drainage water discharging into the lake. A stable isotope balance was developed to estimate seepage and evaporation from the lake. (author)

1997-04-14

275

The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid agitation using a closely fitting instrument or by sonic or ultrasonic activation. This review highlights a way forward by understanding the physical processes involved through physical models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. (topical review)

2010-12-01

276

The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid agitation using a closely fitting instrument or by sonic or ultrasonic activation. This review highlights a way forward by understanding the physical processes involved through physical models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. PMID:21071831

Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

2010-12-01

277

78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

...Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration...Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration...to Business Monitor International's forecasts, Egypt's...7.3 billion by 2015. Demand in the sector...meetings, symposia, conferences, and trade...

2013-02-04

278

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

2003-06-01

279

In vitro evaluation of root canal preparation using oscillatory and rotary systems in flattened root canals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation of flattened root canals using the following systems: Endo-Eze AET stainless steel oscillatory instruments (Ultradent and RaCe rotary NiTi instruments (FKG Dentaire. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty extracted human mandibular incisors were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 - Instrumentation with oscillatory Endo-Eze AET files (oscillatory technique; Group 2 - Instrumentation with rotary NiTi RaCe files (rotary technique. The teeth were decoronated, had their apices and coronal openings sealed with sticky wax and were embedded in crystal-clear orthophtalic polyester resin. The roots were sectioned transversally with diamond discs at 10 mm (middle third and 5 mm (apical third from the apex and the segments were reassembled for instrumentation. The sections were photographed before and after root canal instrumentation and evaluated with respect to whether the original root canal shape was modified by instrumentation. To evaluate the differences in the root canal shape before and after biomechanical preparation, scores were given regarding the instruments touch on the intracanal walls. RESULTS: In middle third of the root canals instrumented with the rotary system, there was a change in the original canal anatomy (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Under the tested conditions, Endo-Eze oscillatory system yielded the instrumentation of all flattened root canal walls, maintaining the canal original shape throughout the biomechanical preparation, and was more effective than RaCe rotary system.

Luis Cardoso Rasquin

2007-02-01

280

The Egypt labor market panel survey: Introducing the 2012 round  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper introduces the 2012 round of the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS), a publicly-available nationally representative longitudinal household survey. We describe the key characteristics of the ELMPS, including the samples and questionnaires for each round. Additionally, we examine the attrition processes observed in the panel and discuss the creation of weights to correct for attrition. We compare our data to other statistical sources for Egypt to evaluate the sample's representa...

Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Seed Diversity among Certain Species of Caryophyllaceae in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, data are used to re-asses the relationships between certain weed species of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt. Seed diversity of fourteen species belonging to five genera of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. These genera are Dianthus, Vaccaria, Silene, Stellaria and Spergula. Macromorphological criteria concerned with vegetative and reproductive organs were investigated. NTSYS-pc program w...

2005-01-01

282

Observations on rift valley fever virus and vaccines in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV, genus: Phlebovirus, family: Bunyaviridae), is an arbovirus which causes significant morbidity and mortality in animals and humans. RVFV was introduced for the first time in Egypt in 1977. In endemic areas, the insect vector control and vaccination is considering appropriate measures if applied properly and the used vaccine is completely safe and the vaccination programs cover all the susceptible animals. Egypt is importing livestock and camels...

Ahmed Kamal Samia

2011-01-01

283

Nematodes associated with soybean (Glycine max) in upper Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dix-sept espèces de nématodes phytoparasites ont été récoltées dans les champs de soja des Gouvernorats de Menia, Assiut et Sohag, en Haute Egypte. Les espèces #Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Longidorus pisi, Pratylenchoides ritteri, P. variabilis, rotylenchulus parvus$ et #Tylenchorhynchus annulatus$ sont signalées pour la première fois en Egypte. #Merlinius brevidens$ est rencontré avec une fréquence relativement élevée tandis que #Pratylenchus zeae$ est présent en population...

Salem, A. A.; El-morshedy, M. M. F.; El-zawahry, A. M.

1994-01-01

284

Plant Fragments from Tufa Deposits (Quaternary, Kharga Oasis, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Impressions of fragments of dicotyledon (Acer, Dicotylophyllum, Ficus, Salix and monocotyledon (Cyperus leaves are described from Quaternary Tufa deposits in Kharga Oasis, Egypt. The present record of Acer, Dicotylophyllum, Salix and Cyperus is the first from Quaternary strata. All fossils have not been recorded from Kharga Oasis except Ficus. Fossil remains of Salix and probably also of Acer are recorded for the first time from Egypt.

Mona H. Darwish

2002-01-01

285

Geophysical Reservoir Evaluation of Obaiyed Field, Western Desert, Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Obaiyed Gas Field is located in the Western Desert of Egypt, some 50 km south of the Mediterranean coast. It produces gas from the Upper Safa member of Khatatba Formation (Middle Jurassic). The Upper Safa reservoir has become an important exploration target in the Obaiyed field and has helped to revitalize exploration in the northwestern part of the Western Desert in Egypt. Therefore, the main purpose of this thesis is the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential of the Upper Safa reservoir th...

Farag, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdel-fattah Ibrahim

2010-01-01

286

Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Carbonaceous Shale Deposits from Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present investigations focus on an integrated sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical evaluation of the carbonaceous shales from Egypt. The analysis of the black shales of the Ataqa Formation and the Safa Formation in both, Southern and Northern Sinai, indicate improved depositional environmental condititions during Carboniferous and Jurassic in Egypt. The dominance of detrital kaolinite, the enrichment in chemically immobile elements SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2 and high values of Chemic...

Temraz, Mostafa Gouda Mohamed Attia

2005-01-01

287

Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies...

Abouzeid, Abdel-zaher M.; Khalid, Abdel-aziz M.

2011-01-01

288

Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in short fields a series of experiments have been carried out at two different locations in Egypt. The first location with a clay soil was situated at the Agriculture Experimental Station, Assiut Univer...

Ismail, S. M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.

2004-01-01

289

A radiographic study of mandibular canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1987-11-15

290

A radiographic study of mandibular canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

1987-11-01

291

Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

1999-06-01

292

Status of marine protected areas in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

Forcada, A.

2011-01-01

293

Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective. PMID:24970660

Barr, Justin

2014-07-01

294

Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World  

Science.gov (United States)

While ancient Egyptian civilization has captured the public interest and imagination in recent decades, this well-designed site from the National Geographic Society places its focus on the pyramids created several millennia ago. In the site's most compelling feature, titled Explore the Pyramids, visitors can scroll across the different pyramids, revealing their interior organization and a number of facts about their construction and so on. A brief timeline also gives some information about each of the different Egyptian dynasties. Educators will find much to enjoy here, as the site provides different lesson plans for students, complete with critical questions for discussion and lesson objectives. Finally, there is an online journal written by National Geographic reporter Nancy Gupton that documents her own personal experiences traveling around the pyramids of Egypt.

2002-01-01

295

Current Radiation Protection Practices in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study is to report in going activities in Egypt during 2010-2011. Such activities are controlled by Egyptian Law no 59 (1960). Where activities controlled by ministry of Health are x-rays machines accelerators and sealed sources. While activities controlled by Atomic Energy Authority are unsealed sources and reactors. Radiation protection practices include radiation monitoring at sites external and internal personnel dosimetry of radiation workers. It covers sites such as Hospitals companies, research reactors and research institutes and others. Detailed summary of the radiation protection practices shall be covered in the present study. Attention shall be paid to the new Ionizing radiation law I which was issued in 2011. The new law shall be implemented as soon as its executive regulation is issued. Upon its implementation. The duties of the controlling authorities shall be redistributed between ministry of health and a new controlling authority. The new authority shall control nuclear and radiological activities

2011-11-01

296

Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration. They were important to insure the acceptance and success of the proposed project that takes Egypt to a new era of environmental protection. (author)

2002-06-01

297

MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth – MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 × Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 × Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

2012-08-01

298

Semicircular canal system in early primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammals with more rapid and agile locomotion have larger semicircular canals relative to body mass than species that move more slowly. Measurements of semicircular canals in extant mammals with known locomotor behaviours can provide a basis for testing hypotheses about locomotion in fossil primates that is independent of postcranial remains, and a means of reconstructing locomotor behaviour in species known only from cranial material. Semicircular canal radii were measured using ultra high resolution X-ray CT data for 9 stem primates ("plesiadapiforms"; n=11), 7 adapoids (n=12), 4 omomyoids (n=5), and the possible omomyoid Rooneyia viejaensis (n=1). These were compared with a modern sample (210 species including 91 primates) with known locomotor behaviours. The predicted locomotor agilities for extinct primates generally follow expectations based on known postcrania for those taxa. "Plesiadapiforms" and adapids have relatively small semicircular canals, suggesting they practiced less agile locomotion than other fossil primates in the sample, which is consistent with reconstructions of them as less specialized for leaping. The derived notharctid adapoids (excluding Cantius) and all omomyoids sampled have relatively larger semicircular canals, suggesting that they were more agile, with Microchoerus in particular being reconstructed as having had very jerky locomotion with relatively high magnitude accelerations of the head. Rooneyia viejaensis is reconstructed as having been similarly agile to omomyids and derived notharctid adapoids, which suggests that when postcranial material is found for this species it will exhibit features for some leaping behaviour, or for a locomotor mode requiring a similar degree of agility. PMID:19185902

Silcox, Mary T; Bloch, Jonathan I; Boyer, Doug M; Godinot, Marc; Ryan, Timothy M; Spoor, Fred; Walker, Alan

2009-03-01

299

77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

...STATE [Public Notice 7853] Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1...the Act with respect to the provision of Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2012-04-24

300

[Alcock's canal syndrome and perineal neuralgia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen cases of perineal neuralgia are reviewed, the lesion arising from a canal syndrome due to compression of the pudendal nerve in the ischiorectal fossa (Alcock's canal syndrome). The clinical characteristic of the pain syndrome was its postural nature with the existence of a true Tinel sign (increased pain on sitting). Diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by a perineal electrophysiological which showed peripheral neurogenic signs on examination of perineal muscles and an increase in sacral evoked potentials latencies (latency of bulbocavernous or clitorido-anal reflexes, cortical somesthetic evoked potential from pudendal nerve). Treatment was infiltration of cortisone derivatives into the pudendal nerve canal, under CT guidance because of the difficulty of infiltrating the pudendal nerve by an external perineal approach. Results were satisfactory in 9 of the 15 patients. PMID:3187310

Amarenco, G; Lanoe, Y; Ghnassia, R T; Goudal, H; Perrigot, M

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Opinion is still divided over a standard surgical procedure to decompress lumbar canal stenosis. Both, laminectomy with or without facetectomy and foraminotomy and interlaminar fenestration have been advocated. In the present communication interlaminar decompression in lumbar canal stenosis has been discussed. Sixteen consecutive patients (7 males and 9 females with clinical, neurological and radiological features of lumbar canal stenosis were treated by interlaminar (fenestration decompression. The age of onset of symptoms ranged between 22-57 years. Adjoining lamina around interlaminar space of involved segment along with ligamentum flavum and part of facet joint (undercutting facetectomy, extending laterally (foraminotomy were removed at single or multiple levels. Follow-up response (93.7% over a period of two and half years showed the results as good in 73.3% and fair in 26.7% of cases, with uniformly uneventful post-operative period.

Patond K

1999-10-01

302

Canal boat people, 1840-1970  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis seeks to examine the social and economic standing of the men, women and children who lived and worked on the canal boats of England and Wales during the decline of canal carrying between 1840 and 1970. Its main purpose is to analyse how and why this social group, with its peculiarly anachronistic way of life and work, survived until well into the second half of the twentieth century. It discusses the range of survival strategies open to the group ranging from family, through c...

Freer, Wendy

1991-01-01

303

76 FR 21253 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Lockport, LA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Lockport, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation...temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the LA 1 vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal, mile...

2011-04-15

304

GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

Benea Ciprian Beniamin

2009-01-01

305

Instrumentation, model identification and control of an experimental irrigation canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis aims to develop control algorithms for irrigation canals in an experimental framework.These water transport systems are difficult to manage and present low efficiencies in practice. As a result, an important percentage of water is lost, maintenance costs increase and water users follow a rigid irrigation schedule.All these problems can be reduced by automating the operation of irrigation canals.In order to fulfil the objectives, a laboratory canal, called Canal PAC-UPC, was equipp...

2008-01-01

306

Adaptive Predictive Controller Applied to an Open Water Canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper concerns to the application of adaptive control to a large scale water canal experimental plant. Water canals are complex spatially distributed systems which aim at distributing water either for irrigating, or domestic, or industrial purposes. In this paper a predictive adaptive control algorithm (MUSMAR) is applied to a large scale experimental water canal prototype. The experimental facilities with a fully instrumented canal, a PLC network and a SCADA system, are br...

Rato, Lui?s; Salgueiro, Pedro; Lemos, Joa?o Miranda; Rijo, Manuel

2007-01-01

307

Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective?Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structur...

Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

2012-01-01

308

Root canal preparation techniques using nickel-titanium rotary instruments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction The main purpose of endodontic treatment is to clean the root canal system, eliminate the infected and toxic contents, and shape it in order to get a tridimensional obturation. The aim of this paper is to inform dental practitioners about crown-down techniques for root canal preparation using nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Root canal preparation Today most endodontists believe that root canal preparation is more officious, cleaning and shaping are better, if pre-enlargement ...

Brkani? Tatjana; Živkovi? Slavoljub; Drobac Milan

2005-01-01

309

78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

...APHIS-2012-0053] Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United...have prepared a pest list associated with oranges and tangerines from Egypt that identifies...determine the risk posed by peach fruit fly in oranges and tangerines from Egypt. Based on...

2013-04-18

310

77 FR 12514 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA  

Science.gov (United States)

...1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...drawbridge operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble...requested that the operating regulations of the Hood Canal Bridge be changed to provide...

2012-03-01

311

76 FR 26182 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hood Canal, WA  

Science.gov (United States)

...1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...regulation governing the operation of the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble...requested that the operating regulations of the Hood Canal Bridge be changed in order to...

2011-05-06

312

5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714...GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

2010-01-01

313

78 FR 10524 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Charenton Canal, Baldwin, LA  

Science.gov (United States)

...Operation Regulation; Charenton Canal, Baldwin, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...across Charenton Canal, mile 0.4, at Baldwin, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. The deviation...the Charenton Canal, mile 0.4, at Baldwin, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. The...

2013-02-14

314

Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present

2001-12-01

315

Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present.

Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-12-01

316

Endodontic Management of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Canals and a Single Buccal Canal: A Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for the endodontic therapy. There are rare variations in canal number and configuration in maxillary molars, which could affect treatment outcome. This paper presents the endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with two palatal canals in one root (Vertucci type IV) and a single buccal canal. In this paper cone-beam computed tomography was made to asses this morphology. This paper is intended to reinforce clinician's awareness o...

Atash Biz Yeganeh, Leila; Adel, Mamak; Vahedi, Reza; Tofangchiha, Maryam

2012-01-01

317

Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

Goell, Edgar

2012-02-15

318

Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

2012-11-01

319

Mine detection in Egypt: Evaluation of new technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the central geographical location between Africa, Asia and Europe, Egypt was location for many battles. As a result of these battles, Egypt often cites a figure of twenty three million landmines and UXO emplaced in the country as a result of many wars since the World War II. The presence of such active mines caused many problems to Egypt. First, it obscures the development in the locations where it had been planted. Beside, many civilians and soldiers have been killed or maimed because of its unknown zones. Recently with the advances of geophysical techniques it becomes possible to use them in detecting landmines and UXO. Geoelectrical resistivity technique as a low cost, simple technique was used successfully to model the buried landmines and UXO objects in 2D. The technique was tested in Egypt using a newly adopted array of electrodes proposed by Kyushu University Mine Action Group (QMAG). The results are promising for future application using this tool in Egypt. Moreover, a new Advanced Landmine Imaging System (ALIS) developed at Tohoku University was also successfully evaluated at the Egyptian environment. The results show high efficiency for detecting both AP and AT mines. Accordingly, a new proposal for adopting both systems with robotic facility, to be applicable for wide area survey that can meet the Egyptian demand to solve the landmines problem there, is considered. (author)

2007-07-01

320

The electrical power equipment and services market in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a market overview of the electrical power equipment and services in Egypt and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Between 1997 and 2001, energy consumption in Egypt increased by 17 per cent. Electricity demand is expected to rise rapidly due to population and economic growth. Plans are underway to add 8,000 MW of installed energy capacity to Egypt's current 15,200 MW by 2010. Priority will be on providing universal access to electricity and reliability in rural areas. Egypt is also taking part in many international projects to link its electricity grid with nearby countries. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Recent legislation exempts foreign companies from corporation tax and from tax on income from movable capital for 5 to 10 years. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve electric power generation and transmission projects. Considerations for market-entry in Egypt were outlined. 29 refs., 3 tabs

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

322

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

323

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I  

Science.gov (United States)

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

324

LOVE CANAL MONITORING PROGRAM. VOLUME 1  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the prime contractor activities during the monitoring phase of the Love Canal project. Since GCA Corporation was only responsible for data collection, no analytical results appear in this report. The program involved a multifaceted sampling and analytical e...

325

The Panama Canal and Social Justice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

326

Neuroendocrine tumor of the anal canal Tumor neuroendócrino do canal anal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a rare case of neuroendocrine tumor of the anal canal and its poor prognosis, plus discuss the need of immunohistochemical for an acurate diagnosis and to guide treatment.Relatamos um caso raro de tumor neuroendócrino do canal anal e seu mau prognóstico, bem como a necessidade de imuno-histoquímica para o diagnóstico correto e para orientar o tratamento.

Adriana Borgonovi Christiano

2012-09-01

327

Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inheren...

2011-01-01

328

Neuroendocrine tumor of the anal canal / Tumor neuroendócrino do canal anal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Relatamos um caso raro de tumor neuroendócrino do canal anal e seu mau prognóstico, bem como a necessidade de imuno-histoquímica para o diagnóstico correto e para orientar o tratamento. [...] Abstract in english We report a rare case of neuroendocrine tumor of the anal canal and its poor prognosis, plus discuss the need of immunohistochemical for an acurate diagnosis and to guide treatment. [...

Adriana Borgonovi, Christiano; Caio Eduardo, Gullo; Marianna Angelo, Palmejani; Aline Maria de Vita, Marques; Amanda Pires, Barbosa; Marcelo Pandolfi, Basso; Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano de, Lima; João Gomes, Netinho.

329

Revisão sistemática de Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae Systematics revision of Ogloblinia Canals (Opiliones, Gonyuleptidae, Pachylinae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ogloblinia Canals, 1933 is revised and Quitete Mello-Leitão, 1936 is considered its synomym. The following new synonyms are here established: Ogloblinia calcarata H. Soares & Bauab, 1970, O. dentei Soares, 1945 and O. intermedia Soares, 1944 = O. loretoensis Canals, 1933; Quitete marginata Mello-Leilão, 1936 = O. argenteopilosa (Mello-Leitão, 1935. Ogloblinia pulchra, sp.n. (type-localily Brazil, Paraná: Guaratuba is described.

Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

1995-01-01

330

CT detection of facial canal dehiscence and semicircular canal fistula: Comparison with surgical findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of high resolution CT (HRCT) in the detection of facial canal dehiscence and semicircular canal fistula, the preoperative evaluation of both of which is clinically very important for ear surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings in 61 patients who underwent mastoidectomy at Yamagata University between 1989 and 1993. The HRCT images were obtained in the axial and semicoronal planes using 1 mm slice thickness and 1 mm intersection gap. In 46 (75%) of the 61 patients, the HRCT image-based assessment of the facial canal dehiscence coincided with the surgical findings. The data for the facial canal revealed sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 84%. For semicircular canal fistula. in 59 (97%) of the 61 patients, the HRCT image-based assessment and the surgical findings coincided. The image-based assessment in the remaining two patients, who both had massive cholesteatoma, was false-positive. HRCT is useful in the diagnosis of facial canal dehiscence and labyrinthine fistula, but its limitations should also be recognized. 12 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Fuse, Takeo; Tada, Yuichiro; Aoyagi, Masaru; Sugai, Yukio [Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)

1996-03-01

331

MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15

332

EU ministers to hold emergency meeting on Egypt | EurActiv  

...EU ministers to hold emergency meeting on Egypt | EurActiv against Egypt, said EU envoy to the South Mediterranean Bernardino Leon. ...global-europe,Egypt,Morsi,Mursi,Muslim Brotherhood EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for EU news »x ...Climate & Environment Competition Education Elections Enlargement Future EU Justice & Home Affairs Med & South Public Affairs Regional Policy Security Social Europe & Jobs Sports ...VIDEOS Home › Global Europe › News EU ministers to hold emergency meeting on Egypt -A + A Published 20 August 2013 Tags Egypt, ...

333

The prospective nuclear desalination market in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the unavoidable decline in the per capita share of the more or less constant natural fresh water resources in Egypt, water desalination is expected to play an increasing role in mitigating a future deficit in potable water supply, particularly in remote desert areas. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the evolution of potable water supply, demand and deficit, as well as the portion to be covered by sea water desalination. The future potable water supply was determined as the difference between the projected total renewable fresh water supply and the projected combined demand of the other consuming sectors. To project the future demand of potable water, the history of past consumption was studied and correlated with the population and gross domestic product. Three scenarios were contemplated for economic development, reflecting low, medium and high economic growth rates. The difference between potable water supply and demand is the deficit that has to be compensated for. Part of the future deficit may be covered through various means other than sea water desalination. Therefore, it was assumed that sea water desalination will cover only 10% of the deficit in potable water supply. It is concluded that there will be a demand for an additional desalination capacity of a sufficiently large magnitude around the year 2012 and beyond that will support the installation of desalination facilities larger than 100,000 m3/d. Desalination plants in this range coupled to nuclear power plants could be competitive with fossil fired plants. (author)

1997-12-01

334

Petroleum potential of Western Desert of Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Western Desert of Egypt, despite many discouragements, has major potential as a petroleum province. Approximately 150 exploratory wells have discovered nine commercial oil and gas fields, with flows of oil or gas recorded from an additional 21 wells. All discoveries have been in marine inner shelf sandstones and carbonates that range from Aptian to Turonian in age. Potential reservoir rocks are known in Paleozoic to Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Mature source rocks have been recognized in the Devonian and in Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata. Despite these favorable factors, in-place reserves of only 800 million bbl of oil and condensate, and up to 1185 bcf of natural gas have been found. Almost all exploration has been limited to the drilling of relatively small onshore structures and no giant fields have been found. New investigations utilizing a broad regional tectonic framework provide a means both of recognizing the more prospective provinces of the Western Desert and for understanding the structural evolution in terms of the timing of growth folding and growth faulting. Particular attention should be given to testing the lower part of the Cretaceous and Jurassic. The Paleozoic section also warrants further attention as demonstrated by a review of drilling results and by indications from gravity data. The new investigations indicate a considerable potential within the Western Desert for discovery of small to moderate-size accumulations of oil and gas. More exploration should test these features, which although high-risk leads, may contain giant fields.

Wood, D.S.

1984-09-01

335

Modeling the spatial spread of Rift Valley fever in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that harms both human health and livestock production. It is believed that RVF in Egypt has been repeatedly introduced by the importation of infected animals from Sudan. In this paper, we propose a three-patch model for the process by which animals enter Egypt from Sudan, are moved up the Nile, and then consumed at population centers. The basic reproduction number for each patch is introduced and then the threshold dynamics of the model are established. We simulate an interesting scenario showing a possible explanation of the observed phenomenon of the geographic spread of RVF in Egypt. PMID:23377629

Gao, Daozhou; Cosner, Chris; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Beier, John C; Ruan, Shigui

2013-03-01

336

Education in Egypt and Egyptian response to eclipses  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1939 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. About 15 students yearly obtain their PhD degrees in Astronomy from the Egyptian universities. Seven International groups under my supervision have done the total solar Eclipse observations that took place on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). The results of observations and photos will be discussed. Egyptian-French group have done the total solar eclipse observations that took place on 25 February 1952 in Khartoum by using Worthington Camera. The research groups of Astrophysics in Cairo University and Helwan observatory are interested in the fields of solar physics, binary stars, celestial mechanics, interstellar matter and galaxies. Most of the researches have been published in national scientific journals, and some of them were published in International Journals.

Hady, A.

2006-08-01

337

Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

1991-01-01

338

Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

2009-01-01

339

Clean energy investment in developing countries : wind power in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind power generates only 0.7 per cent of Egypt's electricity supply despite the fact that Egypt has some of the best wind resources in the world. Demand for electricity in the country is increasing, and air quality considerations are becoming a significant concern in urban areas. This study discussed wind power developments in Egypt within the context of the country's current electricity and energy sectors. Factors supporting and constraining investment were examined, and the conditions for ensuring the large-scale implementation of wind power were explored. The study showed that the principal barrier to the widespread implementation of wind power is the low prices currently paid for wind generation by the country's tariff system. Long-term strategies are needed to build wind capacity over time and identify appropriate infrastructure investments for grid reliability. 31 refs., 12 tabs., 7 figs.

Elsobki, M.; Sherif, Y. [Environics, Cairo (Egypt); Wooders, P. [International Inst. for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

2009-10-15

340

Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

NRIAG's Effort to Mitigate Earthquake Disasters in Egypt Using GPS and Seismic Data  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been estimated that, during historical time more than 50 million people have lost their lives in earthquakes during ground shaking, such as soil amplification and/or liquefaction, landslides and tsunamis or its immediate aftereffects, as fires. The distribution of population takes generally no account of earthquake risk, at least on a large scale. An earthquake may be large but not destructive, on the other hand, an earthquake may be destructive but not large. The absence of correlation is due to the fact that, great number of other factors entering into consideration: first of all, the location of the earthquake in relation to populated areas, also soil conditions and building constructions. Soil liquefaction has been identified as the underlying phenomenon for many ground failures, settlements and lateral spreads, which are a major cause of damage to soil structures and building foundations in many events. Egypt is suffered a numerous of destructive earthquakes as well as Kalabsha earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near Aswan city and the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks at, Aswan, Hurghada, Aqaba, Abu Dabbab and Dabbaa. On the other hand the soil condition, soil amplification, soil structure interaction, liquefaction and seismic hazard are carried out in particular the urbanized areas and the region near the source zones. All these parameters are integrated to obtain the Egyptian building code which is valid to construct buildings resist damages and consequently mitigate the earthquake disasters. Since the year of 1994 till now, the geodetic observations by means of Global Positioning System (GPS) were applied instead of the terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. These regions include Sinai, Gulf of Suez, Greater Cairo, Aswan and the Middle part on the River Nile. Data adjustment and analysis of the repeated GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which may help in more understanding the geodynamics of these regions. In the meantime, GPS measurements of crustal motions for 189 sites extending east-west from the Caucasus Mountains to the Adriatic Sea and north-south from the southern edge of the Eurasian plate to the northern edge of the African plate were carried out for the period from 1988 till 2005. Estimate of plate motions at stations located at different plates were determined.

Mahmoud, Salah

342

Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective?Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods?Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results?Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion?Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students. PMID:23730547

Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

2012-06-01

343

Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular / Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la im [...] plantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C). Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegrados Abstract in english The mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the pr [...] esent study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtained of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C). The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

Suazo Galdames, Iván Claudio; Morales Herrera, Carlos Andrés; Cantín López, Mario Gonzalo; Zavando Matamala, Daniela Alejandra.

344

Aspectos Biométricos del Canal Mandibular Biometric Aspects of the Mandibular Canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El canal mandibular recorre este hueso longitudinalmente, relacionándose en su segmento medio con las piezas dentarias molares y premolares. El conocimiento de la relación del canal mandibular con las piezas dentarias y con las corticales mandibulares es de gran importancia para la práctica de la implantología. En el presente estudio se analizan las relaciones de la porción media del canal mandibular con las corticales mandibulares pertenecientes a individuos de sexo femenino, de entre 50 y 65 años, con caracterización antropométrica coincidente con el registro. Se realizaron mediciones en tres niveles del segmento medio (A-B-C. Los resultados muestran que el canal mandibular presenta una forma ovoidea y que sus diámetros disminuyen a medida que desciende hasta el agujero mentoniano. Se observó además, un trayecto oblicuo y descendente, aproximándose a la cortical vestibular de la mandíbula. Se discute la importancia del conocimiento de las características biométricas del canal mandibular, en individuos de sexo femenino, del grupo etario seleccionado, debido a que estos son pacientes quienes tienen mayor necesidad de rehabilitación con implantes óseointegradosThe mandibular canal have as longitudinally course, being related in its average segment to the dental pieces molars and premolars. The knowledge of the relation of the mandibular canal with the dental pieces and cortical bone is of great importance for the practice of the implant therapy. In the present study the relations of the average portion of the canal are analyzed to mandible with cortical mandibular bone pertaining to female sex of between 50 and 65 years obtained of different cemeteries, with coincident anthropometric characterization with the registry. Measurements were made in three levels of the average segment (A-B-C. The results show that the mandibular canal presents a ovoid form and that their diameters diminish as it descends until the mentoniano hole. It was observed, in addition an oblique and descendent passage, coming near to the cortical one to vestibular of the jaw. The importance of the knowledge of the biometrics aspects of the mandibular canal is discussed in female of the selected age group, because they are these patients who have greater necessity of implant therapy

Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames

2007-12-01

345

Endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with two palatal canals and a single buccal canal: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for the endodontic therapy. There are rare variations in canal number and configuration in maxillary molars, which could affect treatment outcome. This paper presents the endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with two palatal canals in one root (Vertucci type IV) and a single buccal canal. In this paper cone-beam computed tomography was made to asses this morphology. This paper is intended to reinforce clinician's awareness of the rare morphology of root canals. PMID:23304564

Atash Biz Yeganeh, Leila; Adel, Mamak; Vahedi, Reza; Tofangchiha, Maryam

2012-01-01

346

Seed Diversity among Certain Species of Caryophyllaceae in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, data are used to re-asses the relationships between certain weed species of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt. Seed diversity of fourteen species belonging to five genera of the family Caryophyllaceae in Egypt were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. These genera are Dianthus, Vaccaria, Silene, Stellaria and Spergula. Macromorphological criteria concerned with vegetative and reproductive organs were investigated. NTSYS-pc program was used for analyzing the data of seed and macromorphological characters. The taxonomic relationships between the studied taxa were discussed as well as SEM micrographs of seeds are provided.

M.M. Zareh

2005-01-01

347

Modeling the Spatial Spread of Rift Valley Fever in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that harms both human health and livestock production. It is believed that RVF in Egypt has been repeatedly introduced by the importation of infected animals from Sudan. In this paper, we propose a three-patch model for the process by which animals enter Egypt from Sudan, are moved up the Nile, and then consumed at population centers. The basic reproduction number for each patch is introduced and then the thresho...

Gao, Daozhou; Cosner, Chris; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Beier, John C.; Ruan, Shigui

2013-01-01

348

An Inflation Targeting Regime in Egypt: A Feasible Option?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses first whether scientific evidence—theoretical and empirical—exists to support the inflation targeting regime and, secondly whether inflation target is worthwhile for Egypt. The method in this paper builds on a literature review of the theoretical and empirical research in the field of economics. Our conclusion shows that there is incomplete evidence from a number of countries supporting the inflation targeting regime as an effective monetary policy framework for the achievement of macroeconomic stability. The paper concludes that the Central Bank of Egypt and the Egyptian economy is not yet ready for the implementation of an inflation targeting regime.

Tarek Ghalwash

2010-08-01

349

Puccinia pimpinellae, a New Pathogen on Anise Seed in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Routine seed health inspection of anise seeds showed Puccinia pimpinellae to be a commonally observed fungus on seed samples collected from different locations and the commercial markets of Egypt. Symptoms were shown as black discolorations on seeds. Masses of uredio- and teliospores of the fungus were visually seen. In some samples, a seed washing technique was essential to inspect for the presence of the fungal spores. This is the first report of Puccinia pimpinellae as a seed-borne pathogen of anise in Egypt.

K.M. Ghoneem

2009-01-01

350

Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses / Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los def [...] ectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V) sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M)). Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en todos los niveles. Las alturas de los primeros dos cuerpos vertebrales lumbares mostraron variabilidad en los grupos adyacentes. Lo mismo se observó en los tres siguientes, que crecieron constantemente con el crecimiento de los fetos. El canal sacro mostró un crecimiento variable en longitud en los diferentes grupos. El crecimiento constante en la longitud y el diámetro del canal lumbar pueden ser utilizados para determinar la edad aproximada de los fetos por razones médico-legales. Abstract in english Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an [...] accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V) based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were anal

, Sumayya; Nafis A, Faruqi; Mohd Salahuddin, Ansari; Farah, Ghaus.

351

Mandibular First and Second Molars with Three Mesial Canals: A Case Series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adequate cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canal system are mandatory for successful root canal treatment. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for the practitioner. The occurrence and location of the third mesial canal (Middle Mesial Canal in mandibular first and second molars in relation to other two mesial canals that were treated in private practice were studied. In 27 clinical cases, the presence of a middle mesial canal was demonstrated. The third canal was located in the middle of the distance between the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals. This canal configuration was found in six second lower molars and twenty one first molars. Middle mesial canal in all of our cases joined to mesiobuccal or mesiolingual canals. None of the teeth consisted of three independent canals with three apical foramina. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth.

Mohsen Aminsobhani

2010-01-01

352

Cirurgia de resgate no carcinoma de canal anal Salvage surgery in anal canal carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a sobrevida dos pacientes portadores de carcinoma epidermóide do canal anal submetidos a cirurgia de resgate, por recidiva ou falha do tratamento radioquimioterápico inicial. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva dos pacientes portadores de carcinoma epídermóide do canal anal submetidos a cirurgia de resgate, de outubro de 1986 a setembro de 2000. RESULTADOS: Foram matriculados 93 pacientes portadores de carcinoma epidermóide do canal anal no período, e 21 (22,5% foram submetidos a resgate cirúrgico. Em 19 pacientes (91% foi realizada amputação abdominoperineal do reto (operação de Miles, em um paciente exenteração pélvica total e em um paciente excisão local. Não houve mortalidade operatória. A sobrevida média do grupo após resgate cirúrgico foi de 24 meses. CONCLUSÕES: Após recidiva e/ou falha da radioquimioterapia, a cirurgia de resgate é importante no controle locorregional do carcinoma epidermóide do canal anal.BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare neoplasia, the treatment of wich is based on chemoradiation Surgery is recommended alter treatment failure and recurrence. METHOD: A retrospective review from October 1986 to September 2000 of all patients who underwent salvage surgery alter chemoradiotherapy failure. Patients were reviewed as to time until recurrence and overall survival. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal were reviewed. Twenty-one patients (22,5% with residual or recurrent disease underwent salvage surgery. 19 patients (91% underwent abdomino-perineal resection, 1 patient underwent pelvic exenteration and local resection was performed in 1 patient. There was no operative mortality. The overall survival was 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage surgical resection for anal canal carcinoma can be expected te yieid a number of survivors from residual/recurrent disease.

Carlos A. C. Rangel de Castro

2002-12-01

353

gastropods as pollution indicators in the red sea coast, egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

thirty samples of Nerita albicilla and canarium (Gibberulus) gibbosus from fifteen stations along the Egyptian Red Sea coast from Abu Darag on the gulf of suez southwards to Berenice were selected for chemical analysis. the present work focuses on the environment-sensitive elements and their possible hazards. Nerita is a geochemical marker for a sizeable group of trace elements including; Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Th , Ba, Ti, S, Sc and Se, while canarium is a good accumulator of the elements, Mo, U, Au and K. both species have the same selectivity for Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Sr and P. these differences are attributed to mode of life and incorporation of the elements within the crystal lattice of carbonates composing the shells. on basis of the obtained data, the study area can be divided into three zones namely; almost pristine, moderately polluted zone and markedly polluted one . pollution is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

2010-05-01

354

ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

355

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

Martin, F T

2012-01-31

356

Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

2010-07-01

357

Endoscopic pudendal canal decompression for the treatment of fecal incontinence due to pudendal canal syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal incontinence resulting from pudendal canal syndrome has been treated by pudendal canal decompression (PCD) with satisfactory results. Considering the possible difficulty in exposing the pudendal canal and nerve by the open method, laparoscopic PCD was practiced in 9 women aged between 37 and 52 years. They were complaining of fecal incontinence; urinary stress incontinence was an additional complaint in 4/9 women. Neurologic, manometric, and EMG studies confirmed the diagnosis of pudendal canal syndrome. For laparoscopic PCD a 1-cm incision lateral to the anal orifice was performed. A balloon dilator was introduced in the ischiorectal fossa (IRF) to create a working space, and CO2 was insufflated. Under the guidance of a laparoscope, the IRF was entered and the inferior rectal nerve identified and followed to the pudendal canal. The latter was split open, releasing the pudendal nerve into the IRF. Fecal control was achieved in 7/9 patients and urinary control in 2/4. Fecal and urinary control were associated with improvement in perianal sensation, rectal neck pressure, EMG of external anal sphincter and levator ani muscle as well as in pudendal nerve terminal motor latency. Two women showed no improvement. Failure is suggested to be due to an advanced pudendal neuropathy. In conclusion, laparoscopic PCD is a simple, easy, and safe procedure. It allows for better exposure of the contents of the IRF than the open procedure, thus avoiding injury of the pudendal nerve and its branches during the performance of the PCD. PMID:9448117

Shafik, A

1997-08-01

358

Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

Shanahan, D J

2011-07-01

359

CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC) of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI) studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of c...

Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

1993-01-01

360

Spinal canal narrowing during simulated frontal impact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between 23 and 70% of occupants involved in frontal impacts sustain cervical spine injuries, many with neurological involvement. It has been hypothesized that cervical spinal cord compression and injury may explain the variable neurological profile described by frontal impact victims. The goals of the present study, using a biofidelic whole cervical spine model with muscle force replication, were to quantify canal pinch diameter (CPD) narrowing during frontal impact and to evaluate the potent...

Ivancic, Paul C.; Panjabi, Manohar M.; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Pearson, Adam M.; Elena Gimenez, S.; Maak, Travis G.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

1999-06-01

362

Canales de Agua (Aquaporinas) y Riñón  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Revisamos brevemente algunos aspectos del movimiento de agua en las células renales. Primero se muestran estudios de Biofísica que llevan a concluir que existen poros acuosos perforando las membranas celulares de los túbulos renales proximales; y a poder calcular las dimensiones del filtro de selectividad de un "canal equivalente" para el paso de agua de ~ 4.5 Å de diámetro y de una longitud equivalente de ~ 10 - 20 Å. Como las moléculas de agua tienen un diámetro de 3 Å, só...

2002-01-01

363

Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

Young, O

2012-02-01

364

Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

Young, O

2009-02-01

365

Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

1980-11-01

366

Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1980-11-15

367

Lesions in the external auditory canal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

Chatra, Priyank S.

2011-01-01

368

Malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma of the ear, other than the pinna, rarely occurs. This is the first report of a melanoma confined to the external auditory canal. The case presented is of a 75-year-old man with a malignant melanoma confined to the external auditory canal. Excision of the tumor and surrounding lymphatics was accomplished with a lateral temporal bone resection, superficial parotidectomy, and selective neck dissection. The patient initially refused postoperative radiation therapy. Histologic evaluation documented a 17-mm thick malignant melanoma. All margins were clear and none of the nodes was positive. Eight months later, he returned with local, regional, and distant recurrence. Despite attempts at salvage with external radiation, brachytherapy, and chemotherapy, he died 13 months postoperatively with widespread disease. Melanoma confined to the external auditory canal has not been previously reported. A 17-mm thick melanoma carries a dismal prognosis. Despite initial negative surgical margins and lack of regional metastases, this patient developed a rapid, widespread pattern of recurrence. PMID:9499252

Milbrath, M M; Campbell, B H; Madiedo, G; Janjan, N A

1998-02-01

369

Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) of some River Nile fish, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four species of trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) were collected from the gills of the following River Nile fish in Egypt: Hydrocynus forskalii, Mormyrus kannume, Schilbe mystus. These species are: Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977, Trichodina fahaka sp. n., Trichodinella epizootica Raabe, 1950, Tripartiella dactylodentata sp. n. Photomicrographs and morphometric data are presented for each species. PMID:10882902

Al-Rasheid, K A; Ali, M A; Sakran, T; Abdel Baki, A A; Abdel Ghaffar, F A

2000-08-01

370

Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

2008-01-01

371

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

2007-01-01

372

The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

1991-01-01

373

The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth.

Parmenter, B.M.

1991-01-01

374

Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

2010-01-01

375

Sampling Design for Commodity Systems Analysis Surveys in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper outlines a recommended sampling design for surveying commodity systems in developing countries, such as Egypt, to be used for analysis. As an illustration of the method, Egyptian wheat and potatoes were used. The first step of the two-stage clus...

H. M. Abd-Samie A. A. Montaser

1983-01-01

376

[Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11 items). The packet also includes readings on…

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

377

Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

Smith, Arthur F.

1982-01-01

378

Telemedicine in Egypt: SWOT analysis and future trends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today, many countries have succeeded in integrating telemedicine and advanced technologies into a broad-range of healthcare processes including diagnosis, treatment, disease prevention, and health education & research. Nevertheless, many developing countries are still unable to sustain meaningful telemedicine projects. Egypt has achieved significant progress in building the Information Society (IS), by providing an enabling legal and regulatory framework, and an adequate Information...

Hussein, R.; Khalifa, A.

2012-01-01

379

Joint venture: Jacques Giordano Industries, France and REEFCO, Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Joint venture arrangements can provide mutually advantageous links between developed and developing countries. Jacques Giordano, President of Jacques Giordano Industries and Mohamed Ibrahim Saleh of REEFCO, Egypt describe their successful partnership which brings quality solar water heaters to the Egyptian market. The topics include technology transfer, manufacturing, marketing, legal aspects, financing, and government policy.

Giordano, J. (Jacques Giordano Industries, Aubagne (France)); Saleh, M.I. (REEFCO, Cairo (Egypt))

1992-03-01

380

The crazy project – Canal Istanbul Il “Crazy Project” - Canale di Istanbul  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign. The proposed project consisted of construction of an entirely new city, an airport, a seaport and recreational areas. But the most important and striking element was a new maritime transportation canal which is to be constructed as an alternative to the Bosphorus Strait. Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it has been initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, and no scientific or technical study about the feasibility and environmental impacts of such a project has been presented, the “crazy” project immediately set a large number of debates among scholars and professionals. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to technological and legal possibilities for construction, feasibility of the canal in operational terms, potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment, international relations and urban life. Since the only information about the project was a digital animation, presented in the election speech of the Prime Minister, there is little information about the scope of the project. Such large scale investments in Istanbul have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector on one hand and social and economic shifts on the other. The “crazy” project initiated by the ruling party which is known to be ambitious in real estate projects has therefore raised hot debates across scholars and professionals. A variety of articles were produced in response, discussing the scope of the project and its potential impacts on the environment, the city of Istanbul, Turkey’s international relations and the economy of Turkey. However, these articles often focused only on the fictional “Canal”, and neglected the full scope of the project. Since the project is ambitious, large, but little is known about its exact location and land use pattern, it deserves an evaluation with a wider perspective than current articles that may be found in popular science magazines or daily newspapers. In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated mostly according to the speech of the PM, which provides basic motivations and claims for the project. The second group of sources is the past ideas and projects of an artificial canal initiated almost 500 years ago. The third group of sources consists of scientific and journal articles published in the Turkish media after the speech. We try to describe challenges and limitations which the project is likely to face by implying a multi-perspective view. Then we speculate on the implementation approach, basing on the current planning experience and the recently approved Master Plan of Istanbul. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

Mete Ba?ar Bayp?nar

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

The radiological hazards of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus Lakes, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mariout and Brullus were considered two of the highly fish productive lakes in Egypt as well as they widely used to drain huge quantities of industrial wastewater, sewage and agriculture drainage. Thousands of peoples inhabited the areas around the lakes and depend on them completely in their lives. The activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured in the upper most part of the surface sediments of the two lakes using gamma ray spectrophotometery. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher 238U and 232Th and lower 40K (17.22±2.49 Bq/kg, 10.0 ±56 Bq/kg and 299.7±17.78 Bq/kg) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53 Bq/kg, 7.24±0.76 Bq/kg and 518.75±46.24 Bq/kg respectively). Inversely, the mean average of absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose rate (mSvy-1), radium equivalent (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex) and the representative level index (I?r) were; 32.01 nGy/h, 0.04 mSv/y, 62.95 Bq/kg, 0.17 and 0.50 at Mariout Lake higher than those in Brullus lake (26.42 nGy/h, 0.03 mSv/y, 54.25 Bq/kg, 0.15 and 0.41) respectively. The recorded and calculated values were lower than the acceptable limits published in the different localities around the world. The activity distributions of the radiological hazards show the highest intensities in the western part of Mariout Lake and decreasing gradually eastward and north eastward affecting by the drainage agriculture water from Kabary Drain, Umum Drain, S.W. Basin and Nubaria Canal. At Brullus Lake, the radiological hazard intensities were concentrated in the west and southwest influenced by Zaglul Drain, Rosetta Drain, Brembal canal, Drain 11, Drain 9, Drain 8 and partially by Drain 1 while the lowest intensities were in the north and northeast affecting by the interaction with the Mediterranean Sea. K-40 recorded positive correlations and significant linear regression relationships with radiological hazard parameters at Mariout Like meaning that 40K is the main gamma emitter in the lake, while the different radioelements are participating gamma emitters at Brullus Lake.

2012-11-01

382

Space science education in Egypt and the 2006 solar eclipse  

Science.gov (United States)

The space science research has been started in Egypt since 1910 by measuring the solar constant as indication of solar radiation at Helwan Observatory. The solar sunspot studies and its influence on the Nile flooding was erected and operated at Helwan as a first solar station in Egypt during 1957. Zeiss-Coude' refractor was installed in 1964. Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1936 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology of Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. The total solar eclipse observations on 25th February, 1952 in Khartoum have been done by on Egyptian-French group by using the Worthington Camera. Several international groups observed the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). A coordinated effort partly undertaken in the frame of the French-Egyptian scientific cooperation permitted joined simultaneous eclipse observations of the solar corona. Several Ground base instrumental set-up has been prepared. Spaceborne quasi-simultaneous EIT and Lasco observations of SoHO have been used as well as TRACE observations in Lyman-alpha of HI. W-L images taken with and without a radial filter are processed to show the magnetic structure of the corona. Polarization analysis is performed to study the F-corona in the outer corona. Several filters have been obtained to show the distribution of the emission measures of the inner and middle corona. Spectra were obtained over several emission lines.

Hady, A. A.

2008-12-01

383

Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies. This is because the return on investment in the mining industry is generally low and the pay back period is relatively long compared with easy-to-get money projects. Another reason is the disarray of the mining laws and regulations and lack of administrative capability to deal with domestic and international investors and solve the related problems. Also, lack of skilled personnel in the field of mining and mineral processing is an additional factor for the set back of the mining industry in Egypt. This is why the mining technology in Egypt is not very far from being primitive and extremely simple, with the exception of the underground mining of coal, North of Sinai, and Abu-Tartur phosphate mining, where fully automated long wall operations are designed. Also, the recent gold and tin-tantalum-niobium projects are being designed on modern surface mining and mineral processing technologies. The present review presents an overview of the most important metallic mineral commodities in Egypt, their geological background, reserves and production rates. A brief mention of the existing technologies for their exploitation is also highlighted.

Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid

2011-03-01

384

Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt IMPRSS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sealed sources are usually in capsules made of stainless steel. They are the size of a pen or a finger and contain one of hundreds of radioactive elements (e.g., Iridium, Radium) or their isotopes. They are air-tight and very durable, contain the radioactive material but not radiation. They are used in the health sector, industry, military, and universities. Incidents occurred in Met Halfa, Egypt, 2000 (Iridium-192); Goiania, Brazil, 1987 (Cesium-137); Mexico and Southwest U.S., 1977 -1984 (Cobalt-60); Peru, 1999 (Iridium-1992); Poland 2001 (Cobalt-60). The IMPRSS Mission is based on a joined partnership between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency and others. The IMPRSS Mission protects human health and the environment in Egypt from mismanaged sealed sources, is developed jointly with MOH and EAEA, provides capabilities for managing radioactive sealed sources in Egypt, increases public awareness, provides education and training, improves emergency response capabilities, develops a permanent disposal facility, ensures the program is self-sustaining and ensures close coordination with the IAEA. Infrastructure how to manage sealed sources is discussed. It includes awareness, tracking and inventory control, security, recovery, conditioning and storage, recycling and disposal. Emergency response, regulatory reform, education and training and its targets are provided. The government of Egypt can protect the people of Egypt and is ready for emergencies. Prevention is the first line of defence and detection is the second line of defence. Adequate Emergency Response saves lives and adequate control reduces risk of mismanaged uses or deliberate misuses of sources. A Cradle-to-Grave approach is built on existing capabilities at EAEA and MOH

2004-10-03

385

Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from Lake Manzala (Nile Delta) suggests this period was one of declining discharge (Stanley et al. 2003). Amenhotep III's temple floor lies 2m above the calcareous palaeosol and its construction lies within the broad dating of the ancient surface. It is possible that low discharge levels enabled him to build his temple high and dry of the Nile floods. Future seasons should allow us to clarify this using 14C and OSL dating, and in time we hope to shed more light on the fluvial history of the Nile and how this affected the decision making of the ancient Egyptians. References Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Emery, V.L., Jones, S., Barker. D.B. 2013. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2013, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 99, 35-52. Graham, A., Strutt, K.D., Hunter, M.A., Jones, S., Masson, A., Millet, M., Pennington, B.T. 2012. Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 2012, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 98, 27-42. Stanley, D.J., Krom, M.D., Cliff, R.A. and Woodward, J.C. 2003. Nile flow failure at the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic and petrologic evidence, Geoarchaeology 18(3), 395-402.

Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

2014-05-01

386

[Bifid and trifid mandibular canal. A coincidental finding].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 26-year-old man was suffering from pericoronitis of his mandibular third molars. To determine the position of the mandibular canal in relation to the roots of the third molars, a panoramic radiograph was made. The radiograph revealed at the right side a bifid mandibular canal and the upper part of the canal seemed to be related to the third molar. Additionally, a cone beam CT was made, which revealed a bifid mandibular canal at the left side and a trifid mandibular canal at the right side. Anatomical anomalies of the mandibular canal may have clinical implications, such as an increased risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve in case of removing a mandibular third molar and inadequate local anesthetics. PMID:21298889

Mizbah, K; Gerlach, N; Maal, T J; Bergé, S J; Meijer, G J

2010-12-01

387

Root canal preparation techniques using nickel-titanium rotary instruments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The main purpose of endodontic treatment is to clean the root canal system, eliminate the infected and toxic contents, and shape it in order to get a tridimensional obturation. The aim of this paper is to inform dental practitioners about crown-down techniques for root canal preparation using nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Root canal preparation Today most endodontists believe that root canal preparation is more officious, cleaning and shaping are better, if pre-enlargement of coronal two thirds is performed first, and shaping of the apical part later. Machine driven rotary instruments provide much quicker and better root canal preparation. Conclusion Contemporary endodontic rotary files vary in regard to their taper, cutting blades, guiding tip and material they are made of. The usage of rotary nickel-titanium files adds a new quality to root canal preparation.

Brkani? Tatjana

2005-01-01

388

Communication dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt, concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt, attaching the text of a Press Statement dated 25 January 2005. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the Press Statement, are reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

2005-02-01

389

Ulnar Nerve Compression in Guyon's Canal by Ganglion Cyst  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal can result from repeated blunt trauma, fracture of the hamate's hook, and arterial thrombosis or aneurysm. In addition, conditions such as ganglia, rheumatoid arthritis and ulnar artery disease can rapidly compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. A ganglion cyst can acutely protrude or grow, which also might compress the ulnar nerve. So, clinicians should consider a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal as a possible underlying cause of ulnar nerve c...

2011-01-01

390

Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

2006-08-01

391

ProTaper files in root canal preparation: Case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper was to, on the basis of everyday clinical practice, show and analyse, the crown-down technique of root canal preparation with nickel-titanium rotary instruments. After the diagnosis of irreversible pulp disease on the second lower right molar, endodontic treatment was carried out. Root canal shaping was performed with modified crown-down technique with nickeltitanium rotary files (ProTaper, Meilffer), according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. After root canal pr...

Brkani? Tatjana

2005-01-01

392

Estimating canal pool resonance with auto tune variation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Integrator-Delay (ID) model is commonly used to model canal pools which do not exhibit resonance behavior. Simple step tests are often used to estimate ID model parameters; namely, delay time and backwater surface area. These step tests change the canal inflow at the upstream end of the pool and observe water depth variations at the downstream end. Some knowledge of the canal pool characteristics are needed to determine the amount of flow change and its duration. The Auto Tune Variation (...

Clemmens, A. J.; Litrico, X.; Overloop, P. J.; Strand, R.

2012-01-01

393

Possibility of "Spongio cement" usage for root canal opturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to evaluate of apical and canal opturation quality of polymethyl metacrylate based material for canal opturation. Investigations were included 60 extracted human single root teeth. Root canals were opturated by standard endodontic technic with three different materials. Teeth were decalcificated and enlightened in 2% methyl salicilate solution. Linear dye penetration was measured with bynocular magnifying glass with 25x magnification. Results showed that the highest ...

Karadži? Branislav

2002-01-01

394

C-shaped canals in mandibular second molars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: This clinical report presents the endodontic treatment of two mandibular second molars with a C-shaped canal systems. Summary: According to the endodontic literature a C-shaped root canal is most frequently seen in mandibular second molar. Once recognised, the C-shaped canal is a challenge with respect to debridement and obturation. We observed this configuration in two of our cases and successfully treated them in the department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Kamineni Insti...

Ravichandra; Harikumar

2010-01-01

395

Design and implementation of an irrigation canal SCADA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Portugal all of the upstream controlled canal systems work with flexible water delivery schedules and therefore canal operational losses can be significant. Real-time technologies can allow the canal managers to continuously compare the real operation with its optimal or target value and to take appropriate corrective steps as required and minimize the water operational losses. The paper presents the design, field solutions and tuning of an implemented SCADA system on a Portuguese upstrea...

Rijo, Manuel

2005-01-01

396

Biomechanics of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Horizontal canal (HC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV) is a vestibular disorder characterized by bouts of horizontal ocular nystagmus induced during reorientation of the head relative to gravity. The present report addresses the application of a morphologically descriptive 3-canal biomechanical model of the human membranous labyrinth to study gravity-dependent semicircular canal responses during this condition. The model estimates dynamic cupular and endolymph displacements elic...

Rajguru, Suhrud M.; Ifediba, Marytheresa A.; Rabbitt, Richard D.

2005-01-01

397

Mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar del adulto cubano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizaron mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar en estudios radiográficos simples de la columna lumbosacra en las vistas anteroposterior y lateral, en 200 adultos sin antecedentes de dolor y afección lumbar o ambos. Se utilizó la técnica recomendada por Eisenstein en 1976 para definir el margen posterior del canal. Se corroboró la importancia del diámetro sagital como parámetro esencial para determinar la estenosis del canal estando los límites de la normalidad entre 14,7 y 21 mm. Se establece como límite inferior de la distancia interpedicular 22,6 mm. El canal de las mujeres es menor que el de los hombres, y el canal de la raza negroide es menor al de la raza caucasiana y los mestizos en su diámetro sagital. Se recomienda este método con el fin de establecer un diagnóstico precoz de la estenosis del canal en el sector lumbar.Measurements of the lumbar spinal canal were made in simple radiographic studies of the lumbosacral column in the anteroposterior and lateral view in 200 adults with no antecedents of pain or lumbar affection. The technique recommended by Eisenstein in 1976 to define the posterior edge of the canal was used. The importance of the sagittal diameter as an essential parameter to determine the stenosis of the canal was corroborated. Normal limits are between 14.7 and 21 mm. An inferior limit of the interpedicular distance of 22.6 mm is established. The women's canal is smaller than that of men, whereas the canal of the black persons is lower than that of Caucasians and mestizos in its sagittal diameter. This method is recommended in order to made an early diagnosis of the stenosis of the canal in the lumbar sector.

Beatriz Expósito Rodríguez

2002-12-01

398

Mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar del adulto cubano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizaron mediciones del canal raquídeo lumbar en estudios radiográficos simples de la columna lumbosacra en las vistas anteroposterior y lateral, en 200 adultos sin antecedentes de dolor y afección lumbar o ambos. Se utilizó la técnica recomendada por Eisenstein en 1976 para definir el margen p [...] osterior del canal. Se corroboró la importancia del diámetro sagital como parámetro esencial para determinar la estenosis del canal estando los límites de la normalidad entre 14,7 y 21 mm. Se establece como límite inferior de la distancia interpedicular 22,6 mm. El canal de las mujeres es menor que el de los hombres, y el canal de la raza negroide es menor al de la raza caucasiana y los mestizos en su diámetro sagital. Se recomienda este método con el fin de establecer un diagnóstico precoz de la estenosis del canal en el sector lumbar. Abstract in english Measurements of the lumbar spinal canal were made in simple radiographic studies of the lumbosacral column in the anteroposterior and lateral view in 200 adults with no antecedents of pain or lumbar affection. The technique recommended by Eisenstein in 1976 to define the posterior edge of the canal [...] was used. The importance of the sagittal diameter as an essential parameter to determine the stenosis of the canal was corroborated. Normal limits are between 14.7 and 21 mm. An inferior limit of the interpedicular distance of 22.6 mm is established. The women's canal is smaller than that of men, whereas the canal of the black persons is lower than that of Caucasians and mestizos in its sagittal diameter. This method is recommended in order to made an early diagnosis of the stenosis of the canal in the lumbar sector.

Beatriz, Expósito Rodríguez; José H., Salas Rubio.

399

Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

Bahig, A. E.

2008-01-01

400

Ecological implications of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of Burullus Lagoon of Nile Delta, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Ni) from three short sediment cores collected from Burullus lagoon of the Nile delta, Egypt. 210Pb and 137Cs measurement is applied to understand sedimentation rate and related chronology. Remarkably low isotopic activities and intensive bioturbation in the lagoonal sediments rendered age determination difficult. Samples with detectable 137Cs in the upper core sediments together with sediment lithology could help infer a sedimentation rate of about 2.0 mm yr -1, thereby indicating post-dam (after 1964) sedimentation of the upper 10-cm core sediments. Our results demonstrate that most heavy metals in the surficial sediments after normalization to Al decrease seaward, showing a function of distance to the sewerage outlet on the inland lake coast. Also, there is an upwardly increasing trend of normalized heavy metals, especially in the upper 10-cm core sediments. Relevancy analysis has identified Mn, Pb and Cd as the diagnostic heavy metals in Burullus lagoon, most likely derived from Tanta and Kafrelsheihk, the major downtowns in the central Nile delta plain, from where wastewaters are directly discharging into the lake via canal networks. Although Burullus lagoon is presently least affected by pollution as compared to other major lagoons of the Nile delta, the increasing quantities of diagnostic metals, especially Mn, are extremely toxic, as they are potentially linked to the risks of digestive issues and pancreatic cancer reportedly. The situation calls for a rational planning for sewerage treatment in the protected Burullus coast.

Chen, Zhongyuan; Salem, Alaa; Xu, Zhuang; Zhang, Weiguo

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
401

Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, while this one leaves no doubt to have its origin in Nisyros. (authors)

2000-09-25

402

[Canal infection. Ecological theory and repair with osteodentin].  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of the infection in the root canal are analyzed, specially its development before pulpal necrosis. It is inferred that it is an ecological infection with a function: to decompose the necrosis. Inactivating the infection in the canal by the formocresol technique, calcium hidroxide or with the conventional basic treatment in Endodontics, cleaning, washing, disinfecting and, in this case, with partial obturation of the canal, it is possible to induce a reparation with osteodentine that can cover all the free extension of the canal. PMID:1882104

Muñiz, M A; Zeberio, T

1991-01-01

403

Computer simulation and capacity evaluation of Panama Canal alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Operating Characteristics and Capacity Evaluation (OCCE) Study was one of the components of a group of studies of future alternatives to the Panama Canal, sponsored by a study commission formed by the governments of Panama, the US and Japan. The basic tool in the conduct of the study was the Waterway Analysis Model (WAM), developed originally by the US Army Corps of Engineers for use on the US inland waterway system and adapted under OCCE for study of Panama Canal alternatives. The study synthesized the many alternative plans for the Canal proposed historically into four basic groups: High-Rise Lock Canal, Low-Rise Lock Canal, Sea-Level Canal and Status Quo Canal. For economy, the sea-level cases were based on, essentially, a single-lane canal, in conjunction with the status quo canal. Hydraulic and navigation studies indicted that to achieve safe navigation, tide gates or locks would be required to control currents that would otherwise be generated by the differences in tides between the two oceans. The alternatives studied in detail are illustrated in the body of the paper.

Rosselli, A.T. [TAMS Consultants, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis; Weekly, D.A. [Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington, WV (United States). Navigation Planning Center

1994-12-31

404

Basement structural control on Cretaceous pull-apart basins of the central Eastern Egypt Desert  

Science.gov (United States)

The present-day Red Sea / Gulf of Suez rift system is attributed to extensional block faulting with along-axis segmentation into sub-basins with different dip polarities. The northwestern margin of the Red Sea - Gulf of Suez rift system is exposed for about 400 km along the northwestern Red Sea coast near Quseir to the tip of the Gulf of Suez at Suez City. This area contains elements of the pre-Red Sea structural pattern which has been viewed in similar terms as one of fault-related basin formation. Four distinct depocenters (sub-basins) separated by complex accommodation zones are present containing 500-700m thick section ranging in age from the Late Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Each sub-basin is asymmetric, bounded on one side by a major NW-trending border fault system with large throws (3-6 km in general) with a dominant strata dip direction toward the border fault system. These basins are arranged in en echelon patterns and now form separate elongated ridges surrounded by basement rocks. Our study of the tectonic evolution of the central eastern section of the Gulf of Suez rift and the Northwestern Red Sea has focused on the interaction of pre-existing basement fabrics with the pre-Red Sea structural development. The study involved analysis of LandsatTM images and aerial photographs integrated with results from reconnaissance geological mapping. Our provisional results indicate that the Gebel Um Hammad/Duwi and Hammadat sub-basins were sited in pull-apart structures created by dextral reactivation of E-W to ENE-WSW trending basement fault zones. We show how the basin-bounding fault systems, lower order normal faults and folds in both hangingwall sequences and in basement are compatible with a Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene strike-slip regime. In contrast, the main Red Sea Gulf of Suez rift shows no evidence for strike-slip influence with the main boundary faults cutting across basement fabrics, however, as pointed out by previous authors, rift segmentation does appear to be basement-influenced.

McCaffrey, K.; El Kazzaz, Y.; Holdsworth, B.

2006-12-01

405

Assessment of coronary heart diseases in diabetics in al-Madinah al-Munawarah  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Omar al-Nozha1, Moaz Mojadadi2, Mohamed Mosaad1,3, Mohamed F El-Bab2,41Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, al-Madinah al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Coronary heart disease is highly prevalent and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the major risk f...

al-Nozha O; Mojadadi M; Mosaad M; Mf, El-bab

2012-01-01

406

Productivity of some sunflower hybrids grown on newly reclaimed sandy soils, as affected by irrigation regime and fertilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Productivity of sunflower hybrids under surface (flooding), dripping and sprinkler irrigation systems was studied in 1999 and 2000 summer seasons at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University Ismailia, Egypt, on sandy soil. Under surface as well as under drip systems three irrigation regimes (high, medium, and low according to the amount of water supplied to the crop throughout the seasons) and 4 fertilization treatments, namely 45 N+15.5 P2O5 + 25 K2O or 90N + 31P2O...

2005-01-01

407

Implementation, barriers and challenges of smoke-free policies in hospitals in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Tobacco use is a serious public health challenge in North Africa, and health professionals play a vital role in tobacco control. In Egypt, limited data are available on the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers regarding tobacco control policies. Such data are especially relevant due to Egypt’s tobacco control laws, adopted in 2007, prohibiting smoking in hospitals and other public places. This study surveyed 49 senior administrative staff, 26...

Radwan Ghada; Loffredo Christopher A; Aziz Rasha; Abdel-Aziz Nagah; Labib Nargis

2012-01-01

408

Morphometric Analysis of Lumbosacral Canal in Human Foetuses Análisis Morfométrico del Canal Lumbosacro en Fetos Humanos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lumbosacral part of the spinal canal requires special attention because this is the site commonly involved in spina bifida, tethered cord syndrome and some other pathologies like fatty tumours in the spine, cysts and syrinxes. The diagnosis as well as the treatment of neural tube defects mandates an accurate knowledge of morphometry of lumbosacral vertebral canal. There are various reports on radiological morphometric measurements in human foetuses by various authors but these possess inherent variability due to imaging techniques, patient positioning, observer's measuring techniques and normal and pathological variations. To overcome all these limitations, direct measurements by vernier calliper were preferred. 30 Formalin preserved human foetuses, of all age groups and both sexes, free of congenital craniovertebral anomalies, were obtained from the museum of Dept. of Anatomy, J.N. Medical College AMU Aligarh for the present study. Foetuses were divided into five groups (I-V based on their gestational ages. Group I foetuses were of less than 17 weeks, II of 17-20 weeks, III of 21-25 weeks, IV of 26-30 weeks and V of more than 30 weeks. Each group contained 6 foetuses having both male and female, 3 each. Morphometric parameters taken into account were length of lumbar canal, maximum transverse diameters of lumbar vertebral canal at different vertebral levels, heights of the posterior surfaces of bodies of all lumbar vertebrae and length of sacral canal. Readings of adjacent groups were compared and results were analyzed by using Student's 't' test. Lumbar canal starts growing in length significantly in group III foetuses onward. There was consistency in the growth of lumbar canal diameters with gestational age at all levels. Heights of vertebral bodies of Ist two lumbar vertebrae showed variability in some adjacent groups. The same in the next three grew constantly with the growth of foetuses. Sacral canal showed variable growth in lengths in different groups. Steady growth in the length and diameter of the lumbar canal may be used for approximate age of foetuses for medicolegal reasons.La porción lumbosacra del canal espinal requiere una atención especial; es un sitio frecuentemente implicado en la espina bífida, el síndrome de médula anclada y algunas otras patologías como tumores de grasa en la columna vertebral, quistes y siringomelia. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los defectos del tubo neural requieren de un conocimiento preciso de la morfometría del canal vertebral lumbosacro. Existen diversos informes radiológicos sobre mediciones morfométricas en fetos humanos por parte de diversos investigadores, pero estos poseen una variabilidad inherente debido a las técnicas de imagen, posicionamiento del paciente, técnicas de medición del observador y, las variaciones normales y patológicas. Para superar todas estas limitaciones, para las mediciones directas se utilizó un caliper vernier. 30 fetos humanos conservados en formalina, de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, sin anomalías congénitas craneovertebrales, fueron obtenidos del museo del Departamento de Anatomía, J. N. Facultad de Medicina de la UMA, Aligarh. Los fetos fueron divididos en cinco grupos (I-V sobre la base de su edad gestacional. El grupo I de fetos fueron los menores de 17 semanas, el II de 17-20 semanas, el III de 21-25 semanas, IV de 26 a 30 semanas, V de más de 30 semanas. Cada grupo contenía 6 fetos de ambos sexos (1:1/H:M. Los parámetros morfométricos tomados en cuenta fueron la longitud del canal lumbar, el diámetro transversal máximo del canal vertebral lumbar en diferentes niveles, la altura de las superficies posteriores de los cuerpos de todas las vértebras lumbares y la longitud del canal sacro. Las mediciones de los grupos fueron comparadas y analizadas mediante el uso de la prueba de "t". El canal lumbar comenzó a aumentar en longitud significativamente desde el grupo de fetos III en adelante. No hubo consistencia en el crecimiento de los diámetros del canal lumbar con la edad gestacional en

Sumayya

2011-09-01

409

The enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal: a new CT finding of facial nerve canal fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the value of enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in the diagnosis of facial nerve canal fracture. Methods: Thirty patients with facial nerve canal fracture underwent axial and coronal CT scan. The correlation between the fracture and the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was analyzed. The ability of showing the fracture and enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in axial and coronal imaging were compared. Results: Fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was found in the operation in 30 patients, while the fracture was detected in CT in 18 patients. Enlargement of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was detected in 30 patients in the operation, while the enlargement of fossa was found in CT in 28 cases. Enlargement and fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal were both detected in CT images in 18 patients. Only the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was shown in 12 patients in CT. Conclusion: Enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was a useful finding in the diagnosis of fracture of geniculate fossa in patients with facial paralysis, even no fracture line was shown on CT images. (authors)

2006-12-01

410

Large small cell carcinoma of anorectal canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), also known as Von Recklinghausen disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder with incidence of one per 4000. Neurofibromas are benign, heterogeneous, peripheral nerve sheath tumors coming up from the connective tissue of peripheral nerve sheaths, particularly the endoneurium. Visceral involvement in disseminated neurofibromatosis is considered rare. Neurofibroma occurs most frequently in the stomach and jejunum, but colon and anorectal canal may also be involved. Gastrointestinal neurofibromas may lead to bleeding, obstruction, intussusception, protein-losing enteropathy and bowel perforation. We encountered a case of diffusely involving the anorectal area by huge neurofibroma, which resulted in pelvic pain with watery diarrhea and urgency. PMID:24621365

Ghahramani, Leila; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Hosseinzade, Masood; Izadpanah, Ahmad; Ebrahimian, Saba; Bananzadeh, Alimohammad

2014-03-01

411

Computed tomography in spinal canal diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On a sample of 128 patients examined for suspected disorders of the spinal canal by computed tomography, the experience with the diagnostic possibilities of this quick, accurate and noninvasive imaging technique is demonstrated. The methodology of the examination and the range of obtained information in diagnosing congenital anomalies, traumas and degenerative changes are briefly described. Certain problems and limitations of this method for the diagnosis of tumors are presented. For the assessment of vascular changes and inflammatory processes, computed tomography cannot be expected to be used on a wider scale

1983-01-01

412

[Perineal neuralgia and Alcock's canal syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

Perineal neuralgia is characterised clinically by pain (burning type of perineal pain) exacerbated in the sitting position. It is secondary to impairment of the internal pudendal nerve in its musculo-osteo-aponeurotic tunnel composed by the ischium and the obturator internus muscle (ischiorectal fossa or pudendal canal). As in any nerve tunnel syndrome, pre-existing neuropathy constitutes a predisposing factor and should therefore be identified. The diagnosis of pudendal tunnel syndrome is confirmed by perineal electrophysiological investigations (detection of neurogenic muscles of the perineal floor, increased sacral latency). Treatment consists of infiltration, possible repeated, of the pudendal tunnel with a sustained-release corticosteroid under CT guidance. PMID:2619263

Amarenco, G; Savatovsky, I; Budet, C; Perrigot, M

1989-01-01

413

The cochlea and the carotid canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The carotid canal conveys a large artery and lies in close topographic relationship to the basal turn of the cochlea. The bony wall between them consists in some cases only of the petrous bone of the otic capsule. It can be as thin as 0.2 mm. In other cases the distance can be more than 6 mm. A systematic assessment of the relationship between these two structures was performed on plastic casts of 173 human temporal bone specimens in order to investigate the range of normal variation. The topography in this region can be visualized by multidirectional tomography of CT. (orig.)

1990-01-01

414